Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9082

Search results for: water consumption saving

9082 Water Saving in Electricity Generation System Considering Natural Gas Limitation

Authors: Mehdi Ganjkhani, Sobhan Badakhshan, Seyedvahid Hosseini

Abstract:

Power plants exploit striking proportion of underground water consumption. Correspondingly, natural gas-fired power plants need less water than the other conventional power plants. Therefore, shifting unit commitment planning toward these power plants would help to save water consumption. This paper discusses the impacts of water consumption limitation on natural gas consumption and vice versa as a short-term water consumption management solution. To do so, conventional unit commitment problem is extended by adding water consumption and natural gas constraints to the previous constrains. The paper presents the impact of water saving on natural gas demands as well as natural gas shortage on water demand. Correspondingly, the additional cost of electricity production according to the aforementioned constraints is evaluated. Finally, a test system is applied to investigate potentials and impacts of water saving and natural gas shortage. Different scenarios are conducted and the results are presented. The results of the study illustrate that in order to use less water for power production it needs to use more natural gas. Meanwhile, natural gas shortage causes to utilize more amount of water in aggregate.

Keywords: electric energy generation system, underground water sources, unit commitment, water consumption saving, natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
9081 The Study on Energy Saving in Clarification Process for Water Treatment Plant

Authors: Wiwat Onnakklum

Abstract:

Clarification is the turbidity removal process of water treatment plant. This paper was to study the factors affecting on energy consumption in order to control energy saving strategy. The factors studied were raw water turbidity in the range of 26-40 NTU and production rate in the range of 3.76-5.20 m³/sec. Clarifiers were sludge blanket and sludge recirculation clarifier. Experimental results found that the raw water turbidity was not affected significantly by energy consumption, while the production rate was affected significantly by energy consumption. Sludge blanket clarifier provided lower energy consumption than sludge recirculation clarifier about 32-37%. Subsequently, the operating pattern in production rate can be arranged to decreased energy consumption. The results showed that it can be reduced about 5.09 % of energy saving of clarification process about 754,655 Baht per year.

Keywords: sludge blanket clarifier, sludge recirculation clarifier, water treatment plant, energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
9080 Synergy Effect of Energy and Water Saving in China's Energy Sectors: A Multi-Objective Optimization Analysis

Authors: Yi Jin, Xu Tang, Cuiyang Feng

Abstract:

The ‘11th five-year’ and ‘12th five-year’ plans have clearly put forward to strictly control the total amount and intensity of energy and water consumption. The synergy effect of energy and water has rarely been considered in the process of energy and water saving in China, where its contribution cannot be maximized. Energy sectors consume large amounts of energy and water when producing massive energy, which makes them both energy and water intensive. Therefore, the synergy effect in these sectors is significant. This paper assesses and optimizes the synergy effect in three energy sectors under the background of promoting energy and water saving. Results show that: From the perspective of critical path, chemical industry, mining and processing of non-metal ores and smelting and pressing of metals are coupling points in the process of energy and water flowing to energy sectors, in which the implementation of energy and water saving policies can bring significant synergy effect. Multi-objective optimization shows that increasing efforts on input restructuring can effectively improve synergy effects; relatively large synergetic energy saving and little water saving are obtained after solely reducing the energy and water intensity of coupling sectors. By optimizing the input structure of sectors, especially the coupling sectors, the synergy effect of energy and water saving can be improved in energy sectors under the premise of keeping economy running stably.

Keywords: critical path, energy sector, multi-objective optimization, synergy effect, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
9079 Water Demand Modelling Using Artificial Neural Network in Ramallah

Authors: F. Massri, M. Shkarneh, B. Almassri

Abstract:

Water scarcity and increasing water demand especially for residential use are major challenges facing Palestine. The need to accurately forecast water consumption is useful for the planning and management of this natural resource. The main objective of this paper is to (i) study the major factors influencing the water consumption in Palestine, (ii) understand the general pattern of Household water consumption, (iii) assess the possible changes in household water consumption and suggest appropriate remedies and (iv) develop prediction model based on the Artificial Neural Network to the water consumption in Palestinian cities. The paper is organized in four parts. The first part includes literature review of household water consumption studies. The second part concerns data collection methodology, conceptual frame work for the household water consumption surveys, survey descriptions and data processing methods. The third part presents descriptive statistics, multiple regression and analysis of the water consumption in the two Palestinian cities. The final part develops the use of Artificial Neural Network for modeling the water consumption in Palestinian cities.

