Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 422

Search results for: resilience

422 Urban Resilience and Planning in the Perspective of Community

Authors: Xu Tao, Yilun Xu, Dingwei Xiang, Yaofei Sun

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Urban community is constitute the entire city and its management ‘cell’, let ‘cells’ with growth and self-regeneration capacity and persistence, to allow the city with infinite vigor and vitality of the source; with toughness community mankind's adaptation to the basic unit of social risk, toughness of the city from the community to create a point of building is urban toughness of top-down construction mode of supplement, is of positive significance on the toughness of the urban construction. Based on the basic concept of resilience, this paper reviews the research on the four main areas of the study of urban resilience (i.e., the engineering toughness, ecological resilience, economic resilience, and social resilience, etc.). Studies and comments and summarizes the basic characteristic and main content of the four kind of toughness. Based on, from the city - community level and community level for building community resilience, including the level of urban community and create a Unicom, inclusiveness and openness of the community; community-level lifted from the four angles of the engineering community toughness, ecological toughness, resilience, social resilience, mainly including enhanced the toughness of the infrastructure, green infrastructure of toughness, resilience, social network and social relations, building with a sense of belonging, inclusive, multicultural community. Finally, summarize and prospect the resilience of the community.

Keywords: resilience, community resilience, urban resilience, construction strategies

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421 Supply Chain Resilience Triangle: The Study and Development of a Framework

Authors: M. Bevilacqua, F. E. Ciarapica, G. Marcucci

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Supply Chain Resilience has been broadly studied during the last decade, focusing the research on many aspects of Supply Chain performance. Consequently, different definitions of Supply Chain Resilience have been developed by the research community, drawing inspiration also from other fields of study such as ecology, sociology, psychology, economy et al. This way, the definitions so far developed in the extant literature are therefore very heterogeneous, and many authors have pointed out a lack of consensus in this field of analysis. The aim of this research is to find common points between these definitions, through the development of a framework of study: the Resilience Triangle. The Resilience Triangle is a tool developed in the field of civil engineering, with the objective of modeling the loss of resilience of a given structure during and after the occurrence of a disruption such as an earthquake. The Resilience Triangle is a simple yet powerful tool: in our opinion, it can summarize all the features that authors have captured in the Supply Chain Resilience definitions over the years. This research intends to recapitulate within this framework all these heterogeneities in Supply Chain Resilience research. After collecting a various number of Supply Chain Resilience definitions present in the extant literature, the methodology approach provides a taxonomy step with the scope of collecting and analyzing all the data gathered. The next step provides the comparison of the data obtained with the plotting of a disruption profile, in order to contextualize the Resilience Triangle in the Supply Chain context. The tool and the results developed in this research will allow to lay the foundation for future Supply Chain Resilience modeling and measurement work.

Keywords: supply chain resilience, resilience definition, supply chain resilience triangle

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420 The Relationship between Resource Sharing and Economic Resilience: An Empirical Analysis of Firms’ Resilience from the Perspective of Resource Dependence Theory

Authors: Alfredo R. Roa-Henriquez

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This paper is about organizational-level resilience and decision-making in the face of natural hazards. Research on resilience emerged to explain systems’ ability to absorb and recover in the midst of adversity and uncertainty from natural disasters, crises, and other disruptive events. While interest in resilience has accelerated, research multiplied, and the number of policies and implementations of resilience to natural hazards has increased over the last several years, mainly at the level of communities and regions, there has been a dearth of empirical work on resilience at the level of the firm. This paper uses empirical data and a sample selection model to test some hypotheses related to the firm’s dependence on critical resources, the sharing of resources and its economic resilience. The objective is to understand how the sharing of resources among organizations is related to economic resilience. Empirical results that are obtained from a sample of firms affected by Superstorm Sandy and Hurricane Harvey indicate that there is unobserved heterogeneity that explains the strategic behavior of firms in the post-disaster and that those firms that are more likely to resource share are also the ones that exhibit higher economic resilience. The impact of property damage on the sharing of resources and economic resilience is explored.

Keywords: economic resilience, resource sharing, critical resources, strategic management

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419 Nursing Workers’ Capacity of Resilience at a Psychiatric Hospital in Brazil

Authors: Cheila Cristina Leonardo Oliveira Gaioli, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi Rocha, Sandra Cristina Pillon

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Resilience is a psychological process that facilitates the maintenance of health, developed in response to numerous existing stressors in daily life. Furthermore, resilience can be described as the ability which allows an individual or group to hold up well before unfavorable situations. This study aimed to identify nursing workers’ resilience at a psychiatric hospital in Brazil. This is an exploratory research with quantitative data approach. The sample consisted of 56 workers, using the Resilience Scale. Of the 56 subjects, 45 (80.4%) were women; 22 (39.2%) were 20- to 40-years-old and 30 (53.6%) were 41- to 60-years-old; 11 (19.6%) were nurses and 45 (80.4%) were technicians or nursing assistants. The results also showed that 50% of subjects showed a high resilience degree and 42.9% an average resilience degree. Thus, it was found that workers seek to develop protective factors in coping with a work environment that does not value the individual subjectivity and does not allow professional development, discouraging workers.

