Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Fekih Malika

30 Study on the Heat Transfer Performance of the Annular Fin under Condensing Conditions

Authors: Abdenour Bourabaa, Malika Fekih, Mohamed Saighi

Abstract:

A numerical investigation of the fin efficiency and temperature distribution of an annular fin under dehumidification has been presented in this paper. The non-homogeneous second order differential equation that describes the temperature distribution from the fin base to the fin tip has been solved using the central finite difference method. The effects of variations in parameters including relative humidity, air temperature, air face velocity on temperature distribution and fin efficiency are investigated and compared with those under fully dry fin conditions. Also, the effect of fin pitch on the dimensionless temperature has been studied.

Keywords: annular fin, dehumidification, fin efficiency, heat and mass transfer, wet fin

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29 Empirical Model for the Estimation of Global Solar Radiation on Horizontal Surface in Algeria

Authors: Malika Fekih, Abdenour Bourabaa, Rafika Hariti, Mohamed Saighi

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In Algeria the global solar radiation and its components is not available for all locations due to which there is a requirement of using different models for the estimation of global solar radiation that use climatological parameters of the locations. Empirical constants for these models have been estimated and the results obtained have been tested statistically. The results show encouraging agreement between estimated and measured values.

Keywords: global solar radiation, empirical model, semi arid areas, climatological parameters

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28 Study of Natural Convection in Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed

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Heat transfer by natural convection in storage tanks for LNG is extremely related to heat gains through the walls with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the study of natural convection in the unsteady regime for natural gas in aware phase using the fluent software. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. The CFD numerical method used to solve the system of equations is based on the finite volume method. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

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27 Study of Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in Overhead Storage Tank of LNG

Authors: Hariti Rafika, Fekih Malika, Saighi Mohamed

Abstract:

During the period storage of liquefied natural gas, stability is necessarily affected by natural convection along the walls of the tank with thermal insulation is not perfectly efficient. In this paper, we present the numerical simulation of heat transfert by natural convection double diffusion,in unsteady laminar regime in a storage tank. The storage tank contains a liquefied natural gas (LNG) in its gaseous phase. Fluent, a commercial CFD package, based on the numerical finite volume method, is used to simulate the flow. The gas is just on the surface of the liquid phase. This numerical simulation allowed us to determine the temperature profiles, the stream function, the velocity vectors and the variation of the heat flux density in the vapor phase in the LNG storage tank volume. The results obtained for a general configuration, by numerical simulation were compared to those found in the literature.

Keywords: numerical simulation, natural convection, heat gains, storage tank, liquefied natural gas

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26 Parallel Multisplitting Methods for Differential Systems

Authors: Malika El Kyal, Ahmed Machmoum

Abstract:

We prove the superlinear convergence of asynchronous multi-splitting methods applied to differential equations. This study is based on the technique of nested sets. It permits to specify kind of the convergence in the asynchronous mode.The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays to be substantial and unpredictable. Note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.

Keywords: parallel methods, asynchronous mode, multisplitting, ODE

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25 Automatic Vowel and Consonant's Target Formant Frequency Detection

Authors: Othmane Bouferroum, Malika Boudraa

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In this study, a dual exponential model for CV formant transition is derived from locus theory of speech perception. Then, an algorithm for automatic vowel and consonant’s target formant frequency detection is developed and tested on real speech. The results show that vowels and consonants are detected through transitions rather than their small stable portions. Also, vowel reduction is clearly observed in our data. These results are confirmed by the observations made in perceptual experiments in the literature.

Keywords: acoustic invariance, coarticulation, formant transition, locus equation

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24 Parallel Multisplitting Methods for DAE’s

Authors: Ahmed Machmoum, Malika El Kyal

Abstract:

We consider iterative parallel multi-splitting method for differential algebraic equations. The main feature of the proposed idea is to use the asynchronous form. We prove that the multi-splitting technique can effectively accelerate the convergent performance of the iterative process. The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays tobe substantial and unpredictable. Note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.

