Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Nusrat Jahan

36 Flowsheet Development, Simulation and Optimization of Carbon-Di-Oxide Removal System at Natural Gas Reserves by Aspen–Hysys Process Simulator

Authors: Mohammad Ruhul Amin, Nusrat Jahan

Abstract:

Natural gas is a cleaner fuel compared to the others. But it needs some treatment before it is in a state to be used. So natural gas purification is an integral part of any process where natural gas is used as raw material or fuel. There are several impurities in natural gas that have to be removed before use. CO2 is one of the major contaminants. In this project we have removed CO2 by amine process by using MEA solution. We have built up the whole amine process for removing CO2 in Aspen Hysys and simulated the process. At the end of simulation we have got very satisfactory results by using MEA solution for the removal of CO2. Simulation result shows that amine absorption process enables to reduce CO2 content from NG by 58%. HYSYS optimizer allowed us to get a perfect optimized plant. After optimization the profit of existing plant is increased by 2.34 %.Simulation and optimization by Aspen-HYSYS simulator makes available us to enormous information which will help us to further research in future.

Keywords: Aspen–Hysys, CO2 removal, flowsheet development, MEA solution, natural gas optimization

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35 Development of a Cost Effective Two Wheel Tractor Mounted Mobile Maize Sheller for Small Farmers in Bangladesh

Authors: M. Israil Hossain, T. P. Tiwari, Ashrafuzzaman Gulandaz, Nusrat Jahan

Abstract:

Two-wheel tractor (power tiller) is a common tillage tool in Bangladesh agriculture for easy access in fragmented land with affordable price of small farmers. Traditional maize sheller needs to be carried from place to place by hooking with two-wheel tractor (2WT) and set up again for shelling operation which takes longer time for preparation of maize shelling. The mobile maize sheller eliminates the transportation problem and can start shelling operation instantly any place as it is attached together with 2WT. It is counterclockwise rotating cylinder, axial flow type sheller, and grain separated with a frictional force between spike tooth and concave. The maize sheller is attached with nuts and bolts in front of the engine base of 2WT. The operating power of the sheller comes from the fly wheel of the engine of the tractor through ‘V” belt pulley arrangement. The average shelling capacity of the mobile sheller is 2.0 t/hr, broken kernel 2.2%, and shelling efficiency 97%. The average maize shelling cost is Tk. 0.22/kg and traditional custom hire rate is Tk.1.0/kg, respectively (1 US$=Tk.78.0). The service provider of the 2WT can transport the mobile maize sheller long distance in operator’s seating position. The manufacturers started the fabrication of mobile maize sheller. This mobile maize sheller is also compatible for the other countries where 2WT is available for farming operation.

Keywords: cost effective, mobile maize sheller, maize shelling capacity, small farmers, two wheel tractor

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
34 Legal Provisions on Child Pornography in Bangladesh: A Comparative Study on South Asian Landscape

Authors: Monira Nazmi Jahan, Nusrat Jahan Nishat

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'Child Pornography' is a sex crime that portrays illegal images and videos of a minor over the Internet and now has become a social concern with the increase of commission of this crime. The major objective of this paper is to identify and examine the laws relating to child pornography in Bangladesh and to compare this with other South Asian countries. In Bangladesh to prosecute under child pornography, provisions have been made in ‘Digital Security Act, 2018’ where it has been defined as involving child in areas of child sexuality or in sexuality and whoever commits the crime will be punished for 10 years imprisonment or 10 lac taka fine. In India, the crime is dealt with ‘The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012’ (POSCO) where the offenders for commission of this crime has been divided separately and has provision for punishments starting from three years to rigorous life imprisonment and shall also be liable to fine. In the Maldives, there is ‘Special Provisions Act to Deal with Child Sex Abuse Offenders, Act number 12/2009’. In this act it has been provided that a person is guilty of such an act if intentionally runs child prostitution, involves child in the creation of pornography or displays child’s sexual organ in pornography then shall be punished between 20 to 25 years of imprisonment. Nepal prosecutes this crime through ‘Act Relating to Children, 2018’ and the conviction of using child in prostitution or sexual services is imprisonment up to fifteen years and fine up to one hundred fifty thousand rupees. In Pakistan, child pornography is prosecuted with ‘Pakistan Penal Code Child Abuse Amendment Act, 2016’. This provides that one is guilty of this offence if he involves child with or without consent in such activities. It provides punishment for two to seven years of imprisonment or fine from two hundred thousand to seven hundred thousand rupees. In Bhutan child pornography is not explicitly addressed under the municipal laws. The Penal Code of Bhutan penalizes all kinds of pornography including child pornography under the provisions of computer pornography and the offence shall be a misdemeanor. Child Pornography is also prohibited under the ‘Child Care and Protection Act’. In Sri Lanka, ‘The Penal Code’ de facto criminalizes child prohibition and has a penalty of two to ten years and may also be liable to fine. The most shocking scenario exists in Afghanistan. There is no specific law for the protection of children from pornography, whereas this serious crime is present there. This paper will be conducted through a qualitative research method that is, the primary sources will be laws, and secondary sources will be journal articles and newspapers. The conclusion that can be drawn is except Afghanistan all other South Asian countries have laws for controlling this crime but still have loopholes. India has the most amended provisions. Nepal has no provision for fine, and Bhutan does not mention any specific punishment. Bangladesh compared to these countries, has a good piece of law; however, it also has space to broaden the laws for controlling child pornography.