Keywords: health promotion, nursing, occupational health, resilience

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418 Resilience in Children: A Comparative Analysis between Children with and without Parental Supervision Bandar Abbas

Authors: N. Taghinejad, F. Dortaj, N. Khodabandeh

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This research aimed at comparing resilience among male and female children with and without parental supervision in Bandar Abbas. The sample consists of 200 subjects selected through cluster sampling. The research method was comparative causal and Conner and Davidson’s questionnaire form resilience was used for data collection. Results indicated that there is no difference between children with and without parental supervision regarding their resilience capacity. These findings may be challenging and useful for psychologists, officials of children’s affairs and legislators.

Keywords: resilience, children , children with parental supervision, children without parental supervision

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417 The Mediating Effect of Resilience on the Relationship between Cultural Identity and Self-Concordance among Tibetan, Han and Hui Students

Authors: Chunhua Ma

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Background: There is a relationship between cultural identity and psychological health. Resilience is an important factor of psychological health, and cultural identity will protect the resilience. The research showed that the cultural identity, resilience, and self-concordance of students from different cultures. It should be a theoretical basis to improve mental health of different nationalities students. And the role of resilience factors for adults’ cultural identity and self-concordance was deserve studied. Aims: The current study aimed to examine the relationship between cultural identity and self-concordance among Chinese academician from 3 minorities, postulating mediating by resilience. Methods: This study used cross-sectional and correlational design. Participants were 328 Chinese aged between 18 and 25 years. Data was collected via self-reports including both closed and opened questions. Results: Linear regression analysis controlling for age, gender, the result showed that: (a) Cultural identity was related to self-concordance, resilience was related to self-concordance and cultural identity was related to resilience, (b) Resilience mediated the link between cultural identity and self-concordance, respectively. Discussion: Our findings suggested that resilience and cultural identity are important factors in self-concordance. If minority college students realized the heterogeneous culture, it would alleviate their psychological conflict, stimulate their strength potential and improve their self-concordance.

Keywords: cultural identity, resilience, self-concordance, mediating effect

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416 Community Resilience to Violent Extremism: A Case Study of Swat in the Wake of Operation Rah-E-Raast

Authors: Khushboo Ejaz

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Community Resilience to Violent Extremism gain importance in the post 9/11 scenario. Resilience is a word that came from the engineering domain. Prior to 9/11, this word community resilience has been used in disasters and natural hazards. The literature on Community Resilience has been published in different multiethnic and multi-religious communities. There is less data and research done on Pakistan’s Community resilience experience. This research is a case study; how local community showed resilience against violent extremism of Tehrik-e-Taliban Swat in the wake of Operation Rah-e- Raast. Qualitative research based on interviews and focus group discussions from male and female groups of different Tehsils of Swat has been carried out to highlight the Community Resilience to Violent Extremism of Tehrik- e- Taliban and Tehrik- e- Nifaz- e -Shariat- e-Muhamadi (TNSM) .NVivo software has been used for data analysis and highlighting all factors of Community Resilience to Violent extremism (CRVE) in Swat . Recommendations has been made in the end to suggest Civil Society Organizations, NGOs and government departments in order to facilitate and enhance community resilience of tribal and rural areas affected by violent elements in Pakistan. This study will fill the gap in literature related to CRVE policies in Pakistani context.

Keywords: community resilience, operation Rah -e Raast, counter extremism, swat, Pakistan

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415 Resilience, Mental Health, and Life Satisfaction

Authors: Saba Harati, Nasrin Arian Parsa

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The current research was an attempt to investigate the effect of resilience on mental health and life satisfaction. In one Cross Sectional research, 287 (173 females and 114 males) students of Tehran University were participated their average age was 23.17 years old (SD=4.9). The instruments used for assessing the research variables included: Cutter and Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC), the short form of the depression-anxiety-stress scale, and life satisfaction scale. The data analysis was done in the form of structural equation model. The results of Simultaneous Hierarchical Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that there was a significant mediating role of the negative emotions (depression, anxiety, and stress), in the relationship between the family resilience (p < 0.001) and satisfaction with life (p < 0.001). Resilience results in life satisfaction by reducing the emotional problems (or increasing the mental health level). The effect of the resilience variable on life satisfaction was indirect.

Keywords: resilience, negative emotion, mental health, life satisfaction

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414 Disaster Resilience Analysis of Atlanta Interstate Highway System within the Perimeter

Authors: Mengmeng Liu, J. David Frost

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Interstate highway system within the Atlanta Perimeter plays an important role in residents’ daily life. The serious influence of Atlanta I-85 Collapses implies that transportation system in the region lacks a cohesive and comprehensive transportation plan. Therefore, disaster resilience analysis of the transportation system is necessary. Resilience is the system’s capability to persist or to maintain transportation services when exposed to changes or shocks. This paper analyzed the resilience of the whole transportation system within the Perimeter and see how removing interstates within the Perimeter will affect the resilience of the transportation system. The data used in the paper are Atlanta transportation networks and LEHD Origin-Destination Employment Statistics data. First, we calculate the traffic flow on each road section based on LEHD data assuming each trip travel along the shortest travel time paths. Second, we calculate the measure of resilience, which is flow-based connectivity and centrality of the transportation network, and see how they will change if we remove each section of interstates from the current transportation system. Finally, we get the resilience function curve of the interstates and identify the most resilient interstates section. The resilience analysis results show that the framework of calculation resilience is effective and can provide some useful information for the transportation planning and sustainability analysis of the transportation infrastructures.