Keywords: water management, demand forecasting, consumption, ANN, Ramallah

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
9078 Photo-Reflective Mulches For Saving Water in Agriculture

Authors: P. Mormile, M. Rippa, G. Bonanomi, F. Scala, Changrong Yan, L. Petti

Abstract:

Photo-reflective films represent, in the panorama of agricultural films, a valid support for Spring and Summer cultivations, both in open field and under greenhouse. In fact, thanks to the high reflectivity of these films, thermal aggression, that causes serious problems to plants when traditional black mulch films are used, is avoided. Yellow or silver colored photo-reflective films protect plants from damages, assure the mulching effect, give a valid support to Integrated Pest Management and, according to recent trials, greatly contribute in saving water. This further advantage is determined by the high water condensation under the mulch film and this gives rise to reduction of irrigation. Water saving means also energy saving for electric system of water circulation. Trials performed at different geographic and ambient context confirm that the use of photo-reflective mulch films during the hot season allows to save water up to 30%.

Keywords: photo-selective mulches, saving water, water circulation, irrigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
9077 Crop Price Variation and Water Saving Technologies in Iran

Authors: Saeed Yazdani, Shahrbanoo Bagheri, Sepideh Nikravesh

Abstract:

Considering the importance and scarcity of water resources, the efficient management of water resources is of great importance. Adoption of modern irrigation technology is considered to be a key of increasing the efficiency of water used in agriculture. Policy makers have implemented several ways to induce the adoption of new irrigation technology. The empirical studies show that farmers are reluctant to utilize the use of new irrigation methods. This study aims to assess factors affecting on farmer’s decision on the application of water saving technologies with emphasize on crop price variation and water sources. A Logit model was employed to examine the impact of different variables on use of water saving technology. The required data gathered from a sample of 204 farmers in the year 2012. The results indicate that different variables such as crop price variability, water supply source, high-value crops, farm size, income, education, membership in cooperatives have a positive effect and variables such as age and number of plots have a negative impact on the probability of adopting modern water saving technologies.

Keywords: irrigation, water, water saving technology, scarcity

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
9076 Optimizing Water Consumption of a Washer-Dryer Which Contains Water Condensation Technology under a Constraint of Energy Consumption and Drying Performance

Authors: Aysegul Sarac

Abstract:

Washer-dryers are the machines which can either wash the laundries or can dry them. In other words, we can define a washer-dryer as a washing machine and a dryer in one machine. Washing machines are characterized by the loading capacity, cabinet depth and spin speed. Dryers are characterized by the drying technology. On the other hand, energy efficiency, water consumption, and noise levels are main characteristics that influence customer decisions to buy washers. Water condensation technology is the most common drying technology existing in the washer-dryer market. Water condensation technology uses water to dry the laundry inside the machine. Thus, in this type of the drying technology water consumption is at high levels comparing other technologies. Water condensation technology sprays cold water in the drum to condense the humidity of hot weather in order to dry the laundry inside. Thus, water consumption influences the drying performance. The scope of this study is to optimize water consumption during drying process under a constraint of energy consumption and drying performance. We are using 6-Sigma methodology to find the optimum water consumption by comparing drying performances of different drying algorithms.

Keywords: optimization, 6-Sigma methodology, washer-dryers, water condensation technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
9075 Affordability and Expenditure Patterns towards Sustainable Consumption in Malaysia

Authors: Affordability, Expenditure Patterns towards Sustainable Consumption in Malaysia

Abstract:

Safe drinking water is needed for survival. Households have to pay the water bill monthly. However, lower income households are sometimes unable to afford the cost. This study examines water access and affordability among households in Malaysia and the determinants of water affordability using cross-sectional data and multiple regression. The paper expects that the bill for basic water consumption is inversely related to average income. This means that policy makers need to redesign the water tariff to improve the quality of life of lower income households.

