Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1033

Search results for: dark tourism

1033 Dark Tourism and Local Development. Creating a Dark Urban Route

Authors: Christos N. Tsironis, Loanna Mitaftsi

Abstract:

Currently, the various forms of tours and touristic visits to destinations associated with the “dark” facets of the past constitute one of the most dynamic fields of touristic initiatives and economic development. This analysis focuses on the potential development of urban dark routes. It aims a) to shed light to touristic, social, and ethical considerations and to describe some of the trends and links combining heritage and dark tourism in post-pandemic societies and b) to explore the possibilities of developing a new and polymorphic form of dark tourism in Thessaloniki, Greece, a distinctive heritage destination. The analysis concludes with a detailed dark route designed to serve a new, polymorphic and sustainable touristic product that describes a dark past with places, sights, and monuments and narrates stories and events stigmatized by death, disaster, and violence throughout the city’s history.

Keywords: dark tourism, dark urban route, local development, polymorphic tourism

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1032 Dark Heritage Tourism and Visitor Behaviour: The Case of Elmina Castle, Ghana

Authors: Girish Prayag, Wantanee Suntikul, Elizabeth Agyeiwaah

Abstract:

Current research on dark tourism largely follows residents’ perspectives with limited evaluations of tourists’ experiences. Unravelling the case of a dark heritage site in Elmina, Ghana, this paper develops a theoretical model to understand the relationships among four constructs namely, motivation, tourism impacts, place attachment, and satisfaction. Based on a sample of 414 domestic tourists, PLS-SEM confirmed several relationships and inter-relationships among the four constructs. For example, motivation had a positive relationship with perceptions of positive and negative tourism impacts suggesting that the more tourists were motivated to visit the site for cultural/learning experiences, the more positive and negative tourism impacts they perceived. Implications for dark tourism and heritage site management are offered.

Keywords: dark tourism, motivation, place attachment, tourism impacts

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1031 Natural Disaster Tourism as a Type of Dark Tourism

Authors: Dorota Rucińska

Abstract:

This theoretical paper combines the academic discourse regarding a specific part of dark tourism. Based on the literature analysis, distinction of natural disasters in thanatourism was investigated, which is connected with dynamic geographical conditions. Natural disasters used to play an important role in social life by their appearance in myths and religions. Nowadays, tourists pursuing natural hazards can be divided into three groups: Those interested in natural hazards themselves; those interested in landscape deformation and experiencing emotions shortly after extreme events - natural disasters - occur; and finally those interested in historic places log after an extreme event takes place. An important element of the natural disaster tourism is quick access to information on the location of a disaster and the destination of a potential excursion. Natural disaster tourism suits alternative tourism, yet it is opposed culture tourism, and sustainable tourism. The paper compares types and groups of tourists. It also considers the contradictions that describe dualism, which exists in dark tourism.

Keywords: dark tourism, dualism, natural disasters, natural hazards, thanatoursim

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1030 Between Dark and Light: The Construction and the Exclusion of Memory of Prison Heritage in Post-Soviet Period

Authors: Guo Cyuan Deng

Abstract:

This study represents how the Soviet-occupied dark memory in Baltic countries were interpreted and represented by examining the way of management of prison heritage. Based on the formulation of a dark-tourism spectrum which Philip Stone proposed, the Patarei prison in Estonia and the Karosta prison in Latvia are compared, and it is thought that both prisons, which had experienced similar colonial history, face different tourism operation in the present. The former is being run by NGO and remain the situation of “empty" by art intervening. However, the Estonia government attempt to get the operation of museum and transform it to anti-Soviet museum in order show national identity. By contrast, the latter is being managed by private company, whom transformed the prison to "dark fun factories" by entertainment activities in order to private capital accumulation. Moreover, it is not only indicated that both prisons exclude the minority's memory, but also the flaws of dark-tourism spectrum which divide the dark and light are discussed. Finally, given the nature and function of dark heritage, the concept "le métro" is used to supplement Stone's spectrum.

