Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19571

Search results for: electric energy generation system

19571 A Study on Changing of Energy-Saving Performance of GHP Air Conditioning System with Time-Series Variation

Authors: Ying Xin, Shigeki Kametani


This paper deals the energy saving performance of GHP (Gas engine heat pump) air conditioning system has improved with time-series variation. There are two types of air conditioning systems, VRF (Variable refrigerant flow) and central cooling and heating system. VRF is classified as EHP (Electric driven heat pump) and GHP. EHP drives the compressor with electric motor. GHP drives the compressor with the gas engine. The electric consumption of GHP is less than one tenth of EHP does. In this study, the energy consumption data of GHP installed the junior high schools was collected. An annual and monthly energy consumption per rated thermal output power of each apparatus was calculated, and then their energy efficiency was analyzed. From these data, we investigated improvement of the energy saving of the GHP air conditioning system by the change in the generation.

Keywords: energy-saving, variable refrigerant flow, gas engine heat pump, electric driven heat pump, air conditioning system

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19570 Advanced Simulation of Power Consumption of Electric Vehicles

Authors: Ilya Kavalchuk, Hayrettin Arisoy, Alex Stojcevski, Aman Maun Than Oo


Electric vehicles are one of the most complicated electric devices to simulate due to the significant number of different processes involved in electrical structure of it. There are concurrent processes of energy consumption and generation with different onboard systems, which make simulation tasks more complicated to perform. More accurate simulation on energy consumption can provide a better understanding of all energy management for electric transport. As a result of all those processes, electric transport can allow for a more sustainable future and become more convenient in relation to the distance range and recharging time. This paper discusses the problems of energy consumption simulations for electric vehicles using different software packages to provide ideas on how to make this process more precise, which can help engineers create better energy management strategies for electric vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicles, EV, power consumption, power management, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
19569 Distributed Energy System - Microgrid Integration of Hybrid Power Systems

Authors: Pedro Esteban


Planning a hybrid power system (HPS) that integrates renewable generation sources, non-renewable generation sources and energy storage, involves determining the capacity and size of various components to be used in the system to be able to supply reliable electricity to the connected load as required. Nowadays it is very common to integrate solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants for renewable generation as part of HPS. The solar PV system is usually balanced via a second form of generation (renewable such as wind power or using fossil fuels such as a diesel generator) or an energy storage system (such as a battery bank). Hybrid power systems can also provide other forms of power such as heat for some applications. Modern hybrid power systems combine power generation and energy storage technologies together with real-time energy management and innovative power quality and energy efficiency improvement functionalities. These systems help customers achieve targets for clean energy generation, they add flexibility to the electrical grid, and they optimize the installation by improving its power quality and energy efficiency.

Keywords: microgrids, hybrid power systems, energy storage, grid code compliance

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19568 Enhanced Efficiency of Thermoelectric Generator by Optimizing Mechanical and Electrical Structures

Authors: Kewen Li


Much attention has been paid to the application of low temperature thermal resources, especially for power generation in recent years. Most of the current commercialized thermal, including geothermal, power-generation technologies convert thermal energy to electric energy indirectly, that is, making mechanical work before producing electricity. Technology using thermoelectric generator (TEG), however, can directly transform thermal energy into electricity by using Seebeck effect. TEG technology has many advantages such as compactness, quietness, and reliability because there are no moving parts. One of the big disadvantages of TEGs is the low efficiency from thermal to electric energy. For this reason, we redesigned and modified our previous 1 KW (at a temperature difference of around 120 °C) TEG system. The efficiency of the system was improved significantly, about 20% greater. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to measure the output power, including both open and net power, at different conditions: different modes of connections between TEG modules, different mechanical structures, different temperature differences between hot and cold sides. The cost of the TEG power generator has been reduced further because of the increased efficiency and is lower than that of photovoltaics (PV) in terms of equivalent energy generated. The TEG apparatus has been pilot tested and the data will be presented. This kind of TEG power system can be applied in many thermal and geothermal sites with low temperature resources, including oil fields where fossil and geothermal energies are co-produced.