Keywords: computer, multi-splitting methods, asynchronous mode, differential algebraic systems

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23 Parallel Asynchronous Multi-Splitting Methods for Differential Algebraic Systems

Authors: Malika Elkyal

Abstract:

We consider an iterative parallel multi-splitting method for differential algebraic equations. The main feature of the proposed idea is to use the asynchronous form. We prove that the multi-splitting technique can effectively accelerate the convergent performance of the iterative process. The main characteristic of an asynchronous mode is that the local algorithm does not have to wait at predetermined messages to become available. We allow some processors to communicate more frequently than others, and we allow the communication delays to be substantial and unpredictable. Accordingly, we note that synchronous algorithms in the computer science sense are particular cases of our formulation of asynchronous one.

Keywords: parallel methods, asynchronous mode, multisplitting, differential algebraic equations

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22 A Comparative Study of Multi-SOM Algorithms for Determining the Optimal Number of Clusters

Authors: Imèn Khanchouch, Malika Charrad, Mohamed Limam

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The interpretation of the quality of clusters and the determination of the optimal number of clusters is still a crucial problem in clustering. We focus in this paper on multi-SOM clustering method which overcomes the problem of extracting the number of clusters from the SOM map through the use of a clustering validity index. We then tested multi-SOM using real and artificial data sets with different evaluation criteria not used previously such as Davies Bouldin index, Dunn index and silhouette index. The developed multi-SOM algorithm is compared to k-means and Birch methods. Results show that it is more efficient than classical clustering methods.

Keywords: clustering, SOM, multi-SOM, DB index, Dunn index, silhouette index

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21 Efficient Modeling Technique for Microstrip Discontinuities

Authors: Nassim Ourabia, Malika Ourabia

Abstract:

A new and efficient method is presented for the analysis of arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. The technique obtains closed form expressions for the equivalent circuits which are used to model these discontinuities. Then it would be easy to handle and to characterize complicated structures like T and Y junctions, truncated junctions, arbitrarily shaped junctions, cascading junctions, and more generally planar multiport junctions. Another advantage of this method is that the edge line concept for arbitrary shape junctions operates with real parameters circuits. The validity of the method was further confirmed by comparing our results for various discontinuities (bend, filters) with those from HFSS as well as from other published sources.

Keywords: CAD analysis, contour integral approach, microwave circuits, s-parameters

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20 Bioinsecticidal Activity and Phytochemical Study of the Crude Extract from the Plant Artemisia judaica

Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Idir Bitam, Leila Bendifallah, Malika Ramdani, Fethia Barika

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Phytochemical study of the plant Artemisia judaica showed the presence of various groups of natural products: saponins, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and reducer compounds. However, alkaloids are present as traces. The crude ethanol extract of the test plant presented significant insecticidal activity on mosquito larvae in stage I, II and III. The LD50 highlighted the excellent insecticidal effect of the tested extract. Similarly, the LT50 are achieved early with high doses. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest the possibility of using the secondary metabolites of this plant such as bio-insecticide.

Keywords: Atamisia judaica, crud extract, mosquito, insecticidal activity

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19 Phytochemical Study and Bioinsecticidal Effect of the Crude Extract from the Plant Artemisia Judaica

Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Idir Bitam, Leila Bendifallah, Malika Ramdani, Fethia Barika

Abstract:

Phytochemical study of the plant Artemisia judaica showed the presence of various groups of natural products: saponins, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and reducer compounds. However alkaloids are present as traces. The crude ethanol extract of the test plant presented significant insecticidal activity on mosquito larvae in stage I, II, and III. The LD50 highlighted the excellent insecticidal effect of the tested extract. Similarly, the LT50 are achieved early with high doses. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest the possibility of using the secondary metabolites of this plant such as bio-insecticide.

Keywords: Atamisia judaica, crud extract, mosquito, insecticidal activity

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18 Effect of the Addition of Additives on the Improvement of the Performances of Lead–Acid Batteries

Authors: Malika Foudia, Larbi Zerroual

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to improve the electrical proprieties of lead-acid battery with the addition of additives in electrolyte and in the cured plates before oxidation. The results showed that the addition of surfactant in sulfuric acid and 3% mineral additive in the cured plates change the morphology and the crystallite size of PAM after oxidation. The discharge capacity increases with the decrease of the crystallite size and the resistance of the active mass. This shows that the addition of mineral additive and the surfactant additive to the PAM, the electrical performance and the cycle life of lead- acid battery are significantly increases.

Keywords: lead-acid battery, additives, positive plate, impedance (EIS).