Keywords: child abuse, child pornography, life imprisonment, penal code, South Asian countries

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
33 Examining the Concept of Sustainability in the Scenery Architecture of Naqsh-e-Jahan Square

Authors: Mahmood Naghizadeh, Maryam Memarian, Hourshad Irvash

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Following the rise in the world population and the upward growth of urbanization, the design, planning, and management of the site scenery for the purpose of presentation and expansion of sustainable site scenery has turned to be the greatest concern to experts. Since the fundamental principles of the site scenery change more and less haphazardly over time, sustainable site scenery can be viewed as an ideal goal because both sustainability and dynamism come into view in urban site scenery and it wouldn’t be designed according to a set of pre-determined principles. Sustainable site scenery, as the ongoing interaction between idealism and pragmatism with sustainability factors, is a dynamic phenomenon created by bringing cultural, historical, social and natural scenery together. Such an interaction is not to subdue other factors but to reinforce the aforementioned factors. The sustainable site scenery is a persistently occurring event not only has attenuated over time but has gained strength. The sustainability of a site scenery or an event over time depends on its site identity which grows out of its continuous association with the past. The sustainability of a site scene or an event in a time frame intertwined with the identity of the place from past to present. This past history supports the present and future of the scene. The result of such a supportive role is the sustainability of site scenery. Isfahan Naqsh-e-Jahan Square is one of the most outstanding squares in the world and the best embodiment of Iranian site scenery architecture. This square is an arena that brings people together and a dynamic city center comprising various urban and religious complexes, spaces and facilities and is considered as one of the most favorable traditional urban space of Iran. Such a place can illustrate many factors related to sustainable site scenery. One the other hand, there are still no specific principles concerning sustainability in the architecture of site scenery. Meanwhile, sustainability is recognized as a rather modern view in architecture. The purpose of this research is to identify factors involved in sustainability in general and to examine their effects on site scenery architecture in particular. Finally, these factors will be studied with taking Naqsh-e-Jahan Square into account. This research adopts an analytic-descriptive approach that has benefited from the review of literature available in library studies and the documents related to sustainability and site scenery architecture. The statistical population used for the purpose of this research includes square constructed during the Safavid dynasty and Naqsh-e-Jahan Square was picked out as the case study. The purpose of this paper is to come up with a rough definition of sustainable site scenery and demonstrate this concept by analyzing it and recognizing the social, economic and ecological aspects of this project.

Keywords: Naqsh-e-Jahan Square, site scenery architecture, sustainability, sustainable site scenery

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32 Fabrication of a High-Performance Polyetherimide Membrane for Helium Separation

Authors: Y. Alqaheem, A. Alomair, F. Altarkait, F. Alswaileh, Nusrat Tanoli

Abstract:

Helium market is continuously growing due to its essential uses in the electronic and healthcare sectors. Currently, helium is produced by cryogenic distillation but the process is uneconomical especially for low production volumes. On the other hand, polymeric membranes can provide a cost-effective solution for helium purification due to their low operating energy. However, the preparation of membranes involves the use of very toxic solvents such as chloroform. In this work, polyetherimide membranes were prepared using a less toxic solvent, n-methylpyrrolidone with a polymer-to-solvent ratio of 27 wt%. The developed membrane showed a superior helium permeability of 15.9 Barrer that surpassed the permeability of membranes made by chloroform.

Keywords: helium separation, polyetherimide, dense membrane, gas permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
31 Activation of Caspase 3 by Terpenoids and Flavonoids in Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Nusrat Masood, Vijaya Dubey, Suaib Luqman

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Caspase 3, a member of cysteine-aspartic acid protease family, is an imperative indicator for cell death particularly when substantiating apoptosis. Thus, caspase 3 is an interesting target for the discovery and development of anticancer agent. We adopted a four level assessment of both terpenoids and flavonoids and thus experimentally performed the enzymatic assay in cell free system as well as in cancer cell line which was validated through real time expression and molecular interaction studies. A significant difference was observed with both the class of natural products indicating terpenoids as better activators of caspase 3 compared to flavonoids both in the cell free system as well as in cell lines. The expression analysis, activation constant and binding energy also correlate well with the enzyme activity. Overall, terpenoids had an unswerving effect on caspase 3 in all the tested system while flavonoids indirectly affect enzyme activity.

Keywords: Caspase 3, terpenoids, flavonoids, activation constant, binding energy

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30 Molecular Basis for Amyloid Inhibition by L-Dopa: Implication towards Systemic Amyloidosis

Authors: Rizwan H. Khan, Saima Nusrat

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Despite the fact that amyloid associated neurodegenerative diseases and non-neuropathic systemic amyloidosis have allured the research endeavors, as no curative drugs have been proclaimed up till now except for symptomatic cure. Therapeutic compounds which can diminish or disaggregate such toxic oligomers and fibrillar species have been examined and more are on its way. In the present study, we had reported an extensive biophysical, microscopic and computational study, revealing that L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-Dopa) possess undeniable potency to inhibit heat induced human lysozyme (HL) amyloid fibrillation and also retain the fibril disaggregating potential. L-Dopa interferes in the amyloid fibrillogenesis process by interacting hydrophobically and also by forming hydrogen bonds with the amino acid residues found in amyloid fibril forming prone region of HL as elucidated by molecular docking results. L-Dopa also disaggregates the mature amyloid fibrils into some unorganised species. Thus, L-Dopa and related compounds can work as a promising inhibitor for the therapeutic advancement prospective against systemic amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloids, disaggregation, human lysozyme, molecular docking

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29 Housing and Urban Refugee: An Introspective Study on Bihari Camp of Mirpur, Dhaka