Keywords: TEG, direct power generation, efficiency, thermoelectric effect

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19567 Solar Energy: The Alternative Electric Power Resource in Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Okorowo Cyril Agochi


More than ever human activity relating to uncontrolled greenhouse gas (GHG) and its effects on the earth is gaining greater attention in the global academic and policy discussions. Activities of man has greatly influenced climate change over the years as a result of consistent increase in the use of fossil fuel energy. Scientists and researchers globally are making significant and devoted efforts towards the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies that are harmless to the environment. One of such energy is solar energy with its source from the sun. There are currently two primary ways of harvesting this energy from the sun: through photovoltaic (PV) panels and through thermal collectors. This work discuses solar energy the abundant renewable energy in the tropical Nigeria, processes of harvesting and recommends same as an alternative means of electric power generation in a time the demand for power supersedes supply.

Keywords: electric, power, renewable energy, solar energy, sun, tropical

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19566 Electric Power Generation by Thermoelectric Cells and Parabolic Solar Concentrators

Authors: A. Kianifar, M. Afzali, I. Pishbin


In this paper, design details, theoretical analysis and thermal performance analysis of a solar energy concentrator suited to combined heat and thermoelectric power generation are presented. The thermoelectric device is attached to the absorber plate to convert concentrated solar energy directly into electric energy at the focus of the concentrator. A cooling channel (water cooled heat sink) is fitted to the cold side of the thermoelectric device to remove the waste heat and maintain a high temperature gradient across the device to improve conversion efficiency.

Keywords: concentrator thermoelectric generator, CTEG, solar energy, thermoelectric cells

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19565 Solar Energy Generation Based Urban Development: A Case of Jodhpur City

Authors: A. Kumar, V. Devadas


India has the most year-round favorable sunny conditions along with the second-highest solar irradiation in the world, the country holds the potential to become the global solar hub. The solar and wind-based generation capacity has skyrocketed in India with the successful effort of the Ministry of Renewable Energy, whereas the potential of rooftop based solar power generation has yet to be explored for proposed solar cities in India. The research aims to analyze the gap in the energy scenario in Jodhpur City and proposes interventions of solar energy generation systems as a catalyst for urban development. The research is based on the system concept which deals with simulation between the city system as a whole and its interactions between different subsystems. A system-dynamics based mathematical model is developed by identifying the control parameters using regression and correlation analysis to assess the gap in energy sector. The base model validation is done using the past 10 years timeline data collected from secondary sources. Further, energy consumption and solar energy generation-based projection are made for testing different scenarios to conclude the feasibility for maintaining the city level energy independence till 2031.

Keywords: city, consumption, energy, generation

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19564 Internet of Things Based Battery Management System

Authors: Pakhil Singh, Rahul Singh, Mohammad Saad Alam, Yasser Rafat


The battery management system is an essential package/system which ensures optimum performance and safety of a battery by monitoring the key essential parameters of the battery like the voltage, current, temperature, state of charge, state of health during charging and discharging. This can be accomplished using outputs of various sensors employed to serve the purpose. The increasing demand for electricity generation from renewable energy sources requires proper storage and hence a proper monitoring system as well. A battery management system is required in wide applications ranging from renewable energy storage systems, off-grid solar PV applications to electric vehicles. The aim of this paper is to study the parameters used in monitoring various battery operating conditions and proposes the usage of the internet of things (IoT) to implement a reliable battery management system.

Keywords: electric vehicles, internet of things, sensors, state of charge, state of health

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19563 Stability Analysis of a Low Power Wind Turbine for the Simultaneous Generation of Energy through Two Electric Generators

Authors: Daniel Icaza, Federico Córdova, Chiristian Castro, Fernando Icaza, Juan Portoviejo


In this article, the mathematical model is presented, and simulations were carried out using specialized software such as MATLAB before the construction of a 900-W wind turbine. The present study was conducted with the intention of taking advantage of the rotation of the blades of the wind generator after going through a process of amplification of speed by means of a system of gears to finally mechanically couple two electric generators of similar characteristics. This coupling allows generating a maximum voltage of 6 V in DC for each generator and putting in series the 12 V DC is achieved, which is later stored in batteries and used when the user requires it. Laboratory tests were made to verify the level of power generation produced based on the wind speed at the entrance of the blades.

Keywords: smart grids, wind turbine, modeling, renewable energy, robust control

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19562 A Study on Energy Efficiency of Vertical Water Treatment System with DC Power Supply

Authors: Young-Kwan Choi, Gang-Wook Shin, Sung-Taek Hong


Water supply system consumes large amount of power load during water treatment and transportation of purified water. Many energy conserving high efficiency materials such as DC motor and LED light have recently been introduced to water supply system for energy conservation. This paper performed empirical analysis on BLDC, AC motors, and comparatively analyzed the change in power according to DC power supply ratio in order to conserve energy of a next-generation water treatment system called vertical water treatment system. In addition, a DC distribution system linked with photovoltaic generation was simulated to analyze the energy conserving effect of DC load.