Keywords: dark tourism, prison heritage, Post-Soviet, Baltic countries, national identities

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1029 The Dark Side of Tourism's Implications: A Structural Equation Modeling Study of the 2016 Earthquake in Central Italy

Authors: B. Kulaga, A. Cinti, F. J. Mazzocchini

Abstract:

Despite the fact that growing academic attention on dark tourism is a fairly recent phenomenon, among the various reasons for travelling death-related ones, are very ancient. Furthermore, the darker side of human nature has always been fascinated and curious regarding death, or at least, man has always tried to learn lessons from death. This study proposes to describe the phenomenon of dark tourism related to the 2016 earthquake in Central Italy, deadly for 302 people and highly destructive for the rural areas of Lazio, Marche, and Umbria Regions. The primary objective is to examine the motivation-experience relationship in a dark tourism site, using the structural equation model, applied for the first time to a dark tourism research in 2016, in a study conducted after the Beichuan earthquake. The findings of the current study are derived from the calculations conducted on primary data compiled from 350 tourists in the areas mostly affected by the 2016 earthquake, including the town of Amatrice, near the epicenter, Castelluccio, Norcia, Ussita and Visso, through conducting a Likert scale survey. Furthermore, we use the structural equation model to examine the motivation behind dark travel and how this experience can influence the motivation and emotional reaction of tourists. Expected findings are in line with the previous study mentioned above, indicating that: not all tourists visit the thanatourism sites for dark tourism purpose, tourists’ emotional reactions influence more heavily the emotional tourist experience than cognitive experiences do, and curious visitors are likely to engage cognitively by learning about the incident or related issues.

Keywords: dark tourism, emotional reaction, experience, motivation, structural equation model

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1028 Numerical Study of Blackness Factor Effect on Dark Solitons

Authors: Khelil Khadidja

Abstract:

In this paper, blackness of dark solitons is considered. The exact combination between nonlinearity and dispersion is responsible of solitons stability. Dark solitons get born when dispersion is abnormal and balanced by nonlinearity, at the opposite of brillant solitons which is born by normal dispersion and nonlinearity together. Thanks to their stability, dark solitons are suitable for transmission by optical fibers. Dark solitons which are a solution of Nonlinear Schrodinger equation are simulated with Matlab to discuss the influence of coefficient of blackness. Results show that there is a direct proportion between the coefficient of blackness and the intensity of dark soliton. Those gray solitons are stable and convenient for transmission.

Keywords: abnormal dispersion, nonlinearity, optical fiber, soliton

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1027 Bright–Dark Pulses in Nonlinear Polarisation Rotation Based Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser

Authors: R. Z. R. R. Rosdin, N. M. Ali, S. W. Harun, H. Arof

Abstract:

We have experimentally demonstrated bright-dark pulses in a nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) based mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with a long cavity configuration. Bright–dark pulses could be achieved when the laser works in the passively mode-locking regime and the net group velocity dispersion is quite anomalous. The EDFL starts to generate a bright pulse train with degenerated dark pulse at the mode-locking threshold pump power of 35.09 mW by manipulating the polarization states of the laser oscillation modes using a polarization controller (PC). A split bright–dark pulse is generated when further increasing the pump power up to 37.95 mW. Stable bright pulses with no obvious evidence of a dark pulse can also be generated when further adjusting PC and increasing the pump power up to 52.19 mW. At higher pump power of 54.96 mW, a new form of bright-dark pulse emission was successfully identified with the repetition rate of 29 kHz. The bright and dark pulses have a duration of 795.5 ns and 640 ns, respectively.

Keywords: Erbium-doped fiber laser, nonlinear polarization rotation, bright-dark pulse, photonic

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1026 Speaking of Genocide: Lithuanian 'Occupation’ Museums and Foucault's Discursive Formation

Authors: Craig Wight

Abstract:

Tourism visits to sites associated to varying degrees with death and dying have for some time inspired academic debate and research into what has come to be popularly described as ‘dark tourism’. Research to date has been based on the mobilisation of various social scientific methodologies to understand issues such as the motivations of visitors to consume dark tourism experiences and visitor interpretations of the various narratives that are part of the consumption experience. This thesis offers an alternative conceptual perspective for carrying out research into dark tourism by presenting a discourse analysis of Lithuanian occupation-themed museums using Foucault’s concept of ‘discursive formation’ from ‘Archaeology of Knowledge’. A constructivist methodology is therefore applied to locate the rhetorical representations of Lithuanian and Jewish subject positions and to identify the objects of discourse that are produced in five museums that interpret a historical era defined by occupation, the persecution of people and genocide. The discourses and consequent cultural function of these museums are examined, and the key finding of the research proposes that they authorise a particular Lithuanian individualism which marginalises the Jewish subject position and its related objects of discourse into abstraction. The thesis suggests that these museums create the possibility to undermine the ontological stability of Holocaust and the Jewish-Lithuanian subject which is produced as an anomalous, ‘non-Lithuanian’ cultural reference point. As with any Foucauldian archaeological research, it cannot be offered as something that is ‘complete’ since it captures only a partial field, or snapshot of knowledge, bound to a specific temporal and spatial context. The discourses that have been identified are perhaps part of a more elusive ‘positivity’ which is salient across a number of cultural and political surfaces which are ripe for a similar analytical approach in future. It is hoped that the study will motivate others to follow a discourse-analytical approach to research in order to further understand the critical role of museums in public culture when it comes to shaping knowledge about ‘inconvenient’ pasts.

Keywords: genocide heritage, foucault, Lithuanian tourism, discursive formatoin

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1025 Cyber Aggression, Cyber Bullying and the Dark Triad: Effect on Workplace Behavior and Performance

Authors: Anishya Obhrai Madan

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In an increasingly connected world, where speed of communication attempts to match the speed of thought and thus intentions; conflict gets actioned faster using media like the internet and telecommunication technology. This has led to a new form of aggression: “cyber bullying”. The present paper attempts to integrate existing theory on bullying, and the dark triad personality traits in a work environment and extrapolate it to the cyber context.

Keywords: conflict at work, cyber bullying, dark triad of personality, toxic employee

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1024 Financial Problems Met in the Tourism Sector in Turkey: A Survey on the Tourism Businesses

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Huseyin Cetin, Halil Akmese, Mesut Murat Adabali

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As the economies of other countries in the Mediterranean Basin, the tourism sector in our country has a high denominator in economics. Tourism businesses, which are building blocks of tourism, sector faces with a variety of problems during their activities. These problems faced make business efficiency and competition conditions of the businesses difficult. Most of the problems faced by the tourism businesses and the information of consumers about consumers’ rights were used in this study, which is conducted to determine the problems of tourism businesses in the Central Anatolia Region. It is aimed to contribute the awareness of staff and executives working at tourism sector and to attract attention of businesses active concurrently with tourism sector and legislators.

Keywords: financial problems, the problems of tourism businesses, tourism businesses, tourism sector in Turkey

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1023 Interest Rate of Managers and Tourism Officials over E-Tourism Development: Case Study of Lenjan City

Authors: Akram Shahriyari, Reza Mokhtari Malek Abadi

Abstract:

E-tourism is among the issues that have recently been entered into the field of tourism. In order to achieve this type of tourism, Information and Communications Technology (or ICT) infrastructures as well as Co-governmental organizations and tourism resources are important. In this study, the opinions of managers and tourism officials about the e-tourism in Lenjan city were measured; it also surveyed the impact of level of digital literacy of managers and tourism officials on attracting tourists in Lenjan city. This study was conducted in Lenjan, one of the environs of the Esfahan province. This study is a documentary – survey and the sources include library resources and also questionnaires. The results obtained indicate that if managers use ICT, it may help e-tourism to be developed in the region, and increasing managers’ beliefs on e-tourism and upgrading their level of digital literacy may affect e-tourism development.

Keywords: ICT, e-tourism, opinion of managers and officials, Lejnan

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1022 Methodologies for Management of Sustainable Tourism: A Case Study in Jalapão/to/Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska C. Dutra, Afonso R. Aquino

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The study is in application and analysis of two tourism management tools that can contribute to making public managers decision: the Barometer of Tourism Sustainability (BTS) and the Ecological Footprint (EF). The results have shown that BTS allows you to have an integrated view of the tourism system, awakening to the need for planning of appropriate actions so that it can achieve the positive scale proposed (potentially sustainable). Already the methodology of ecological tourism footprint is an important tool to measure potential impacts generated by tourism to tourist reality.

