Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: myeloperoxidase

28 The Effect of Artesunate on Myeloperoxidase Activity of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil

Authors: J. B. Minari, O. B. Oloyede, A. A. Odutuga

Abstract:

Myeloperoxidase is the most abundant enzyme found in the polymorphonuclear neutrophil and is known to play a central role in the host defense system of the leukocyte. The enzyme has been reported to interact with some drugs to generate free radical which inhibits its activity. This study investigated the effects of artesunate on the activity of the enzyme and the subsequent effect on the host immune system. In investigating the effects of the drugs on myeloperoxidase, the influence of concentration, pH, partition ratio estimation and kinetics of inhibition were studied. This study showed that artesunate is concentration-dependent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase with an IC50 of 0.078mM. Partition ratio estimation showed that 60 enzymatic turnover cycles are required for complete inhibition of myeloperoxidase in the presence of artesunate. The influence of pH on the effect of artesunate on the enzyme showed least activity of myeloperoxidase at physiological pH. The kinetic inhibition studies showed that artesunate caused a competitive inhibition with an increase in the Km value from 0.12mM to 0.26mM and no effect on the Vmax value. The Ki value was estimated to be 2.5mM. The results obtained from this study show that artesunate is a potent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase and it is capable of inactivating the enzyme. It is considered that the inhibition of myeloperoxidase in the presence of artesunate as revealed in this study may partly explain the impairment of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and consequent reduction of the strength of the host defense system against secondary infections.

Keywords: myeloperoxidase, artesunate, inhibition, nuetrophill

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
27 Immunosupressive Effect of Chloroquine through the Inhibition of Myeloperoxidase

Authors: J. B. Minari, O. B. Oloyede

Abstract:

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) play a crucial role in a variety of infections caused by bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Indeed, the involvement of PMNs in host defence against Plasmodium falciparum is well documented both in vitro and in vivo. Many of the antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine used in the treatment of human malaria significantly reduce the immune response of the host in vitro and in vivo. Myeloperoxidase is the most abundant enzyme found in the polymorphonuclear neutrophil which plays a crucial role in its function. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of chloroquine on the enzyme. In investigating the effects of the drug on myeloperoxidase, the influence of concentration, pH, partition ratio estimation and kinetics of inhibition were studied. This study showed that chloroquine is concentration-dependent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase with an IC50 of 0.03 mM. Partition ratio estimation showed that 40 enzymatic turnover cycles are required for complete inhibition of myeloperoxidase in the presence of chloroquine. The influence of pH on the effect of chloroquine on the enzyme showed significant inhibition of myeloperoxidase at physiological pH. The kinetic inhibition studies showed that chloroquine caused a non-competitive inhibition with an inhibition constant Ki of 0.27mM. The results obtained from this study shows that chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of myeloperoxidase and it is capable of inactivating the enzyme. It is therefore considered that the inhibition of myeloperoxidase in the presence of chloroquine as revealed in this study may partly explain the impairment of polymorphonuclear neutrophil and consequent immunosuppression of the host defence system against secondary infections.

Keywords: myeloperoxidase, chloroquine, inhibition, neutrophil, immune

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
26 In vitro Inhibitory Action of an Aqueous Extract of Carob on the Release of Myeloperoxidase by Human Neutrophils

Authors: Kais Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Jamel El-Benna, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai

Abstract:

Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a hemic enzyme found in high concentrations in the primary neutrophils granules. In addition to its peroxidase activity, it has a chlorination activity, using hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions to form hypochlorous acid, a strong oxidant, capable of chlorinating molecules. Bioactive compounds contained in medicinal plants could limit the action of this enzyme to reduce the reactive oxygen species production and its chlorination activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the carob aqueous extract (CAE) on the release of MPO by human neutrophils in vitro and its activity following stimulation of these cells by PMA. Methods: Neutrophils were isolated by simple sedimentation using the Dextran/Ficoll method. After stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), neutrophils release the MPO by degranulation. The effect of CAE on the release of MPO was analyzed by the Western blot technique, while, its activity was determined by biochemical method using the method of 3,3', 5,5'- Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide. The data were expressed as mean ± SEM. Results: The carob aqueous extract causes a decrease in MPO quantity and activity in a concentration-dependent manner which leads to a reduction of the production of the ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the protection of the molecules against oxidation and chlorination mechanisms. Conclusion: Thanks to its richness in bioactive compounds, the aqueous extract of carob could limit the development of damages related to the uncontrolled activity of MPO.

Keywords: carob, MPO, myeloperoxidase, neutrophils, PMA, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
25 In Vivo Antiulcer and Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Geraniol on Acetic Acid plus Helicobacter pylori Induced Ulcer in Rats

Authors: Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Vivian Lee Yean Yan, Chin Koh Lee, Chew Hui Kuean, Yun Khoon Liew, Mayuren Candasamy

Abstract:

Geraniol, an acyclic monoterpenoid is the main active constituent in the essential oils of rose and palmorosa. Antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer and antiulcer activity of geraniol was reported by many researchers. The present investigation was designed to study in vivo antiulcer and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of geraniol. Antiulcer and anti-H. pylori activity of geraniol was evaluated on acetic acid plus H. pylori induced ulcer in rats. Acetic acid (0.03 mL) was injected to the sub-serosal layer of the stomach through laparotomy under anaesthesia. Orogastric inoculation of H. pylori (ATCC 43504) was done twice daily for 7 days. Geraniol (15 and 30 mg/kg), vehicle and standard drugs (Amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg; clarithromycin, 25 mg/kg & omeprazole, 20 mg/kg) was administered twice daily for 14 days. Antiulcer activity of geraniol was examined by the determination of gastric ulcer index, measuring the volume of gastric juice, pH and total acidity, myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological examination. Histopathological investigation for the presence of inflammation, white blood cell infiltration, edema, the mucosal damage was studied. The presence of H. pylori was detected by placing a biopsy sample from antral part of the stomach into rapid urease test. Ulcer index in H. pylori inoculated control group was 4.13 ± 0.85 and was significantly (P < 0.05) lowered in geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug treated group. Geraniol increase the pH of the gastric juice (2.18 ± 0.13 in control vs. 4.14 ± 0.57 in geraniol 30mg/kg) and lower total acidity significantly (P < 0.01) in geraniol (15 & 30 mg/kg). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured in stomach homogenate of all the groups. H. pylori control group has significant (P < 0.05) increase in MPO activity compared to normal control group. Geraniol (30 mg/kg) was showed significant (P < 0.05) and most effective among all the groups. Histopathological examination of rat stomach was scored and the total score for H. pylori control group was 8. After geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug treatment, the histopathological score was significantly decreased and it was observed to be 3.5 and 2.0 respectively. Percentage inhibition of H. pylori infection in geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug were found to be 40% and 50% respectively whereas, 100% infection in H. pylori control group was observed. Geraniol exhibited significant antiulcer and anti- H. pylori activity in the rats. Thus, geraniol has the potential for the further development as an effective medication in treating H. pylori associated ulcer.