Keywords: vertical water treatment system, DC power supply, energy efficiency, BLDC

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
19561 A Multi Agent Based Protection Scheme for Smart Distribution Network in Presence of Distributed Energy Resources

Authors: M. R. Ebrahimi, B. Mahdaviani


Conventional electric distribution systems are radial in nature, supplied at one end through a main source. These networks generally have a simple protection system usually implemented using fuses, re-closers, and over-current relays. Recently, great attention has been paid to applying Distributed energy resources (DERs) throughout electric distribution systems. Presence of such generation in a network leads to losing coordination of protection devices. Therefore, it is desired to develop an algorithm which is capable of protecting distribution systems that include DER. On the other hand smart grid brings opportunities to the power system. Fast advancement in communication and measurement techniques accelerates the development of multi agent system (MAS). So in this paper, a new approach for the protection of distribution networks in the presence of DERs is presented base on MAS. The proposed scheme has been implemented on a sample 27-bus distribution network.

Keywords: distributed energy resource, distribution network, protection, smart grid, multi agent system

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19560 A Study of Electric Generation Characteristics for Thin-Film Piezoelectric PbZrTiO₃ Ceramic Plate during the Static and Cyclic Loading Conditions

Authors: Tsukasa Ogawa, Mitsuhiro Okayasu


To examine the generation properties of electric power for piezoelectric (PbZrTiO3) ceramic plates, the electric-power generation characteristics were examined experimentally and numerically during cyclic bending under various loading fixtures with different contact condition, i.e., point and area contact. In the low applied loading condition between 10 and 50 N, increasing the load-contact area on the piezoelectric ceramic led to a nonlinear decrease in the generated voltage. Decreasing contact area, including the point contact, basically enhanced the generated voltage, although the voltage saturated during loading when the contact area is less than ϕ5 mm, which was attributed to the high strain status, resulting in the material failure, i.e., high stress concentration. In this case, severe plastic deformation and the domain switching were dominated failure modes in the ceramic. From this approach, it is clear that the applied load became more larger (50 ~100 N), larger contact area (ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm) became advantageous for power generation. Based upon this cyclic loading was carried out to investigate the fatigue characteristics of the piezoelectric ceramic late. For all contact conditions, electric voltage dropped in the beginning of the cyclic loading, although the higher electric generation was stable in the further cyclic loading for the contact area of ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm. In constant, further decrement of electric generation occurred for the point contact condition, and the low electric voltage was generated for the larger contact condition.

Keywords: electric power generation, piezoelectric ceramic, lead zirconate titanate ceramic, loading conditions

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19559 The Effect of Surface Wave on the Performance Characteristic of a Wave-Tidal Integral Turbine Hybrid Generation System

Authors: Norshazmira Mat Azmi, Sayidal El Fatimah Masnan, Shatirah Akib


More than 70% of the Earth is covered by oceans, which are considered to possess boundless renewable energy, such as tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, thermal energy, and chemical energy. The hybrid system help in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of renewable energy systems to fulfill the energy demand. The concept of hybridizing renewable energy is to meet the desired system requirements, with the lowest value of the energy cost. This paper propose a hybrid power generation system suitable for remote area application and highlight the impact of surface waves on turbine design and performance, and the importance of understanding the site-specific wave conditions.

Keywords: marine current energy, tidal turbines, wave turbine, renewable energy, surface waves, hydraulic flume experiments, instantaneous wave phase

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19558 Steady State Analysis of Distribution System with Wind Generation Uncertainity

Authors: Zakir Husain, Neem Sagar, Neeraj Gupta


Due to the increased penetration of renewable energy resources in the distribution system, the system is no longer passive in nature. In this paper, a steady state analysis of the distribution system has been done with the inclusion of wind generation. The modeling of wind turbine generator system and wind generator has been made to obtain the average active and the reactive power injection into the system. The study has been conducted on a IEEE-33 bus system with two wind generators. The present research work is useful not only to utilities but also to customers.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution network, radial network, wind turbine generating system

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19557 Future of Electric Power Generation Technologies: Environmental and Economic Comparison

Authors: Abdulrahman A. Bahaddad, Mohammed Beshir


The objective of this paper is to demonstrate and describe eight different types of power generation technologies and to understand the history and future trends of each technology. In addition, a comparative analysis between these technologies will be presented with respect to their cost analysis and associated performance.