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17 Magnetohydrodynamic 3D Maxwell Fluid Flow Towards a Horizontal Stretched Surface with Convective Boundary Conditions

Authors: M. Y. Malika, Farzana, Abdul Rehman

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The study deals with the steady, 3D MHD boundary layer flow of a non-Newtonian Maxwell fluid flow due to a horizontal surface stretched exponentially in two lateral directions. The temperature at the boundary is assumed to be distributed exponentially and possesses convective boundary conditions. The governing nonlinear system of partial differential equations along with associated boundary conditions is simplified using a suitable transformation and the obtained set of ordinary differential equations is solved through numerical techniques. The effects of important involved parameters associated with fluid flow and heat flux are shown through graphs.

Keywords: boundary layer flow, exponentially stretched surface, Maxwell fluid, numerical solution

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16 Trust Management for an Authentication System in Ubiquitous Computing

Authors: Malika Yaici, Anis Oussayah, Mohamed Ahmed Takerrabet

Abstract:

Security of context-aware ubiquitous systems is paramount, and authentication plays an important aspect in cloud computing and ubiquitous computing. Trust management has been identified as vital component for establishing and maintaining successful relational exchanges between trading partners in cloud and ubiquitous systems. Establishing trust is the way to build good relationship with both client and provider which positive activates will increase trust level, otherwise destroy trust immediately. We propose a new context-aware authentication system using a trust management system between client and server, and between servers, a trust which induces partnership, thus to a close cooperation between these servers. We defined the rules (algorithms), as well as the formulas to manage and calculate the trusting degrees depending on context, in order to uniquely authenticate a user, thus a single sign-on, and to provide him better services.

Keywords: ubiquitous computing, authentication, context-awareness, trust management

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15 A Contribution to the Polynomial Eigen Problem

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche, Tim Clarke

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The relationship between eigenstructure (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) and latent structure (latent roots and latent vectors) is established. In control theory eigenstructure is associated with the state space description of a dynamic multi-variable system and a latent structure is associated with its matrix fraction description. Beginning with block controller and block observer state space forms and moving on to any general state space form, we develop the identities that relate eigenvectors and latent vectors in either direction. Numerical examples illustrate this result. A brief discussion of the potential of these identities in linear control system design follows. Additionally, we present a consequent result: a quick and easy method to solve the polynomial eigenvalue problem for regular matrix polynomials.

Keywords: eigenvalues/eigenvectors, latent values/vectors, matrix fraction description, state space description

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14 Optimization Techniques for Microwave Structures

Authors: Malika Ourabia

Abstract:

A new and efficient method is presented for the analysis of arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. The discontinuities is characterized using a hybrid spectral/numerical technique. This structure presents an arbitrary number of ports, each one with different orientation and dimensions. This article presents a hybrid method based on multimode contour integral and mode matching techniques. The process is based on segmentation and dividing the structure into key building blocks. We use the multimode contour integral method to analyze the blocks including irregular shape discontinuities. Finally, the multimode scattering matrix of the whole structure can be found by cascading the blocks. Therefore, the new method is suitable for analysis of a wide range of waveguide problems. Therefore, the present approach can be applied easily to the analysis of any multiport junctions and cascade blocks. The accuracy of the method is validated comparing with results for several complex problems found in the literature. CPU times are also included to show the efficiency of the new method proposed.

Keywords: segmentation, s parameters, simulation, optimization

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13 On Block Vandermonde Matrix Constructed from Matrix Polynomial Solvents

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche

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In control engineering, systems described by matrix fractions are studied through properties of block roots, also called solvents. These solvents are usually dealt with in a block Vandermonde matrix form. Inverses and determinants of Vandermonde matrices and block Vandermonde matrices are used in solving problems of numerical analysis in many domains but require costly computations. Even though Vandermonde matrices are well known and method to compute inverse and determinants are many and, generally, based on interpolation techniques, methods to compute the inverse and determinant of a block Vandermonde matrix have not been well studied. In this paper, some properties of these matrices and iterative algorithms to compute the determinant and the inverse of a block Vandermonde matrix are given. These methods are deducted from the partitioned matrix inversion and determinant computing methods. Due to their great size, parallelization may be a solution to reduce the computations cost, so a parallelization of these algorithms is proposed and validated by a comparison using algorithmic complexity.