Keywords: barometer of tourism sustainability, ecological footprint of tourism, Jalapão/Brazil, sustainable tourism

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1021 Internet as a Marketing Tool for Tourism Promotion

Authors: Emeka Okonkwo

Abstract:

The Information Technology (IT) has prevailed over all functions of strategic and operational management. The Internet (a product of information technology) has increasingly become a popular medium for marketing. This paper examines the potentials of Internet for tourism marketing. To achieve this, the paper x-rays the characteristics of tourism marketing and examines the application of the Internet in tourism marketing. It is argued that the use of Internet for tourism marketing will not only reach a broad audience and reduce the cost of transaction (by conventional methods used by travel agents in times past), but, will also alleviate the problems of identification, authentication and confirmation of travels/package tours by tourists as well as promotion of tourism industry.

Keywords: internet, marketing, tourism, tourism management

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1020 A Correlational Study: Dark Triad and Self-Restraint among Criminology Students

Authors: Mary Heather Lee T. Walker, Audilon Benjamin Madamba, Mizheal Vstrechnny Vidal, Rogelio Angeles, John Rhey Banag, Lorraine Martin

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Criminology students are the future police officers of the country that plays a major role in protecting the citizens. Their behavior must be thoroughly assessed before given a badge of responsibility. Therefore, it is important to highlight their Dark Triad that is composed of Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy which are considered to be controversial variables in the present while self-restraint is considered to be their way of controlling themselves especially in their line of work. The researchers used convenience and random sampling and found the respondents from a private school. Thus, the study’s aim is to determine whether there is a relationship among these variables. Machiavellianism and Psychopathy is linked to Self-Restraint except Narcissism. There are lots of factors that resulted into this.

Keywords: criminology, dark triad, self-restraint, students

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1019 Sustainable Tourism from a Multicriteria Analysis Perspective

Authors: Olga Blasco-Blasco, Vicente Liern

Abstract:

The development of tourism since the mid-20th century has raised problems of overcrowding, indiscriminate construction in seaside areas and gentrification. Increasingly, the World Tourism Organisation and public institutions are promoting policies that encourage sustainability. From the perspective of sustainability, three types of tourism can be established: traditional tourism, sustainable tourism and sustainable impact tourism. Measuring sustainability is complex due to its multiple dimensions of different relative importance and diversity in nature. In order to try to answer this problem and to identify the benefits of applying policies that promote sustainable tourism, a decision-making analysis will be carried out through the application of a multicriteria analysis method. The proposal is applied to hotel reservations and to the evaluation and management of tourism sustainability in the Spanish Autonomous Communities.

Keywords: sustainable tourism, multicriteria analysis, flexible optimization, composite indicators

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1018 Feasibility of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles as Dark Matter Candidates: Exploratory Study on The Possible Reasons for Lack of WIMP Detection

Authors: Sloka Bhushan

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Dark matter constitutes a majority of matter in the universe, yet very little is known about it due to its extreme lack of interaction with regular matter and the fundamental forces. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, or WIMPs, have been contested to be one of the strongest candidates for dark matter due to their promising theoretical properties. However, various endeavors to detect these elusive particles have failed. This paper explores the various particles which may be WIMPs and the detection techniques being employed to detect WIMPs (such as underground detectors, LHC experiments, and so on). There is a special focus on the reasons for the lack of detection of WIMPs so far, and the possibility of limits in detection being a reason for the lack of physical evidence of the existence of WIMPs. This paper also explores possible inconsistencies within the WIMP particle theory as a reason for the lack of physical detection. There is a brief review on the possible solutions and alternatives to these inconsistencies. Additionally, this paper also reviews the supersymmetry theory and the possibility of the supersymmetric neutralino (A possible WIMP particle) being detectable. Lastly, a review on alternate candidates for dark matter such as axions and MACHOs has been conducted. The explorative study in this paper is conducted through a series of literature reviews.

Keywords: dark matter, particle detection, supersymmetry, weakly interacting massive particles

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1017 Cosmic Dust as Dark Matter

Authors: Thomas Prevenslik

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Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) experiments suggesting dark matter does not exist are consistent with the argument that the long-standing galaxy rotation problem may be resolved without the need for dark matter if the redshift measurements giving the higher than expected galaxy velocities are corrected for the redshift in cosmic dust. Because of the ubiquity of cosmic dust, all velocity measurements in astronomy based on redshift are most likely overstated, e.g., an accelerating Universe expansion need not exist if data showing supernovae brighter than expected based on the redshift/distance relation is corrected for the redshift in dust. Extensions of redshift corrections for cosmic dust to other historical astronomical observations are briefly discussed.