Keywords: conventional power generation, economic analysis, environmental impact, renewable energy power generation

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19556 A Variable Speed DC Motor Using a Converter DC-DC

Authors: Touati Mawloud


Between electronics and electrical systems has developed a new technology that is power electronics, also called electronic of strong currents, this application covers a very wide range of use particularly in the industrial sector, where direct current engines are frequently used, they control their speed by the use of the converters (DC-DC), which aims to deal with various mechanical disturbances (fillers) or electrical (power). In future, it will play a critical role in transforming the current electric grid into the next generation grid. Existing silicon-based PE devices enable electric grid functionalities such as fault-current limiting and converter devices. Systems of future are envisioned to be highly automated, interactive "smart" grid that can self-adjust to meet the demand for electricity reliability, securely, and economically. Transforming today’s electric grid to the grid of the future will require creating or advancing a number of technologies, tools, and techniques—specifically, the capabilities of power electronics (PE). PE devices provide an interface between electrical system, and electronics system by converting AC to direct current (DC) and vice versa. Solid-state wide Bandgap (WBG), semiconductor electronics (such as silicon carbide [SiC], gallium nitride [GaN], and diamond) are envisioned to improve the reliability and efficiency of the next-generation grid substantially.

Keywords: Power Electronics (PE), electrical system generation electric grid, switching frequencies, converter devices

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19555 Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of a PV/Wind/ Battery Hybrid Energy Conversion

Authors: Doaa M. Atia, Faten H. Fahmy, Ninet M. A. El-Rahman, Hassan T. Dorra


In this paper, the optimum design for renewable energy system powered an aquaculture pond was determined. Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER) software program, which is developed by U.S National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is used for analyzing the feasibility of the stand-alone and hybrid system in this study. HOMER program determines whether renewable energy resources satisfy hourly electric demand or not. The program calculates energy balance for every 8760 hours in a year to simulate operation of the system. This optimization compares the demand for the electrical energy for each hour of the year with the energy supplied by the system for that hour and calculates the relevant energy flow for each component in the model. The essential principle is to minimize the total system cost while HOMER ensures control of the system. Moreover the feasibility analysis of the energy system is also studied. Wind speed, solar irradiance, interest rate and capacity shortage are the parameters which are taken into consideration. The simulation results indicate that the hybrid system is the best choice in this study, yielding lower net present cost. Thus, it provides higher system performance than PV or wind stand-alone systems.

Keywords: wind stand-alone system, photovoltaic stand-alone system, hybrid system, optimum system sizing, feasibility, cost analysis

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19554 The Regulation on Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields for Brazilian Power System

Authors: Hugo Manoel Olivera Da Silva, Ricardo Silva Thé Pontes


In this work, is presented an analysis of the Brazilian regulation on human exposure to electromagnetic fields, which provides limits to electric fields, magnetic and electromagnetic fields. The regulations for the electricity sector was in charge of the Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica-ANEEL, the Brazilian Electricity Regulatory Agency, that made it through the Normative Resolution Nº 398/2010, resulting in a series of obligations for the agents of the electricity sector, especially in the areas of generation, transmission, and distribution.

Keywords: adverse effects, electric energy, electric and magnetic fields, human health, regulation

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19553 Energy Efficient Microgrid Design with Hybrid Power Systems

Authors: Pedro Esteban


Today’s electrical networks, including microgrids, are evolving into smart grids. The smart grid concept brings the idea that the power comes from various sources (continuous or intermittent), in various forms (AC or DC, high, medium or low voltage, etc.), and it must be integrated into the electric power system in a smart way to guarantee a continuous and reliable supply that complies with power quality and energy efficiency standards and grid code requirements. This idea brings questions for the different players like how the required power will be generated, what kind of power will be more suitable, how to store exceeding levels for short or long-term usage, and how to combine and distribute all the different generation power sources in an efficient way. To address these issues, there has been lots of development in recent years on the field of on-grid and off-grid hybrid power systems (HPS). These systems usually combine one or more modes of electricity generation together with energy storage to ensure optimal supply reliability and high level of energy security. Hybrid power systems combine power generation and energy storage technologies together with real-time energy management and innovative power quality and energy efficiency improvement functionalities. These systems help customers achieve targets for clean energy generation, they add flexibility to the electrical grid, and they optimize the installation by improving its power quality and energy efficiency.