Keywords: block vandermonde matrix, solvents, matrix polynomial, matrix inverse, matrix determinant, parallelization

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12 Problem of Services Selection in Ubiquitous Systems

Authors: Malika Yaici, Assia Arab, Betitra Yakouben, Samia Zermani

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Ubiquitous computing is nowadays a reality through the networking of a growing number of computing devices. It allows providing users with context aware information and services in a heterogeneous environment, anywhere and anytime. Selection of the best context-aware service, between many available services and providers, is a tedious problem. In this paper, a service selection method based on Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) formalism is proposed. The services are considered as variables and domains; and the user context, preferences and providers characteristics are considered as constraints. The Backtrack algorithm is used to solve the problem to find the best service and provider which matches the user requirements. Even though this algorithm has an exponential complexity, but its use guarantees that the service, that best matches the user requirements, will be found. A comparison of the proposed method with the existing solutions finishes the paper.

Keywords: ubiquitous computing, services selection, constraint satisfaction problem, backtrack algorithm

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11 Study of Toxic Effect and Anti-Oxidative Activity of a β- Amidophosphonates

Authors: Houria Djebar, Amina Saib, Malika Berredjem, Khaoula Bechlem, Mohammed-Reda Djebar

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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a high potential to damage almost all types of cellular components of the body, which explains their involvement in the induction and/or amplification of several pathologies. Supplementation of the body by exogenous antioxidants is very useful against these harmful species. In this context, we attempted to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of three newly synthesized amidophosphonates (AP1, AP2, and AP3). The results relating to the in vitro tests for DPPH radical scavenging activity shows that these amidophosphonates have a modest antiradical power (ARP) less effectively pronounced compared with an analogue marketed in Algeria: (Dursban) Clorpiryphos ethyl. However, in vivo effects were evaluated on some antioxidant systems (LP intensity, CAT activity and GSH content), or in combination with 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) radical in paramecium tetraurelia used as a complementary system to rapidly elucidate the cytotoxicity. On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that amidophosphonates studied exhibited a mild protective effect. The mechanism for how they influenced the antioxidant activities was discussed.

Keywords: Paramecium tetraurelia, amidophosphonates, antioxidant activity, DPPH free radical, in vitro experiments, biochemical parameters

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10 Removal of Oxytetracycline Using Sonophotocatalysis: Parametric Study

Authors: Bouafia-Chergui Souâd, Chabani Malika, Bensmaili Aicha

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Water treatment and especially, medicament pollutants are nowadays important problems. Degradation of oxytetracycline was carried out using combined process of low-frequency ultrasound (US), ultraviolet irradiation and a catalyst. The effectiveness of the coupled processes has been evaluated by studying the effects of various operating parameters including initial OTC concentration, solution pH and catalyst mass. For the photolysis process, the monochromatic ultraviolet light wavelength utilized was 365 nm. The sonolysis experiments were performed with ultrasound at a frequency of 40 kHz. The heterogeneous photocatalysis was studied in the presence of TiO2. The processes were employed individually, and simultaneously to examine the details of the processes and to investigate the contribution of each process. Low UV intensity (12W), low pH and high mass of TiO2 conditions enhanced the sono-photocatalytic degradation of OTC. The results showed that the individual contribution sonochemical and photochemical reactions are very low, however, their coupling increases the degradation rate of 8 times compared to photolysis and 2 times compared to sonolysis. There is a synergistic effect between the two modes of radiation, UV and U.S. leading to 82.04% degradation yield. An application of these combined processes on the treatment of a real pharmaceutical wastewater was examined.

Keywords: sonolysis, photocatalysis, combined process, antibiotic

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9 Depression among University Students an Epidemiological Study on a Sample of University Students

Authors: Laid Fekih

Abstract:

Background: Depression affects people in all communities across the world and in all aspects of their lives. Its spread varies from one country to another, can happen at any age and get rid of it is not easy. There is no clear policy in Algeria's higher education institutions to detect and treat these disorders or pay particular attention to those at risk. Identifying the prevalence of depression among Algerian students, its correlation with different variables, and studying gender differences in the light of a range of variables is necessary to develop an appropriate plan to raise the level of hope and love of life among students. Method: Random samples of 1500 University of Tlemcen students (967 girls and 533 boys), aged 19 to 24 years completed a self-administered questionnaire that included Beck's Depression Inventory ®-II (BDI®-II), (School Health Promotion: The Mood part), Other questions included in this survey focused on demographic characteristics including gender, age and year of study, academic performance (Annual Average Score (0-20) AAS), were examined. Results: The rate of depression (moderate, severe and extreme) varied from 03% to 13% among university students in Tlemcen University. There was no difference in the rates of depression in male and female students, which means that male and female students do have similar rates of depression. The rate of depression in the first-year of the study shows a higher score relative to students of other years. Depression has a negative relationship with academic performance, which means that depressed students have many difficulties in academic tasks at university. Conclusion: Depression among university students is an important center of interest in the world, not only because of the ease with which they can be followed, or the difficulties encountered during their studies and their technical courses but for the link between the level of depression and the quality of care of mental health services, especially if many students with mood and emotional problems don't meet the criteria for psychotherapy.