Keywords: connectivity, interstate highway system, network analysis, resilience analysis

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413 Epistemological and Ethical Dimensions of Current Concepts of Human Resilience in the Neurosciences

Authors: Norbert W. Paul

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Since a number of years, scientific interest in human resilience is rapidly increasing especially in psychology and more recently and highly visible in neurobiological research. Concepts of resilience are regularly discussed in the light of liminal experiences and existential challenges in human life. Resilience research is providing both, explanatory models and strategies to promote or foster human resilience. Surprisingly, these approaches attracted little attention so far in philosophy in general and in ethics in particular. This is even more astonishing given the fact that the neurosciences as such have been and still are of major interest to philosophy and ethics and even brought about the specialized field of neuroethics, which, however, is not concerned with concepts of resilience, so far. As a result of the little attention given to the topic of resilience, the whole concept has to date been a philosophically under-theorized. This abstinence of ethics and philosophy in resilience research is lamentable because resilience as a concept as well as resilience interventions based on neurobiological findings do undoubtedly pose philosophical, social and ethical questions. In this paper, we will argue that particular notions of resilience are crossing the sometimes fine line between maintaining a person’s mental health despite the impact of severe psychological or physical adverse events and ethically more debatable discourses of enhancement. While we neither argue for or against enhancement nor re-interpret resilience research and interventions by subsuming them strategies of psychological and/or neuro-enhancement, we encourage those who see social or ethical problems with enhancement technologies should also take a closer look on resilience and the related neurobiological concepts. We will proceed in three steps. In our first step, we will describe the concept of resilience in general and its neurobiological study in particular. Here, we will point out some important differences in the way ‘resilience’ is conceptualized and how neurobiological research understands resilience. In what follows we will try to show that a one-sided concept of resilience – as it is often presented in neurobiological research on resilience – does pose social and ethical problems. Secondly, we will identify and explore the social and ethical challenges of (neurobiological) enhancement. In the last and final step of this paper, we will argue that a one-sided reading of resilience can be understood as latent form of enhancement in transition and poses ethical questions similar to those discussed in relation to other approaches to the biomedical enhancement of humans.

Keywords: resilience, neurosciences, epistemology, bioethics

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412 Managerial Advice-Seeking and Supply Chain Resilience: A Social Capital Perspective

Authors: Ethan Nikookar, Yalda Boroushaki, Larissa Statsenko, Jorge Ochoa Paniagua

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Given the serious impact that supply chain disruptions can have on a firm's bottom-line performance, both industry and academia are interested in supply chain resilience, a capability of the supply chain that enables it to cope with disruptions. To date, much of the research has focused on the antecedents of supply chain resilience. This line of research has suggested various firm-level capabilities that are associated with greater supply chain resilience. A consensus has emerged among researchers that supply chain flexibility holds the greatest potential to create resilience. Supply chain flexibility achieves resilience by creating readiness to respond to disruptions with little cost and time by means of reconfiguring supply chain resources to mitigate the impacts of the disruption. Decisions related to supply chain disruptions are made by supply chain managers; however, the role played by supply chain managers' reference networks has been overlooked in the supply chain resilience literature. This study aims to understand the impact of supply chain managers on their firms' supply chain resilience. Drawing on social capital theory and social network theory, this paper proposes a conceptual model to explore the role of supply chain managers in developing the resilience of supply chains. Our model posits that higher level of supply chain managers' embeddedness in their reference network is associated with increased resilience of their firms' supply chain. A reference network includes individuals from whom supply chain managers seek advice on supply chain related matters. The relationships between supply chain managers' embeddedness in reference network and supply chain resilience are mediated by supply chain flexibility.

Keywords: supply chain resilience, embeddedness, reference networks, social capitals

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411 Understanding Resilience in Vulnerable Business Settings: Systematic Literature Review in Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Muhammedamin Hussen Saad, Geoffrey Haagler, Onno Omta, Gerben Van Der Velde

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Unfolding chaos and persistent disruptions pose threats to companies’ performance especially in vulnerable settings of SME’s particularly in developing countries. Attention for resilience research in the academic world has increased considerably during the last decade looking at the number of papers published. As we are interested in adding to the understanding of the foundation and development of the concept of resilience, we focus especially on structuring the literature of business resilience in those vulnerable settings. A well-structured systematic search & review procedure was deployed. First, we defined key search terms and applied these to multiple databases (Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Emerald, and Science Direct). To make our literature search more encompassing, we augmented with co-citation, reference checking including hand searching techniques. The paper offers (1) an overview of SMEs resilience literature from 2000 up to March 2017 comprising 88 articles, and (2) special attention, within that overview, to developing countries. This review concludes that resilience literature is very much diverse in definitions and its measurements, and is inconclusive about its influencing factors. Furthermore, resilience literature is based predominantly on research in the developed world. On the bases of how the concept resilience emerges from the literature we describe distinct features of resilience, give options to extend the theoretical bases of research into resilience and describe concrete ideas for further research.