Keywords: geraniol, helicobacter pylori atcc 43504, myeloperoxidase, ulcer

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
24 Protective Effects of Genistein against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidant Activities

Authors: Dina F. Mansour, Dalia O. Saleh, Rasha E. Mostafa

Abstract:

Cyclophosphamide (CP), the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, was reported to cause many side effects including urotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, gonadotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity; this limits its clinical practice. In the present study, the protective effect of genistein (GEN), the major phytoestrogen in soy products that possesses various pharmacological activities, has been investigated against CP-induced acute liver damage in rats. Forty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into five groups. The first group received the vehicles and act as normal control. In the other groups, rats were injected with a single dose of CP (200 mg/kg, i.p). The last three groups were pretreated with subcutaneous GEN at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 15 consecutive days prior CP injection. Forty-eight hours following CP injection, rats of all groups were investigated for the serum levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase, as well as the liver contents of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, nitrite, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase. Histopathological examination of liver tissues was also conducted. CP resulted in acute liver damage in rats as evidenced by alteration of liver function biomarkers, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers; that was confirmed by the histopathological outcomes. Pretreatment of rats with GEN significantly protected against CP-induced deterioration of liver function and showed marked anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that were demonstrated by the biochemical and histopathological findings. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated the protective effects of GEN against CP-induced liver damage and suggested role of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Keywords: cyclophosphamide, genistein, inflammation, interleukin-1β, liver, myeloperoxidase, oxidative stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
23 The Gastroprotective Potential of Clematis Flammula Leaf Extracts

Authors: Dina Atmani-Kilani, Farah Yous, Djebbar Atmani

Abstract:

The etiology of peptic ulcer is closely related to stress, excessive consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or ethanol. Clematis flammula (Ranunculaceae) is a medicinal plant widely used by rural populations to treat inflammatory disorders. This study was designed to assess the gastroprotective potential of C. flammula extracts. Gastric ulcer was induced by stress, indomethacin, HCl / ethanol, and absolute ethanol on NMRI-type mice. The antioxidant potency of the ethanolic extract of Clematis flammula (EECF) was evaluated on catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels were also quantified. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated through the effect of EECF on myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and vascular permeability. Complementary tests concerning the quantification of mucus levels, gastric motility, inhibition of ATPase H+/K+activity, as well as a histopathological study were also undertaken to explore the mechanism of action of the EECF. The EECF exhibited a significant (p <0.001) and optimal (100 mg/kg) gastroprotective effect by elevating SOD, CAT, and GSH levels, thereby minimizing the production of MDA and lowering the activity of MPO and vascular permeability. EECF also increased the rate of mucus production, decreased gastric motility, and completely suppressed the H+/K+ ATPase activity. Histopathological study confirmed the effectiveness of the extract in the prevention of peptic ulcer. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the gastro-protective effect of EECF via acidic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and anti-secretory mechanisms, which may justify its use as a substitute in peptic ulcer treatment.

Keywords: clematis flammula, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase, ATPase, pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
22 Evaluation of Naringenin Role in Inhibiton of Lung Tumor Progression in Mice

Authors: Vishnu Varthan Vaithiyalingamjagannathan, M. N. Sathishkumar, K. S. Lakhsmi, D. Satheeshkumar, Srividyaammayappanrajam

Abstract:

Background:Naringenin, aglycone flavonoid possess certain activities like anti-oxidant, anti-estrogenic, anti-diabetic, cardioprotective, anti-obesity,anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and also have anti-cancer characteristics like carcinogenic inactivation, cell cycle arrest, anti-proliferation, apoptosis, anti-angiogenesis and enhances anti-oxidant activity. Methodology:The inhibitory effect of Naringenin in lung tumor progression estimated with adenocarcinoma (A549) cell lines (in vitro) and C57BL/6 mice injected with 5 X 106A549 cell lines (in vivo) in a tri-dose manner (Naringenin 100mg/kg,150mg/kg, and 200mg/kg) compared with standard chemotherapy drug cisplatin (7mg/kg). Results:The results of the present study revealed a dose-dependent activity in Naringenin and combination with cisplatin at a higher dose which showed decreased tumor progression in mice. In vitro studies carried out for estimation of cell survival and Nitric Oxide (NO) level, shows dose dependent action of Naringenin with IC50 value of 42µg/ml. In vivo studies were carried out in C57BL/6 mice. Naringenin satisfied the condition of an anti-cancer molecule with its characteristics in fragmentation assay, Zymography assay, anti-oxidant, and myeloperoxidase studies, than cisplatin which failed in anti-oxidant and myeloperoxidase effect. Both in vitro and in vivo establishes dose dependent decrease in NO levels. But whereas, Naringenin showed adverse results in Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymatic levels with increase in dose levels. Conclusion:From the present study, Naringenin could suppress the lung tumor progression when given individually and also in combinatorial with standard chemotherapy drug.