Authors: Fahmida Nusrat, Sumaia Nasrin, Pinak Sarker

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Biharis as an urban refugee are a significant urban dweller in Dhaka since their forced migration on the partition of 1947. There are many such refugee settlements in Bangladesh, particularly in Dhaka where they often live in dire conditions, facing discrimination from mainstream society. Their camps have become slums. Housing for urban refugee is still not a strategic concern for overall housing policy of Dhaka. The study has been conducted in a significant refugee settlement located in Mirpur-11, Dhaka, to observe their way of living in these camps to understand the socio-cultural aspects that are shaping their settlement morphology, hence to identify the key issues of their built environment to suggest an inclusive and sustainable housing solution for improving their life in urban environment. The methods included first-hand data collection on their household spaces and community spaces accompanied with the overall spatial organization of the settlement pattern which later on followed by a semi-structured interview with randomly selected samples from the camp dwellers to get users’ feedback on the research aspects. The outcome of the study will help initiating housing strategies as well as formulating design issues for this case specific inhabitants of urban Dhaka.

Keywords: Bihari camp, Dhaka, housing strategy, the way of living, urban refugee

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
28 Green Supply Chain Design: A Mathematical Modeling Approach

Authors: Nusrat T. Chowdhury

Abstract:

Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is becoming a key to success for profitable businesses. The various activities contributing to carbon emissions in a supply chain are transportation, ordering and holding of inventory. This research work develops a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model that considers the scenario of a supply chain with multiple periods, multiple products and multiple suppliers. The model assumes that the demand is deterministic, the buyer has a limited storage space in each period, the buyer is responsible for the transportation cost, a supplier-dependent ordering cost applies for each period in which an order is placed on a supplier and inventory shortage is permissible. The model provides an optimal decision regarding what products to order, in what quantities, with which suppliers, and in which periods in order to maximize the profit. For the purpose of evaluating the carbon emissions, three different carbon regulating policies i.e., carbon cap-and-trade, the strict cap on carbon emission and carbon tax on emissions, have been considered. The proposed MINLP has been validated using a randomly generated data set.

Keywords: green supply chain, carbon emission, mixed integer non-linear program, inventory shortage, carbon cap-and-trade

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27 Development of Historical City Centers and Revitalization in Isfahan/Iran

Authors: Reihaneh Rafiemanzelt

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The need to protect our cultural heritage was stressed on revitalization of historical city centers in communities. The main goals the proses was to attract finance and activities to the historical city centers through the citizens and municipalities participation while cities expanded their boundaries toward suburban areas. Todays the main problems which facing to the most historical city centers, is loss of their centrality through effect of urbanization on any point of the cities which is the most important issue on neglect and abandonment of the historical central area by decentralizing living, commerce and public areas. This article evaluate the ways in which city center revitalization can be effect on vitality and viability of the central area in case of Naghshe Jahan square which situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran. Constructed between 1598 and 1629, it is now an important historical site, and one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.

Keywords: urban development, revitalization, city centers, vitality and viability

Procedia PDF Downloads 495
26 Using Music: An Effective Medium of Teaching Vocabulary in ESL Classroom

Authors: Takwa Jahan

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Music can be used in ESL classroom to create a learning environment. As literature abounds with positive statements, music can be used as a vehicle for second language acquisition. Music can be applied as an instrument to help second language learners to acquire vocabulary, grammar, spelling and other four skills and to expand cultural knowledge. Vocabulary learning is perceived boring by learners. As listening to music and singing songs are enjoyable to students, it can be used effectively to acquire vocabulary in second language. This paper reports a study to find out how music exhilarates vocabulary acquisition as the learners stay relaxed and thus learning becomes more enjoyable. For conducting my research two groups of fifty students- music and non-music group were formed. Data were collected through class observation, test, questionnaires, and interview. The finding shows that music group acquired much amount of vocabulary than the non-music group. They enjoyed vocabulary learning activities based on listening songs.

Keywords: effective instrument, ESL classroom, music, relax environment, vocabulary learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
25 Assessing Bus Service Quality in Dhaka City from the Perspective of Female Passengers

Authors: S. K. Subah, R. Tasnim, M. I. Jahan, M. R. Islam

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While talking about how comfortable and convenient Dhaka's bus service is, the minimum emphasis is placed on the female commuters of the Dhaka city. Recognizing the contemporary situation, the supreme focus is to develop experimental model based on statistical methods. SEM has been adopted to quantify passenger satisfaction, which is affected by the perceived service quality. The study deals with 16 observed variables and three latent variables, which were correlated to identify their significance on the regulation of perceived SQ (Service Quality). To calibrate the model, a dataset of 250 responses from female users of local buses has been utilized through survey. A questionnaire structured with SQ variables was prepared in consultation with prevailing literature, practitioners, academicians, and users. The result concludes that the attributes of safe and secured environment have the most significant impact on the overall bus service quality according to the insight of female respondents. The study outcome might be a great help for the policymakers, women's organizations, and NGOs to formulate transport policy that will ensure a women-friendly public bus service.

