Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 569

Search results for: wound healing

569 The Effect of Topically Aloe vera Gel on Cutaneous Wound Healing

Authors: Nasrin Takzaree, Abbas Hadjiakhoondi, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Mohammadreza Rouini

Abstract:

Background: Wound healing and repair is a normal reaction to injury which results in restoration of tissue integrity. Rate of wound healing is affected by various factors, such as nutrition, vitamins, hormones. Method: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera mucilage on wound healing. Mucilage was extracted from leaves, then homogenize, filtered and concentrated. Some creams were prepared with different concentrations of mucilage 95%. In this study 63 male albino rats, weighing 250–300 gr were used. Incision wounds (10 mm) were made on the shaved and cleaned back of rat necks. Wounds of case groups (group I & group II) were treated with aloe vera mucilage which were administered one time daily another group two times daily. Results: In order to evaluate wound healing, various parameters such as wound diameter, percentage of healing, duration of healing. Were considered. Conclusion: The results of this study confirmed that aloe vera mucilage is a potent healing and can be used in wound healing process.

Keywords: Aloe vera, wound healing, open skin wound, healing process

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568 Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Phlomis bovei De Noe in Wistar Albino Rats

Authors: W. Khitri, J. Zenaki, A. Abi, N. Lachgueur, A. Lardjem

Abstract:

Healing is a biological phenomenon that is automatically and immediately implemented by the body that is able to repair the physical damage of all tissues except nerve cells. Lot of medicinal plants is used for the treatment of a wound. Our ethnobotanical study has identified 19 species and 13 families of plants used in traditional medicine in Oran-Algeria for their healing activities. The Phlomis bovei De Noe was the species most recommended by herbalists. Its phytochemical study revealed different secondary metabolites such as terpenes, tannins, saponins and mucilage. The evaluation of the healing activity of Phlomis bovei in wistar albinos rats by excision wound model showed a significant amelioration with 5 % increase of the surface healing compared to the control group and a gain of three days of epithelialization time with a scar histologically better.

Keywords: Phlomis Bovei De Noe, ethnobanical study, wound healing, wistar albino rats

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567 Effectiveness of Balloon Angioplasty and Stent Angioplasty: Wound Healing in Critically Limb Ischemic

Authors: M. Wisnu Pamungkas, Patrianef Darwis

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Introduction: Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is a vascular disease that has a significant amputation and mortality risk with diabetes mellitus, the most significant risk factor in CLI, is very common among Indonesian. Endovascular intervention (EVI) is preferred in treating CLI because it is noninvasive and effective. Balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty are the most common method of EVI in Indonesia. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty on wound healing in CLI. Method: A cross-sectional study enrolled 90 subjects of CLI who underwent endovascular intervention using balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty from January 2013 to July 2017 in dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. The wound healing period between balloon angioplasty dan stent angioplasty was analyzed using unpaired T-test with p<0,05 considered as statistically significant. Data of intervention method wound healing period, and subjects characteristic data (age, amputation, BMI, smoking habit, DM, occlusion site, and blood profile) were obtained. Result: The wound healing period in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty distributed normally. Mean value of wound healing period in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty are 84,8+/-2,423 and 59,93 +/- 2,423 days with a mean difference of 25 days. The difference in wound healing period in both groups is statically significant (p<0,05). The amputation event in balloon angioplasty and stent angioplasty is 22 and 16 event with no difference statistically. Conclusion: Stent angioplasty is a better method than balloon angioplasty for wound healing in patients with CLI.

Keywords: critical limb ischemia, endovascular intervention, wound healing, angioplasty

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566 Sea Cucumber (Stichopus chloronotus) to Expedite Healing of Minor Wounds

Authors: Isa Naina Mohamed, Mazliadiyana Mazlan, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid

Abstract:

Stichopus chloronotus (Black Knobby or green fish) is a sea cucumber species commonly found along Malaysia’s coastline. In Malaysia, it is believed that sea cucumber can expedite healing of wounds, provide extra energy and used as an ointment to relieve pain. The aim of this study is to determine the best concentration of Stichopus chlronotus extract to promote wound healing. 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats with wounds created using 6mm disposable punch biopsy were divided into 6 treatment groups. The normal control group (untreated), positive control group (flavin treated only), negative control group (emulsifying ointment only), and group 0.1, group 0.5, group 1 were each treated with 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% of Stichopus chlronotus water extract mixed in emulsifying ointment, respectively. Treatments were administered topically for 10 days. Changes in wound area were measured using caliper and photographs were taken on day 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 after index wound. Results showed that wound reduction of group 0.5 on day 4, 6, and 8 was significantly higher compared to normal control group and positive control group. Group 0.5 also had higher wound reduction from day 6 until day 10 compared to all other groups. In conclusion, Sea Cucumber (Stichopus chloronotus) extract demonstrated the best minor wound healing properties at concentration 0.5%. The potential of Stichopus chlronotus extract ointment for wound healing shall be investigated further.