Keywords: affordability, sustainable consumption, income, water tariff

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
9074 A Study on Changing of Energy-Saving Performance of GHP Air Conditioning System with Time-Series Variation

Authors: Ying Xin, Shigeki Kametani

Abstract:

This paper deals the energy saving performance of GHP (Gas engine heat pump) air conditioning system has improved with time-series variation. There are two types of air conditioning systems, VRF (Variable refrigerant flow) and central cooling and heating system. VRF is classified as EHP (Electric driven heat pump) and GHP. EHP drives the compressor with electric motor. GHP drives the compressor with the gas engine. The electric consumption of GHP is less than one tenth of EHP does. In this study, the energy consumption data of GHP installed the junior high schools was collected. An annual and monthly energy consumption per rated thermal output power of each apparatus was calculated, and then their energy efficiency was analyzed. From these data, we investigated improvement of the energy saving of the GHP air conditioning system by the change in the generation.

Keywords: energy-saving, variable refrigerant flow, gas engine heat pump, electric driven heat pump, air conditioning system

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
9073 The Response of the Accumulated Biomass and the Efficiency of Water Use in Five Varieties of Durum Wheat Lines under Water Stress

Authors: Fellah Sihem

Abstract:

The optimal use of soil moisture by culture, is related to the leaf area index, which stood in the cycle and its modulation according to the prevailing stress intensity. For a given stock of water in the soil, cultivar adapted and saving water is one that is no luxury consumption during the preanthesis. It modulates the leaf area index to regulate sweating in the degree of its water supply. In plants water saving, avoidance of dehydration is related to the reduction of water loss by cuticular and stomatal pathways. Muchow and Sinclair reported that the test of relative water content (TRE) is considered the best indicator of leaf water status. The search for indicators of the ability of the plant to make good use of the water, under water stress is a prerequisite for progress in improving performance under water stress. This experiment aims to characterize a set of durum wheat varieties, tested jars and vegetation under different levels of water stress to the surface of the leaf, relative water content, cell integrity, the accumulated biomass and efficiency of water use. The experiment was conducted during the 2005/2006 academic year, at the Agricultural Research Station of the Field Crop Institute of Setif, under semi-controlled conditions. Five genotypes of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf) were evaluated for their ability to tolerate moderate and severe water stress. The results showed that geno types respond differently to water stress. Dry matter accumulation and growth rate varied among geno types and were significantly reduced. At severe water stress biomass accumulated by Boussalam was the least affected.

Keywords: water stress, triticum durum, biomass, cell membrane integrity, relative water content

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
9072 Factors Affecting Sustainable Water Management in Water-Challenged Societies: Case Study of Doha Qatar

Authors: L. Mathew, D. Thomas

Abstract:

Qatar is a desert country with scarce fresh water resources, low rainfall and very high evaporation rate. It meets the majority of its water requirement through desalination process which is very expensive. Pressures are expected to mount on account of high population growth rate and demands posed by being the venue for 2022 FIFA World cup. This study contributes towards advancing the knowledge of the factors affecting sustainable water consumption in water-challenged societies by examining the case of Doha, Qatar. Survey research methods have been predominantly used for this research. Surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires. Focused group interviews and personal interviews with Qatar’s residents were also used to obtain deeper insights. Salient socio-cultural factors that drive the water consumption behavior of the public and which in turn affect sustainable water management practices are determined. Suggestions for reducing water consumption as well as fiscal and punitive measures to curb overuse and misuse of water are also identified.

Keywords: Middle East, Qatar, water consumption, water management, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
9071 Use of Alternative Water Sources Based on a Rainwater in the Multi-Dwelling Urban Building 2030

Authors: Monika Lipska

Abstract:

Drinking water is water with a very high quality, and as such represents only 2.5% of the total quantity of all water in the world. For many years we have observed continuous increase in its consumption as a result of many factors such as: Growing world population (7 billion in 2011r.), increase of human lives comfort and – above all – the economic growth. Due to the rocketing consumption and growing costs of production of water with such high-quality parameters, we experience accelerating interest in alternative sources of obtaining potable water. One of the ways of saving this valuable material is using rainwater in the Urban Building. With an exponentially growing demand, the acquisition of additional sources of water is necessary to maintain the proper balance of all ecosystems. The first part of the paper describes what rainwater is and what are its potential sources and means of use, while the main part of the article focuses on the description of the methods of obtaining water from rain on the example of new urban building in Poland. It describes the method and installations of rainwater in the new urban building (“MBJ2030”). The paper addresses also the issue of monitoring of the whole recycling systems as well as the particular quality indicators important because of identification of the potential risks to human health. The third part describes the legal arrangements concerning the recycling of rainwater existing in different European Union countries with particular reference to Poland on example the new urban building in Warsaw.