Keywords: bus service quality, female perception, structural equation modelling, safety-security, women friendly bus

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
24 A Heuristic Based Decomposition Approach for a Hierarchical Production Planning Problem

Authors: Nusrat T. Chowdhury, M. F. Baki, A. Azab

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The production planning problem is concerned with specifying the optimal quantities to produce in order to meet the demand for a prespecified planning horizon with the least possible expenditure. Making the right decisions in production planning will affect directly the performance and productivity of a manufacturing firm, which is important for its ability to compete in the market. Therefore, developing and improving solution procedures for production planning problems is very significant. In this paper, we develop a Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition of a multi-item hierarchical production planning problem with capacity constraint and present a column generation approach to solve the problem. The original Mixed Integer Linear Programming model of the problem is decomposed item by item into a master problem and a number of subproblems. The capacity constraint is considered as the linking constraint between the master problem and the subproblems. The subproblems are solved using the dynamic programming approach. We also propose a multi-step iterative capacity allocation heuristic procedure to handle any kind of infeasibility that arises while solving the problem. We compare the computational performance of the developed solution approach against the state-of-the-art heuristic procedure available in the literature. The results show that the proposed heuristic-based decomposition approach improves the solution quality by 20% as compared to the literature.

Keywords: inventory, multi-level capacitated lot-sizing, emission control, setup carryover

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23 Qualitative Analysis of Bituminous Mix Modified by Polypropylene and Impact Characteristics on Pavement Wearing Course

Authors: Jayisha Das Jaya, Nafis As Sami, Nazia Jahan, Tamanna Jerin, Mohammed Russedul Islam

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This paper contains continuous research which helps to analyze polypropylene modified bituminous mix and its impact characteristics with respect to original bitumen. Three percentages of polypropylene varying from (1-3) % of the weight of bitumen have been used to alter bitumen’s performance. The temperature of 170°C has been maintained during the blending of polypropylene with bitumen. It was performed by a wet process as it has certain advantages over the dry process. A rough estimate of 210 rpm rotation speed was set to prepare the blend in a mixer for 30 minutes producing homogeneous mixture. The blended mix shows a change in physical properties in comparison with the original bitumen content. Modification shows that for a 1% increment of polypropylene, softening point increases by 1 degree, penetration values decrease gradually to 55.6, 54, 52.5, ductility values decrease gradually to 87,76, 63 and specific gravity remains the same. Then Marshall mix design is performed with 60/70 penetration grade bitumen contents varying from (4-6) % with .5% intervals. Marshall stability and flow test results indicate the increase in stability and decrease in flow.

Keywords: bitumen, marshall, polypropylene, temperature

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22 A Phenomenal Study of Parental Attitudes towards the Professional Education of Their Daughters in Karachi

Authors: Nusrat Ali, Muhammad Saleem Khan

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Education is the process of bringing individuals aware of their own reality in a manner that leads them to the effective adjustment with the environment. Females’ participation is vital to reducing hunger and poverty and promoting the family welfare. Education is the right of men and women both. Female education is more needed rural areas as compared to urban areas. Without educating the women of the country we cannot think of developing our nation. It is a fact that women are the first teachers of their children. Hence, if mothers are well educated, they can play an important role in shaping and molding of their sons and daughters. The main purpose of study was to identify the barriers of female education and the attitude among the parents. The present study researchers selected a quantitative study to explore the highlighting problem in the particular areas. Through the stratified random sampling selected a sample size from each stratum and generalized whole population. Chi-square test was used to test the validity of the data. The conclusion shows attitudes of parents somehow influence their daughters’ education, particularly those who are living in countryside. Another a big challenge of female education is co-education system in our society is higher which directly subjected to parents unfavorable attitude towards their daughters’ education. In this modern era various organizations are working for female education in rural areas where females are considered as house working ladies, now it’s time to work more to change parent’s attitude towards their daughter’s education.

Keywords: parental attitude, professional education, daughter, unfavorable attitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
21 Evaluation of Site Laboratory Conditions Effect on Seismic Design Characteristics in Ramhormoz

Authors: Sayyed Yaghoub Zolfegharifar, Khairul Anuar Kassim, Hossein Khoramrooz, Khodayar Farhadiasl, Sadegh Jahan

Abstract:

Iran is one of the world's seismically active countries so that it experiences many small to medium earthquakes annually and a large earthquake every ten years. Due to seism tectonic conditions and special geographical and climatic position, Iran has the potential to create numerous severe earthquakes. Therefore, seismicity studies and seismic zonation of seismic zones of the country are necessary. In this article, the effect of local site conditions on the characteristics of seismic design in Rahmormoz will be examined. After analyzing the seismic hazard for Rahmormoz through deterministic and statistical methods and preparing the necessary geotechnical models based on available data, the ground response will be analyzed for different parts of the city based on four inputs and acceleration level estimated for bedrock through the equivalent linear method and by means of Deep Soil program. Finally, through the analysis of the obtained results, the seismic profiles of the ground surface for different parts of the city will be presented.

Keywords: seismic microzonation, ground response, resonance spectrum, period, site conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
20 Glycation of Serum Albumin: Cause Remarkable Alteration in Protein Structure and Generation of Early Glycation End Products

Authors: Ishrat Jahan Saifi, Sheelu Shafiq Siddiqi, M. R. Ajmal

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Glycation of protein is very important as well as a harmful process, which may lead to develop DM in human body. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in blood and it is highly prone to glycation by the reducing sugars. 2-¬deoxy d-¬Ribose (dRib) is a highly reactive reducing sugar which is produced in cells as a product of the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase. It is generated during the degradation of DNA in human body. It may cause glycation in HSA rapidly and is involved in the development of DM. In present study, we did in¬vitro glycation of HSA with different concentrations of 2-¬deoxy d-¬ribose and found that dRib glycated HSA rapidly within 4h incubation at 37◦C. UV¬ Spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Circular Dichroism (CD) technique have been done to determine the structural changes in HSA upon glycation. Results of this study suggested that dRib is the potential glycating agent and it causes alteration in protein structure and biophysical properties which may lead to development and progression of Diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: 2-deoxy D-ribose, human serum albumin, glycation, diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
19 Turbulence Modeling of Source and Sink Flows