Keywords: minor wound healing, expedite wound healing, sea cucumber, Stichopus chloronotus

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565 Comparative Wound Healing Potential of Mitracarpus villosus Ointment and Honey in Diabetic Albino Rats by Collagen Assessment

Authors: Bawa Inalegwu, Jacob A. Jato, Ovye Akyengo, John Akighir

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All humans will experience some type of wound in every lifetime. Most wounds heal quickly with little or no attention but, many people suffer from wounds that are complex and/or persistent therefore posing a burden. This study was designed to assess the efficacy of Mitrcarpus villous ointment against honey in diabetic rats. To achieve this, percentage wound closure and collagen assessments were used to express treatment efficacy. Results show that on day 21, rats treated with M. villosus ointment had the highest percentage closure (94.5%) while honey treated and non-treated recorded 90.0% and 83.3% respectively. Similarly, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed on day 21 in the total collagen deposited in wounds of diabetic rats (10.57 ± 0.7) and M. villous ointment treated wounds (11.77 ± 0.4) as compared with the non-treated diabetic rats. M. villosus ointment was efficacious in healing wounds in diabetic rats and heals wound faster than honey and may hold potential for wound healing in diabetes mellitus sufferers. However, the wound healing mechanism of this ointment

Keywords: collagen, diabetic rats, honey, Mitracarpus villosus, ointment, wound healing

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564 Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Curcuma purpurascens BI. Rhizomes in Rats

Authors: Elham Rouhollahi, Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Salma Baig, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla, Zahurin Mohamed

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This study was designed to assess cutaneous wound healing potential of hexane extract of Curcuma purpurascens rhizomes (HECP). Twenty-four rats were divided into 4 groups: 1. Negative, 2. Low dose, 3. High dose and 4. Treatment, with 6 rats in each group. Full-thickness incisions with a diameter of 2 cm were made on the back of each rat. Rats were topically treated two times a day for 15 days. Group 1-4 were treated with sterile distilled water, 5% and 10% of extract and intrasite gel, respectively. Masson's trichrome and hematoxylin staining techniques are employed for histological analysis revealed strong wound healing potential closer to that of conventional drug intrasite gel. HECP significantly decreased wound area and an increase in hydroxyproline, cellular proliferation, the number of blood vessels and the level of collagen synthesis was observed. Thus, it could be concluded that HECP possesses strong wound healing potential.

Keywords: Curcuma purpurascens, wound healing, histopathology, hematoxylin staining

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563 The Use of a Rabbit Model to Evaluate the Influence of Age on Excision Wound Healing

Authors: S. Bilal, S. A. Bhat, I. Hussain, J. D. Parrah, S. P. Ahmad, M. R. Mir

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Background: The wound healing involves a highly coordinated cascade of cellular and immunological response over a period including coagulation, inflammation, granulation tissue formation, epithelialization, collagen synthesis and tissue remodeling. Wounds in aged heal more slowly than those in younger, mainly because of comorbidities that occur as one age. The present study is about the influence of age on wound healing. 1x1cm^2 (100 mm) wounds were created on the back of the animal. The animals were divided into two groups; one group had animals in the age group of 3-9 months while another group had animals in the age group of 15-21 months. Materials and Methods: 24 clinically healthy rabbits in the age group of 3-21 months were used as experimental animals and divided into two groups viz A and B. All experimental parameters, i.e., Excision wound model, Measurement of wound area, Protein extraction and estimation, Protein extraction and estimation and DNA extraction and estimation were done by standard methods. Results: The parameters studied were wound contraction, hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein, and DNA. A significant increase (p<0.005) in the hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA and a significant decrease in wound area (p<0.005) was observed in the age group of 3-9 months when compared to animals of an age group of 15-21 months. Wound contraction together with hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA estimations suggest that advanced age results in retarded wound healing. Conclusion: The decrease wound contraction and accumulation of hydroxyproline, glucosamine, protein and DNA in group B animals may be associated with the reduction or delay in growth factors because of the advancing age.

Keywords: age, wound healing, excision wound, hydroxyproline, glucosamine

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562 Effect of Falcaria vulgaris in Wound Healing and Immune Response of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Authors: N. Choobkar, M. Rezaeimanesh, A. M. Emami Rad, M. Ghaeni, H. Norouzi, S. Pahlavani, M. S. Tamasoki, E. Nezafatian

Abstract:

Antibiotics are used to increase the immune and wound healing in many animals . But due to the residual effects of a drug , researchers sought to replace them with natural materials such as Plant extracts. Falcaria vulgaris is the most attractive sources of the new drugs. Falcaria vulgaris (locally named Ghazzyaghi/Poghazeh) is a member of Umbelliferae family which grows near farmlands and is consumed as a vegetable in some regions of Iran. In the West of the country, in the wound healing and irregularities in the digestive system is also used. There were no scientific reports available in literature in support of the traditional claims of F. vulgaris in fish. The present study is therefore an attempt to assess the efficacy of this indigenous herb for its healing effect in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Falcaria vulgaris at concentrations of 0, 2 and 10 % with Lophag foods used on wound healing of common carp and immune response, and weight grow and survival during periods of 21 days with feeding 2 times per day on the basis of body weight. The results showed that, compared with the control group, using of concentration 10 % F. vulgaris have significant effect on wound healing and stimulates the immune system by increasing white blood cells (WBC) and weight grow and survival of carp. The herb can used in wound healing, increased resistance to disease and weight grow in fish and the beneficial effects of this combination goes back to man.