Keywords: naringenin, in vitro, cell line, anticancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
21 Spectroscopic Study of the Anti-Inflammatory Action of Propofol and Its Oxidant Derivatives: Inhibition of the Myeloperoxidase Activity and of the Superoxide Anions Production by Neutrophils

Authors: Pauline Nyssen, Ange Mouithys-Mickalad, Maryse Hoebeke

Abstract:

Inflammation is a complex physiological phenomenon involving chemical and enzymatic mechanisms. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNs) play an important role by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and releasing myeloperoxidase (MPO), a pro-oxidant enzyme. Released both in the phagolysosome and the extracellular medium, MPO produces during its peroxidase and halogenation cycles oxidant species, including hypochlorous acid, involved in the destruction of pathogen agents, like bacteria or viruses. Inflammatory pathologies, like rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis induce an excessive stimulation of the PMNs and, therefore, an uncontrolled release of ROS and MPO in the extracellular medium, causing severe damages to the surrounding tissues and biomolecules such as proteins, lipids, and DNA. The treatment of chronic inflammatory pathologies remains a challenge. For many years, MPO has been used as a target for the development of effective treatments. Numerous studies have been focused on the design of new drugs presenting more efficient MPO inhibitory properties. However, some designed inhibitors can be toxic. An alternative consists of assessing the potential inhibitory action of clinically-known molecules, having antioxidant activity. Propofol, 2,6-diisopropyl phenol, which is used as an intravenous anesthetic agent, meets these requirements. Besides its anesthetic action employed to induce a sedative state during surgery or in intensive care units, propofol and its injectable form Diprivan indeed present antioxidant properties and act as ROS and free radical scavengers. A study has also evidenced the ability of propofol to inhibit the formation of the neutrophil extracellular traps fibers, which are important to trap pathogen microorganisms during the inflammation process. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential inhibitory action mechanism of propofol and Diprivan on MPO activity. To go into the anti-inflammatory action of propofol in-depth, two of its oxidative derivatives, 2,6-diisopropyl-1,4-p-benzoquinone (PPFQ) and 3,5,3’,5’-tetra isopropyl-(4,4’)-diphenoquinone (PPFDQ), were studied regarding their inhibitory action. Specific immunological extraction followed by enzyme detection (SIEFED) and molecular modeling have evidenced the low anti-catalytic action of propofol. Stopped-flow absorption spectroscopy and direct MPO activity analysis have proved that propofol acts as a reversible MPO inhibitor by interacting as a reductive substrate in the peroxidase cycle and promoting the accumulation of redox compound II. Overall, Diprivan exhibited a weaker inhibitory action than the active molecule propofol. In contrast, PPFQ seemed to bind and obstruct the enzyme active site, preventing the trigger of the MPO oxidant cycles. PPFQ induced a better chlorination cycle inhibition at basic and neutral pH in comparison to propofol. PPFDQ did not show any MPO inhibition activity. The three interest molecules have also demonstrated their inhibition ability on an important step of the inflammation pathway, the PMNs superoxide anions production, thanks to EPR spectroscopy and chemiluminescence. In conclusion, propofol presents an interesting immunomodulatory activity by acting as a reductive substrate in the peroxidase cycle of MPO, slowing down its activity, whereas PPFQ acts more as an anti-catalytic substrate. Although PPFDQ has no impact on MPO, it can act on the inflammation process by inhibiting the superoxide anions production by PMNs.

Keywords: Diprivan, inhibitor, myeloperoxidase, propofol, spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
20 Effect of Chronic Exposure to Diazinon on Glucose Homeostasis and Oxidative Stress in Pancreas of Rats and the Potential Role of Mesna in Ameliorating This Effect

Authors: Azza El-Medany, Jamila El-Medany

Abstract:

Residential and agricultural pesticide use is widespread in the world. Their extensive and indiscriminative use, in addition with their ability to interact with biological systems other than their primary targets constitute a health hazards to both humans and animals. The toxic effects of pesticides include alterations in metabolism; there is a lack of knowledge that organophosphates can cause pancreatic toxicity. The primary goal of this work is to study the effects of chronic exposure to Diazinon an organophosphate used in agriculture on pancreatic tissues and evaluate the ameliorating effect of Mesna as antioxidant on the toxicity of Diazinon on pancreatic tissues.40 adult male rats, their weight ranged between 300-350 g. The rats were classified into three groups; control (10 rats) was received corn oil at a dose of 1 0 mg/kg/day by gavage once a day for 2 months. Diazinon (15 rats) was received Diazinon at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day dissolved in corn oil by gavage once a day for 2 months. Treated group (15 rats), were received Mesna 180mg/kg once a week by gavage 15 minutes before administration of Diazinon for 2 months. At the end of the experiment, animals were anesthetized, blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture for glucose and insulin assays and pancreas was removed and divided into 3 portions; first portion for histopathological study; second portion for ultrastructural study; third portion for biochemical study using Elisa Kits including determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), interleukin 1β (IL-1β). A significant increase in the levels of MDA, TNF-α, MPO activity, IL-1β, serum glucose levels in the toxicated group with Diazinon were observed, while a significant reduction was noticed in GSH in serum insulin levels. After treatment with Mesna a significant reduction was observed in the previously mentioned parameters except that there was a significant rise in GSH in insulin levels. Histopathological and ultra-structural studies showed destruction in pancreatic tissues and β cells were the most affected cells among the injured islets as compared with the control group. The current study try to spot light about the effects of chronic exposure to pesticides on vital organs as pancreas also the role of oxidative stress that may be induced by them in evoking their toxicity. This study shows the role of antioxidant drugs in ameliorating or preventing the toxicity. This appears to be a promising approach that may be considered as a complementary treatment of pesticide toxicity.

Keywords: Diazinon, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor α, Mesna

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
19 Protective Effect of Hesperidin against Cyclophosphamide Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Waleed H. Albuali, Iyad Jresat

Abstract:

The protective effect of hesperidin was investigated in rats exposed to liver injury induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (CYP) at a dose of 150 mg kg-1. Hesperidin treatment (100 mg kg-1/day, orally) was applied for seven days, starting five days before CYP administration. Hesperidin significantly decreased the CYP-induced elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and hepatic malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activity, significantly prevented the depletion of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity resulted from CYP administration. Also, hesperidin ameliorated the CYP-induced liver tissue injury observed by histopathological examination. In addition, hesperidin decreased the CYP-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, Fas ligand, and caspase-9 in liver tissue. It was concluded that hesperidin may represent a potential candidate to protect against CYP-induced hepatotoxicity.