Authors: Israt Jahan Eshita

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Flows developed between two parallel disks have many engineering applications. Two types of non-swirling flows can be generated in such a domain. One is purely source flow in disc type domain (outward flow). Other is purely sink flow in disc type domain (inward flow). This situation often appears in some turbo machinery components such as air bearings, heat exchanger, radial diffuser, vortex gyroscope, disc valves, and viscosity meters. The main goal of this paper is to show the mesh convergence, because mesh convergence saves time, and economical to run and increase the efficiency of modeling for both sink and source flow. Then flow field is resolved using a very fine mesh near-wall, using enhanced wall treatment. After that we are going to compare this flow using standard k-epsilon, RNG k-epsilon turbulence models. Lastly compare some experimental data with numerical solution for sink flow. The good agreement of numerical solution with the experimental works validates the current modeling.

Keywords: hydraulic diameter, k-epsilon model, meshes convergence, Reynolds number, RNG model, sink flow, source flow, wall y+

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
18 Development of Dye Sensitized Solar Window by Physical Parameters Optimization

Authors: Tahsin Shameem, Chowdhury Sadman Jahan, Mohammad Alam

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Interest about Net Zero Energy Buildings have gained traction in recent years following the need to sustain energy consumption with generations on site and to reduce dependence on grid supplied energy from large plants using fossil fuel. With this end in view, building integrated photovoltaics are being studied attempting to utilize all exterior facades of a building to generate power. In this paper, we have looked at the physical parameters defining a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and discussed their impact on energy harvest. Following our discussion and experimental data obtained from literature, we have attempted to optimize these physical parameters accordingly so as to allow maximum light absorption for a given active layer thickness. We then modified a planer DSSC design with our optimized properties to allow adequate light transmission which demonstrated a high fill factor and an External Quantum Efficiency (EQE) of greater than 9% by computer aided design and simulation. In conclusion, a DSSC based solar window with such high output values even after such high light transmission through it definitely flags a promising future for this technology and our work elicits the need for further study and practical experimentation.

Keywords: net zero energy building, integrated photovoltaics, dye sensitized solar cell, fill factor, External Quantum Efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
17 Investigating Transformative Practices in the Bangladeshi Classroom

Authors: Rubaiyat Jahan, Nasreen Sultana Mitu

Abstract:

This paper examines the theoretical construct of transformative practices, and reports some evidence of transformative practices from a couple of Bangladeshi English teachers. The idea of transformative practices calls for teachers’ capabilities to invest their intellectual labor in teaching with an assumption that along with the academic advancement of the learners, it aims for the personal transformation for both the learners as well for themselves. Following an ethnographic research approach, data for this study were collected through in-depth interviews, informal talks and classroom observations for a period of one year. In relevance to the English classroom of the Bangladeshi context, from this study, references of transformative practices have been underlined from the participant teachers’ views on English language teaching as well as from their actual practices. According to data of this research, some evidence of transformative practices in the form of critical language awareness and personal theories of practices emerge from the participants’ articulation of the beliefs on teaching; and from the participant teachers’ classroom practices evidence of self-directed acts of teaching, self-directed acts of professional development, and liberatory autonomy have been highlighted as the reflections of transformative practices. The implication of this paper refers to the significance of practicing teachers’ articulation of beliefs and views on teaching along with their orientation to critical pedagogical relations.

Keywords: critical language awareness, personal theories of practice, teacher autonomy, transformative practices

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16 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Operating Parameters during the Micro-Electro-Discharge Machining of Ni Based Alloy

Authors: Asma Perveen, M. P. Jahan

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Ni alloys have managed to cover wide range of applications such as automotive industries, oil gas industries, and aerospace industries. However, these alloys impose challenges while using conventional machining technologies. On the other hand, Micro-Electro-Discharge machining (micro-EDM) is a non-conventional machining method that uses controlled sparks energy to remove material irrespective of the materials hardness. There has been always a huge interest from the industries for developing optimum methodology and parameters in order to enhance the productivity of micro-EDM in terms of reducing machining time and tool wear for different alloys. Therefore, the aims of this study are to investigate the effects of the micro-EDM process parameters, in order to find their optimal values. The input process parameters include voltage, capacitance, and electrode rotational speed, whereas the output parameters considered are machining time, entrance diameter of hole, overcut, tool wear, and crater size. The surface morphology and element characterization are also investigated with the use of SEM and EDX analysis. The experimental result indicates the reduction of machining time with the increment of discharge energy. Discharge energy also contributes to the enlargement of entrance diameter as well as overcut. In addition, tool wears show reduction with the increase of discharge energy. Moreover, crater size is found to be increased in size along with the increment of discharge energy.