Keywords: alternative theories, cosmic dust redshift, doppler effect, quantum mechanics, quantum electrodynamics

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1016 Exploitation of Technology by the Tshwane Residence for Tourism Development Purposes

Authors: P. P. S. Sifolo, P. Tladi, J. Maimela

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This article investigates technology used by Tshwane residents intended for tourism purposes. The aim is to contribute information to the Tshwane interested parties for planning and management concerning technology within the tourism sector. This study identified the types of tourist related technologies used by the Tshwane residents, be it for business purposes or personal use. The study connected the exploitation of technology for tourism purposes through unpacking the tourism sector as it utilizes technology. Quantitative research methodology was used whereby self-completed questionnaires were chosen as research instruments. The research study carried out a search for knowledge on technology for tourism and the Tshwane residents; however the study revealed that technology has certainly imprinted tourism massively because of its effectiveness and efficiency. Technology has assisted tourism businesses stay abreast of competition with ICT and because of that, SA is on the map as one the economically performing countries in Africa. Moreover, technology and tourism make a meaningful impact on job creation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Keywords: tourism, information and communication technology, Tshwane residents, technology for tourism

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1015 Role of Tourism Cluster in Improvement of Economic Competitiveness of Georgia

Authors: Alexander Sharashenidze

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This article discusses the role of tourism in the economics of Georgia, justifies the necessity of several governmental supporting tools for diversification of tourism product and increasing competitiveness. Tourism directions are characterized through discovering Georgian tourism potential, considering cultural and geographical features; tools of formating supplemental products and development opportunities of Tbilisi and, also regions are asserted in the case of conducting appropriate government policy. There are presented tools of suggesting innovative tourism products, improvement of service, decreasing taxes, also providing availability to them. The role of tourism cluster in improvement of national competitiveness is substantiated. Based on the analysis of competitive factors influencing the development of tourism cluster, conclusions are made, and recommendations are suggested.

Keywords: economic competitivness, enhancing competitiveness, Georgian economic, tourism cluster, tourism product

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1014 Directional Search for Dark Matter Using Nuclear Emulsion

Authors: Ali Murat Guler

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A variety of experiments have been developed over the past decades, aiming at the detection of Weakly Interactive Massive Particles (WIMPs) via their scattering in an instrumented medium. The sensitivity of these experiments has improved with a tremendous speed, thanks to a constant development of detectors and analysis methods. Detectors capable of reconstructing the direction of the nuclear recoil induced by the WIMP scattering are opening a new frontier to possibly extend Dark Matter searches beyond the neutrino background. Measurement of WIMP’s direction will allow us to detect the galactic origin of dark matter and, therefore to have a clear signal-background separation. The NEWSdm experiment, based on nuclear emulsions, is intended to measure the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear coils with a solid-state detector, thus with high sensitivity. We discuss the discovery potential of a directional experiment based on the use of a solid target made of newly developed nuclear emulsions and novel read-out systems achieving nanometric resolution. We also report results of a technical test conducted in Gran Sasso.

Keywords: dark matter, direct detection, nuclear emulsion, WIMPS

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1013 ICT Applications and Gender Participation on the Sustainability of Tourism and Hospitality Industry

Authors: Ayanfulu Yekini

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The hotel and tourism industry remains male-dominated, particularly in the upper echelons of management and ICT remained underutilized. While there is a massive revolution in this trend across the globe, it appears much progress has not been made in our nation Nigeria. This paper aimed at evaluating the relevance of ICT and Gender Participation to Sustainability of Hospitality and Tourism Industry in Nigeria. The research study was conducted in tourism organizations, travel agents, hotels, restaurants, resorts, professionals in tourism, travel and hospitality industry within Nigeria. The respondents are from the tourism/hospitality industries employees and entrepreneurs only.