Keywords: hesperidin, cyclophosphamide, liver, rats

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
18 Carvedilol Ameliorates Potassium Dichromate-Induced Acute Renal Injury in Rats: Plausible Role of Inflammation and Apoptosis

Authors: Bidya Dhar Sahu, Meghana Koneru, R. Shyam Sunder, Ramakrishna Sistla

Abstract:

Environmental and occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via textile manufacture, metallurgy, spray paints, stainless steel industries, drinking water containing chromium are often known to cause acute renal injury in humans and animals. Nephrotoxicity is the major effect of chromium poisoning. In the present study, we investigated the potential renoprotective effect and underlying mechanisms of carvedilol using rat model of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-induced nephrotoxicity. Exploration of the underlying mechanisms of carvedilol revealed that carvedilol attenuated nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB (p65), restored antioxidant and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activities and attenuated apoptosis related protein expressions in kidney tissues. The serum levels of TNF-α, the renal iNOS and myeloperoxidase activity were significantly decreased in carvedilol pre-treated K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxic rats. These results were further supported and confirmed by histological findings. In conclusion, the findings of the present study demonstrated that carvedilol is an effective chemoprotectant against K2Cr2O7-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: apoptosis, carvedilol, inflammation, potassium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity, applied pharmacology

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
17 The Protective Effects of Naringenin on Iodoacetamide-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

Authors: Yomna T. Abdou, Hala F. Zaki, Sanaa A. Kenawy

Abstract:

Naringenin is a flavanone, a type of flavonoid, found in fruits such as grapefruit, oranges, and tomatoes, was found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of naringenin on iodoacetamide-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with sulfasalazine (300 mg/kg, p.o.) as standard anti-inflammatory drug or naringenin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days then UC was induced by intracolon administration of 0.1 ml (2%) iodoacetamide dissolved in 1% methylcelluose. One week later, animals were scarificed and the colonic tissues were dissected. Colon inflammation was evident by elevation in colon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme, prostaglandin- E2 (PG-E2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Additionally, oxidative stress was manifested by increased colon lipoperoxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH) depletion, elevated nitric oxide (NO) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Pretreatment with naringenin largely mitigated these alterations. The present study reinforces the hypothetical use of naringenin as an anti-inflammatory complement to conventional UC treatment and could be considered in the dietary prevention of intestinal inflammation and related disorders.

Keywords: iodoacetamide, naringenin, sulfasalazine, ulcerative colitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
16 Magnesium Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

Authors: D. M. El-Tanbouly, R. M. Abdelsalam, A. S. Attia, M. T. Abdel-Aziz

Abstract:

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. LPS administration induces systemic inflammation that mimics many of the initial clinical features of sepsis and has deleterious effects on several organs including the liver and eventually leading to septic shock and death. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of magnesium, a well-known cofactor in many enzymatic reactions and a critical component of the antioxidant system, on hepatic damage associated with LPS induced- endotoxima in mice. Mg (20 and 40 mg/kg, po) was administered for 7 consecutive days. Systemic inflammation was induced one hour after the last dose of Mg by a single dose of LPS (2 mg/kg, ip) and three hours thereafter plasma was separated, animals were sacrificed and their livers were isolated. LPS-treated mice suffered from hepatic dysfunction revealed by histological observation, elevation in plasma transaminases activities, C-reactive protein content and caspase-3, a critical marker of apoptosis. Liver inflammation was evident by elevation in liver cytokines contents (TNF-α and IL-10) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Additionally, oxidative stress was manifested by increased liver lipoperoxidation, glutathione depletion, elevated total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Pretreatment with Mg largely mitigated these alternations through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Mg, therefore, could be regarded as an effective strategy for prevention of liver damage associated with septicemia.

Keywords: LPS, liver damage, magnesium, septicemia

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
15 Layer-by-Layer Coated Dexamethasone Microcrystals for Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease Therapy

Authors: Murtada Ahmed Oshi, Jin-Wook Yoo

Abstract:

Layer-by-layer (LBL) coating has gained popularity for drug delivery of therapeutic drugs. Herein we described a novel approach for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of the locally administered dexamethasone (Dex) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We utilized a LBL-coating technique on Dex microcrystals (DexMCs) with multiple layers of polyelectrolytes composed of poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), poly (sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and Eudragit® S100 (ES). The successful deposition of the layers onto DexMCs surfaces were confirmed through zeta potential measurement and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The surface morphology was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The drug encapsulation efficiency was 95% with a mean particle size of 2 µm and negative surface charge (-40 mV). Moreover, in vitro drug release study showed a minimum release of the drug ( 15%) at an acidic condition during initial first 5 h, followed by sustained-release at an alkaline condition. For in vivo study, LBL-DxMCs were administered orally to ICR mice suffering from dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. LBL-DxMCs substantially enhanced anti-IBD activities as compared to DxMCs. Macroscopic, histological and biochemical (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and myeloperoxidase) examinations revealed marked improvements of colitis signs in the mice treated with LBL-DxMCs compared with those treated with DxMCs. Overall, LBL-DxMCs could be a suitable candidate for the treatment of IBD.

Keywords: dexamethasone, inflammatory bowel disease, LBL-coating, polyelectrolytes

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
14 Use of Amaranthus Roxburghianus Root Extract in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

Authors: S. A. Nirmal, J. M. Ingale, G. S. Asane, S. C. Pal, Subhash C. Mandal

Abstract:

The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski. (Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n = 6). Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Ulcer index, colitis severity, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue. Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A. roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation. Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg, respectively. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg, respectively. Similarly, this combination significantly reduced MPO and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue. Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone. 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl, eugenol and benzene, and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A. roxburghianus root.

Keywords: Amaranthus roxburghianus, ulcerative colitis, anti-inflammatory, ulcerative colitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
13 Short-Term versus Long-Term Effect of Waterpipe Smoking Exposure on Cardiovascular Biomarkers in Mice

Authors: Abeer Rababa'h, Ragad Bsoul, Mohammad Alkhatatbeh, Karem Alzoubi

Abstract:

Introduction: Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and atherosclerosis in particular. WPS contains several toxic materials such as: nicotine, carcinogens, tar, carbon monoxide and heavy metals. Thus, WPS is considered to be as one of the toxic environmental factors that should be investigated intensively. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of WPS on several cardiovascular biological markers that may cause atherosclerosis in mice. The study also conducted to study the temporal effects of WPS on the atherosclerotic biomarkers upon short (2 weeks) and long-term (8 weeks) exposures. Methods: mice were exposed to WPS and heart homogenates were analyzed to elucidate the effects of WPS on matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and, myeloperoxidase (MPO). Following protein estimation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were done to measure the levels of MMPs (isoforms 1, 3, and 9), MPO, and ET-1 protein expressions. Results: our data showed that acute exposure to WPS significantly enhances the levels of MMP-3, MMP- 9, and MPO expressions (p < 0.05) compared to their corresponding control. However, the body was capable to normalize the level of expressions for such parameters following continuous exposure for 8 weeks (p > 0.05). Additionally, we showed that the level of ET-1 expression was significantly higher upon chronic exposure to WPS compared to both control and acute exposure groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Waterpipe exposure has a significant negative effect on atherosclerosis and the enhancement of the atherosclerotic biomarkers expression (MMP-3 and 9, MPO, and ET-1) might represent an early scavenger of compensatory efforts to maintain cardiac function after WP exposure.