Keywords: micro holes, micro EDM, Ni Alloy, discharge energy

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15 Pattern of Substance Use: Study in a De-Addiction Clinic

Authors: Mohammad Muntasir Maruf, Muhammad Zillur Rahman Khan, Nasim Jahan, Md. Waziul Alam Chowdhury, Satparkash, Md. Nozrul Islam

Abstract:

Background: Substance use disorders have become a major public health problem in Bangladesh. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the pattern of substance use and factors related to it among the hospitalized patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All the patients who were admitted in a private drug de-addiction clinic in the capital city (Dhaka) of Bangladesh during 1 July-31 December, 2013 and diagnosed as a case of substance use disorder by applying Structured Clinical Interview for DSM- Clinician Version were enrolled in the study. Data were collected through face to face interview by a semi-structured questionnaire and the information was complemented by the case-notes. Study subjects were 105 in number. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: Most (90.5%) of the respondents were male. The mean age of the respondents was 28.8 (± 8.0) years. Majority (91.4%) were poly-substance users. Most (27.6%) respondents used 3 types of substances. Smoking or inhalation was the route used by most (90.5%) respondents. More than three-fourth (81%) of the respondents used nicotine. Among the other substances, majority (79%) used opiates group, followed by cannabinoids group (55.2%) and alcohol (41%). Curiosity, peer pressure and to have enjoyment or fun were identified as the common reasons for initiating substance use. Conclusions: A high proportion of poly-substance use was found. The study findings would help in management and prevention strategy of substance use in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, de-addiction clinic, poly-substance users, substance use disorder

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14 Bangladeshi English Teachers’ Understanding of Teacher Autonomy

Authors: Rubaiyat Jahan

Abstract:

This paper reports some findings of a study on the issues related to teacher autonomy in the Bangladeshi school contexts, and data of this research was collected from fourteen practicing English teachers of Bangladesh through semi structured interviews. The theoretical underpinning of teacher autonomy, on an apparent note, focuses on the behavioral aspects of teacher autonomy hence emphasizing mostly on the teachers’ capacity for self-directed acts of teaching and self-directed acts of professional development. Yet, a contemporary literature survey of teacher autonomy seems to be concerned more on the political interpretations of teacher autonomy. Thus, autonomous teachers are expected to generate their personal theories of teaching from their practices. The idea of personal theories of practice upholds the view that along with the teaching, teachers need to engage themselves in various classroom based research with a view to theorising from their practices. The findings of this research indicate enormous evidence of behavioral aspects of teacher autonomy. As the data of this research suggests, the participant teachers’ understanding of classroom situations, their reflections on the situational realities and opting for classroom decisions on the basis of those realizations are some good examples of teacher autonomy. Also, a few teachers’ stated teaching practices seem to reflect, though in a subtle way, their effort of outlining context embedded personal theories of teaching. This paper has got one significant pedagogical implication for the teacher education. Any teacher education must promote the conditions and capabilities for the present and prospective teachers for the role of theorisers in addition to develop their professional, procedural, and personal knowledge base.

Keywords: personal theories of practice, self-directed acts of professional development, self-directed acts of teaching, teacher autonomy

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13 Screening of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria from Bangladeshi Indigenous Poultry for Their Potential Use as Probiotics

Authors: K. B. M. Islam, Syeeda Shiraj-Um-Mahmuda, Afroj Jahan, A. A. Bhuiyan

Abstract:

In Bangladesh, the use of imported probiotics in poultry is gradually being increased. But surprisingly, no probiotic bacteria have been isolated yet in Bangladesh despite the existence of scavenging native poultry as potential source that is seemingly more resistant to GIT infection as well as other diseases. Therefore, the study was undertaken to isolate, identify and characterize the potential probiotic Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria strains from Bangladeshi indigenous poultry, and to evaluate their suitability to use in poultry industry. Crop and cecal samples from 61 healthy indigenous birds were used to isolate potential probiotics strains following conventional cultural methods. A total of 216 isolates were identified following physical, biochemical and molecular methods that belonged to the genus Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. An auto-aggregation test was performed for 180 and 136 isolated lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains, respectively. Twelve lactobacilli isolates and 7 bifidobacteria isolates were selected because of their convenient aggregation. In vitro tests including antibacterial activity, resistance to low pH, hemolytic activities etc. were performed for evaluation of probiotic potential of each strain. Under the in vitro conditions and with respects to the probiotic traits, three lactobacilli; LS16, LS45, LS133 and two bifidobacteria, BS21 and BS90 were found to be potential probiotic strains. Thus, they are proposed to be evaluated for their in vivo probiotic properties. If the proposed strains are found suitable as the probiotics to be used in commercial poultry industry, it is expected that the local probiotics would be more beneficial and would save the huge amount of money that Bangladesh spends every year for the importation of such materials from abroad.

Keywords: Bangladeshi poultry, gut microbiota, lactic acid bacteria, scavenging chicken, GIT health

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12 Effect of Oxidative Stress on Glutathione Reductase Activity of Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

Authors: Fariha Akhter Chowdhury, Sabrina Mahboob, Anamika Saha, Afrin Jahan, Mohammad Nurul Islam

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Urinary tract infection (UTI) is frequently experienced by the female population where the prevalence increases with aging. Escherichia coli, one of the most common UTI causing organisms, retains glutathione defense mechanism that aids the organism to withstand the harsh physiological environment of urinary tract, host oxidative immune response and even to affect antibiotic-mediated cell death and the emergence of resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the glutathione reductase activity of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) by observing the reduced glutathione (GSH) level alteration under stressful condition. Urine samples of 58 patients with UTI were collected. Upon isolation and identification, 88% of the samples presented E. coli as UTI causing organism among which randomly selected isolates (n=9), obtained from urine samples of female patients, were considered for this study. E. coli isolates were grown under normal and stressful conditions where H₂O₂ was used as the stress-inducing agent. GSH level estimation of the isolates in both conditions was carried out based on the colorimetric measurement of 5,5'-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and GSH reaction product using microplate reader assay. The GSH level of isolated E. coli sampled from adult patients decreased under stress compared to normal condition (p = 0.011). On the other hand, GSH production increased markedly in samples that were collected from elderly subjects (p = 0.024). A significant partial correlation between age and change of GSH level was found as well (p = 0.007). This study may help to reveal ways for better understanding of E. coli pathogenesis of UTI prevalence in elderly patients.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, glutathione reductase activity, oxidative stress, reduced glutathione (GSH), urinary tract infection (UTI)