Keywords: rainwater, potable water, non-potable water, Poland

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
9070 Identifying the Factors affecting on the Success of Energy Usage Saving in Municipality of Tehran

Authors: Rojin Bana Derakhshan, Abbas Toloie

Abstract:

For the purpose of optimizing and developing energy efficiency in building, it is required to recognize key elements of success in optimization of energy consumption before performing any actions. Surveying Principal Components is one of the most valuable result of Linear Algebra because the simple and non-parametric methods are become confusing. So that energy management system implemented according to energy management system international standard ISO50001:2011 and all energy parameters in building to be measured through performing energy auditing. In this essay by simulating used of data mining, the key impressive elements on energy saving in buildings to be determined. This approach is based on data mining statistical techniques using feature selection method and fuzzy logic and convert data from massive to compressed type and used to increase the selected feature. On the other side, influence portion and amount of each energy consumption elements in energy dissipation in percent are recognized as separated norm while using obtained results from energy auditing and after measurement of all energy consuming parameters and identified variables. Accordingly, energy saving solution divided into 3 categories, low, medium and high expense solutions.

Keywords: energy saving, key elements of success, optimization of energy consumption, data mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
9069 A Case Study on the Drivers of Household Water Consumption for Different Socio-Economic Classes in Selected Communities of Metro Manila, Philippines

Authors: Maria Anjelica P. Ancheta, Roberto S. Soriano, Erickson L. Llaguno

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to examine whether there is a significant relationship between socio-economic class and household water supply demand, through determining or verifying the factors governing water use consumption patterns of households from a sampling from different socio-economic classes in Metro Manila, the national capital region of the Philippines. This study is also an opportunity to augment the lack of local academic literature due to the very few publications on urban household water demand after 1999. In over 600 Metro Manila households, a rapid survey was conducted on their average monthly water consumption and habits on household water usage. The questions in the rapid survey were based on an extensive review of literature on urban household water demand. Sample households were divided into socio-economic classes A-B and C-D. Cluster analysis, dummy coding and outlier tests were done to prepare the data for regression analysis. Subsequently, backward stepwise regression analysis was used in order to determine different statistical models to describe the determinants of water consumption. The key finding of this study is that the socio-economic class of a household in Metro Manila is a significant factor in water consumption. A-B households consume more water in contrast to C-D families based on the mean average water consumption for A-B and C-D households are 36.75 m3 and 18.92 m3, respectively. The most significant proxy factors of socio-economic class that were related to household water consumption were examined in order to suggest improvements in policy formulation and household water demand management.

Keywords: household water uses, socio-economic classes, urban planning, urban water demand management

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
9068 Water Distribution Uniformity of Solid-Set Sprinkler Irrigation under Low Operating Pressure

Authors: Manal Osman

Abstract:

Sprinkler irrigation system became more popular to reduce water consumption and increase irrigation efficiency. The water distribution uniformity plays an important role in the performance of the sprinkler irrigation system. The use of low operating pressure instead of high operating pressure can be achieved many benefits including energy and water saving. An experimental study was performed to investigate the water distribution uniformity of the solid-set sprinkler irrigation system under low operating pressure. Different low operating pressures (62, 82, 102 and 122 kPa) were selected. The range of operating pressure was lower than the recommended in the previous studies to investigate the effect of low pressure on the water distribution uniformity. Different nozzle diameters (4, 5, 6 and 7 mm) were used. The outdoor single sprinkler test was performed. The water distribution of single sprinkler, the coefficients of uniformity such as coefficient of uniformity (CU), distribution uniformity of low quarter (DUlq), distribution uniformity of low half (DUlh), coefficient of variation (CV) and the distribution characteristics like rotation speed, throw radius and overlapping distance are presented in this paper.