Keywords: business resilience, systematic review, SMEs, developing countries

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410 A Measuring Industrial Resiliency by Using Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

Authors: Ida Bagus Made Putra Jandhana, Teuku Yuri M. Zagloel, Rahmat Nurchayo

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Having several crises that affect industrial sector performance in the past decades, decision makers should utilize measurement application that enables them to measure industrial resiliency more precisely. It provides not only a framework for the development of resilience measurement application, but also several theories for the concept building blocks, such as performance measurement management, and resilience engineering in real world environment. This research is a continuation of previously published paper on performance measurement in the industrial sector. Finally, this paper contributes an alternative performance measurement method in industrial sector based on resilience concept. Moreover, this research demonstrates how applicable the concept of resilience engineering is and its method of measurement.

Keywords: industrial, measurement, resilience, sector

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409 Societal Resilience Assessment in the Context of Critical Infrastructure Protection

Authors: Hannah Rosenqvist, Fanny Guay

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Critical infrastructure protection has been an important topic for several years. Programmes such as the European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection (EPCIP), Critical Infrastructure Warning Information Network (CIWIN) and the European Reference Network for Critical Infrastructure Protection (ENR-CIP) have been the pillars to the work done since 2006. However, measuring critical infrastructure resilience has not been an easy task. This has to do with the fact that the concept of resilience has several definitions and is applied in different domains such as engineering and social sciences. Since June 2015, the EU project IMPROVER has been focusing on developing a methodology for implementing a combination of societal, organizational and technological resilience concepts, in the hope to increase critical infrastructure resilience. For this paper, we performed research on how to include societal resilience as a form of measurement of the context of critical infrastructure resilience. Because one of the main purposes of critical infrastructure (CI) is to deliver services to the society, we believe that societal resilience is an important factor that should be considered when assessing the overall CI resilience. We found that existing methods for CI resilience assessment focus mainly on technical aspects and therefore that is was necessary to develop a resilience model that take social factors into account. The model developed within the project IMPROVER aims to include the community’s expectations of infrastructure operators as well as information sharing with the public and planning processes. By considering such aspects, the IMPROVER framework not only helps operators to increase the resilience of their infrastructures on the technical or organizational side, but aims to strengthen community resilience as a whole. This will further be achieved by taking interdependencies between critical infrastructures into consideration. The knowledge gained during this project will enrich current European policies and practices for improved disaster risk management. The framework for societal resilience analysis is based on three dimensions for societal resilience; coping capacity, adaptive capacity and transformative capacity which are capacities that have been recognized throughout a widespread literature review in the field. A set of indicators have been defined that describe a community’s maturity within these resilience dimensions. Further, the indicators are categorized into six community assets that need to be accessible and utilized in such a way that they allow responding to changes and unforeseen circumstances. We conclude that the societal resilience model developed within the project IMPROVER can give a good indication of the level of societal resilience to critical infrastructure operators.

Keywords: community resilience, critical infrastructure protection, critical infrastructure resilience, societal resilience

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408 Fire Resilient Cities: The Impact of Fire Regulations, Technological and Community Resilience

Authors: Fanny Guay

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Building resilience, sustainable buildings, urbanization, climate change, resilient cities, are just a few examples of where the focus of research has been in the last few years. It is obvious that there is a need to rethink how we are building our cities and how we are renovating our existing buildings. However, the question remaining is how can we assure that we are building sustainable yet resilient cities? There are many aspects one can touch upon when discussing resilience in cities, but after the event of Grenfell in June 2017, it has become clear that fire resilience must be a priority. We define resilience as a holistic approach including communities, society and systems, focusing not only on resisting the effects of a disaster, but also how it will cope and recover from it. Cities are an example of such a system, where components such as buildings have an important role to play. A building on fire will have an impact on the community, the economy, the environment, and so the entire system. Therefore, we believe that fire and resilience go hand in hand when we discuss building resilient cities. This article aims at discussing the current state of the concept of fire resilience and suggests actions to support the built of more fire resilient buildings. Using the case of Grenfell and the fire safety regulations in the UK, we will briefly compare the fire regulations in other European countries, more precisely France, Germany and Denmark, to underline the difference and make some suggestions to increase fire resilience via regulation. For this research, we will also include other types of resilience such as technological resilience, discussing the structure of buildings itself, as well as community resilience, considering the role of communities in building resilience. Our findings demonstrate that to increase fire resilience, amending existing regulations might be necessary, for example, how we performed reaction to fire tests and how we classify building products. However, as we are looking at national regulations, we are only able to make general suggestions for improvement. Another finding of this research is that the capacity of the community to recover and adapt after a fire is also an essential factor. Fundamentally, fire resilience, technological resilience and community resilience are closely connected. Building resilient cities is not only about sustainable buildings or energy efficiency; it is about assuring that all the aspects of resilience are included when building or renovating buildings. We must ask ourselves questions as: Who are the users of this building? Where is the building located? What are the components of the building, how was it designed and which construction products have been used? If we want to have resilient cities, we must answer these basic questions and assure that basic factors such as fire resilience are included in our assessment.