Keywords: microgrids, hybrid power systems, energy storage, power quality improvement

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19552 [Keynote Talk]: Wave-Tidal Integral Turbine Hybrid Generation Approach for Characterizing Performance of Surface Wave

Authors: Norshazmira Mat Azmi, Sayidal El Fatimah Masnan, Shatirah Akib


Boundless renewable energy, such as tidal energy, tidal current energy, wave energy, thermal energy and chemical energy are covered and possessed by oceans. The hybrid system helps in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of renewable energy systems to fulfill the energy demand. The objective and concept of hybridizing renewable energy is to meet the desired system requirements, with the lowest value of the energy cost. This paper reviews applications of using hybrid power generation system for remote area. It also highlights the future directions to investigate the impacts of surface waves on turbine design and performance. The importance of understanding the site-specific wave conditions could also been explored.

Keywords: hybrid, marine current energy, tidal turbine, wave turbine

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19551 Performance of Flat Plate Loop Heat Pipe for Thermal Management of Lithium-Ion Battery in Electric Vehicle Application

Authors: Bambang Ariantara, Nandy Putra, Rangga Aji Pamungkas


The development of electric vehicle batteries has resulted in very high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, this progress is accompanied by the risk of thermal runaway, which can result in serious accidents. Heat pipes are heat exchangers that are suitable to be applied in electric vehicle battery thermal management for their lightweight, compact size and do not require external power supply. This paper aims to examine experimentally a flat plate loop heat pipe (FPLHP) performance as a heat exchanger in the thermal management system of the lithium-ion battery for electric vehicle application. The heat generation of the battery was simulated using a cartridge heater. Stainless steel screen mesh was used as the capillary wick. Distilled water, alcohol and acetone were used as working fluids with a filling ratio of 60%. It was found that acetone gives the best performance that produces the thermal resistance of 0.22 W/°C with 50 °C evaporator temperature at heat flux load of 1.61 W/cm2.

Keywords: electric vehicle, flat-plate loop heat pipe, lithium-ion battery, thermal management system

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19550 Electric Propulsion System Development for High Floor Trolley Bus

Authors: Asep Andi Suryandi, Katri Yulianto, Dewi Rianti Mandasari


The development of environmentally friendly vehicles increasingly attracted the attention of almost all countries in the world, including Indonesia. There are various types of environmentally friendly vehicles, such as: electric vehicles, hybrid, and fuel gas. The Electric vehicle has been developed in Indonesia, a private or public vehicle. But many electric vehicles had been developed using the battery as a power source, while the battery technology for electric vehicles still constraints in capacity, dimensions of the battery itself and charging system. Trolley bus is one of the electric buses with the main power source of the network catenary / overhead line with trolley pole as the point of contact. This paper will discuss the design and manufacture electrical system in Trolleybus.

Keywords: trolley bus, electric propulsion system, design, manufacture, electric vehicle

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19549 Study on the Addition of Solar Generating and Energy Storage Units to a Power Distribution System

Authors: T. Costa, D. Narvaez, K. Melo, M. Villalva


Installation of micro-generators based on renewable energy in power distribution system has increased in recent years, with the main renewable sources being solar and wind. Due to the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such micro-generators produce time-varying energy which does not correspond at certain times of the day to the peak energy consumption of end users. For this reason, the use of energy storage units next to the grid contributes to the proper leveling of the buses’ voltage level according to Brazilian energy quality standards. In this work, the effect of the addition of a photovoltaic solar generator and a store of energy in the busbar voltages of an electric system is analyzed. The consumption profile is defined as the average hourly use of appliances in a common residence, and the generation profile is defined as a function of the solar irradiation available in a locality. The power summation method is validated with analytical calculation and is used to calculate the modules and angles of the voltages in the buses of an electrical system based on the IEEE standard, at each hour of the day and with defined load and generation profiles. The results show that bus 5 presents the worst voltage level at the power consumption peaks and stabilizes at the appropriate range with the inclusion of the energy storage during the night time period. Solar generator maintains improvement of the voltage level during the period when it receives solar irradiation, having peaks of production during the 12 pm (without exceeding the appropriate maximum levels of tension).