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11 Begamat-I-Bhopals': Role in the Development of Female Education under Colonialism

Authors: Munaza Mubeen

Abstract:

The colonial Urdu literature has played a significant role in uplifting the overall status of the Indians. Taking example of the Bhopal State, the contribution of the Royal ladies holds no match in the contemporary age. Similarly, the efforts of the Begamat-e-Bhopal in the field of education had been acknowledged across the Sub-continent. It had been noticed that with the downfall of the Mughal Empire at the hands of the British Raj, the local culture in the Indian sub-continent in general and in Bhopal State in proper got deteriorated. This led to uncertainty, chaos and an anti-British sentiment which created hatred against them in the entire sub-continent. Likely, in Bhopal State, the role of women in field of education also vanished. However, this change was felt by the ladies in the Royal Household where they struggled for restoration of the status quo with their personal efforts. The prominent contributors from the Royal household included Qudseya Begum, Nawab Sikander Begum, Nawab Shah Jahan Begum and Nawab Sultan Johan-they are known as Begamat-i-Bhopal. They established schools, colleges and universities to impart formal and non-formal education respectively. Their systematic approach and continued efforts constituted a dynamic aspect of women’ empowerment. Focused on the female education, however, one of the by-products of their efforts was an introduction of socio-cultural and politico-religious awareness among the middle class womenfolk. Unfortunately, the role of these Bagamat-i-Bhopal has been left untouched or ignored by the academic scholars. This study critically analyzed the role of Beghamat-i-Bhopal regarding female education in Hindustan in general and in Bhopal in particular. Similarly, the contribution of the contemporary writers in development of female education in Bhopal has also been discussed in this paper. This paper is based on the 'historico-textual' approach following structural reason which has established a justifiable argument. The researcher, therefore, has taken into consideration all the chronological nuances in order to accord greater visibility to the contents. The data has been described, analyzed and interpreted inclusively and in generalized manner.

Keywords: colonialism, Begamaat e Bhopal, female education, State of Bhopal

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10 Complaint Management Mechanism: A Workplace Solution in Development Sector of Bangladesh

Authors: Nusrat Zabeen Islam

Abstract:

Partnership between local Non-Government organizations (NGO) and International development organizations has become an important feature in the development sector of Bangladesh. It is an important challenge for International development organizations to work with local NGOs with proper HR practice. Local NGOs have a lack of quality working environment and this affects the employee’s work experiences and overall performance at individual, partnership with International development organizations and organizational level. Many local development organizations due to the size of the organization and scope do not have a human resource (HR) unit. Inadequate Human Resource Policies, skills, leadership and lack of effective strategy is now a common scenario in Non-Government organization sector of Bangladesh. So corruption, nepotism, and fraud, risk of Political Contribution in office /work space, Sexual/ gender based abuse, insecurity take place in work place of development sector. The Complaint Management Mechanism (CMM) in human resource management could be one way to improve human resource competence in these organizations. The responsibility of Complaint Management Unit (CMU) of an International development organization is to make workplace maltreating, discriminating communities free. The information of impact of CMM was collected through case study of an International organization and some of its partner national organizations in Bangladesh who are engaged in different projects/programs. In this mechanism International development organizations collect complaints from beneficiaries/ staffs by complaint management unit and investigate by segregating the type and mood of the complaint and find out solution to improve the situation within a very short period. A complaint management committee is formed jointly with HR and management personnel. Concerned focal point collect complaints and share with CM unit. By conducting investigation, review of findings, reply back to CM unit and implementation of resolution through this mechanism, a successful bridge of communication and feedback can be established within beneficiaries, staffs and upper management. The overall result of Complaint management mechanism application indicates that by applying CMM accountability and transparency of workplace and workforce in development organization can be increased significantly. Evaluations based on outcomes, and measuring indicators such as productivity, satisfaction, retention, gender equity, proper judgment will guide organizations in building a healthy workforce, and will also clearly articulate the return on investment and justify any need for further funding.

Keywords: human resource management in NGOs, challenges in human resource, workplace environment, complaint management mechanism

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9 Appraisal of Different Levels of Soybean Meal in Diets on Growth, Digestive Enzyme Activity, Antioxidation and Gut Histology of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Authors: Zakir Hossain, Arzu Pervin, Halima Jahan, Rabeya Akter, Abdel Omri