Keywords: buildings, cities, fire, resilience

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407 Gender Based of Sustainable Food Self-Resilience for Village Using Dynamic System Model

Authors: Kholil, Laksanto Utomo

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The food needs of the Indonesian people will continue increase year to year due to the increase of population growth. For ensuring food securityand and resilience, the government has developed a program food self-resilience village since 2006. Food resilience is a complex system, consisting of subsystem availability, distribution and consumption of the sufficiency of food consumed both in quantity and quality. Low access, and limited assets to food sources is the dominant factor vulnerable of food. Women have a major role in supporting the productive activities of the family to meet food sufficiency and resilience. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the model of food self-resilience village wich gender responsive by using a dynamic system model. Model will be developed into 3 level: family, vilage, and regency in accordance with the concept of village food resilience model wich has been developed by ministry of agriculture. Model development based on the results of experts discussion and field study. By some scenarios and simulation models we will able to develop appropriate policy strategies for family food resilience. The result of study show that food resilience was influenced by many factors: goverment policies, technology, human resource, and in the same time it will be a feed back for goverment policies and number of poor family.

Keywords: food availability, food sufficiency, gender, model dynamic, law enfrocement

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406 The Role of Psychological Hardiness and Psychological Resilience Employee's Commitment to Change

Authors: Ni Made Dian Swandewi, Wustari L. Mangundjaya

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Employees’ commitment to change are required for the success of organizational change in the company. The objective of this study is to identify the correlation between psychological hardiness and psychological resilience on commitment to change. The respondents of current research are permanent employees and employees that have worked for at least two years in a company that has been experiencing organizational change. Data was collected using Commitment to Change Inventory, Dispositional Resilience Scale (DRS), and Modified CD-RISC. The data were analyzed using regression. The results of the research show that both Psychological Hardiness and Psychological Resilience have positive and significant correlation and contribution on Commitment to Change. This research is important for companies who undergo organizational change in order plan and implement change more effectively.

Keywords: commitment to change, organizational change, psychological hardiness, psychological resilience

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405 Contextual and Personal Factors as Predictor of Academic Resilience among Female Undergraduates in Boko Haram Neighbourhood in North-Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Ndidi Ofole

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Ongoing Boko Haram crisis and instability in North-Eastern Nigeria has placed additional stress on academic resilience of female undergraduates who are already challenged by gender discrimination in educational opportunities. Students without resilience lack stress hardiness to cope with academic challenges. There is a limited study on academic resilience targeting this disadvantaged population in Nigeria. Consequently, survey research design was employed to investigate the contextual and personal factors that could predict academic resilience among female undergraduates in Boko Haram Neighbourhood in North-Eastern, Nigeria. Five hundred and thirty female students with age range of 18 to 24 years ( = 19.2; SD=6.9) were randomly drawn from 3 Universities in North-Eastern Nigeria. They responded to five instruments, namely; Academic Resilience scale (r=0.72); Social Support questionnaire (r=0. 64); Social Connectedness questionnaire (r=0.75); Self-Efficacy scale (r=0. 68) and Emotional Regulation questionnaire (r=78). Results showed that there was significant positive relationship between the four independent variables and academic resilience. The variables jointly contributed 5.9% variance in the prediction of academic resilience. In terms of magnitude, social support was most potent while self-efficacy was the least. It concluded that the factors considered in this study are academic resilience facilitators. The outcomes of the study have both theoretical and practical implications.

Keywords: academic resilience, emotional regulation, school connectedness, self-efficacy , social support

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404 Resilience Building, the Case of Dire Dawa Community, Ethiopia

Authors: Getachew Demesa Bexa

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Building resilience to withstand extreme weather events through reduction and mitigation measures towards predicted disasters with appropriate contingency plans complemented by timely and effective emergency response demands committed and integrated/coordinated efforts. The 2006 flood disaster that claimed more than 200 people in Dire Dawa town shifted the paradigm from reactive to proactive engagement among government, NGOs and communities to contain future disasters through resilience building. Dire Dawa CMDRR Association is a model community organization that demonstrated the basic minimum and turning adversity into opportunity by mobilizing vulnerable community members. Meanwhile the birth of African Centre for Disaster Risk Management is a milestone in changing the image of the country and beyond in resilience building while linking relief and development.