Keywords: common carp, falcaria vulgaris, immune response, wound healing

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561 Nanosilver Loaded Biomaterial for Wound Healing Applications: In Vitro Studies

Authors: Sathish Sundar Dhilip Kumar, Nicolette Houreld, Heidi Abrahamse

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Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are classified as metal-based nanomaterials and have received considerable attention globally for wound healing and tissue engineering applications. Naturally available materials are a significant source of medicinal products to treat numerous diseases; polysaccharides are among them. Polysaccharides are non-toxic, safe, and inexpensive, and it has good biocompatibility and biodegradability. Most polysaccharides are shown to have a positive effect on wound healing processes, including chitosan and gum tragacanth. The present study evaluated the improvement of cellular wound healing by nanosilver-loaded polysaccharide-based biomaterial (CGT-NS) in WS1 cells. The physicochemical properties of prepared CGT-NS were studied using different characterization techniques, and it exhibited better stability and swelling properties in various pH conditions. Surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy, and it revealed the porous morphology of the synthesized CGT-NS. The synthesized biomaterial displayed acceptable antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, and it may prevent infection. The biocompatibility of the synthesized CGT-NS biomaterial was studied in WS1 cells, where it may lead to promote increased cell adhesion and proliferation properties. Thus, the CGT-NS biomaterial has good potential as a biomaterial in wound healing applications.

Keywords: biomaterial, wound healing, nano, silver nanoparticles

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560 Wound Healing Dressing and Some Composites Such as Zeolite, TiO2, Chitosan and PLGA as New Alternative for Melanoma Therapy: A Review

Authors: L. B. Naves, L. Almeida

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The development of Drugs Delivery System (DDS), has been wildly investigated in the last decades. In this paper, first a general overview of traditional and modern wound dressing is presented. This is followed by a review of what scientist have done in the medical environment, focusing the possibility to develop a new alternative for DDS through transdermal pathway, aiming to treat melanoma skin cancer.

Keywords: cancer therapy, dressing polymers, melanoma, wound healing

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559 Wound Healing and Antioxidant Properties of 80% Methanol Leaf Extract of Verbascum sinaiticum (Scrophulariaceae), an Ethiopian Medicinal Plant

Authors: Solomon Assefa Huluka

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Wounds account for severe morbidity, socioeconomic distress, and mortality around the globe.For several years, various herbal products are used to expediteand augment the innate wound healing process. In Ethiopian folkloricmedicine, Verbascum sinaiticum L. (V. sinaiticum) is commonlyapplied as a wound-healing agent. The present study investigated the potential wound healing and antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic leaf extract of V. sinaiticum. The 80% methanol extract, formulated as 5% (w/w) and 10% (w/w) ointments, was evaluated in excision and incision wound models using nitrofurazone and simple ointment as positive and negative controls, respectively. Parameters such as wound contraction, period of epithelialization, and tensile strength were determined. Moreover, its in vitro antioxidant property was evaluated using a DPPH assay. In the excision model, both doses (5% and 10% w/w) of the extract showed a significant (p<0.001) wound healing efficacy compared to the negative control, as evidenced by enhanced wound contraction rate and shorter epithelialization time records. In the incision model, the lower dose (5% w/w) ointment formulation of the extract exhibited the maximum increment in tensile strength (85.6%) that was significant (p<0.001)compared to negative and untreated controls. Animals treated with 5% w/wointment, furthermore, showed a significantly (p < 0.05) higher percentage of tensile strength than nitrofurazone treated ones. Moreover, the hydroalcoholic extract of the plant showed a noticeable free radical scavenging property. The result of the present study upholds the folkloric use of V. sinaiticum in the treatment of wounds.

Keywords: wound healing, antioxidant, excision wound model, incision wound model, verbascum sinaiticum

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558 Investigation of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Exposure Protocol on Wound Healing in Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Authors: P. Akbartehrani, M. Khaledi Pour, M. Amini, M. Khani, M. Mohajeri Tehrani, E. Ghasemi, P. Charipoor, B. Shokri

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A common problem between diabetic patients is foot ulcers which are chronic and require specialized treatment. Previous studies illustrate that Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has beneficial effects on wound healing and infection. Nevertheless, the comparison of different cap exposure protocols in diabetic ulcer wound healing remained to be studied. This study aims to determine the effect of two different exposure protocols on wound healing in diabetic ulcers. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted at two clinics. Diabetic patients with G1 and G2 wanger classification diabetic foot ulcers were divided into two groups of study. One group was treated by the first protocol, which was treating wounds by argon-generated cold atmospheric plasma jet once a week for five weeks in a row. The other group was treated by the second protocol, which was treating wounds every three days for five weeks in a row. The wounds were treated for 40 seconds/cubic centimeter, while the nozzle tip was moved nonlocalized 1 cm above the wounds. A patient with one or more wounds could participate in different groups as wounds were separately randomized, which allow a participant to be treated several times during the study. The study's significant findings were two different reductions rate in wound size, microbial load, and two different healing speeds. This study concludes that CAP therapy by the second protocol yields more effective healing speeds, reduction in wound sizes, and microbial loads of foot ulcers in diabetic patients.