Keywords: depression, epidemiology, university students, academic performance

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8 Focalization Used as a Narrative Strategy Mirroring Fadia Faqir’s Ideology in Pillars of Salt 1996

Authors: Malika Hammouche

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The novel Pillars of Salt, written by Fadia Faqir in 1996, is a good example where storytelling is utilized as a traditional material to underline the author’s womanist ideology. A study of narrative could be fruitfully combined with that of ideology in this case. This combination could be demonstrated through the narrative technique used by Fadia Faqir in Pillars of Salt (1996), reflecting her anti-colonial ideology. The first step of this work will highlight the storyteller’s narrative in the novel representing, on the one hand, the imperial voice, and on the other exoticism and orientalism. The second step will demonstrate how Faqir’s narrative technique uses focalization as a narratological tool to negotiate her space. Faqir gives a voice to the female protagonist of the novel within the androcentric bias of Arab narrative theory to point to and amend the orientalist discourse typical to colonial literature. The orientalist discourse is represented through the voice of the storyteller in the novel. The juxtaposition of the storyteller’s and the female protagonist narratives is borrowed from the Arab literary background. It is a postcolonial counter-discursive strategy used by the author as a traditional material to underline her Arabo Islamic Womanist ideology in this novel.

Keywords: Arabo Islamic womanism, focalization, ideology, narrative technique, orientalist

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7 Impact of Cd and Pb Impregnation on the Health of an Adult Population Neighbouring a Landfill

Authors: M. Cabral, A. Verdin, G. Garçon, A. Touré, C. Diop, M. Fall, S. Bouhsina, D. Dewaele, F.Cazier, A. Tall Dia, P. Shirali, A. Diouf

Abstract:

This case-control study dealt with the health adverse effects within the population neighboring the Mbeubeuss waste dump, which is located near the district of Malika (Diamalaye II) in Dakar (Senegal). All the household and industrial waste arising from Dakar are stored in this open landfill without being covered and are therefore possible sources of Pb and Cd contaminated air emissions and lixiviates. The objective of this study is part of improving the health of the population neighboring Mbeubeuss by determining Pb and Cd concentrations both in environment and humans, and studying possible renal function alterations within the adults. Soil and air samples were collected in the control site (Darou Salam) and the waste dump neighboring site (Diamalaye II). Control and exposed adults were recruited as living in Darou Salam (n = 52) and in Diamalaye II (n = 77). Pb and Cd concentrations in soil, air and biological samples were determined. Moreover, we were interested in analyzing some impregnation (zinc protoporphyrin, d-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) and oxidative stress biomarkers (malonedialdehyde, gluthatione status), in addition to several nephrotoxicity parameters (creatinuria, proteinuria, lactate dehydrogenase, CC16 protein, glutathione S-transferase-alpha and retinol binding protein) in blood and/or urine. The results showed the significant Pb and Cd contamination of the soil and air samples derived from the landfill, and therefore of the neighboring population of adults. This critical exposure to environmental Pb and Cd had some harmful consequences for their health, as shown by the reported oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity signs.