Keywords: ICT, hotel, gender participation, Nigeria, tourism

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1012 A Proposal of Farm-Based Tourism within the Context of Rural Tourism: Zeytinseli

Authors: Vedat Acar, Osman Eralp Çolakoğlu

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In this research, with reference to specialization of travel agencies being an important part of tourism industry, a project has been presented about a small-scale enterprise, called as Zeytinseli, contributing actively from the beginning to the end of the production process of olive and olive oil within the context of rural tourism. For this purpose in the research done, firstly, conceptual framework has been formed about travel agency, tour operatorship, specialized travel agency and rural tourism and the necessity of specialization on tourism has been emphasized in today's world. Afterwards, "olive", having an important role in both mythology and divine religions, has been handled within the scope of rural tourism. The cost of accommodation units about Zeytinseli operating in Didim, being a district of Aydın, has been calculated within the context of the project and a fifteen-day's tour to this enterprise has been presented at the end of this project. The research may be said to be an original research on account of embodying not only ecotourism, agro tourism but also cultural tourism and special interest tourism.

Keywords: agro tourism, rural tourism, specialization of travel agency, special interest tourism

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1011 Analyzing Boson Star as a Candidate for Dark Galaxy Using ADM Formulation of General Relativity

Authors: Aria Ratmandanu

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Boson stars can be viewed as zero temperature ground state, Bose-Einstein condensates, characterized by enormous occupation numbers. Time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime can be a model of Boson Star. We use (3+1) split of Einstein equation (ADM formulation of general relativity) to solve Einstein field equation coupled to a complex scalar field (Einstein-Klein-Gordon Equation) on time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime, We get the result that Boson stars are pulsating stars with the frequency of oscillation equal to its density. We search for interior solution of Boson stars and get the T.O.V. (Tollman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff) equation for Boson stars. Using T.O.V. equation, we get the equation of state and the relation between pressure and density, its total mass and along with its gravitational Mass. We found that the hypothetical particle Axion could form a Boson star with the size of a milky way galaxy and make it a candidate for a dark galaxy, (a galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter).

Keywords: axion, boson star, dark galaxy, time-dependent spherically symmetric spacetime

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1010 Sustainable Tourism Development: Assessment of Egyptian Sustainable Resorts

Authors: Riham A. Ragheb

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Tourism can do a great deal of good in destinations, whether it be by bringing economic benefits to local communities, helping with conservation efforts or in placing a value on aspects of cultural heritage. As responsive travelers, we must all try to do more of the good and less of the negative. This is simply description of the sustainable tourism. This paper aims to set some criteria of successful sustainable tourism development and then through these criteria analyzing the development of some resorts in Egypt known as sustainable resorts. Hence, a comprehensive improvement of the touristic areas is certainly needed to ensure a successful sustainable tourism development radiated the sense of uniformity and coherence. Egypt can benefit from these criteria to develop its resorts in order to preserve and revitalize its unique natural character and achieve mixed uses and tourism development.

Keywords: Egypt, resorts, sustainable tourism, tourism development

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1009 The Impact of Health Tourism on Companies’ Performance: A Cross Country Analysis

Authors: Anna Paola Micheli, Carmelo Intrisano, Anna Maria Calce

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This research focused on the capability of health tourism to improve the economic and financial performance of healthcare companies. It is assumed that health tourism companies have better profitability and financial efficiency because they can also count on cross-border demand differently from no health tourism companies. A three-level gap analysis was conducted: the first concerns health tourism companies located in Italy and in the other EU28 states; in the second Italian and EU28, no health tourism companies were compared; the third level is about the Italian system with a comparison between health tourism and no health tourism companies. Findings highlighted that Italian healthcare companies have better profitability performance if compared to European ones, but they present weaknesses in the financial position given the illiquidity and excessive leverage. Furthermore, studying the Italian system, we found that health tourism companies are more profitable than no health tourism companies.

Keywords: financial performance, gap analysis, health tourism, profitability performance, value creation

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1008 PMEL Marker Identification of Dark and Light Feather Colours in Local Canary

Authors: Mudawamah Mudawamah, Muhammad Z. Fadli, Gatot Ciptadi, Aulanni’am

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Canary breeders have spread throughout Indonesian regions for the low-middle society and become an income source for them. The interesting phenomenon of the canary market is the feather colours become one of determining factor for the price. The advantages of this research were contributed to the molecular database as a base of selection and mating for the Indonesia canary breeder. The research method was experiment with the genome obtained from canary blood isolation. The genome did the PCR amplification with PMEL marker followed by sequencing. Canaries were used 24 heads of light and dark colour feathers. Research data analyses used BioEdit and Network 4.6.0.0 software. The results showed that all samples were amplification with PMEL gene with 500 bp fragment length. In base sequence of 40 was found Cytosine(C) in the light colour canaries, while the dark colour canaries was obtained Thymine (T) in same base sequence. Sequence results had 286-415 bp fragment and 10 haplotypes. The conclusions were the PMEL gene (gene of white pigment) was likely to be used PMEL gene to detect molecular genetic variation of dark and light colour feather.