Keywords: wound healing, diabetic ulcers, cold atmospheric plasma, cold argon jet

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557 Phytochemical Characterization and in Vivo Wound Healing Potential of Rubus Fruticosus L. and Teucrium Polium L. Extracts

Authors: Nadia Zeghad, Zineb Maameri, Aicha Madi, Abdelmalik Belkhiri

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• Context/Purpose: The current study was based on the valorization of natu-ral bioresources of Rubus fruticosus L. and Teucrium polium L. grown lo-cally in eastern of Algeria by the evaluation of their antioxidant activity and wound healing efficacy via in vitro experimental assays and in vivo circular wound excision model, respectively. Methods: The antioxidant activity was established by two types of typical assays. The first category of anti-oxidant activity measures the ability of plant extracts to scavenge free radi-cals (DPPH and ABTS) and the second category measures the potential of plant extracts to reduce ions or oxidants (CUPRAC and GOR). The wound healing study was also based on two variables: the rate of wound repair and the time it took for the epithelialization to complete. Tukey test (HSD) test was used to analyze the obtained results. The value of p<0.05 was considered as a level of significance. Results: The data showed that the antioxidant levels were highest in Teucrium polium L. extract, which IC50 equivalent to 4.84 ±0.09 and 6.51 ±0.95 µg/ml for the scavenge free radicals tests (DPPH and ABTS, respectively) and EC50 equivalent to 14.58±0.68 and 5.67±0.58 µg/ml for the reducing ions tests (CUPRAC and GOR, respectively). Results of healing activity indicate that Rubus fruticosus L. and Teucrium polium L. extracts showed a significant (p<0.0001) wound healing potential by the comparison to the control, during the period from day 3 to day 9, there was an increase in wound contraction and a decrease in epithelialization time. Conclusion: In con-clusion, it appears that the wound-healing properties of Rubus fruticosus L. and Teucrium polium L., extracts are associated with their significant antioxidant activities. This has great poten-tial for the development of plant-based products and may be useful in the management of wound healing.

Keywords: Rubus fruticosus L, Teucrium polium L, antioxidant activity, healing activity

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556 Macroscopic Evaluation of the Effect of Low-Level Laser and Plasma Jet on Wound Healing in Rats

Authors: Zahra Tabarsi, Mehdi Marjani, Alireza Najafpour, Alborz Mirzade

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The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the macroscopic effect of low level laser and plasma jet for wound healing in rats. The study was performed on 40 old male white rats with an average weight of 250 g and an average age of the same age. After preparing the rats from Ibn Sina Research Institute, they were kept the same for one week under environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and light, and nutrition such as the type of diet and the number of meals. Then, to start the research, rats were randomly divided into two groups (A): laser treatment of wounds, group (B): plasma wound treatment. All rats were inhibited 4 hours before each anesthesia under conditions of abstinence and up to 2 hours after drinking water. Rats were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of ketamine 10% and xylazine 2%.After scrubbing between two shoulders of each rat, a circular wound was created by sterile 5 mm biopsy puncture. Group A rats were treated with low level laser in three sessions and group B in three sessions with argon plasma. Based on the observed results, it seems that Low level laser radiation has more acceptable and appropriate effects than cold plasma on the healing of rat skin wounds.

Keywords: low-level laser, plasma jet, rat, wound healing

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555 Evaluation of Excision Wound Healing Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Michelia Champaca ın Diabetic Wistar Rats

Authors: Smita Shenoy, Amoolya Gowda, Tara Shanbhag, Krishnananda Prabhu, Venumadhav Nelluri

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The study was undertaken to assess the effect of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca on excision wound healing in diabetic wistar rats. Excision wound was made in five groups of rats after inducing diabetes with streptozotocin in four groups. Paraffin was applied to wounds in nondiabetic and diabetic control and 2.5%, 5%, 10% ointment of extract to wounds in three diabetic test groups. Monitoring of wound contraction rate, the period of epithelization and histopathological examination of granulation tissue was done. There was a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the period of epithelization and a significant increase in the wound contraction rate on day 12 and 16 in rats treated with 5% and 10% ointment as compared to diabetic rats. There was a better organization of collagen fibers in the granulation tissue of wounds treated with 10% ointment. The higher dose of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca promoted wound healing in diabetic Wistar rats.

Keywords: Michelia champaca, excision wound, contraction, epithelization

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554 In Vivo Wound Healing Studies of Rubus Fruticosus L. and Teucrium Polium L. Hydroalcoholic Extracts

Authors: Zeghad Nadia, Maameri Zineb, Madi Aicha, Belkhiri Abdelamlik

Abstract:

The current study was based on the valorization of natural bioresources of Rubus fruticosus L. and Teucrium polium L. grown locally in eastern Algeria by the evaluation of their antioxidant activity and wound healing efficacy via in vitro experimental assays and in vivo circular wound excision model, respectively. The antioxidant activity was established by two types of typical assays. The first category of antioxidant activity measures the ability of plant extracts to scavenge free radicals (DPPH (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’-azynobis-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic])) and the second category measures the potential of plant extracts to reduce ions or oxidants (CUPRAC (Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity ) and GOR (Galvinoxyl scavenging assay)). The wound healing study was also based on two variables: the rate of wound repair and the time it took for the epithelialization to complete. Tukey test (HSD) test was used to analyze the obtained results; the value of P<0.05 was considered a level of significance. The data showed that the antioxidant levels were highest in Teucrium polium L. extract, which IC50 equivalent to 4.84 ±0.09 and 6.51 ±0.95 µg/ml for the scavenge free radicals tests (DPPH and ABTS, respectively) and EC50 equivalent to 14.58±0.68 and 5.67±0.58 µg/ml for the reducing ions tests (CUPRAC and GOR, respectively). Results of healing activity indicate that Rubus fruticosus L. and Teucrium polium L. extracts showed a significant (P<0.0001) wound healing potential by the comparison to the control; during the period from day 3 to day 9, there was an increase in wound contraction and a decrease in epithelialization time. In conclusion, it appears that the wound-healing properties of Rubus fruticosus L. and Teucrium polium L., extracts are associated with their significant antioxidant activities. This has great potential for the development of plant-based products and may be useful in the management of wound healing.