Keywords: energy storage, power distribution system, solar generator, voltage level

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19548 Hybrid Energy System for the German Mining Industry: An Optimized Model

Authors: Kateryna Zharan, Jan C. Bongaerts


In recent years, economic attractiveness of renewable energy (RE) for the mining industry, especially for off-grid mines, and a negative environmental impact of fossil energy are stimulating to use RE for mining needs. Being that remote area mines have higher energy expenses than mines connected to a grid, integration of RE may give a mine economic benefits. Regarding the literature review, there is a lack of business models for adopting of RE at mine. The main aim of this paper is to develop an optimized model of RE integration into the German mining industry (GMI). Hereby, the GMI with amount of around 800 mill. t. annually extracted resources is included in the list of the 15 major mining country in the world. Accordingly, the mining potential of Germany is evaluated in this paper as a perspective market for RE implementation. The GMI has been classified in order to find out the location of resources, quantity and types of the mines, amount of extracted resources, and access of the mines to the energy resources. Additionally, weather conditions have been analyzed in order to figure out where wind and solar generation technologies can be integrated into a mine with the highest efficiency. Despite the fact that the electricity demand of the GMI is almost completely covered by a grid connection, the hybrid energy system (HES) based on a mix of RE and fossil energy is developed due to show environmental and economic benefits. The HES for the GMI consolidates a combination of wind turbine, solar PV, battery and diesel generation. The model has been calculated using the HOMER software. Furthermore, the demonstrated HES contains a forecasting model that predicts solar and wind generation in advance. The main result from the HES such as CO2 emission reduction is estimated in order to make the mining processing more environmental friendly.

Keywords: diesel generation, German mining industry, hybrid energy system, hybrid optimization model for electric renewables, optimized model, renewable energy

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19547 Modelling and Technical Assessment of Multi-Motor for Electric Vehicle Drivetrains by Using Electric Differential

Authors: Mohamed Abdel-Monem, Gamal Sowilam, Omar Hegazy


This paper presents a technical assessment of an electric vehicle with two independent rear-wheel motor and an improved traction control system. The electric differential and the control strategy have been implemented to assure that in a straight trajectory, the two rear-wheels run exactly at the same speed, considering the same/different road conditions under the left and right side of the wheels. In case of turning to right/left, the difference between the two rear-wheels speeds assures a vehicle trajectory without sliding, thanks to a harmony between the electric differential and the control strategy. The present article demonstrates a complete model and analysis of a traction control system, considering four different traction scenarios, for two independent rear-wheels motors for electric vehicles. Furthermore, the vehicle model, including wheel dynamics, load forces, electric differential, and control strategy, is designed and verified by using MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords: electric vehicle, energy saving, multi-motor, electric differential, simulation and control

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19546 Stochastic Energy and Reserve Scheduling with Wind Generation and Generic Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Amirhossein Khazali, Mohsen Kalantar


Energy storage units can play an important role to provide an economic and secure operation of future energy systems. In this paper, a stochastic energy and reserve market clearing scheme is presented considering storage energy units. The approach is proposed to deal with stochastic and non-dispatchable renewable sources with a high level of penetration in the energy system. A two stage stochastic programming scheme is formulated where in the first stage the energy market is cleared according to the forecasted amount of wind generation and demands and in the second stage the real time market is solved according to the assumed scenarios.

Keywords: energy and reserve market, energy storage device, stochastic programming, wind generation

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19545 Theoretical Performance of a Sustainable Clean Energy On-Site Generation Device to Convert Consumers into Producers and Its Possible Impact on Electrical National Grids

Authors: Eudes Vera


In this paper, a theoretical evaluation is carried out of the performance of a forthcoming fuel-less clean energy generation device, the Air Motor. The underlying physical principles that support this technology are succinctly described. Examples of the machine and theoretical values of input and output powers are also given. In addition, its main features like portability, on-site energy generation and delivery, miniaturization of generation plants, efficiency, and scaling down of the whole electric infrastructure are discussed. The main component of the Air Motor, the Thermal Air Turbine, generates useful power by converting in mechanical energy part of the thermal energy contained in a fan-produced airflow while leaving intact its kinetic energy. Due to this fact an air motor can contain a long succession of identical air turbines and the total power generated out of a single airflow can be very large, as well as its mechanical efficiency. It is found using the corresponding formulae that the mechanical efficiency of this device can be much greater than 100%, while its thermal efficiency is always less than 100%. On account of its multiple advantages, the Air Motor seems to be the perfect device to convert energy consumers into energy producers worldwide. If so, it would appear that current national electrical grids would no longer be necessary, because it does not seem practical or economical to bring the energy from far-away distances while it can be generated and consumed locally at the consumer’s premises using just the thermal energy contained in the ambient air.