Keywords: canary, haplotype, PMEL, sequence

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1007 Sustainable Tourism and Heritage in Sığacık/Seferihisar

Authors: Sibel Ecemiş Kılıç, Muhammed Aydoğan

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The rapid development of culture tourism has drawn attention to conserving cultural values especially by developing countries that would like to benefit from the economic contribution this type of tourism attracts. Tourism can have both positive and negative outcomes for historical settlements and their residents. The accommodation-purposed rehabilitation and revitalization project in “Sigacik Old City Zone” are to be discussed with spatial, economic, social and organizational dimensions. It is aimed to evaluate the relationship between the development of tourism and sustainable heritage conservation.

Keywords: Sığacık, urban conservation, sustainable tourism, Seferihisar

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1006 Augmented Tourism: Definitions and Design Principles

Authors: Eric Hawkinson

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After designing and implementing several iterations of implementations of augmented reality (AR) in tourism, this paper takes a deep look into design principles and implementation strategies of using AR at destination tourism settings. The study looks to define augmented tourism from past implementations as well as several cases, uses designed and implemented for tourism. The discussion leads to formation of frameworks and best practices for AR as well as virtual reality( VR) to be used in tourism settings. Some main affordances include guest autonomy, customized experiences, visitor data collection and increased electronic word-of-mouth generation for promotion purposes. Some challenges found include the need for high levels of technology infrastructure, low adoption rates or ‘buy-in’ rates, high levels of calibration and customization, and the need for maintenance and support services. Some suggestions are given as to how to leverage the affordances and meet the challenges of implementing AR for tourism.

Keywords: augmented tourism, augmented reality, eTourism, virtual tourism, tourism design

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1005 Strategic Partnerships for Sustainable Tourism Development in Papua New Guinea

Authors: Zainab Olabisi Tairu

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Strategic partnerships are a core requirement in delivering sustainable tourism for development in developing nations like Papua New Guinea. This paper unveils the strategic partnerships for sustainable tourism development in Papua New Guinea. Much emphasis is made among tourism stakeholders, on the importance of strategic partnership and positioning in developing sustainable tourism development. This paper engages stakeholders’ ecotourism differentiation and power relations in the discussion of the paper through interviews and observations with tourism stakeholders in Papua New Guinea. Collaborative approaches in terms of sustaining the tourism industry, having a milestone of achieved plans, are needed for tourism growth and development. This paper adds a new insight to the body of knowledge on stakeholders’ identification, formation, power relations and an integrated approach to successful tourism development. In order to achieve responsible tourism planning and management outcomes, partnerships must be holistic in perspective and based on sustainable development principles.

Keywords: stakeholders, sustainable tourism, Papua New Guinea, partnerships

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1004 Integrating ICT- Based Applications for Sustainable Tourism Development in Algeria

Authors: Boutkhil Guemide, Chellali Benachaiba

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Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has an inevitable impact on different industries and their performances. The tourism industry as the largest and fastest growing industry in the world cannot be excluded from this technology and its huge impacts. ICT provides information about tourist attractions in the different destinations before travelling and may improve tourists’ satisfaction. Although Algeria has great tourism potentials, it still needs to be performed well in promoting its attractions to international tourists via ICT tools yet. This research explores the impact of ICT on foreign tourists’ satisfaction of the tourism industry and uses Algerian tourist agencies as a case study, and proposes a model for the impact of ICT on sustainable tourism. Finally, it is concluded that e-ticketing, e-reservation, online payment, multilingual and updated information websites are essential needs for planning strategies in the field of e-tourism. Also, it is recommended that the tourism authorities should develop e-tourism infrastructures in order to keep up with the competitiveness of this field to enable the country to benefit from the global benefits of the tourism industry.

Keywords: Information and Communications Technology (ICT), tourism, tourists’ satisfaction, sustainable tourism

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