Keywords: Pb and Cd environmental exposure, impregnation markers, landfill, nephrotoxicity markers

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6 Development of Pre-Mitigation Measures and Its Impact on Life-Cycle Cost of Facilities: Indian Scenario

Authors: Mahima Shrivastava, Soumya Kar, B. Swetha Malika, Lalu Saheb, M. Muthu Kumar, P. V. Ponambala Moorthi

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Natural hazards and manmade destruction causes both economic and societal losses. Generalized pre-mitigation strategies introduced and adopted for prevention of disaster all over the world are capable of augmenting the resiliency and optimizing the life-cycle cost of facilities. In countries like India where varied topographical feature exists requires location specific mitigation measures and strategies to be followed for better enhancement by event-driven and code-driven approaches. Present state of vindication measures followed and adopted, lags dominance in accomplishing the required development. In addition, serious concern and debate over climate change plays a vital role in enhancing the need and requirement for the development of time bound adaptive mitigation measures. For the development of long-term sustainable policies incorporation of future climatic variation is inevitable. This will further assist in assessing the impact brought about by the climate change on life-cycle cost of facilities. This paper develops more definite region specific and time bound pre-mitigation measures, by reviewing the present state of mitigation measures in India and all over the world for improving life-cycle cost of facilities. For the development of region specific adoptive measures, Indian regions were divided based on multiple-calamity prone regions and geo-referencing tools were used to incorporate the effect of climate changes on life-cycle cost assessment. This study puts forward significant effort in establishing sustainable policies and helps decision makers in planning for pre-mitigation measures for different regions. It will further contribute towards evaluating the life cycle cost of facilities by adopting the developed measures.

Keywords: climate change, geo-referencing tools, life-cycle cost, multiple-calamity prone regions, pre-mitigation strategies, sustainable policies

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5 Protective Effect of Wheat Grass (Triticum Durum) against Oxidative Damage Induced by Lead: Study of Some Biomarkers and Histological Few Organs in Males Wistar Rats

Authors: Mansouri Ouarda, Abdennour Cherif, Saidi Malika

Abstract:

Since the industrial revolution, many anthropogenic activities have caused environmental, considerable and overall changes. The lead represents a very dangerous disruptive for the functioning of the body. In this context the current study aims at evaluating a natural therapy by the use of the plant grass in wheat (Triticum durum) against the toxicity of lead in rat wistar male. The rats were divided into three groups: the control group, the group treated with 600 mg /kg food of lead only (Pb) is the group treated with the combination of 600 mg/kg of food and 9g/rat /day of the plant grass in wheat (Pb-bl). The duration of the treatment is 6 weeks. The results of the biometrics of the organs (thyroid, kidney, testis and epididymis) show no significant difference between the three groups. The dosage of a few parameters and hormonal biochemical shows a decrease in the concentration of the hormone T3 and TSH levels among the group pb alone compared to the control and Pb-Bl. These results have been confirmed by the study of histological slices. A morphological changes represented by a shrinking volume of vesicles with the group treated with Pb alone. A return to the normal state of the structure of the follicles was observed. The concentration in serum testosterone, urea and creatinine was significantly increased among the group treated by Pb only in relation to the control and Pb-Bl. whereas the rate of glucose did not show any significant difference. The histology study of the kidney, testis and epididymal weights show no modification at the group Pb-bl comparing to the control. The parenchyma of the kidney shows a dilation of tubes distal and proximal causing a tubular nephropathy for the batch processed by Pb only. The testicles have marked a destruction or absence of germ cells and the light of some seminiferous are almost empty. Conclusion: The supplementation of the plant Triticum durum has caused a considerable improvement which ensures the return of parameters investigated in the normal state.

Keywords: creatinine, glucose, histological sections, T3, TSH, testosterone

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4 In vitro and in vivo Potential Effect of the N-Acylsulfonamide Bis-oxazolidin-2-ones on Toxoplasma gondii

Authors: Benlaifa Meriem, Berredjem Hajira, Bouasla Radia, Berredjem Malika, Djebar Med Reda

Abstract:

Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan infection due to Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii). It is a significant cause of congenital disease and an important opportunistic pathogen which has become a worldwide increasing problem due to the AIDS epidemic. Current available drugs do not give satisfactory results and often have only a static and several adverse side effects as it is the case of pyrimethamine. So, the need to develop and evaluate new drugs is critical. The purpose of this study is to investigate the in vitro and in vivo effects of the new chiral N-acylsulfonamide bis-oxazolidin-2-ones on T.gondii. In this study, anti-T.gondii RH strain activities, of two new chiral N-acylsulfonamide bis-oxazolidin-2-ones were evaluated in vitro, using a MRC-5 fibroblast tissue cultures to determine the concentration that inhibit parasite multiplication by 50% (IC50) of each drug and in vivo, by PCR detection of the tachyzoites in mice ascites after new molecules treatment, using the 35-fold repetitive B1 gene of T.gondii. The in vitro results demonstrated that the treatment with the tested molecules decreased the amount of tachyzoites in cell culture in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was complete for concentrations over 4 mg/ml. The IC50 of Mol 1 and Mol 2 were 1.5 and 3 mg/ml, respectively, and were quite similar to the control one (2 mg/ml). The Mol 1 was highly active against T.gondii in cell cultures than Mol 2; these results were similar to those of sulfadiazine-treated group (p < 0.05). Toxoplasma-specific DNA was demonstrated in all ascites samples from infected mice of the different tested groups. Mol 1 showed better effect than Mol 2, but it did not completely inhibit the parasite proliferation. The intensity of amplification products increased when the treatment started late after infection. These findings suggest continuous parasite replication despite the treatment. In conclusion, our results showed a promising treatment effect of the tested molecules and suggest that in vitro, the Mol 1, and Mol 2 have a dose-dependent effect and a high cytotoxicity on the studied cells. The present study revealed that concentration and duration of tested molecules treatment are major factors that influence the course of Toxoplasma infection in infected mice.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, PCR, sulfonamide, Toxoplasma gondii

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3 Nurses as Being Participants of Sexual Health of Women

Authors: Malika Turganova, Aigul Abduldayeva

Abstract:

Modern conditions require nursing innovations at the primary ambulatory stage in the health system of Kazakhstan. There is a growing need for nurses involved in before-doctor attendance for preventive interview with a female population about reproductive health. We conducted questionnaire survey of the population of Astana in 2015. Questionnaires were drawn up according to the criteria of sexual health of World Health Organization. 3593 respondents out of 8000 questionnaires agreed to answer the questions anonymously, mM=±2,1. The average age of women comprised 37,4±11,2, Ме=31,7 years of age. Analysis of awareness about marriage hygiene revealed that 72,7% of respondents did not receive information about marriage hygiene and 89,1% respondents consider it more advisable before marriage. 45,9% of respondents specified the internet as a source of information on marriage hygiene issues, 24,5% of respondents pointed out friends, and 21,5% specified doctor. Comparing female age groups under and after 40 years old we see that proportion of cases when parents provide information about marriage hygiene issues comprises 4.3% (χ2 =9.8, p<0.05). The most important factor of preservation of women reproductive health is handling a problem of unwanted pregnancy. The responsibility lies equally in men and women. Data analysis of contraceptive methods by ranking showed three most frequently used methods: contraception sheath – 29.3%, then coitus interruptus – 18.7% and hormonal preparations – 16.9%. The most important factor of women's reproductive health preservation is a solving of the problem of unwanted pregnancy, and in this respect, the responsibility lies equally in men and women. Analyzing obtained data on contraceptive methods by ranking three of the most frequently used methods are condoms – 29,3%, then coitus interruptus – 18,7% and hormonal preparations – 16,9%. Additional oral survey of the population showed a low level of informational support of female population by family physicians, health care professionals of educational organizations (schools, universities, and colleges) about hormonal contraceptive. Females of both age groups used to think that hormonal contraceptives cause collateral damage such as blastoma, cancer, increased body weight, varix dilatation of lower limbs. Satisfaction with the frequency of sexual relations of the respondents comprised 57,6%. At that, women under 40 years of age are the most satisfied women among age groups (χ2 =5,8, p<0,05).

Keywords: nurse, public health service of Kazakhstan, reproductive and sexual health, trust of population

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2 Vortex Flows under Effects of Buoyant-Thermocapillary Convection

Authors: Malika Imoula, Rachid Saci, Renee Gatignol

Abstract:

A numerical investigation is carried out to analyze vortex flows in a free surface cylinder, driven by the independent rotation and differentially heated boundaries. As a basic uncontrolled isothermal flow, we consider configurations which exhibit steady axisymmetric toroidal type vortices which occur at the free surface; under given rates of the bottom disk uniform rotation and for selected aspect ratios of the enclosure. In the isothermal case, we show that sidewall differential rotation constitutes an effective kinematic means of flow control: the reverse flow regions may be suppressed under very weak co-rotation rates, while an enhancement of the vortex patterns is remarked under weak counter-rotation. However, in this latter case, high rates of counter-rotation reduce considerably the strength of the meridian flow and cause its confinement to a narrow layer on the bottom disk, while the remaining bulk flow is diffusion dominated and controlled by the sidewall rotation. The main control parameters in this case are the rotational Reynolds number, the cavity aspect ratio and the rotation rate ratio defined. Then, the study proceeded to consider the sensitivity of the vortex pattern, within the Boussinesq approximation, to a small temperature gradient set between the ambient fluid and an axial thin rod mounted on the cavity axis. Two additional parameters are introduced; namely, the Richardson number Ri and the Marangoni number Ma (or the thermocapillary Reynolds number). Results revealed that reducing the rod length induces the formation of on-axis bubbles instead of toroidal structures. Besides, the stagnation characteristics are significantly altered under the combined effects of buoyant-thermocapillary convection. Buoyancy, induced under sufficiently high Ri, was shown to predominate over the thermocapillay motion; causing the enhancement (suppression) of breakdown when the rod is warmer (cooler) than the ambient fluid. However, over small ranges of Ri, the sensitivity of the flow to surface tension gradients was clearly evidenced and results showed its full control over the occurrence and location of breakdown. In particular, detailed timewise evolution of the flow indicated that weak thermocapillary motion was sufficient to prevent the formation of toroidal patterns. These latter detach from the surface and undergo considerable size reduction while moving towards the bulk flow before vanishing. Further calculations revealed that the pattern reappears with increasing time as steady bubble type on the rod. However, in the absence of the central rod and also in the case of small rod length l, the flow evolved into steady state without any breakdown.

Keywords: buoyancy, cylinder, surface tension, toroidal vortex

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1 Premature Departure of Active Women from the Working World: One Year Retrospective Study in the Tunisian Center

Authors: Lamia Bouzgarrou, Amira Omrane, Malika Azzouzi, Asma Kheder, Amira Saadallah, Ilhem Boussarsar, Kamel Rejeb

Abstract:

Introduction: Increasing the women’s labor force participation is a political issue in countries with developed economies and those with low growth prospects. However, in the labor market, women continue to face several obstacles, either for the integration or for the maintenance at work. This study aims to assess the prevalence of premature withdrawal from working life -due to invalidity or medical justified early retirement- among active women in the Tunisian center and to identify its determinants. Material and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study, over one year, focusing on the agreement for invalidity or early retirement for premature usury of the body- delivered by the medical commission of the National Health Insurance Fund (CNAM) in the central Tunisian district. We exhaustively selected women's files. Data related to Socio-demographic characteristics, professional and medical ones, were collected from the CNAM's administrative and medical files. Results: During the period of one year, 222 women have had an agreement for premature departure of their professional activity. Indeed, 149 women (67.11%) benefit of from invalidity agreement and 20,27% of them from favorable decision for early retirement. The average age was 50 ± 6 years with extremes of 23 and 62 years, and 18.9% of women were under 45 years. Married women accounted for 69.4% and 59.9% of them had at least one dependent child in charge. The average professional seniority in the sector was 23 ± 8 years. The textile-clothing sector was the most affected, with 70.7% of premature departure. Medical reasons for withdrawal from working life were mainly related to neuro-degenerative diseases in 46.8% of cases, rheumatic ones in 35.6% of cases and cardiovascular diseases in 22.1% of them. Psychiatric and endocrine disorders motivated respectively 17.1% and 13.5% of these departures. The evaluation of the sequels induced by these pathologies concluded to an average permanent partial disability equal to 61.4 ± 17.3%. The analytical study concluded that the agreement of disability or early retirement was correlated with the insured ‘age (p = 10-3), the professional seniority (p = 0.003) and the permanent partial incapacity (PPI) rate assessed by the expert physician (p = 0.04). No other social or professional factors were correlated with this decision. Conclusion: Despite many advances in labour law and Tunisian legal text on employability, women still exposed to several social and professional inequalities (payment inequality, precarious work ...). Indeed, women are often pushed to accept working in adverse conditions, thus they are more vulnerable to develop premature wear on the body and being forced to premature departures from the world of work. These premature withdrawals from active life are not only harmful to the concerned women themselves, but also associated with considerable costs for the insurance organism and the society. In order to ensure maintenance at work for women, a political commitment is imperative in the implementation of global prevention strategies and the improvement of working conditions, particularly in our socio-cultural context.

Keywords: Active Women , Early Retirement , Invalidity , Maintenance at Work

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