Keywords: Rubus fruticosus L., Teucrium polium L., antioxidant activity, healing activity

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553 The Effects of Spark Plasma on Infectious Wound Healing

Authors: Erfan Ghasemi, Mohammadreza Khani, Hamidreza Mahmoudi, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Babak Shokri, Pouria Akbartehrani

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Given the global significance of treating infectious wounds, the goal of this study is to use spark plasma as a new treatment for infectious wounds. To generate spark plasma, a high-voltage (7 kV) and high-frequency (75 kHz) source was used. Infectious wounds in the peritoneum of mice were divided into control and plasma-treated groups at random. The plasma-treated animals received plasma radiation every 4 days for 12 days, for 60 seconds each time. On the 15th day after the first session, the wound in the plasma-treated group had completely healed. The spectra of spark plasma emission and tissue properties were studied. The mechanical resistance of the wound healed in the plasma treatment group was considerably higher than in the control group (p<0.05), according to the findings. Furthermore, histological evidence suggests that wound re-epithelialization is faster in comparison to controls. Angiogenesis and fibrosis (collagen production) were also dramatically boosted in the plasma-treated group, whereas the stage of wound healing inflammation was significantly reduced. Plasma therapy accelerated wound healing by causing considerable wound constriction. The results of this investigation show that spark plasma has an influence on the treatment of infectious wounds.

Keywords: infectious wounds, mice, spark plasma, treatment

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552 Quantitative Evaluation of Diabetic Foot Wound Healing Using Hydrogel Nanosilver Based Dressing vs. Traditional Dressing: A Prospective Randomized Control Study

Authors: Ehsan A. Yahia, Ayman E. El-Sharkawey, Magda M. Bayoumi

Abstract:

Background: Wound dressings perform a crucial role in cutaneous wound management due to their ability to protect wounds and promote dermal and epidermal tissue regeneration. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of using hydrogel/nano silver-based dressing vs. traditional dressing on diabetic foot wound healing. Methods: Sixty patients with type-2 diabetes hospitalized for diabetic foot wound treatment were recruited from selected Surgical departments. A prospective randomized control study was carried. Results: The results showed that the percentage of a reduction rate of the ulcer by the third week of the treatment in the hydrogel/nano silver-based dressing group was higher (15.11%) than in the traditional wound dressing group (33.44%). Moreover, the mean ulcer size "sq mm" in the hydrogel/nano silver-based dressing group recognized a faster healing rate (15.11±7.89) and considerably lesser in comparison to the traditional in the third week (21.65±8.4). Conclusion: The hydrogel/nanosilver-based dressing showed better results than traditional dressing in managing diabetic ulcer foot.

Keywords: diabetes, wound care, diabetic foot, wound dressing, hydrogel nanosilver

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551 Periodontal Suturing, Indications and Characteristics on Clinical Application

Authors: Ilma Robo, Saimir Heta, Sonila Kapaj, Glorja Demika, Vera Ostreni

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Suturing as a procedure of joining the lips of the lembo or wound, is important in the beginnings of the healing process. This procedure helps to pass the healing process from the procedure per secundam to the stages of healing per primam, thus logically reducing the healing time of the wound. The element that remains in the individual selection of the dentist applying the suture is the selection of the suture material. At moment when some types of sutures are offered for use, some elements should be considered in the selection of the suture depending on the constituent material, the cross-section of the suture elements on whether it collects bacteria in the "pits" created by the material. The presence of bacteria is a source of infection and possible delay in healing of the sutured wound. The marketing of suture types offers a variety of materials, from which the selection of the most suitable suture type for specific application cases is a personal indication of the dental surgeon, based on professional experiences and knowledge in the field.

Keywords: suture, suture material, types of sutures, clinical application

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550 Sirt1 Activators Promote Skin Cell Regeneration and Cutaneous Wound Healing

Authors: Hussain Mustatab Wahedi, Sun You Kim

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Skin acts as a barrier against the harmful environmental factors. Integrity and timely recovery of the skin from injuries and harmful effects of radiations is thus very important. This study aimed to investigate the importance of Sirt1 in the recovery of skin from UVB-induced damage and cutaneous wounds by using natural and synthetic novel Sirt1 activators. Juglone, known as a natural Pin1 inhibitor, and NED416 a novel synthetic Sirt1 activator were checked for their ability to regulate the expression and activity of Sirt1 and hence photo-damage and wound healing in cultured skin cells (NHDF and HaCaT cells) and mouse model by using Sirt1 siRNA knockdown, cell migration assay, GST-Pulldown assay, western blot analysis, tube formation assay, and immunohistochemistry. Interestingly, Sirt1 knockdown inhibited skin cell migration in vitro. Juglone up regulated the expression of Sirt1 in both the cell lines under normal and UVB irradiated conditions, enhanced Sirt1 activity and increased the cell viability by reducing reactive oxygen species synthesis and apoptosis. Juglone promoted wound healing by increasing cell migration and angiogenesis through Cdc42/Rac1/PAK, MAPKs and Smad pathways in skin cells. NED416 upregulated Sirt1 expression in HaCaT and NHDF cells as well as increased Sirt1 activity. NED416 promoted the process of wound healing in early as well as later stages by increasing macrophage recruitment, skin cell migration, and angiogenesis through Cdc42/Rac1 and MAPKs pathways. So, both these compounds activated Sirt1 and promoted the process of wound healing thus pointing towards the possible role of Sirt1 in skin regeneration and wound healing.