Keywords: Dire Dawa, disaster, resilience, risk management

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403 Character Strengths and Military Leadership

Authors: Lobna Cherif, Valerie Wood

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The importance of both character and resilience for military members has been emphasized at the highest levels of military leadership. Initial research suggests that the presence of character strengths might be relevant in predicting success and well-being for some military populations (e.g., recruits). In this presentation, we will first review our research investigating the perceived importance of character strengths for Canadian military cadet (N = 134) success, the top strengths endorsed by cadets, and, in a subset of cadets (n = 94), the relationships among core strengths and resilience. Participants first completed a survey comprised of a resilience measure and demographic items, then one month later completed a Values in Action (VIA) character strengths profile, questions related to character strengths (their personal top-five character strengths, and strengths they believed were important for military-related stressors and leadership, academic success, resilience, and completion of the military challenge). Findings indicated that military cadets consider (among others), perseverance, judgment, and teamwork to be most critical for bouncing back from stressors. However, the most frequently endorsed strengths that characterized cadets were bravery, honesty, and perseverance. Finally, perseverance, bravery, and humor were positively correlated with cadet resilience, while endorsement of love was negatively correlated with resilience.

Keywords: character strengths, leadership, positive psychology, resilience

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402 Operationalizing the Concept of Community Resilience through Community Capitals Framework-Based Index

Authors: Warda Ajaz

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This study uses the ‘Community Capitals Framework’ (CCF) to develop a community resilience index that can serve as a useful tool for measuring resilience of communities in diverse contexts and backgrounds. CCF is an important analytical tool to assess holistic community change. This framework identifies seven major types of community capitals: natural, cultural, human, social, political, financial and built, and claims that the communities that have been successful in supporting healthy sustainable community and economic development have paid attention to all these capitals. The framework, therefore, proposes to study the community development through identification of assets in these major capitals (stock), investment in these capitals (flow), and the interaction between these capitals. Capital based approaches have been extensively used to assess community resilience, especially in the context of natural disasters and extreme events. Therefore, this study identifies key indicators for estimating each of the seven capitals through an extensive literature review and then develops an index to calculate a community resilience score. The CCF-based community resilience index presents an innovative way of operationalizing the concept of community resilience and will contribute toward decision-relevant research regarding adaptation and mitigation of community vulnerabilities to climate change-induced, as well as other adverse events.

Keywords: adverse events, community capitals, community resilience, climate change, economic development, sustainability

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401 Understanding of Malaysian Community Disaster Resilience: Australian Scorecard Adaptation

Authors: Salizar Mohamed Ludin, Mohd Khairul Hasyimi Firdaus, Paul Arbon

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Purpose: This paper aims to develop Malaysian Government and community-level critical thinking, planning and action for improving community disaster resilience by reporting Phase 1, Part 1 of a larger community disaster resilience measurement study about adapting the Torrens Resilience Institute Australian Community Disaster Resilience Scorecard to the Malaysian context. Methodology: Pparticipatory action research encouraged key people involved in managing the six most affected areas in the 2014 flooding of Kelantan in Malaysia’s north-east to participate in discussions about adapting and self-testing the Australian Community Disaster Resilience Scorecard to measure and improve their communities’ disaster resilience. Findings: Communities need to strengthen their disaster resilience through better communication, cross-community cooperation, maximizing opportunities to compare their plans, actions and reactions with those reported in research publications, and aligning their community disaster management with reported best practice internationally while acknowledging the need to adapt such practice to local contexts. Research implications: There is a need for a Malaysia-wide, simple-to-use, standardized disaster resilience scorecard to improve the quality, quantity and capability of healthcare and emergency services’ preparedness, and to facilitate urgent reallocation of aid. Value: This study is the first of its kind in Malaysia. The resulting community disaster resilience guideline based on participants’ feedback about the Kelantan floods and scorecard self-testing has the potential for further adaptation to suit contexts across Malaysia, as well as demonstrating how the scorecard can be adapted for international use.

Keywords: community disaster resilience, CDR Scorecard, participatory action research, flooding, Malaysia

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400 Measuring the Resilience of e-Governments Using an Ontology

Authors: Onyekachi Onwudike, Russell Lock, Iain Phillips

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The variability that exists across governments, her departments and the provisioning of services has been areas of concern in the E-Government domain. There is a need for reuse and integration across government departments which are accompanied by varying degrees of risks and threats. There is also the need for assessment, prevention, preparation, response and recovery when dealing with these risks or threats. The ability of a government to cope with the emerging changes that occur within it is known as resilience. In order to forge ahead with concerted efforts to manage reuse and integration induced risks or threats to governments, the ambiguities contained within resilience must be addressed. Enhancing resilience in the E-Government domain is synonymous with reducing risks governments face with provisioning of services as well as reuse of components across departments. Therefore, it can be said that resilience is responsible for the reduction in government’s vulnerability to changes. In this paper, we present the use of the ontology to measure the resilience of governments. This ontology is made up of a well-defined construct for the taxonomy of resilience. A specific class known as ‘Resilience Requirements’ is added to the ontology. This class embraces the concept of resilience into the E-Government domain ontology. Considering that the E-Government domain is a highly complex one made up of different departments offering different services, the reliability and resilience of the E-Government domain have become more complex and critical to understand. We present questions that can help a government access how prepared they are in the face of risks and what steps can be taken to recover from them. These questions can be asked with the use of queries. The ontology focuses on developing a case study section that is used to explore ways in which government departments can become resilient to the different kinds of risks and threats they may face. A collection of resilience tools and resources have been developed in our ontology to encourage governments to take steps to prepare for emergencies and risks that a government may face with the integration of departments and reuse of components across government departments. To achieve this, the ontology has been extended by rules. We present two tools for understanding resilience in the E-Government domain as a risk analysis target and the output of these tools when applied to resilience in the E-Government domain. We introduce the classification of resilience using the defined taxonomy and modelling of existent relationships based on the defined taxonomy. The ontology is constructed on formal theory and it provides a semantic reference framework for the concept of resilience. Key terms which fall under the purview of resilience with respect to E-Governments are defined. Terms are made explicit and the relationships that exist between risks and resilience are made explicit. The overall aim of the ontology is to use it within standards that would be followed by all governments for government-based resilience measures.

