Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Vivian Lee Yean Yan

31 Fabrication of a Potential Point-of-Care Device for Hemoglobin A1c: A Lateral Flow Immunosensor

Authors: Shu Hwang Ang, Choo Yee Yu, Geik Yong Ang, Yean Yean Chan, Yatimah Binti Alias, And Sook Mei Khor

Abstract:

With the high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus across the world, the morbidities and mortalities associated with Type 2 diabetes have significant impact on the production line for a nation. With routine scheduled clinical visits to manage Type 2 diabetes, diabetic patients with hectic lifestyles can have low clinical compliance. Hence, it often decreases the effectiveness of diabetic management personalized for each diabetic patient. Here, we report a useful developed point-of-care (POC) device that detect glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, biomarker for long-term Type 2 diabetic management). In fact, the established POC devices certified to be used in clinical setting are not only expensive ($ 8 to $10 per test), they also require skillful practitioners to perform sampling and interpretation. As a paper-based biosensor, the developed HbA1c biosensor utilized lateral flow principle to offer an alternative for cost-effective (approximately $2 per test) and end-user friendly device for household testing. Requiring as little as 2 L of finger-picked blood, the test can be performed at the household with just simple dilution and washings. With visual interpretation of numbers of test lines shown on the developed biosensor, it can be interpreted as easy as a urine pregnancy test, aided with scale of intensity provided. In summary, the developed HbA1c immunosensor has been tested to have high selectivity towards HbA1c, and is stable with reasonably good performance in clinical testing. Therefore, our developed HbA1c immunosensor has high potential to be an effective diabetic management tool to increase patient compliance and thus contain the progression of the diabetes.

Keywords: blood, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lateral flow, type 2 diabetes mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
30 In Vivo Antiulcer and Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Geraniol on Acetic Acid plus Helicobacter pylori Induced Ulcer in Rats

Authors: Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Vivian Lee Yean Yan, Chin Koh Lee, Chew Hui Kuean, Yun Khoon Liew, Mayuren Candasamy

Abstract:

Geraniol, an acyclic monoterpenoid is the main active constituent in the essential oils of rose and palmorosa. Antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer and antiulcer activity of geraniol was reported by many researchers. The present investigation was designed to study in vivo antiulcer and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of geraniol. Antiulcer and anti-H. pylori activity of geraniol was evaluated on acetic acid plus H. pylori induced ulcer in rats. Acetic acid (0.03 mL) was injected to the sub-serosal layer of the stomach through laparotomy under anaesthesia. Orogastric inoculation of H. pylori (ATCC 43504) was done twice daily for 7 days. Geraniol (15 and 30 mg/kg), vehicle and standard drugs (Amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg; clarithromycin, 25 mg/kg & omeprazole, 20 mg/kg) was administered twice daily for 14 days. Antiulcer activity of geraniol was examined by the determination of gastric ulcer index, measuring the volume of gastric juice, pH and total acidity, myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological examination. Histopathological investigation for the presence of inflammation, white blood cell infiltration, edema, the mucosal damage was studied. The presence of H. pylori was detected by placing a biopsy sample from antral part of the stomach into rapid urease test. Ulcer index in H. pylori inoculated control group was 4.13 ± 0.85 and was significantly (P < 0.05) lowered in geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug treated group. Geraniol increase the pH of the gastric juice (2.18 ± 0.13 in control vs. 4.14 ± 0.57 in geraniol 30mg/kg) and lower total acidity significantly (P < 0.01) in geraniol (15 & 30 mg/kg). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured in stomach homogenate of all the groups. H. pylori control group has significant (P < 0.05) increase in MPO activity compared to normal control group. Geraniol (30 mg/kg) was showed significant (P < 0.05) and most effective among all the groups. Histopathological examination of rat stomach was scored and the total score for H. pylori control group was 8. After geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug treatment, the histopathological score was significantly decreased and it was observed to be 3.5 and 2.0 respectively. Percentage inhibition of H. pylori infection in geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug were found to be 40% and 50% respectively whereas, 100% infection in H. pylori control group was observed. Geraniol exhibited significant antiulcer and anti- H. pylori activity in the rats. Thus, geraniol has the potential for the further development as an effective medication in treating H. pylori associated ulcer.