Keywords: skin regeneration, wound healing, Sirt1, UVB light

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549 The Extent of Proliferation, Apoptosis and Angiogenesis at the Site of Injury Determine the Course of Healing Either as Scar Free or as Scarred One in the Appendages of Lizard

Authors: Isha Ranadive, Sonam Patel, Suresh Balakrishnan

Abstract:

It has been observed that in lizards wound can be healed by either a scar free mechanism or by scarring. The animal model used to study both these healing processes was Northern House Gecko. In lizard, the tail when amputated heals by scar free mechanism which allows it to regenerate, the same is not seen when the limb is amputated. Proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis are the main events which succeed an injury. We observed that proliferation of the cells beneath the wound epidermis was much higher in case of wound healing in tail. This could be because after the wound gets covered by the epithelium, it enters in to a cross-talk with the underlying mesenchyme to recruit a pool of blastemal cells which proliferate and later differentiate to form the lost part through epimorphic regeneration. This was substantiated by mRNA expression levels of various FGFs which facilitate the cross-talk and also by PCNA which is a marker for proliferation. Western blot result reaffirms the same notion. However, in case of the limb, the rate of apoptosis was more than proliferation as there are a lot of debris that needs to be removed. We came to this conclusion as we observed that p53 the apoptotic gene was highly upregulated in case of the scarred tissue. Further, we confirmed this result by checking the anti-apoptotic gene bcl2 and found it to be significantly down-regulated. As we noticed heightened proliferation in the case of scar-free wound healing in tail, angiogenesis was targeted for the study. This is because, when the cells are proliferating they require constant supply of blood and hence neo-vascularization is inevitable. It was observed that the marker of angiogenesis, VEGF, was expressed more during wound healing as compared to the resting stage of tail. Moreover, a high up-regulation was seen in KDR, a receptor of VEGF. Thus, this study reveals how proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis play a key role in the scar-free as well as scarred wound healing.

Keywords: epimorphic regeneration, injury, northern house gecko, wound healing

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548 The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats

Authors: Abir O. El Sadik

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Introduction: Wound healing involves the interaction of multiple biological processes among different types of cells, intercellular matrix and specific signaling factors producing enhancement of cell proliferation of the epidermis over dermal granulation tissue. Several studies investigated multiple strategies to promote wound healing and to minimize infection and fluid losses. However, burn crisis, and its related morbidity and mortality are still elevated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in accelerating wound healing and to compare the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, with focusing on the mechanisms producing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration. Material and methods: Forty-two adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into three equal groups (fourteen rats in each group): control group (group I); full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group III: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 2, 6, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for fluorescent, histological and immunohistochemical studies. Results: The wounds of the control group did not reach complete closure up to the end of the experiment. In MSCs treated groups, better and faster healing of wounds were detected more than the control group. Moreover, the intradermal route of administration of stem cells increased the rate of healing of the wounds more than the systemic injection. In addition, the wounds were found completely healed by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment in all rats of the group injected intradermally. Microscopically, the wound areas of group III were hardly distinguished from the adjacent normal skin with complete regeneration of all skin layers; epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle layer. Fully regenerated hair follicles and sebaceous glands in the dermis of the healed areas surrounded by different arrangement of collagen fibers with a significant increase in their area percent were recorded in this group more than in other groups. Conclusion: MSCs accelerate the healing process of wound closure. The route of administration of MSCs has a great influence on wound healing as intradermal injection of MSCs was more effective in enhancement of wound healing than systemic injection.

Keywords: intradermal, mesenchymal stem cells, morphology, skin wound, systemic injection

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547 Physicochemical Attributes of Pectin Hydrogel and Its Wound Healing Activity

Authors: Nor Khaizan Anuar, Nur Karimah Aziz, Tin Wui Wong, Ahmad Sazali Hamzah, Wan Rozita Wan Engah

Abstract:

The physicochemical attributes and wound healing activity of pectin hydrogel in rat models, following partial thickness thermal injury were investigated. The pectin hydrogel was prepared by solvent evaporation method with the aid of glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent and glycerol as plasticizer. The physicochemical properties were mainly evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, while the wound healing activity was examined by the macroscopic images, wound size reduction and histological evaluation using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain for 14 days. The DSC and FTIR analysis suggested that pectin hydrogel exhibited higher extent of polymer-polymer interaction at O-H functional group in comparison to the unprocessed pectin. This was indicated by the increase of endothermic enthalpy values from 139.35 ± 13.06 J/g of unprocessed pectin to 156.23 ± 2.86 J/g of pectin hydrogel, as well as the decrease of FTIR wavenumber corresponding to O-H at 3432.07 ± 0.49 cm-1 of unprocessed pectin to 3412.62 ± 13.06 cm-1 of pectin hydrogel. Rats treated with pectin hydrogel had significantly smaller wound size (Student’s t-test, p<0.05) when compared to the untreated group starting from day 7 until day 14. H&E staining indicated that wounds received pectin hydrogel had more fibroblasts, blood vessels and collagen bundles on day 14 in comparison to the untreated rats.