Keywords: E-Government, Ontology, Relationships, Resilience, Risks, Threats

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399 Urban Resilince and Its Prioritised Components: Analysis of Industrial Township Greater Noida

Authors: N. Mehrotra, V. Ahuja, N. Sridharan

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Resilience is an all hazard and a proactive approach, require a multidisciplinary input in the inter related variables of the city system. This research based to identify and operationalize indicators for assessment in domain of institutions, infrastructure and knowledge, all three operating in task oriented community networks. This paper gives a brief account of the methodology developed for assessment of Urban Resilience and its prioritized components for a target population within a newly planned urban complex integrating Surajpur and Kasna village as nodes. People’s perception of Urban Resilience has been examined by conducting questionnaire survey among the target population of Greater Noida. As defined by experts, Urban Resilience of a place is considered to be both a product and process of operation to regain normalcy after an event of disturbance of certain level. Based on this methodology, six indicators are identified that contribute to perception of urban resilience both as in the process of evolution and as an outcome. The relative significance of 6 R’ has also been identified. The dependency factor of various resilience indicators have been explored in this paper, which helps in generating new perspective for future research in disaster management. Based on the stated factors this methodology can be applied to assess urban resilience requirements of a well planned town, which is not an end in itself, but calls for new beginnings.

Keywords: disaster, resilience, system, urban

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398 Hospital Workers’ Psychological Resilience after 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak

Authors: Myoungsoon You, Heejung Son

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During a pandemic, hospital workers should protect not only their vulnerable patients but also themselves from the consequences of rapidly spreading infection. However, the evidence on the psychological impact of an outbreak on hospital workers is limited. In this study, we aim to assess hospital workers’ psychological well-being and function at the workplace after an outbreak, by focusing on ‘psychological resilience’. Specifically, the effects of risk appraisal, emotional experience, and coping ability on resilience indicated by the likelihood of post-traumatic syndrome disorder and willingness to work were investigated. Such role and position of each factor were analyzed using a path model, and the result was compared between the healthcare worker and non-healthcare worker groups. In the investigation, 280 hospital workers who experienced the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome outbreak in South Korea have participated. The result presented, in both groups, the role of the appraisal of risk and coping ability appeared consistent with a previous research, that was, the former interrupted resilience while the latter facilitated it. In addition, the role of emotional experience was highlighted as, in both groups, emotional disruption not only directly associated with low resilience but mediated the effect of perceived risk on resilience. The differences between the groups were also identified, which were, the role of emotional experience and coping ability was more prominent in the non-HCW group in explaining resilience. From the results, implications on how to support hospital personnel during an outbreak in a way to facilitate their resilience after the outbreak were drawn.

Keywords: hospital workers, emotions, infectious disease outbreak, psychological resilience

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397 Resilience Assessment for Power Distribution Systems

Authors: Berna Eren Tokgoz, Mahdi Safa, Seokyon Hwang

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Power distribution systems are essential and crucial infrastructures for the development and maintenance of a sustainable society. These systems are extremely vulnerable to various types of natural and man-made disasters. The assessment of resilience focuses on preparedness and mitigation actions under pre-disaster conditions. It also concentrates on response and recovery actions under post-disaster situations. The aim of this study is to present a methodology to assess the resilience of electric power distribution poles against wind-related events. The proposed methodology can improve the accuracy and rapidity of the evaluation of the conditions and the assessment of the resilience of poles. The methodology provides a metric for the evaluation of the resilience of poles under pre-disaster and post-disaster conditions. The metric was developed using mathematical expressions for physical forces that involve various variables, such as physical dimensions of the pole, the inclination of the pole, and wind speed. A three-dimensional imaging technology (photogrammetry) was used to determine the inclination of poles. Based on expert opinion, the proposed metric was used to define zones to visualize resilience. Visual representation of resilience is helpful for decision makers to prioritize their resources before and after experiencing a wind-related disaster. Multiple electric poles in the City of Beaumont, TX were used in a case study to evaluate the proposed methodology.  