Keywords: geraniol, helicobacter pylori atcc 43504, myeloperoxidase, ulcer

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
29 Genotypic Identification of Oral Bacteria Using 16S rRNA in Children with and without Early Childhood Caries in Kelantan, Malaysia

Authors: Zuliani Mahmood, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Yean Yean Chan, Salahddin A. Al-Hudhairy

Abstract:

Caries is the most common childhood disease which develops due to disturbances in the physiological equilibrium in the dental plaque resulting in demineralization of tooth structures. Plaque and dentine samples were collected from three different tooth surfaces representing caries progression (intact, over carious lesion and dentine) in children with early childhood caries (ECC, n=36). In caries free (CF) children, plaque samples were collected from sound tooth surfaces at baseline and after one year (n=12). The genomic DNA was extracted from all samples and subjected to 16S rRNA PCR amplification. The end products were cloned into pCR®2.1-TOPO® Vector. Five randomly selected positive clones collected from each surface were sent for sequencing. Identification of the bacterial clones was performed using BLAST against GenBank database. In the ECC group, the frequency of Lactobacillus sp. detected was significantly higher in the dentine surface (p = 0.031) than over the cavitated lesion. The highest frequency of bacteria detected in the intact surfaces was Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum (33.3%) while Streptococcus mutans was detected over the carious lesions and dentine surfaces at a frequency of 33.3% and 52.7% respectively. Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum was also found to be highest in the CF group (41.6%). Follow up at the end of one year showed that the frequency of Corynebacterium matruchotii detected was highest in those who remained caries free (16.6%), while Porphyromonas catoniae was highest in those who developed caries (25%). In conclusion, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas catoniae are strongly associated with caries progression, while Lactobacillus sp. is restricted to deep carious lesions. Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum and Corynebacterium matruchotii may play a role in sustaining the healthy equilibrium in the dental plaque. These identified bacteria show promise as potential biomarkers in diagnosis which could help in the management of dental caries in children.

Keywords: early childhood caries, genotypic identification, oral bacteria, 16S rRNA

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
28 Experiment and Analytical Study on Fire Resistance Performance of Slot Type Concrete-Filled Tube

Authors: Bum Yean Cho, Heung-Youl Kim, Ki-Seok Kwon, Kang-Su Kim

Abstract:

In this study, a full-scale test and analysis (numerical analysis) of fire resistance performance of bare CFT column on which slot was used instead of existing welding method to connect the steel pipe on the concrete-filled tube were conducted. Welded CFT column is known to be vulnerable to high or low temperature because of low brittleness of welding part. As a result of a fire resistance performance test of slot CFT column after removing the welding part and fixing it by a slot which was folded into the tube, slot type CFT column indicated the improved fire resistance performance than welded CFT column by 28% or more. And as a result of conducting finite element analysis of slot type column using ABAQUS, analysis result proved the reliability of the test result in predicting the fire behavior and fire resistance hour.

Keywords: CFT (concrete-filled tube) column, fire resistance performance, slot, weld

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
27 Collaborative Online Learning for Lecturers

Authors: Lee Bih Ni, Emily Doreen Lee, Wee Hui Yean

Abstract:

This paper was prepared to see the perceptions of online lectures regarding collaborative learning, in terms of how lecturers view online collaborative learning in the higher learning institution. The purpose of this study was conducted to determine the perceptions of online lectures about collaborative learning, especially how lecturers see online collaborative learning in the university. Adult learning education enhance collaborative learning culture with the target of involving learners in the learning process to make teaching and learning more effective and open at the university. This will finally make students learning that will assist each other. It is also to cut down the pressure of loneliness and isolation might felt among adult learners. Their ways in collaborative online was also determined. In this paper, researchers collect data using questionnaires instruments. The collected data were analyzed and interpreted. By analyzing the data, researchers report the results according the proof taken from the respondents. Results from the study, it is not only dependent on the lecturer but also a student to shape a good collaborative learning practice. Rational concepts and pattern to achieve these targets be clear right from the beginning and may be good seen by a number of proposals submitted and include how the higher learning institution has trained with ongoing lectures online. Advantages of online collaborative learning show that lecturers should be trained effectively. Studies have seen that the lecturer aware of online collaborative learning. This positive attitude will encourage the higher learning institution to continue to give the knowledge and skills required.