Keywords: atherosclerotic biomarkers, cardiovascular disease, matrix metalloproteinase, waterpipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
12 Stimuli-Responsive Zwitterionic Dressings for Chronic Wounds Management

Authors: Konstans Ruseva, Kristina Ivanova, Katerina Todorova, Margarita Gabrashanska, Tzanko Tzanov, Elena Vassileva

Abstract:

Zwitterionic polymers (ZP) are well-known with their ultralow biofouling. They are successfully competing with poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG), which are considered as the “golden standard” in this respect. These unique properties are attributed to their strong hydration capacity, defined by the dipole-dipole interactions, arising between the ZP pendant groups as well as to the dipoles interaction with water molecules. Beside, ZP are highly resistant to bacterial adhesion thus ensuring an excellent anti-biofilm formation ability. Moreover, ZP are able to respond upon external stimuli such as temperature, pH, salt concentration changes which in combination with their anti-biofouling effect render this type of polymers as materials with a high potential in biomedical applications. The present work is focused on the development of zwitterionic hydrogels for efficient treatment of highly exudating and hard-to-heal chronic wounds. To this purpose, two types of ZP networks with different crosslinking degree were synthesized - polysulfobetaine (PSB) and polycarboxybetaine (PCB) ones. They were characterized in terms of their physico-mechanical properties, e.g. microhardness, swelling ability, smart behaviour. Furthermore, the potential of ZP networks to resist biofilm formation towards Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was studied. Their ability to reduce the high levels of myeloperoxidase and metalloproteinase, two enzymes that are part of the chronic wounds enviroenment, was revealed. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxic assessment of PSB and PCB networks along with their in vivo performance in rats was also studied to reveal their high biocompatibility.

Keywords: absorption properties, biocompatibility, enzymatic inhibition activity, wound healing, zwitterionic polymers

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
11 Effect of Omega-3 Supplementation on Stunted Egyptian Children at Risk of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction: An Interventional Study

Authors: Ghada M. El-Kassas, Maged A. El Wakeel, Salwa R. El-Zayat

Abstract:

Background: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. Evidence has suggested that supplementary omega-3 might ameliorate this damage by reducing gastrointestinal inflammation and may also benefit cognitive development. Objective: We tested whether omega-3 supplementation improves intestinal integrity, growth, and cognitive function in stunted children predicted to have EED. Methodology: 100 Egyptian stunted children aged 1-5 years and 100 age and gender-matched normal children as controls. At the primary phase of the study, we assessed anthropometric measures and fecal markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and alpha-1-anti-trypsin (AAT) (as predictors of EED). Cognitive development was assessed (Bayley or Wechsler scores). Oral n-3 (omega-3) LC-PUFA at a dosage of 500 mg/d was supplemented to all cases and followed up for 6 months after which the 2ry phase of the study included the previous clinical, laboratory and cognitive assessment. Results: Fecal inflammatory markers were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. (MPO), (NEO) and (AAT) showed a significant decline in cases at the end of the 2ry phase (P < 0.001 for all). Omega-3 supplementation resulted also in a significant increase in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) (P < 0.01), weight for age z-score, and skinfold thicknesses (P< 0.05 for both). Cases showed significant improvement of cognitive function at phase 2 of the study. Conclusions: Omega-3 supplementation successfully improved intestinal inflammatory state related to EED. Also, some improvement of anthropometric and cognitive parameters showed obvious improvement with omega-3 supplementation.

Keywords: cognitive functions, EED, omega-3, stunting

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
10 Preliminary Assessment for Protective Effect of Rhodiola rosea in Chemically Induced Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: Santram Lodhi, Alok Pal Jain, Awesh K. Yadav, Gopal Rai

Abstract:

Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is commonly known as golden root or rose root. It is a perennial herbaceous plant and most investigated species of the genus Rhodiola. Rhodiola rosea contains flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoid glycosides and phenylethanol derivatives in the roots of the plant. The objective of present study was to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract from Rhodiola rosea roots in DSS induced colitis in mice. The ulcerative colitis was induced by DSS (3%, w/v) in mice and estimated weight loss and stool consistency. Various parameters including Colon length, spleen weights and ulcer index were also measured. The histological observations were observed by H&E staining. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract on various antioxidant parameter of rat colon such as tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), reduced GSH, SOD concentrations and lipid peroxidation were determined. Pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined by ELISA. In DSS induced group, mice body weight decreased gradually as compared to the control group. Redness and edema were observed in the colons intensely and scores representing inflammation in this group. The extract treated showed with tissue levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and MPO activity were significantly (p<0.05) increased. The mice treated with higher doses of hydroalcoholic extract (300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the activity compared with standard drug sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg. B.wt). Conclusion: Results of this study were suggested that the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract, especially at the higher dose, was similar to that of standard drug, which concerned its potential application as a natural medicine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

Keywords: phenylpropanoid, Rhodiola rosea, sulfasalazin, ulcerative colitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
9 Protective Effect of Bexarotene, a Selective RXRα Agonist, against Hypotension Associated with Inflammation and Tissue Injury Linked to Decreased Circulating iNOS Levels in A Rat Model of Septic Shock

Authors: Bahar Tunctan, Sefika Pinar Kucukkavruk, Meryem Temiz-Resitoglu, Demet Sinem Guden, Ayse Nihal Sari, Seyhan Sahan-Firat

Abstract:

We hypothesized that rexinoids such as bexarotene, a selective retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) agonist, may be beneficial for preventing mortality due to inflammation associated with increased expression/activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, we investigated effects of bexarotene on the changes in circulating protein levels of iNOS (an index for systemic iNOS expression), myeloperoxidase (MPO) (an index for systemic inflammation), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (an index for systemic tissue injury) in LPS-induced systemic inflammation model resulting in septic shock in rats. Rats were injected with saline (4 ml/kg; i.p.), LPS (10 mg/kg; i.p.), dimethylsulphoxide (4 ml/kg, 0.1%; s.c.) at time 0. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured using a tail-cuff device. Bexarotene (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg; s.c.) was administered to separate groups of rats 1 h after injection of saline or LPS. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after saline or LPS injection and blood was collected for measurement of serum iNOS, MPO, and LDH protein levels. Blood pressure decreased by 31 mmHg and heart rate increased by 63 bpm in the LPS-treated rats. Bexarotene at 0.3 and 1 mg/kg doses caused 20% mortality 4 h after LPS injection. In the LPS-treated rats, serum iNOS, MPO, and LDH protein levels were increased. Bexarotene only at 0.1 mg/kg dose prevented the LPS-induced hypotension and increased in iNOS, MPO, and LDH protein levels. These data are consistent with the view that a decrease in systemic iNOS levels contributes to the beneficial effect of bexarotene to prevent the hypotension associated with inflammation and tissue injury during rat endotoxemia. [This work was financially supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (SBAG-109S121)].

Keywords: bexarotene, inflammation, iNOS, lipopolisaccharide, RXRa

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
8 Beneficial Effects of Curcumin against Stress Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulphonic Acid in Colon

Authors: Souad Mouzaoui, Bahia Djerdjouri

Abstract:

Oxidative stress is one of the main factors involved in the onset and chronicity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of a potent natural antioxidant, curcumin (Cur) on colitis and mitochondrial dysfunction in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Rectal instillation of the chemical irritant TNBS (30 mg kg-1) induced the disruption of distal colonic architecture and a massive inflammatory cells influx to the mucosa and submucosa layers. Under these conditions, daily administration of Cur (25 mg kg-1) efficiently decreased colitis scores in the inflamed distal colon by reducing leukocyte infiltrate as attested by reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Moreover, the levels of nitrite, an end product of inducible NO synthase activity (iNOS) and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation increased in a time depending manner in response to TNBS challenge. Conversely, the markers of the antioxidant pool, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) were drastically reduced. Cur attenuated oxidative stress markers and partially restored CAT and GSH levels. Moreover, our results expanded the effect of Cur on TNBS-induced colonic mitochondrial dysfunction. In fact, TNBS induced mitochondrial swelling and lipids peroxidation. These events reflected in the opening of mitochondrial transition pore and could be an initial indication in the cascade process leading to cell death. TNBS inhibited also mitochondrial respiratory activity, caused overproduction of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-.) and reduced level of mitochondrial GSH. Nevertheless, Cur reduced the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by TNBS and restored colonic mitochondrial function. In conclusion, our results showed the critical role of oxidative stress in TNBS-induced colitis. They highlight the role of colonic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by TNBS, as a potential source of oxidative damages. Due to its potent antioxidant properties, Cur opens a promising therapeutic approach against oxidative inflammation in IBD.

Keywords: colitis, curcumin, mitochondria, oxidative stress, TNBS

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
7 Ph-Triggered Cationic Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Mitigated Colitis in Mice

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Juho Lee, Jin-Wook Yoo

Abstract:

In this study, we hypothesized that prolonged gastrointestinal transit at the inflamed colon conferred by a pH-triggered mucoadhesive smart nanoparticulate drug delivery system aids in achieving selective and sustained levels of the drug within the inflamed colon for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. We developed budesonide-loaded pH-sensitive charge-reversal solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) using a hot homogenization method. Polyetylenimine (PEI) was used to render SLNs cationic (PEI-SLNs). Eudragit S100 (ES) was coated on PEI-SLNs for pH-trigger charge-reversal SLNs (ES-PEI-SLNs). Therapeutic potential of the prepared SNLs formulation was evaluated in ulcerative colitis in mice. The transmission electron microscopy, zeta size and zeta potential data showed the successful formation of SLNs formulations. SLNs and PEI-SLNs showed burst drug release in acidic pH condition mimicking stomach and early small intestine environment which limiting their application as oral delivery systems. However, ES-PEI-SLNs prevented a burst drug release in acidic pH conditions and showed sustained release at a colonic pH. Most importantly, the surface charge of ES-PEI-SLNs switched from negative to positive in colonic conditions by pH-triggered removal of ES coating and accumulated selectively in inflamed colon. Furthermore, a charge reversal ES-PEI-SLNs showed a superior mitigation of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis in mice as compared to SLNs and PEI-SLNs treated groups. Moreover, histopathological analysis of distal colon sections stained with hematoxylin/eosin and E-cadherin immunostaining revealed attenuated inflammation in an ES-PEI-SLNs-treated group. We also found that ES-PEI-SLNs markedly reduced the myeloperoxidase level and expression of TNF-alpha in colon tissue. Our results suggest that the pH-triggered charge reversal SLNs presented in this study would be a promising approach for ulcerative colitis therapy.

Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticles, stimuli-triggered charge-reversal, ulcerative colitis, methacrylate copolymer, budesonide

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
6 Impact of Environmental Pollution on Oxidative Stress Indices in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Araromi River in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Arojojoye Oluwatosin Adetola, Nwaechefu Olajumoke Olufunlayo, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Jeremiah Moyinoluwalogo Afolabi, Asaolu Racheal Oluwabukola

Abstract:

The effects of man’s activities on the environment include depletion of natural resources alongside pollution of water bodies. Petroleum exploration in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has compromised the aquatic environment with grave consequences on the entire ecosystem. In this study, we assessed the environmental safety of Araromi River, located in an oil-producing area in Ondo State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria by determining the levels of heavy metals (copper, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) and some biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase and reduced glutathione) in Clarias gariepinus (350-400g) from the river using standard methods. Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm in the same geographical location as the reference site (Ilesannmi fishery) was used as a control. Water samples from both sites were also analysed for some physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and bacterial contamination. Our findings show a significant increase in malondialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) as well as alterations in antioxidant status in the organs of Clarias gariepinus from Araromi River compared with control. A significant increase in bacterial contaminants, heavy metal pollutants, and particulate matter deposits were also observed in the water sample from Araromi River compared with control. In conclusion, high levels of indicators of environmental pollution observed in the water sample from Araromi River coupled with induction of oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus from the river show that Araromi River is polluted; therefore, consumption of fishes and other aquatic organisms from the river may be unsafe for the people in that community.