Keywords: pectin, physicochemical, rats, wound

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546 Effect of Honey on Rate of Healing of Socket after Tooth Extraction in Rabbits

Authors: Deependra Prasad Sarraf, Ashish Shrestha, Mehul Rajesh Jaisani, Gajendra Prasad Rauniar

Abstract:

Background: Honey is the worlds’ oldest known wound dressing. Its wound healing properties are not fully established till today. Concerns about antibiotic resistance, and a renewed interest in natural remedies have prompted the resurgence in the antimicrobial and wound healing properties of Honey. Evidence from animal studies and some trials has suggested that honey may accelerate wound healing in burns, infected wounds and open wounds. None of these reports have documented the effect of honey on the healing of socket after tooth extraction. Therefore, the present experimental study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of honey on the healing of socket after tooth extraction in rabbits. Materials and Methods: An experimental study was conducted in six New Zealand White rabbits. Extraction of first premolar tooth on both sides of the lower jaw was done under anesthesia produced by Ketamine and Xylazine followed by application of honey on one socket (test group) and normal saline (control group) in the opposite socket. The intervention was continued for two more days. On the 7th day, the biopsy was taken from the extraction site, and histopathological examination was done. Student’s t-test was used for comparison between the groups and differences were considered to be statistically significant at p-value less than 0.05. Results: There was a significant difference between control group and test group in terms of fibroblast proliferation (p = 0.0019) and bony trabeculae formation (p=0.0003). Inflammatory cells were also observed in both groups, and it was not significant (p=1.0). Overlying epithelium was hyperplastic in both the groups. Conclusion: The study showed that local application of honey promoted the rapid healing process particularly by increasing fibroblast proliferation and bony trabeculae.

Keywords: honey, extraction wound, Nepal, healing

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545 Development and Characterization of Multiphase Hydrogel Systems for Wound Healing

Authors: Rajendra Jangde, Deependra Singh

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Present work was based with objective to release of the antimicrobial and debriding agent in sustained manner at the wound surface. In order to provide a long-lasting antimicrobial action and moist environment on wound space, Biocompatible moist system was developed for complete healing. In the present study, a biocompatible moist system of PVA-gelatin hydrogel was developed capable of carrying multiple drugs- Quercetin and Cabopol in controlled manner for effective and complete wound healing. Carbopol and Quercetin were prepared by thin film hydration techniques and optimized system was incorporated in PVA-Gelatin slurry. PVA-Gelatin hydrogels were prepared by freeze thaw method. The prepared dispersion was casted into films to prepare multiphase hydrogel system and characterized by in vitro and in vivo studies. Results revealed the uniform dispersion of microspheres in a three-dimensional matrix of the PVA-Gelatin hydrogel observed at different magnifications. The in vitro release data showed typical biphasic release pattern, i.e., a burst release followed by a slower sustained release for 5 days. Prepared system was found to be stable under both normal and accelerated conditions. Histopathological study showed significant (p<0.05) increase in fibroblast cells, collagen fibres and blood vessels formation. All parameters such as wound contraction, tensile strength, histopathological and biochemical parameters- hydroxyproline content, protein level, etc. were observed significant (p<0.05) in comparison to control group. Present results suggest an accelerated re-epithelialization under moist wound environment with delivery of multiple drugs effective at different stages of wound healing cascade with minimum disturbance of wound bed.

Keywords: multiphase hydrogel, optimization quercetin, wound healing

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544 Formulation and in Vitro Characterization of Bioactives Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticle Incorporated into Multiphase Hydrogel System for the Treatment of Infected Burn Wound

Authors: Rajni Kant Panik, Deependra Singh, Manju Singh

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Despite significant advances in the treatment of severe burn injury, infection and sepsis persist as frequent causes of morbidity and mortality for burn victims due to extensive compromise of the skin and contiguous tissue that serve as a protective barrier against microbial invasion. In the setting of a burn wound infection, Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated pathogens from bloodstream infections in burn care hospitals. We aimed to develop a biocompatible system of Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA)-sodium alginate hydrogel carrying multiple drugs- catalase and mupirocin in controlled manner for effective and complete burn wound healing. PLGA nanoparticles of Catalase and mupirocin were prepared by homogenization method and optimized system was incorporated in PVA-sodium alginate slurry. PVA-sodium alginate hydrogels were prepared by freeze thaw method. The prepared dispersion was casted into films to prepare multiphase hydrogel system and characterized by in vitro and in vivo studies. The study clearly showed the beneficial effect of antioxidant enzyme and antibiotic in the treatment of infected burn wound, as evidenced by the reduced incidence of wound infection and the shortening of healing time.