Keywords: collaborative online learning, lecturers’ training, learning, online

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
26 Efficacy and Safety by Baseline A1c with Once-Weekly Dulaglutide in the AWARD Program

Authors: Alaa Mostafa, Samuel Dagogo-Jack, Vivian Thieu, Maria Yu, Nan Zhang, Dara Schuster, Luis-Emilio Garcia-Perez

Abstract:

Dulaglutide (DU), a once-weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, was studied in the AWARD clinical trial program in adult patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and demonstrated significant hemoglobin A1c (A1c) reduction and potential for weight loss. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of DU 1.5 mg and DU 0.75 mg in patients with T2D by baseline A1c <8.5% or ≥8.5%, a post-hoc analysis was conducted on AWARD-1 to -6 and -8 at 6 months. Across 7 studies, 55% to 82% of the DU-treated patients had a baseline A1c <8.5%, and 18% to 45% had a baseline A1c ≥8.5%. The ranges of A1c reductions with baseline A1c <8.5% and ≥8.5%, respectively, were: DU 1.5 mg: -0.67% to -1.25% and -1.22% to -2.37%; DU 0.75 mg: -0.53% to -1.07% and -1.37% to -2.19%. The A1c reduction from the pooled analysis was greater in patients with baseline A1c ≥8.5% than patients with baseline A1c <8.5%, respectively: DU 1.5 mg: -1.86% and -1.02%; DU 0.75 mg: -1.75% and -0.83%. DU treatments were well tolerated among baseline A1c subgroups. Across the AWARD program, DU 1.5 mg and DU 0.75 mg demonstrated significant A1c reduction in both subgroups with an acceptable safety profile. Compared to patients with baseline A1c <8.5%, patients with baseline A1c ≥8.5% had greater A1c reduction. Disclosures: This study was supported and conducted by Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Keywords: A1c reduction, dulaglutide, type 2 diabetes, weight loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
25 Anglicisms in the Magazine Glamour France: The Influence of English on the French Language of Fashion

Authors: Vivian Orsi

Abstract:

In this research, we aim to investigate the lexicon of women's magazines, with special attention to fashion, whose universe is very receptive to lexical borrowings, especially those from English, called Anglicisms. Thus, we intend to discuss the presence of English items and expressions on the online French women's magazine Glamour France collected from six months. Highlighting the quantitative aspects of the use of English in that publication, we can affirm that the use of those lexical borrowings seems to represent sophistication to attract readers and identification with other cultures, establishing communication and intensifying the language of fashion. The potential for creativity in fashion lexicon is made possible by its permeability to social and linguistic phenomena across all social classes that allow constant manipulation of genuine borrowings. Besides, it seems to assume the value of prerequisite to participate in the fashion centers of the world. The use of Anglicisms in Glamour France is not limited to designate concepts and fashionable items that have no equivalent in French, but it acts as a kind of seduction tool, which uses the symbolic capital of English as the global language of communication.

Keywords: Anglicisms, lexicology, borrowings, fashion language

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
24 An Era of Arts: Examining Intersection of Technology and Museums

Authors: Vivian Li

Abstract:

With the rapid development of technology, virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are becoming increasingly prominent in our lives. Museums have led the way in digitization, offering their collections to the wider public through the open internet, which is dramatically changing our experience of art. Technology is also being implemented into our physical art-viewing experience, enabling museums to capture historical sites while creating a more immersive experience for patrons. This study takes a qualitative approach, examining secondary sources and synthesizing information from interviews with field professionals to answer the question: to what extent is the contemporary perception of art transformed by the digitization of art museums? The findings establish that museums are becoming increasingly open with their collections, utilizing digitization to spread their intellectual content to people worldwide and to diversify their audiences. The use of VR and AR is also enabling museums to preserve and showcase historical artifacts and sites in a more interactive and user-focused way. Technology is also crafting new forms of art and art museums. Ultimately, the intersection of technology and museums is not changing the definition of art but rather offering new modes for the public to experience and learn about arts and history.