Keywords: low operating pressure, sprinkler irrigation system, water distribution uniformity

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9067 Sources of Water Supply and Water Quality for Local Consumption: The Case Study of Eco-Tourism Village, Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality, Ampawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Paiboon Jeamponk, Tasanee Ponglaa, Patchapon Srisanguan

Abstract:

The aim of this research paper was based on an examination of sources of water supply and water quality for local consumption, conducted at eco-tourism villages of Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality of Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province. The study incorporated both questionnaire and field work of water testing as the research tool and method. The sample size of 288 households was based on the population of the district, whereas the selected sample water sources were from 60 households: 30 samples were ground water and another 30 were surface water. Degree of heavy metal contamination in the water including copper, iron, manganese, zinc, cadmium and lead was investigated utilizing the Atomic Absorption- Direct Aspiration method. The findings unveiled that 96.0 percent of household water consumption was based on water supply, while the rest on canal, river and rain water. The household behaviour of consumption revealed that 47.2 percent of people routinely consumed water without boiling or filtering prior to consumption. The investigation of water supply quality found that the degree of heavy metal contamination including metal, lead, iron, copper, manganese and cadmium met the standards of the Department of Health.

Keywords: sources of water supply, water quality, water supply, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
9066 Energy Saving of the Paint with Mineral Insulators: Simulation and Study on Different Climates

Authors: A. A. Azemati, H. Hosseini, B. Shirkavand Hadavand

Abstract:

By using an adequate thermal barrier coating in buildings the energy saving will be happened. In this study, a range of wall paints with different absorption coefficient in different climates has been investigated. In order to study these effects, heating and cooling loads of a common building with different ordinary paints and paint with mineral coating have been calculated. The effect of building paint in different climatic condition was studied and comparison was done between ordinary paints and paint with mineral insulators in temperate climate to obtain optimized energy consumption. The results have been shown that coatings with inorganic micro particles as insulation reduce the energy consumption of buildings around 14%.

Keywords: climate, energy consumption, inorganic, mineral coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
9065 Assessing the Ways of Improving the Power Saving Modes in the Ore-Grinding Technological Process

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka

Abstract:

Monitoring the distribution of electric power consumption in the technological process of ore grinding is conducted. As a result, the impacts of the mill filling rate, the productivity of the ore supply, the volumetric density of the grinding balls, the specific density of the ground ore, and the relative speed of the mill rotation on the specific consumption of electric power have been studied. The power and technological factors affecting the reactive power generated by the synchronous motors, operating within the technological scheme are studied. A block diagram for evaluating the power consumption modes of the technological process is presented, which includes the analysis of the technological scheme, the determination of the place and volumetric density of the ore-grinding mill, the evaluation of the technological and power factors affecting the energy saving process, as well as the assessment of the electric power standards.

Keywords: electric power standard, factor, ore grinding, power consumption, reactive power, technological

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
9064 A Multi-Regional Structural Path Analysis of Virtual Water Flows Caused by Coal Consumption in China

Authors: Cuiyang Feng, Xu Tang, Yi Jin

Abstract:

Coal is the most important primary energy source in China, which exerts a significant influence on the rapid economic growth. However, it makes the water resources to be a constraint on coal industry development, on account of the reverse geographical distribution between coal and water. To ease the pressure on water shortage, the ‘3 Red Lines’ water policies were announced by the Chinese government, and then ‘water for coal’ plan was added to that policies in 2013. This study utilized a structural path analysis (SPA) based on the multi-regional input-output table to quantify the virtual water flows caused by coal consumption in different stages. Results showed that the direct water input (the first stage) was the highest amount in all stages of coal consumption, accounting for approximately 30% of total virtual water content. Regional analysis demonstrated that virtual water trade alleviated the pressure on water use for coal consumption in water shortage areas, but the import of virtual water was not from the areas which are rich in water. Sectoral analysis indicated that the direct inputs from the sectors of ‘production and distribution of electric power and heat power’ and ‘Smelting and pressing of metals’ took up the major virtual water flows, while the sectors of ‘chemical industry’ and ‘manufacture of non-metallic mineral products’ importantly but indirectly consumed the water. With the population and economic growth in China, the water demand-and-supply gap in coal consumption would be more remarkable. In additional to water efficiency improvement measures, the central government should adjust the strategies of the virtual water trade to address local water scarcity issues. Water resource as the main constraints should be highly considered in coal policy to promote the sustainable development of the coal industry.