Keywords: photogrammetry, power distribution systems, resilience metric, system resilience, wind-related disasters

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396 [Keynote Talk]: Unlocking Transformational Resilience in the Aftermath of a Flood Disaster: A Case Study from Cumbria

Authors: Kate Crinion, Martin Haran, Stanley McGreal, David McIlhatton

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Past research has demonstrated that disasters are continuing to escalate in frequency and magnitude worldwide, representing a key concern for the global community. Understanding and responding to the increasing risk posed by disaster events has become a key concern for disaster managers. An emerging trend within literature, acknowledges the need to move beyond a state of coping and reinstatement of the status quo, towards incremental adaptive change and transformational actions for long-term sustainable development. As such, a growing interest in research concerns the understanding of the change required to address ever increasing and unpredictable disaster events. Capturing transformational capacity and resilience, however is not without its difficulties and explains the dearth in attempts to capture this capacity. Adopting a case study approach, this research seeks to enhance an awareness of transformational resilience by identifying key components and indicators that determine the resilience of flood-affected communities within Cumbria. Grounding and testing a theoretical resilience framework within the case studies, permits the identification of how perceptions of risk influence community resilience actions. Further, it assesses how levels of social capital and connectedness impacts upon the extent of interplay between resources and capacities that drive transformational resilience. Thus, this research seeks to expand the existing body of knowledge by enhancing the awareness of resilience in post-disaster affected communities, by investigating indicators of community capacity building and resilience actions that facilitate transformational resilience during the recovery and reconstruction phase of a flood disaster.

Keywords: capacity building, community, flooding, transformational resilience

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395 Resilience in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease in Hemodialysis

Authors: Gomes C. C. Izabel, Lanzotti B. Rafaela, Orlandi S. Fabiana

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Chronic Kidney Disease is considered a serious public health problem. The exploitation of resilience has been guided by studies conducted in various contexts, especially in hemodialysis, since the impact of diagnosis and restrictions produced during the treatment process because, despite advances in treatment, remains the stigma of the disease and the feeling of pain, hopelessness, low self-esteem and disability. The objective was to evaluate the level of resilience of patients in chronic renal dialysis. This is a descriptive, correlational, cross and quantitative research. The sample consisted of 100 patients from a Renal Replacement Therapy Unit in the countryside of São Paulo. For data collection were used the characterization instrument of Participants and the Resilience Scale. There was a predominance of males (70.0%) were Caucasian (45.0%) and had completed elementary education (34.0%). The average score obtained through the Resilience Scale was 131.3 (± 20.06) points. The resiliency level submitted may be considered satisfactory. It is expected that this study will assist in the preparation of programs and actions in order to avoid possible situations of crises faced by chronic renal patients.

Keywords: hemodialysis units, renal dialysis, renal insufficiency chronic, resilience psychological

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394 Preventing Violent Extremism through Augmenting Community Resilience and Empowering Community Members in Swat

Authors: Dr. Muhammad Idris Idris, Dr. Said Saeed Saeed

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Terrorism is the chronic issue of the hour. It is the disciplined practice of vicious activities like assassinating, slaughtering, mutilating, and frightening of the innocents to attain religious, fiscal, and political goals and to question the authority of the government. Leaders of the world promised to transform the planet by empowering community members and building community resilience (CR) against terrorism. This study concentrates to explore building community resilience against terrorism and empowering community members and implement strategies for strengthening community resilience. For data collection a mixed methods methodology will be used. Means, STD deviation, Pearson correlation, and thematic analysis will be employed to analyze the gathered data. The findings of the study will be interpreted and recommendations will be furnished accordingly. Study results will be disseminated to all concerned through conferences and seminar sessions. It is predicted that after the completion, the project team will be in a robust position to start writing the report that concentrates on strengthening community resilience, which is the crucial goal of this project. The publication will contribute effectively to all stakeholders and society, particularly to the lower rungs of social order. Moreover, it is expected that this project will contribute to future research in the domain of community resilience. This project will also reveal the remarkable potential of archival research on community resilience.

Keywords: Violent Extremism, community Role, community resilience, community empowerment, Leadership role

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393 Using Sandplay Therapy to Assess Psychological Resilience

Authors: Dan Wang

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Sandplay therapy is a Jungian psychological therapy developed by Dora Kalff in 1956. In sandplay therapy, the client first makes a sandtray with various miniatures and then has a communication with the therapist based on the sandtray. The special method makes sandplay therapy has great assessment potential. With regarding that the core treatment hypothesis of sandplay therapy - the self-healing power, is very similar to resilience. This study tries to use sandplay to evaluate psychological resilience. Participants are 107 undergraduates recruited from three public universities in China who were required to make an initial sandtray and to complete the Ego-Resiliency Scale (ER89) respectively. First, a 28- category General Sandtray Coding Manual (GSCM) was developed based on literature on sandplay therapy. Next, using GSCM to code the 107 initial sandtrays and conducted correlation analysis and regression analysis between all GSCM categories and ER89. Results show three categories (i.e., vitality, water types, and relationships) of sandplay account for 36.6% of the variance of ego-resilience and form the four-point Likert-type Sandtray Projective Test of Resilience (SPTR). Finally, it is found that SPTR dimensions and total score all have good inter-rater reliability, ranging from 0.89 to 0.93. This study provides an alternative approach to measure psychological resilience and can help to guide clinical social work.

Keywords: sandplay therapy, psychological resilience, measurement, college students

Procedia PDF Downloads 88