Keywords: art, augmented reality, digitization, museums, technology, virtual reality

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
23 User-Based Cannibalization Mitigation in an Online Marketplace

Authors: Vivian Guo, Yan Qu

Abstract:

Online marketplaces are not only digital places where consumers buy and sell merchandise, and they are also destinations for brands to connect with real consumers at the moment when customers are in the shopping mindset. For many marketplaces, brands have been important partners through advertising. There can be, however, a risk of advertising impacting a consumer’s shopping journey if it hurts the use experience or takes the user away from the site. Both could lead to the loss of transaction revenue for the marketplace. In this paper, we present user-based methods for cannibalization control by selectively turning off ads to users who are likely to be cannibalized by ads subject to business objectives. We present ways of measuring cannibalization of advertising in the context of an online marketplace and propose novel ways of measuring cannibalization through purchase propensity and uplift modeling. A/B testing has shown that our methods can significantly improve user purchase and engagement metrics while operating within business objectives. To our knowledge, this is the first paper that addresses cannibalization mitigation at the user-level in the context of advertising.

Keywords: cannibalization, machine learning, online marketplace, revenue optimization, yield optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
22 The Effect of Malaysia’s Outward FDI on Manufacturing Exports

Authors: Teo Yen Nee, Tham Siew Yean, Andrew Kam Jia Yi

Abstract:

There are growing concerns about the effect of increasing outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) from Malaysia. These concerns emerged when OFDI surpassed inward FDI for the first time in 2007 and in the subsequent years as well. From a theoretical point of view, the effect of OFDI on exports remains inconclusive depending on the types and/or motivations of investment. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of Malaysia’s OFDI on manufacturing exports, using a reduced form exports model. The manufacturing data used in this study covered 24 manufacturing industries for the period 2003-2010. The manufacturing sector is the fourth largest sector invested by Malaysia’s OFDI abroad. However, this sector is chosen for this study because total manufacturing trade contributed significantly to Malaysia’s economy growth as reflected by its significant share in the country’s gross domestic product (138.7%) in 2013. Furthermore, Malaysia’s exports are dominated by manufacturing goods. Consequently, the drastic increase in OFDI added concerns about its impact on the country’s exports. Since OFDI activities are still relatively new in Malaysia, this study is exploratory in nature due to a lack of firm level data. Using industry level panel data, the value added of this paper is to meet the research gap by examining the effect of Malaysia’s outward FDI on manufacturing exports. Overall, the findings show that lagged inward FDI, technology development, and industry size are found to positive and significantly influence manufacturing exports as compared to other factors. The insignificant impact of OFDI on manufacturing exports suggests market seeking investment is the main form of OFDI from Malaysia and the destination markets are not served by exports before so that there are no new exports created or displacement of exports. While the results show that there is no need to worry about OFDI’s negative impact on exports, policies should be undertaken to encourage OFDI from Malaysia to create new exports for the country.

Keywords: OFDI, manufacturing industries, exports, Malaysia

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
21 Love Is Color-Blind: Perceptions among Sunway University Students toward Interracial Relationship

Authors: Azman Ramlie, Vivian Foo Jing Wen

Abstract:

As the advancement of technology has tremendously changed the way people communicate with each other, it has opened up opportunities for interracial relationships. Interracial relationship is also known as intercultural or interethnic relationships. This research topic aims to study on students’ perceptions toward interracial relationship in terms of their level of acceptance and approval. In addition, the study also focuses on determining and ranking the factors that affects students’ perceptions towards interracial relationship. This study also targets to determine the differences in students’ perceptions from business and communication major. This study uses a sample of university students from Sunway University, particularly on students in business and communication major. The study was conducted through online survey questionnaires. Results revealed that students’ level of acceptance towards interracial relationship was high. In addition, results also further indicated that family members’ support was one of the most important factors in influencing students’ perception towards interracial relationship. No diverse differences of perceptions among students in business and communication major towards interracial relationship were shown in the findings. Most of the result showed that both majors turned out to have similar perceptions towards interracial relationship. It can be said that the students’ perception towards interracial relationship did not differ from which major the students was in but their family background that would shape their perceptions.