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Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal is an effective way to relieve the pressure on fish meal as the supply of this feed ingredient is dwindling and certainly is not sustainable in long term at present levels in commercial feeds. This study was designed to determine the effect of fishmeal (FM) replacement with soybean meal (SBM) in diet on growth, digestive enzyme activity, antioxidation and gut histomorphology of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Five diets were formulated where SBM0 contained 100% FM, FM substituted with graded levels of a mix of SBM to replace 25% (SBM25), 50% (SBM50), 75% (SBM75) and 100% (SBM100) of FM. Juvenile tilapia having weight and length of 6.60±0.13 g and 5.42±0.17 cm were randomly divided into five treatment groups having 40 individual each group and fed to visual satiation for 90 days. Diet with SBM was increased significant in body weight gain and specific growth rate in fish compared to the fish fed with SBM100. Fish having the similar weight (74.34±5.41 g) fed the diets SBM50, SBM75 and SBM100 containing higher level of SBM showed significantly longer intestine compared to SBM0. Villus height of stomach and intestine were significantly greater in the fish fed with the diets SBM0, SBM25 and SBM50 compared to SBM100. Muscular thickness was inversely changed with the increasing villus height. Protease activity was increased significantly in stomach, anterior and posterior intestine of fish fed with SBM0 and SBM25 compared to SBM100. In anterior and posterior segment of intestine, significantly higher lipase activity was observed in fish fed with the diets SBM0 and SBM25 compared to diet SBM100. In stomach, amylase activity was also significantly greater in SBM0 compared to SBM100. The antioxidant enzymes including catalase and superoxide dismutase of liver were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the O. niloticus fed SBM100 compared to the ones fed SBM0. These results suggest that the replacement of FM upto 75% with SBM could be possible considering the growth performances, gut health and activities digestive enzymes and antioxidant enzymes in O. niloticus.

Keywords: soybean meal, fish meal, digestive enzymes, anti-oxidant enzymes

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8 Formulation of Value Added Beff Meatballs with the Addition of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Extract as a Source of Natural Antioxident

Authors: M. A. Hashem, I. Jahan

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The experiment was conducted to find out the effect of different levels of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) extract and synthetic antioxidant BHA (Beta Hydroxyl Anisole) on fresh and preserved beef meatballs in order to make functional food. For this purpose, ground beef samples were divided into five treatment groups. They were treated as control group, 0.1% synthetic antioxidant group, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% pomegranate extract group as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Proximate analysis, sensory tests (color, flavor, tenderness, juiciness, overall acceptability), cooking loss, pH value, free fatty acids (FFA), thiobarbituric acid values (TBARS), peroxide value (POV) and microbiological examination were determined in order to evaluate the effect of pomegranate extract as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial activities compared to BHA (Beta Hydroxyl Anisole) at first day before freezing and for maintaining meatballs qualities on the shelf life of beef meat balls stored for 60 days under frozen condition. Freezing temperature was -20˚C. Days of intervals of experiment were on 0, 15th, 30th and 60th days. Dry matter content of all the treatment groups differ significantly (p<0.05). On the contrary, DM content increased significantly (p<0.05) with the advancement of different days of intervals. CP content of all the treatments were increased significantly (p<0.05) among the different treatment groups. EE and Ash content were decreased significantly (p<0.05) at different treatment levels. FFA values, TBARS, POV were decreased significantly (p<0.05) at different treatment levels. Color, odor, tenderness, juiciness, overall acceptability decreased significantly (p<0.05) at different days of intervals. Raw PH, cooked pH were increased at different treatment levels significantly (p<0.05). The cooking loss (%) at different treatment levels were differ significantly (p<0.05). TVC (logCFU/g), TCC (logCFU/g) and TYMC (logCFU/g) was decreased significantly (p<0.05) at different treatment levels and at different days of intervals comparison to control. Considering CP, tenderness, juiciness, overall acceptability, cooking loss, FFA, POV, TBARS value and microbial analysis it can be concluded that pomegranate extract at 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant BHA in beef meatballs. On the basis of sensory evaluation, nutrient quality, physicochemical properties, biochemical analysis and microbial analysis 0.3% Pomegranate extract can be recommended for formulation of value added beef meatball enriched with natural antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant, pomegranate, BHA, value added meat products

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7 E-learning: An Effective Approach for Enhancing Social and Behavior Change Communication Capacity in Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad K. Abedin, Mohammad Shahjahan, Zeenat Sultana, Tawfique Jahan, Jesmin Akter

Abstract:

To strengthen social and behavior change communication (SBCC) capacity of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) of the Government of Bangladesh, BCCP/BKMI developed two eLearning courses providing opportunities for professional development of SBCC Program Managers who have no access to training or refreshers training. The two eLearning courses – Message and Material Development (MMD) and Monitoring and Evaluation (MandE) of SBCC programs – went online in September 2015, where all users could register their participation so results could be monitored. Methodology: To assess the uses of these courses a randomly selected sample was collected to run a pre and post-test analyses and a phone survey were conducted. Systematic random sampling was used to select a sample of 75 MandE and 25 MMD course participants from a sampling frame of 179 and 51 respectively. Results: As of September 2016, more than 179 learners have completed the MandE course, and 49 learners have completed the MMD course. The users of these courses are program managers, university faculty members, and students. Encouraging results were revealed from the analysis of pre and post-test scores and a phone survey three months after course completion. Test scores suggested a substantial increase in knowledge. The pre-test scores findings suggested that about 19% learners scored high on the MandE. The post-test scores finding indicated a high score (92%) of the sample across 4 modules of MandE. For MMD course in pre-test scoring, 30% of the learners scored high, and 100% scored high at the post-test. It was found that all the learners in the phone survey have discussed the courses. Most of the sharing occurred with colleagues and friends, usually through face to face (70%) interaction. The learners reported that they did recommend the two courses to concerned people. About 67% MandE and 76% MMD learners stated that the concepts that they had to learn during the course were put into practice in their work settings. The respondents for both MandE and MMD courses have provided a valuable set of suggestions that would further strengthen the courses. Conclusions: The study showed that the initiative offered ample opportunities to build capacity in various ways in which the eLearning courses were used. It also highlighted the importance of scaling up these efforts to further strengthen the outcomes.

Keywords: e-learning course, message & material development, monitoring & evaluation, social and behavior change communication

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