Keywords: electrical grid, clean energy, renewable energy, in situ generation and delivery, generation efficiency

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19544 Designing Ecologically and Economically Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

Authors: Y. Ghiassi-Farrokhfal


The number of electric vehicles (EVs) is increasing worldwide. Replacing gas fueled cars with EVs reduces carbon emission. However, the extensive energy consumption of EVs stresses the energy systems, requiring non-green sources of energy (such as gas turbines) to compensate for the new energy demand caused by EVs in the energy systems. To make EVs even a greener solution for the future energy systems, new EV charging stations are equipped with solar PV panels and batteries. This will help serve the energy demand of EVs through the green energy of solar panels. To ensure energy availability, solar panels are combined with batteries. The energy surplus at any point is stored in batteries and is used when there is not enough solar energy to serve the demand. While EV charging stations equipped with solar panels and batteries are green and ecologically optimal, they might not be financially viable solutions, due to battery prices. To make the system viable, we should size the battery economically and operate the system optimally. This is, in general, a challenging problem because of the stochastic nature of the EV arrivals at the charging station, the available solar energy, and the battery operating system. In this work, we provide a mathematical model for this problem and we compute the return on investment (ROI) of such a system, which is designed to be ecologically and financially optimal. We also quantify the minimum required investment in terms of battery and solar panels along with the operating strategy to ensure that a charging station has enough energy to serve its EV demand at any time.

Keywords: solar energy, battery storage, electric vehicle, charging stations

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19543 Design of a Photovoltaic Power Generation System Based on Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things

Authors: Wei Hu, Wenguang Chen, Chong Dong


In order to improve the efficiency and safety of photovoltaic power generation devices, this photovoltaic power generation system combines Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) to control the chasing photovoltaic power generation device to track the sun to improve power generation efficiency and then convert energy management. The system uses artificial intelligence as the control terminal, the power generation device executive end uses the Linux system, and Exynos4412 is the CPU. The power generating device collects the sun image information through Sony CCD. After several power generating devices feedback the data to the CPU for processing, several CPUs send the data to the artificial intelligence control terminal through the Internet. The control terminal integrates the executive terminal information, time information, and environmental information to decide whether to generate electricity normally and then whether to convert the converted electrical energy into the grid or store it in the battery pack. When the power generation environment is abnormal, the control terminal authorizes the protection strategy, the power generation device executive terminal stops power generation and enters a self-protection posture, and at the same time, the control terminal synchronizes the data with the cloud. At the same time, the system is more intelligent, more adaptive, and longer life.

Keywords: photo-voltaic power generation, the pursuit of light, artificial intelligence, internet of things, photovoltaic array, power management

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19542 Feasibilty and Penetration of Electric Vehicles in Indian Power Grid

Authors: Kashyap L. Mokariya, Varsha A. Shah, Makarand M. Lokhande


As the current status and growth of Indian automobile industry is remarkable, transportation sectors are the main concern in terms of Energy security and climate change. Rising demand of fuel and its dependency on other countries affects the GDP of nation. So in this context if the 10 percent of vehicle got operated in Electrical mode how much saving in terms of Rs and in terms of liters is achieved has been analyzed which is also a part of Nations Electric mobility mission plan. Analysis is also done for converting unit consumption of Electricity of Electric vehicle into equivalent fuel consumption in liters which shows that at present tariff rate Electrical operated vehicles are far more beneficial. It also gives benchmark to the authorities to set the tariff rate for Electrical vehicles. Current situation of Indian grid is shown and how the Gap between Generation and Demand can be reduced is analyzed in terms of increasing generation capacity and Energy Conservation measures. As the certain regions of country is facing serious deficit than how to take energy conservation measures in Industry and especially in rural areas where generally Energy Auditing is not carried out that is analyzed in context of Electric vehicle penetration in near future. Author was a part of Vishvakarma yojna where in 255 villages of Gujarat Energy losses were measured and solutions were given to mitigate them and corresponding report to the authorities of villages was delivered.

Keywords: vehiclepenetration, feasibility, Energyconservation, future grid, Energy security, pf controller

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