Keywords: interracial relationship, racial, relationship, perceptions

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
20 The Presence of Anglicisms in Italian Fashion Magazines and Fashion Blogs

Authors: Vivian Orsi

Abstract:

The present research investigates the lexicon of a fashion magazine, whose universe is very receptive to lexical loans, especially those from English, called Anglicisms. Specifically, we intend to discuss the presence of English items and expressions in the Vogue Italia fashion magazine. Besides, we aim to study the anglicisms used in an Italian fashion blog called The Blonde Salad. Within the discussion of fashion blogs and their contributions to scientific studies, we adopt the theories of Lexicology / Lexicography to define Anglicism (BIDERMAN, 2001), and the observation of its prestige in the Italian Language (ROGATO, 2008; BISETTO, 2003). According to the theoretical basis mentioned, we intend to make a brief analysis of the Anglicisms collected from posts of the first year of existence of such fashion blog, emphasizing also the keywords that have the role to encapsulate the content of the text, allowing the reader to retrieve information from the post of the blog. About the use of English in Italian magazines and blogs, we can affirm that it seems to represent sophistication, assuming the value of prerequisite to participate in the fashion centers of the world. Besides, we believe, as Barthes says (1990, p. 215), that “Fashion does not evolve, it changes: its lexicon is new each year, like that of a language which always keeps the same system but suddenly and regularly ‘changes’ the currency of its words”. Fashion is a mode of communication: it is present in man's interaction with the world, which means that such lexical universe is represented according to the particularities of each culture.

Keywords: anglicism, lexicology, magazines, blogs, fashion

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
19 Estimation of Heritability and Repeatability for Pre-Weaning Body Weights of Domestic Rabbits Raised in Derived Savanna Zone of Nigeria

Authors: Adewale I. Adeolu, Vivian U. Oleforuh-Okoleh, Sylvester N. Ibe

Abstract:

Heritability and repeatability estimates are needed for the genetic evaluation of livestock populations and consequently for the purpose of upgrading or improvement. Pooled data on 604 progeny from three consecutive parities of purebred rabbit breeds (Chinchilla, Dutch and New Zealand white) raised in Derived Savanna Zone of Nigeria were used to estimate heritability and repeatability for pre-weaning body weights between 1st and 8th week of age. Traits studied include Individual kit weight at birth (IKWB), 2nd week (IK2W), 4th week (IK4W), 6th week (IK6W) and 8th week (IK8W). Nested random effects analysis of (Co)variances as described by Statistical Analysis System (SAS) were employed in the estimation. Respective heritability estimates from the sire component (h2s) and repeatability (R) as intra-class correlations of repeated measurements from the three parties for IKWB, IK2W, IK4W and IK8W are 0.59±0.24, 0.55±0.24, 0.93±0.31, 0.28±0.17, 0.64±0.26 and 0.12±0.14, 0.05±0.14, 0.58±0.02, 0.60±0.11, 0.20±0.14. Heritability and repeatability (except R for IKWB and IK2W) estimates are moderate to high. In conclusion, since pre-weaning body weights in the present study tended to be moderately to highly heritable and repeatable, improvement of rabbits raised in derived savanna zone can be realized through genetic selection criterions.