Keywords: Araromi River, Clarias gariepinus, environmental pollution, heavy metals, oxidative stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
5 Anti-Colitic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus sakei K040706 in Mice with Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: Seunghwan Seo, Woo-Seok Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Young Kyoung Rhee, Chang-Won Cho, Hee-Do Hong, Kyung-Tae Lee

Abstract:

Doenjang, known as traditional Korean food, is product of a natural mixed fermentation process carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus sakei K040706 (K040706) has been accepted as the most populous LAB in over ripened doenjang. Recently, we reported the immunostimulatory effects of K040706 in RAW 264.7 macrophages and in a cyclophosphamide-induced mouse model. In this study, we investigated the ameliorative effects of K040706 in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. We induced colitis using DSS in 5-week-ICR mice over 14 days with or without 0.1, 1 g/kg/day K040706 orally. The body weight, stool consistency, and gross bleeding were recorded for determination of the disease activity index (DAI). At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and colonic tissues were collected and subjected to histological experiments and myeloperoxidase (MPO) accumulation, cytokine determination, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results showed that K040706 significantly attenuated DSS-induced DAI score, shortening of colon length, enlargement of spleen and immune cell infiltrations into colonic tissues. Histological examinations indicated that K040706 suppressed edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS. These results were correlated with the restoration of tight junction protein expression, such as, ZO-1 and occludin in K040706-treated mice. Moreover, K040706 reduced the abnormal secretions and mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). DSS-induced mRNA expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) in colonic tissues was also downregulated by K040706 treatment. Furthermore, K040706 suppressed the protein and mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylation of NF-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). These results suggest that K040706 has an anti-colitic effect by inhibition of intestinal inflammatory responses in DSS-induced colitic mice.

Keywords: Lactobacillus sakei, NF-κB, STAT3, ulcerative colitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
4 Biochemical and Cellular Correlates of Essential Oil of Pistacia Integerrima against in vitro and Murine Models of Bronchial Asthma

Authors: R. L. Shirole, N. L. Shirole, R. B. Patil, M. N. Saraf

Abstract:

The present investigation aimed to elucidate the probable mechanism of antiasthmatic action of essential oil of Pistacia integerrima J.L. Stewart ex Brandis galls (EOPI). EOPI was investigated for its potential antiasthmatic action using in vitro antiallergic assays mast cell degranulation and soyabean lipoxidase enzyme activit, and spasmolytic action using isolated guinea pig ileum preparation. In vivo studies included lipopolysaccharide-induced bronchial inflammation in rats and airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin in sensitized guinea pigs using spirometry. Data was analysed by GraphPad Prism 5.01 and results were expressed as means ± SEM. P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. EOPI inhibits 5-lipoxidase enzyme activity, DPPH scavenging activity and erythropoietin- induced angiogenesis. It showed dose dependent anti-allergic activity by inhibiting compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation. The finding that essential oil induced inhibition of transient contraction of acetylcholine in calcium free medium, and relaxation of S-(-)-Bay 8644-precontracted isolated guinea pig ileum jointly suggest that suggesting that the L-subtype Cav channel is involved in spasmolytic action of EOPI. Treatment with EOPI dose dependently (7.5, 15 and 30 mg/kg i.p.) inhibited lipopolysaccharide- induced increased in total cell count, neutrophil count, nitrate-nitrite, total protein, albumin levels in bronchoalveolar fluid and myeloperoxidase levels in lung homogenates. Mild diffused lesions involving focal interalveolar septal, intraluminal infiltration of neutrophils were observed in EOPI (7.5 &15 mg/kg) pretreated while no abnormality was detected in EOPI (30 mg/kg) and roflumilast (1mg/kg) pretreated rats. Roflumilast was used as standard. EOPI reduced the respiratory flow due to gasping in ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of EOPI in bronchial asthma possibly related to its ability to inhibit L-subtype Cav channel, mast cell stabilization, antioxidant, angiostatic and through inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase enzyme.

Keywords: asthma, lipopolysaccharide, spirometry, Pistacia integerrima J.L. Stewart ex Brandis, essential oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
3 Role of Zinc Adminstration in Improvement of Faltering Growth in Egyption Children at Risk of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction

Authors: Ghada Mahmoud El Kassas, Maged Atta El Wakeel

Abstract:

Background: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is impending trouble that flared up in the last decades to be pervasive in infants and children. EED is asymptomatic villous atrophy of the small bowel that is prevalent in the developing world and is associated with altered intestinal function and integrity. Evidence has suggested that supplementary zinc might ameliorate this damage by reducing gastrointestinal inflammation and may also benefit cognitive development. Objective: We tested whether zinc supplementation improves intestinal integrity, growth, and cognitive function in stunted children predicted to have EED. Methodology: This case–control prospective interventional study was conducted on 120 Egyptian Stunted children aged 1-10 years who recruited from the Nutrition clinic, the National research center, and 100 age and gender-matched healthy children as controls. At the primary phase of the study, Full history taking, clinical examination, and anthropometric measurements were done. Standard deviation score (SDS) for all measurements were calculated. Serum markers as Zonulin, Endotoxin core antibody (EndoCab), highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and fecal markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and alpha-1-anti-trypsin (AAT) (as predictors of EED) were measured. Cognitive development was assessed (Bayley or Wechsler scores). Oral zinc at a dosage of 20 mg/d was supplemented to all cases and followed up for 6 months, after which the 2ry phase of the study included the previous clinical, laboratory, and cognitive assessment. Results: Serum and fecal inflammatory markers were significantly higher in cases compared to controls. Zonulin (P < 0.01), (EndoCab) (P < 0.001) and (AGP) (P < 0.03) markedly decreased in cases at the end of 2ry phase. Also (MPO), (NEO), and (AAT) showed a significant decline in cases at the end of the study (P < 0.001 for all). A significant increase in mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) (P < 0.01), weight for age z-score, and skinfold thicknesses (P< 0.05 for both) was detected at end of the study, while height was not significantly affected. Cases also showed significant improvement of cognitive function at phase 2 of the study. Conclusion: Intestinal inflammatory state related to EED showed marked recovery after zinc supplementation. As a result, anthropometric and cognitive parameters showed obvious improvement with zinc supplementation.