Keywords: coal consumption, multi-regional input-output model, structural path analysis, virtual water

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
9063 Effects of Using Alternative Energy Sources and Technologies to Reduce Energy Consumption and Expenditure of a Single Detached House

Authors: Gul Nihal Gugul, Merih Aydinalp-Koksal

Abstract:

In this study, hourly energy consumption model of a single detached house in Ankara, Turkey is developed using ESP-r building energy simulation software. Natural gas is used for space heating, cooking, and domestic water heating in this two story 4500 square feet four-bedroom home. Hourly electricity consumption of the home is monitored by an automated meter reading system, and daily natural gas consumption is recorded by the owners during 2013. Climate data of the region and building envelope data are used to develop the model. The heating energy consumption of the house that is estimated by the ESP-r model is then compared with the actual heating demand to determine the performance of the model. Scenarios are applied to the model to determine the amount of reduction in the total energy consumption of the house. The scenarios are using photovoltaic panels to generate electricity, ground source heat pumps for space heating and solar panels for domestic hot water generation. Alternative scenarios such as improving wall and roof insulations and window glazing are also applied. These scenarios are evaluated based on annual energy, associated CO2 emissions, and fuel expenditure savings. The pay-back periods for each scenario are also calculated to determine best alternative energy source or technology option for this home to reduce annual energy use and CO2 emission.

Keywords: ESP-r, building energy simulation, residential energy saving, CO2 reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
9062 Simulation and Analysis of Passive Parameters of Building in eQuest: A Case Study in Istanbul, Turkey

Authors: Mahdiyeh Zafaranchi

Abstract:

With rapid development of urbanization and improvement of living standards in the world, energy consumption and carbon emissions of the building sector are expected to increase in the near future; because of that, energy-saving issues have become more important among the engineers. Besides, the building sector is a major contributor to energy consumption and carbon emissions. The concept of efficient building appeared as a response to the need for reducing energy demand in this sector which has the main purpose of shifting from standard buildings to low-energy buildings. Although energy-saving should happen in all steps of a building during the life cycle (material production, construction, demolition), the main concept of efficient energy building is saving energy during the life expectancy of a building by using passive and active systems, and should not sacrifice comfort and quality to reach these goals. The main aim of this study is to investigate passive strategies (do not need energy consumption or use renewable energy) to achieve energy-efficient buildings. Energy retrofit measures were explored by eQuest software using a case study as a base model. The study investigates predictive accuracy for the major factors like thermal transmittance (U-value) of the material, windows, shading devices, thermal insulation, rate of the exposed envelope, window/wall ration, lighting system in the energy consumption of the building. The base model was located in Istanbul, Turkey. The impact of eight passive parameters on energy consumption had been indicated. After analyzing the base model by eQuest, a final scenario was suggested which had a good energy performance. The results showed a decrease in the U-values of materials, the rate of exposing buildings, and windows had a significant effect on energy consumption. Finally, savings in electric consumption of about 10.5%, and gas consumption by about 8.37% in the suggested model were achieved annually.

Keywords: efficient building, electric and gas consumption, eQuest, Passive parameters

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9061 Sunflower Irrigation with Two Different Types of Soil Moisture Sensors

Authors: C. D. Papanikolaou, V. A. Giouvanis, E. A. Karatasiou, D. S. Dimakas, M. A. Sakellariou-Makrantonaki

Abstract:

Irrigation is one of the most important cultivation practices for each crop, especially in areas where rainfall is enough to cover the crop water needs. In such areas, the farmers must irrigate in order to achieve high economical results. The precise irrigation scheduling contributes to irrigation water saving and thus a valuable natural resource is protected. Under this point of view, in the experimental field of the Laboratory of Agricultural Hydraulics of the University of Thessaly, a research was conducted during the growing season of 2012 in order to evaluate the growth, seed and oil production of sunflower as well as the water saving, by applying different methods of irrigation scheduling. Three treatments in four replications were organized. These were: a) surface drip irrigation where the irrigation scheduling based on the Penman-Monteith (PM) method (control); b) surface drip irrigation where the irrigation scheduling based on a soil moisture sensor (SMS); and c) surface drip irrigation, where the irrigation scheduling based on a soil potential sensor (WM).