Keywords: heritability, nested design, parity, pooled data, repeatability

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
18 Analysis of Energy Efficiency Behavior with the Use of Train Dynamics Simulator and Statistical Tools: Case Study of Vitoria Minas Railway, Brazil

Authors: Eric Wilson Santos Cabral, Marta Monteiro Da Costa Cruz, Fabio Luis Maciel Machado, Henrique Andrade, Rodrigo Pirola Pestana, Vivian Andrea Parreira

Abstract:

The large variation in the price of diesel in Brazil directly affects the variable cost of companies operating in the transportation sector. In rail transport, the great challenge is to overcome the annual budget, cargo and ore transported with cost reduction in relation to previous years, becoming more efficient every year. Some effective measures are necessary to achieve the reduction of the liter ratio consumed by KTKB (Gross Ton per Kilometer multiplied by thousand). This acronym represents the indicator of energy efficiency of some railroads in the world. This study is divided into two parts: the first, to identify using statistical tools, part of the controlled variables in the railways, which have a correlation with the energy efficiency indicator, seeking to aid decision-making. The second, with the use of the train dynamics simulator, within scenarios defined in the operational reality of a railroad, seeks to optimize the train formations and the train stop model for the change of train drivers. With the completion of the study, companies in the rail sector are expected to be able to reduce some of their transportation costs.

Keywords: railway transport, railway simulation, energy efficiency, fuel consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
17 Parental Diet Effects on Offspring Body Size and Pathogen Resistance in Bactrocera tryoni

Authors: Hue Dinh, Binh Nguyen, Vivian Mendez, Phillip W. Taylor, Fleur Ponton

Abstract:

Better understanding of how parental diet affects offspring traits is an important ecological and evolutionary question. In this study, we explored how maternal diet influences offspring physiology and resistance to infection using Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly) as a system model. Female Q-flies were fed one of six single diets varying in their yeast-to-sugar ratio yielding six protein-to-carbohydrate ratios. As controls, we used females that were given a choice between yeast and sugar. Males were reared on a choice diet and allowed to mate with females 14 days post-emergence. Results showed that while maternal diet does not influence offspring developmental time, it has a strong effect on larval body weight. Mother fed either high-protein or high-sugar diet produced larger progeny. By challenging offspring with the bacterium Serratia marcescens, we found that female offspring from mothers fed high-sugar diet survived better the infection compared to those from mothers fed low-sugar diet. In contrast, male offspring produced by mother fed high-protein diet showed better resistance to the infection compared to those produced by mother fed low-protein diet. These results suggested sex-dependent transgenerational effects of maternal nutrition on offspring physiology and immunity.

Keywords: bacterial infection, Bactrocera tryoni, maternal diet, offspring, Serretia marcescens

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
16 The Stylistic Representation of Subjectivity in Exemplary Written and Audiovisual Biographical Records about the Brazilian Modernist Artist Tarsila Do Amaral

Authors: Juliane Noack Napoles, Vivian Martins Nogueira Napoles

Abstract:

This paper operates at the stylistic level of biographical records about the artist Tarsila do Amaral (1886-1973) and the various biographical modes of representation of her subjectivity. Tarsila do Amaral was a Brazilian nationalistic painter, who took part in the first half of the last century in the Antoprofágico Moviment and in the Surrealistic Movement - artistic movements that emerged in the 1920’s. The paper will be developed in the field of Cultural and Media Science and based on an understanding of biography as a subgenre of historical records that will be discussed. Doing that, the theoretical principles about the history genre will also be discussed. In this context, the analytical focus of the present project is the stylistic forms of representation of subjectivity in the postmodern period as expressed in written and audiovisual biographical representation of Tarsila do Amaral. Some exemplary audiovisual biographical records about Tarsila do Amaral will be first analyzed on their own. Then, they will be related to some written biographical records about the painter. At the end, both written and audiovisual records and their stylistic forms of representation of Tarsila do Amaral’s subjectivity are going be analyzed. Tarsila do Amaral will be considered as a Subject Form, following actual concepts about this term in Cultural Studies. For these purposes, it will also be discussed about cultural identity – gender and national identity – and developed a heuristic model so that different understandings and conceptual proposals correlate, including those pertaining to the terms biography, gender, identity, mediality, style, subject and subjectivity. This model will finally be used for the analysis of the selected biographical records.