Keywords: burn wound, catalase, mupirocin, wound healing

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543 Effects of Auxetic Antibacterial Zwitterion Carboxylate and Sulfate Copolymer Hydrogels for Diabetic Wound Healing Application

Authors: Udayakumar Vee, Franck Quero

Abstract:

Zwitterionic polymers generally have been viewed as a new class of antimicrobial and non-fouling materials. They offer a broad versatility for chemical modification and hence great freedom for accurate molecular design, which bear an equimolar number of homogenously distributed anionic and cationic groups along their polymer chains. This study explores the effectiveness of the auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate hydrogel in the diabetic-induced mouse model. A series of silver metal-doped auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate/vinylaniline copolymer hydrogels is designed via a 3D printer. Zwitterion monomers have been characterized by FT-IR and NMR techniques. The effect of changing the monomers and different loading ratios of Ag over zwitterion on the final hydrogel materials' antimicrobial properties and biocompatibility will be investigated in detail. The synthesized auxetic hydrogel has been characterized using a wide range of techniques to help establish the relationship between molecular level and macroscopic properties of these materials, including mechanical and antibacterial and biocompatibility and wound healing ability. This work's comparative studies and results provide new insights and guide us in choosing a better auxetic structured material for a broad spectrum of wound healing applications in the animal model. We expect this approach to provide a versatile and robust platform for biomaterial design that could lead to promising treatments for wound healing applications.

Keywords: auxetic, zwitterion, carboxylate, sulfonate, polymer, wound healing

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542 Antibacterial Zwitterion Carboxylate and Sulfonate Copolymer Auxetic Hydrogels for Diabetic Wound Healing Application

Authors: Udayakumar Veerabagu, Franck Quero

Abstract:

Zwitterion carboxylate and sulfonate polymers generally have been viewed as a new class of antimicrobial and non-fouling materials. They offer a broad versatility for chemical modification and hence great freedom for accurate molecular design, which bear an equimolar number of homogenously distributed anionic and cationic groups along their polymer chains. This study explores the effectiveness of the auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate hydrogel in the diabetic-induced mouse model. A series of silver metal-doped auxetic zwitterion carboxylate/sulfonate/vinylaniline copolymer hydrogels is designed via a 3D printer. Zwitterion monomers have been characterized by FT-IR and NMR techniques. The effect of changing the monomers and different loading ratios of Ag over zwitterion on the final hydrogel materials' antimicrobial properties and biocompatibility will be investigated in detail. The synthesized auxetic hydrogel has been characterized using a wide range of techniques to help establish the relationship between molecular level and macroscopic properties of these materials, including mechanical and antibacterial and biocompatibility and wound healing ability. This work's comparative studies and results provide new insights and guide us in choosing a better auxetic structured material for a broad spectrum of wound healing applications in the animal model. We expect this approach to provide a versatile and robust platform for biomaterial design that could lead to promising treatments for wound healing applications.

Keywords: auxetic, zwitterion, carboxylate, sulfonate, polymer, wound healing

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541 Development of selective human matrix metalloproteinases-9 (hMMP-9) inhibitors as potent diabetic wound healing agents

Authors: Geetakshi Arora, Danish Malhotra

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Diabetic wounds are serious health issues and often fail to heal, leading to limb amputation that makes the life of the patient miserable. Delayed wound healing has been characterized by an increase in matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Thus research throughout the world has been going on to develop selective MMP-9 inhibitors for aiding diabetic wound healing. Bioactive constituents from natural sources always served as potential leads in drug development with high rates of success. Considering the need for novel selective MMP-9 inhibitors and the importance of natural bioactive compounds in drug development, we have screened a library of bioactive constituents from plant sources that were effective in diabetic wound healing on human MMP-9 (hMMP-9) using molecular docking studies. Screened constituents are ranked according to their dock score, ∆G value (binding affinity), and Ligand efficiency evaluated from FleXX docking and Hyde scoring modules available with drug designing platform LeadIT. Rhamnocitrin showed the highest correlation between dock score, ∆G value (binding affinity), and Ligand efficiency was further explored for binding interactions with hMMP-9. The overall study suggest that Rhamnocitrin is sufficiently decorated with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substitutions that perfectly block hMMP-9 and act as a potential lead in the design and development of selective hMMP-9 inhibitors.

Keywords: MMP-9, diabetic wound, molecular docking, phytoconstituents

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540 Wound Healing Potential and Comparison of Mummy Substance Effect on Adipose and Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Co-Cultured with Human Fibroblast

Authors: Sepideh Hassanpour Khodaei

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Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of mummy substances on two issues of proliferation and production of matrix protein synthesis in wound healing. Methods: The methodology used for this aim involves isolating mesenchymal stem cells and human fibroblasts procured at Pastor Institute, Iran. The cells were treated with mummy substances separately and co-cultured between ASCs and WJSCs, and fibroblasts. Proliferation was assessed by Ki67 method in monolayer conditions. Synthesis of components of extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen type I, type III, and fibronectin 1 (FN1) was determined by qPCR. Results: The effects of adipocyte stem cells (ASCs), Wharton Jelly Stem Cells (WJSCs), and Mummy material on fibroblast proliferation and migration were evaluated. The present finding underlined the importance of Mummy material, ASCs, and WJSCs in the proliferation and migration of fibroblast cells. Furthermore, the expression of collagen I, III, and FN1 was increased in the presence of the above material and cells. Conclusion: This study presented an effective in vitro method for the healing process. Hence, the prospect of utilizing Mummy material and stem cell-based therapies in wound healing as a therapeutic approach is promising.

Keywords: mummy material, wound healing, adipose tissue, Wharton’s jelly

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