Keywords: irrigation, energy production, soil moisture sensor, sunflower, water saving

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
9060 Significance of Water Saving through Subsurface Drip Irrigation for Date Palm Trees

Authors: Ahmed I. Al-Amoud

Abstract:

A laboratory and field study were conducted on subsurface drip irrigation systems. In the first laboratory study, eight subsurface drip irrigation lines available locally, were selected and a number of experiments were made to evaluate line hydraulic characteristics to insure it's suitability for drip irrigation design requirements and high performance to select the best for field experiments. The second study involves field trials on mature date palm trees to study the effect of subsurface drip irrigation system on the yield and water consumption of date palms, and to compare that with the traditional surface drip irrigation system. Experiments were conducted in Alwatania Agricultural Project, on 50 mature palm trees (17 years old) of Helwa type with 10 meters spacing between rows and between trees. A high efficiency subsurface line (Techline) was used based on the results of the first study. Irrigation scheduling was made through a soil moisture sensing device to ensure enough soil water levels in the soil. Experiment layouts were installed during 2001 season, measurements continued till end of 2008 season. Results have indicated that there is an increase in the yield and a considerable saving in water compared to the conventional drip irrigation method. In addition there were high increases in water use efficiency using the subsurface system. The subsurface system proves to be durable and highly efficient for irrigating date palm trees.

Keywords: drip irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, date palm trees, date palm water use, date palm yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
9059 Calculation of Water Economy Balance for Water Management

Authors: Vakhtang Geladze, Nana Bolashvili, Tamazi Karalashvili, Nino Machavariani, Ana Karalashvili, George Geladze, Nana Kvirkvelia

Abstract:

Fresh water deficit is one of the most important global problems today. It must be taken into consideration that in the nearest future fresh water crisis will become even more acute owing to the global climate warming and fast desertification processes in the world. Georgia is rich in water resources, but there are disbalance between the eastern and western parts of the country. The goal of the study is to integrate the recent mechanisms compatible with European standards into Georgian water resources management system on the basis of GIS. Moreover, to draw up water economy balance for the purpose of proper determination of water consumption priorities that will be an exchange ratio of water resources and water consumption of the concrete territory. For study region was choose south-eastern part of country, Kvemo kartli Region. This is typical agrarian region, tends to the desertification. The water supply of the region was assessed on the basis of water economy balance, which was first time calculated for this region.

Keywords: desertification, GIS, sustainable management, water management

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9058 Surface Water Quality in Orchard Area, Amphawa District, Samut Songkram Province, Thailand

Authors: Sisuwan Kaseamsawat, Sivapan Choo-In

Abstract:

This study aimed to evaluated the surface water quality for agriculture and consumption in the district. Surface water quality parameters in this study in cluding water temperature, turbidity, conductivity. salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, BOD, nitrate, Suspended solids, phosphorus. Total dissolve solids, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, lead and cadmium. Water samples were collected from small excavation, Lychee, Pomelo, and Coconut orchard for 3 season during January to December 2011. The surface water quality from small excavation, Lychee, pomelo, and coconut orchard are meet the type III of surface water quality standard issued by the National Environmental Quality Act B. E. 1992. except the concentration of heavy metal. And did not differ significantly at 0.05 level, except dissolved oxygen. The water is suitable for consumption by the usual sterile and generally improving water quality through the process before. And is suitable for agriculture.

Keywords: water quality, surface water quality, Thailand, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
9057 Development and Implementation of a Business Technology Program Based on Techniques for Reusing Water in a Colombian Company

Authors: Miguel A. Jimenez Barros, Elyn L. Solano Charris, Luis E. Ramirez, Lauren Castro Bolano, Carlos Torres Barreto, Juliana Morales Cubillo

Abstract:

This project sought to mitigate the high levels of water consumption in industrial processes in accordance with the water-rationing plan promoted at national and international level due to the water consumption projections published by the United Nations. Water consumption has three main uses, municipal (common use), agricultural and industrial where the latter consumes a minimum percentage (around 20% of the total consumption). Awareness on world water scarcity, a Colombian company responsible for generation of massive consumption products, decided to implement politics and techniques for water treatment, recycling, and reuse. The project consisted in a business technology program that permits a better use of wastewater caused by production operations. This approach reduces the potable water consumption, generates better conditions of water in the sewage dumps, generates a positive environmental impact for the region, and is a reference model in national and international levels. In order to achieve the objective, a process flow diagram was used in order to define the industrial processes that required potable water. This strategy allowed the industry to determine a water reuse plan at the operational level without affecting the requirements associated with the manufacturing process and even more, to support the activities developed in administrative buildings. Afterwards, the company made an evaluation and selection of the chemical and biological processes required for water reuse, in compliance with the Colombian Law. The implementation of the business technology program optimized the water use and recirculation rate up to 70%, accomplishing an important reduction of the regional environmental impact.