Keywords: stunting, cognitive function, environmental enteric dysfunction, zinc

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
2 In vitro and in vivo Effects of 'Sonneratia alba' Extract against the Fish Pathogen 'Aphanomyces invadans'

Authors: S. F. Afzali, W. L. Wong

Abstract:

The epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) causes by the oomycete fungus, Aphanomyces invadans; known to be one of the infectious fish diseases for farmed and wild fishes in fresh and brackish-water from the Asia-pacific region, America and Africa. Although, EUS had been documented by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) since 1995, hitherto, there is neither standard chemical agents that can be used for successful treatment of this destructive infection in the time of outbreak; nor available vaccine for prevention. Plant-based remedies in controlling fish diseases are gaining much attention recently as an alternative to chemical treatments, which possess negative effects to the environment and human. In present study, Sonneratia alba, a mangrove plant belongs to the Sonneratiaceae family, was screened in vitro and in vivo for its antifungal activity against A. invadans mycelium growth and its effects on fish innate immune system and disease resistant. The in vitro tests was performed using the disc diffusion methods with measurements of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone. For in vivo study, the S. alba extract supplemented diets were administrated at 0.0, 1.0%, 3.0%, and 5.0% on healthy goldfish, Carassius auratus, which challenged with A. invadans zoospores (100 spores/ml). To compare the significant differences in the hematological and immunological parameters obtained from the experiments, the data were analysed using the SPSS. The methanol extract of S. alba effectively inhibited the mycelial growth of A. invadans at a minimum concentration of 1000 ppm for agar and filter paper diffusion experiments. In the agar diffusion test, 500 ppm of the extract inhibited the fungus mycelial growth up to 96 hours after exposure. The mycelial growth from the edge of the pre-inoculated A. invadans agar discs treated with S. alba extracts at concentrations of 100, 500 and 1000 ppm were 15, 8 and 0 mm respectively. The results of the filter paper disc test showed that the S. alba extract at its minimal inhibitory concentration (1000 ppm) has similar qualitative inhibitory effect as malachite green at 1 ppm and formalin at 250 ppm. According to the in vivo tests findings, in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet, the numbers of white blood cell and myeloperoxidase activity significantly increased after the second week of treatment. Whilst the numbers of red blood cell significantly decreased in the infected fish fed with 0.0 and 1.0% supplementation diet. After the third week of feeding, significant increases in the total protein, albumin level, lysozyme activity were recorded in the infected fish fed with 3.0% and 5.0% supplementation diet. Also, the enriched diets increased the survival rate as compared to the untreated group that suffered from 90% mortality. The present study indicated that S. alba extract may inhibit the mycelial growth of A. invadans effectively, suggesting an alternative to other chemotherapeutic agents, which brought much environmental and health concerns to the public, for EUS treatment.

Keywords: fungal pathogen, goldfish, organic extract, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
1 Pathophysiological Implications in Immersion Treatment Methods of Icthyophthiriasis Disease in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Using Moringa oleifera Extract

Authors: Ikele Chika Bright, Mgbenka Bernard Obialo, Ikele Chioma Faith

Abstract:

Icthyophthiriasis is a prevalent protozoan (ectoparasite) mostly affecting cultured and aquarium fishes. The majority of the chemotherapeutants lack efficacy for completely eliminating Ich parasite without affecting the environment and they are not safe for human health. The present work is focused on the evaluating different immersion treatments of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) infected with ichthyophthiriasis and treated with a non-chemical and environmental friendly parasiticides Moringa oleifera. A total number of 800 apparently healthy parasites free (examined) post juvenile catfish were obtained from a reputable farm, disinfected with potassium permanganate in a quarantine tank to remove any possible external parasites. The fish were further challenged with approximately 44,000 infective stages of theronts which were obtained through serial passages by cohabitation. Seven groups (A-G) of post Juvenile were used for the experiment which was carried out into three stages; Dips (60minutes), short term treatment (24-96h) and prolong bath treatment (0-15 days). The concentrations selected were dependent on the outcome of the LC50 of the plant material from which dose-dependent factors were used to select various concentrations of the treatment. In Dips treatment, group D-G were treated with 1,500mg/L, 2500mg/L., 3500mg/L and 4500mg/L, short-term treatment was treated with 150mg/L, 250mg/L, 350mg/L and 450mg/L and prolong bath was treated with 15mg/L, 25mg/L, 35mg/L and 45mg/L of the plant extract whereas group A, B and C were normal control, Ich- infested not treated and Ich- infested treated with standard drug (Acriflavin), respectively. The various types of treatment applied with corresponding concentrations showed almost complete elimination of the adult parasites (trophonts) both in the gills and the body smear, thereby making M. oleifera a potential parasiticides. There were serious pathological alterations in the skin and gills which are usually the main point for Ich parasites invasion but no significant morphological characteristics was noted among the treated groups subjected to different immersion treatment patterns. Epitheliocystis, aneurysm, oedema, hemorrhage, and localization of the adult parasite in the gills were the overall common observations made in the gills whereas degeneration of muscle fibre, dermatitis, hemorrhage, oedema, abscess formation and keratinisation were observed in the skin. However, there are no pathological changes in the control group. Moreover, biochemical parameters such as urea, creatinine, albumin., globulin, total protein, ALT, AST), blood chemistry (sodium, chloride, potassium, bicarbonate), antioxidants (CAT, SOD, GPx, LPO), enzymatic activities (myeloperoxidase, thioreadoxin reductase), Inflammatory response (C-reactive protein), Stress markers (lactate dehydrogenase), heamatological parameters (RBC, PCV, WBC, HB and differential count), lipid profile (total cholesterol, tryglycerides , high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein) all showed various significant (P<0.05) and no significant (P>0.05) responses among the Ich-infested fish treated under three immersion treatments. It is suggested that M. oleifera may serve as an alternatives to chemotherapeutants for control of Ichthyophthiriasis in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

Keywords: Icthyophthirius multifilis, immersion treatment, pathophysiology, African catfish

Procedia PDF Downloads 263