Keywords: bio-reactor, potable water, reverse osmosis, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
9056 Optimization for the Hydraulic Clamping System of an Internal Circulation Two-Platen Injection Molding Machine

Authors: Jian Wang, Lu Yang, Jiong Peng

Abstract:

Internal circulation two-platen clamping system for injection molding machine (IMM) has many potential advantages on energy-saving. In order to estimate its properties, experiments in this paper were carried out. Displacement and pressure of the components were measured. In comparison, the model of hydraulic clamping system was established by using AMESim. The related parameters as well as the energy consumption could be calculated. According to the analysis, the hydraulic system was optimized in order to reduce the energy consumption.

Keywords: AMESim, energy-saving, injection molding machine, internal circulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
9055 Evaluation of the Potability Qualities of Pretreated Distilled Water Produced from Biomass Fuelled Water Distiller

Authors: E. I. Oluwasola, J. A. V. Famurewa, R. Aboloma, K. Adesina

Abstract:

Water samples with pretreatment and without pretreatment were obtained from locally constructed biomass fuelled stainless steel water distiller. The water samples were subjected to Microbial, Physicochemical and Minerals analyses for comparison with NAFDAC and WHO Standards for potable water. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the raw water(A), and the two distilled water samples (B; distill water without pretreatment) and (C; distill water with pretreatment) showed reduction in most of the quality parameters evaluated in the distilled water samples to the level that conforms to the W.H.O standards for drinking water however, lower values were obtained for the pretreated distilled water sample. The values of 0.0016mg/l, 0.0052mg/l and 0.0528mg/l for the arsenic, chromium and lead content respectively in the raw water were within the permissible limit specified by WHO however; the values of cadmium (0.067mg/l) and mercury (0.0287mg/l) are above the maximum tolerable for drinking water thus, making the raw water unsafe for human consumption. Similarly, the high total plate count (278cfu /ml) and coliform count (1100/100ml) indicate that the raw water is potentially harmful while the distilled water samples showed nil coliform count and low total plate count (35cfu/ml,18cfu/ml) for B and C respectively making the distilled water microbiologically safer for human consumption.

Keywords: biomass, distillation, mineral, potable, physicochemical

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
9054 Energy Saving Study of Mass Rapid Transit by Optimal Train Coasting Operation

Authors: Artiya Sopharak, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper presents an energy-saving study of Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) using an optimal train coasting operation. For the dynamic train movement with four modes of operation, including accelerating mode, constant speed or cruising mode, coasting mode, and braking mode are considered in this study. The acceleration rate, the deceleration rate, and the starting coasting point are taken into account the optimal train speed profile during coasting mode with considering the energy saving and acceptable travel time comparison to the based case with no coasting operation. In this study, the mathematical method as a Quadratic Search Method (QDS) is conducted to carry out the optimization problem. A single train of MRT services between two stations with a distance of 2 km and a maximum speed of 80 km/h is taken to be the case study. Regarding the coasting mode operation, the results show that the longer distance of costing mode, the less energy consumption in cruising mode and the less braking energy. On the other hand, the shorter distance of coasting mode, the more energy consumption in cruising mode and the more braking energy.

Keywords: energy saving, coasting mode, mass rapid transit, quadratic search method

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
9053 Technical Analysis of Combined Solar Water Heating Systems for Cold Climate Regions

Authors: Hossein Lotfizadeh, André McDonald, Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Renewable energy resources, which can supplement space and water heating for residential buildings, can have a noticeable impact on natural gas consumption and air pollution. This study considers a technical analysis of a combined solar water heating system with evacuated tube solar collectors for different solar coverage, ranging from 20% to 100% of the total roof area of a typical residential building located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The alternative heating systems were conventional (non-condensing) and condensing tankless water heaters and condensing boilers that were coupled to solar water heating systems. The performance of the alternative heating systems was compared to a traditional heating system, consisting of a conventional boiler, applied to houses of various gross floor areas. A comparison among the annual natural gas consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) mitigation, and emissions for the various house sizes indicated that the combined solar heating system can reduce the natural gas consumption and CO2 emissions, and increase CO2 mitigation for all the systems that were studied. The results suggest that solar water heating systems are potentially beneficial for residential heating system applications in terms of energy savings and CO2 mitigation.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, CO2 mitigation, natural gas consumption, solar water heating system

Procedia PDF Downloads 216