Keywords: biography, gender, identity, modernism, postmodernism, style, subject, subjectivity, surrealism, Tarsila do Amaral

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
15 Data and Biological Sharing Platforms in Community Health Programs: Partnership with Rural Clinical School, University of New South Wales and Public Health Foundation of India

Authors: Vivian Isaac, A. T. Joteeshwaran, Craig McLachlan

Abstract:

The University of New South Wales (UNSW) Rural Clinical School has a strategic collaborative focus on chronic disease and public health. Our objectives are to understand rural environmental and biological interactions in vulnerable community populations. The UNSW Rural Clinical School translational model is a spoke and hub network. This spoke and hub model connects rural data and biological specimens with city based collaborative public health research networks. Similar spoke and hub models are prevalent across research centers in India. The Australia-India Council grant was awarded so we could establish sustainable public health and community research collaborations. As part of the collaborative network we are developing strategies around data and biological sharing platforms between Indian Institute of Public Health, Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), Hyderabad and Rural Clinical School UNSW. The key objective is to understand how research collaborations are conducted in India and also how data can shared and tracked with external collaborators such as ourselves. A framework to improve data sharing for research collaborations, including DNA was proposed as a project outcome. The complexities of sharing biological data has been investigated via a visit to India. A flagship sustainable project between Rural Clinical School UNSW and PHFI would illustrate a model of data sharing platforms.

Keywords: data sharing, collaboration, public health research, chronic disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
14 Use of Geosynthetics as Reinforcement Elements in Unpaved Tertiary Roads

Authors: Vivian A. Galindo, Maria C. Galvis, Jaime R. Obando, Alvaro Guarin

Abstract:

In Colombia, most of the roads of the national tertiary road network are unpaved roads with granular rolling surface. These are very important ways of guaranteeing the mobility of people, products, and inputs from the agricultural sector from the most remote areas to urban centers; however, it has not paid much attention to the search for alternatives to avoid the occurrence of deteriorations that occur shortly after its commissioning. In recent years, geosynthetics have been used satisfactorily to reinforce unpaved roads on soft soils, with geotextiles and geogrids being the most widely used. The interaction of the geogrid and the aggregate minimizes the lateral movement of the aggregate particles and increases the load capacity of the material, which leads to a better distribution of the vertical stresses, consequently reducing the vertical deformations in the subgrade. Taking into account the above, the research aimed at the mechanical behavior of the granular material, used in unpaved roads with and without the presence of geogrids, from the development of laboratory tests through the loaded wheel tester (LWT). For comparison purposes, the reinforced conditions and traffic conditions to which this type of material can be accessed in practice were simulated. In total four types of geogrids, were tested with granular material; this means that five test sets, the reinforced material and the non-reinforced control sample were evaluated. The results of the numbers of load cycles and depth rutting supported by each test body showed the influence of the properties of the reinforcement on the mechanical behavior of the assembly and the significant increases in the number of load cycles of the reinforced specimens in relation to those without reinforcement.

Keywords: geosynthetics, load wheel tester LWT, tertiary roads, unpaved road, vertical deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
13 Relative Importance of Contact Constructs to Acute Respiratory Illness in General Population in Hong Kong

Authors: Kin On Kwok, Vivian Wei, Benjamin Cowling, Steven Riley, Jonathan Read

Abstract:

Background: The role of social contact behavior measured in different contact constructs in the transmission of respiratory pathogens with acute respiratory illness (ARI) remains unclear. We, therefore, aim to depict the individual pattern of ARI in the community and investigate the association between different contact dimensions and ARI in Hong Kong. Methods: Between June 2013 and September 2013, 620 subjects participated in the last two waves of recruitment of the population based longitudinal phone social contact survey. Some of the subjects in this study are from the same household. They are also provided with the symptom diaries to self-report any acute respiratory illness related symptoms between the two days of phone recruitment. Data from 491 individuals who were not infected on the day of phone recruitment and returned the symptom diaries after the last phone recruitment were used for analysis. Results: After adjusting different follow-up periods among individuals, the overall incidence rate of ARI was 1.77 per 100 person-weeks. Over 75% ARI episodes involve running nose, cough, sore throat, which are followed by headache (55%), malagia (35%) and fever (18%). Using a generalized estimating equation framework accounting for the cluster effect of subjects living in the same household, we showed that both daily number of locations visited with contacts and the number of contacts, explained the ARI incidence rate better than only one single contact construct. Conclusion: Our result suggests that it is the intertwining property of contact quantity (number of contacts) and contact intensity (ratio of subject-to-contact) that governs the infection risk by a collective set of respiratory pathogens. Our results provide empirical evidence that multiple contact constructs should be incorporated in the mathematical transmission models to feature a more realistic dynamics of respiratory disease.

Keywords: acute respiratory illness, longitudinal study, social contact, symptom diaries

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
12 Variability of Energy Efficiency with the Application of Technologies Embedded in Locomotives of a Heavy Haul Railway: Case Study of Vitoria Minas Railway, Brazil

Authors: Eric Wilson Santos Cabral, Marta Monteiro Da Costa Cruz, Rodrigo Pirola Pestana, Vivian Andréa Parreira

Abstract:

In the transportation sector in Brazil, there is a great challenge that is the maintenance of profit in the face of the great variation in the price of diesel. This directly affects the variable cost of transport companies. Within the railways, part of the great challenges is to overcome the annual budget, cargo and ore transported, thus reducing costs compared to previous years, becoming more efficient each year. Within this scenario, the railway companies are looking for effective measures, aiming at reducing the ratio of liter of diesel consumed by KTKB (Kilometer Gross Ton multiplied by thousand). This ratio represents the indicator of energy efficiency of some railroads in Brazil and in other countries. In this study, we sought to analyze the behavior of the energy efficiency indicator on two parts: The first, with the application of technologies used in locomotives, such as the start-stop system of the diesel engine and the system of tracking and monitoring of fuel. The second, evaluation of the behavior of the variation of the type of cargo transported (loading mix). The study focused on locomotive technology will be carried out using statistical analysis, behavioral evaluation in different operating conditions, such as maneuvers for trains, service trains and freight trains. The analysis will also cover the evaluation of the loading mix made using statistical analysis of the existing railroad database, comparing the energy efficiency per loading mine and type of product. With the completion of this study, the railway undertakings should be able to better target decision-making in order to achieve substantial reductions in transport costs.

Keywords: railway transport, energy efficiency, railway technology, fuel consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
11 Occupational Health Programs for Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining: A Systematic Review for the WHO Global Plan of Action for Workers' Health

Authors: Vivian W. L. Tsang, Karen Lockhart, Samuel Spiegel, Annalee Yassi

Abstract:

Background: Workers in the informal economy often incur exposure to well-documented occupational health hazards. Insufficient attention has been afforded to rigorously evaluating intervention programs to reduce the risks, especially in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM). Objectives: This systematic review, conducted as part of the World Health Organization’s Global Plan of Action for Workers’ Health, sought to assess the state of knowledge on occupational health programs and interventions for the informal artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) sector, an occupation which directly employs at least 50 million people. Methods: We used a comprehensive search strategy for four well-known databases relevant to health outcomes: PubMed, Engineering Village, OVID Medline, and Web of Science, and employed the PRISMA framework for our analysis. Findings: Ten studies met the inclusion criteria of a primary study focused on assessing the impact of interventions addressing occupational health concerns in ASGM. There were no studies evaluating or even identifying comprehensive occupational health and safety programs for this sector, although target interventions addressing specific hazards exist. Major areas of intervention –education and introduction of mercury-reducing/eliminating technology were identified, and the challenges and limitations of each intervention taken into the assessment. Even for these, however, there was a lack of standardization for measuring outcome or impact, let alone long-term health outcomes for miners and mining communities. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for research on comprehensive occupational health programs addressing the array of hazards faced by artisanal and small-scale miners.

Keywords: informal economy, artisanal and small-scale gold mining, occupational health, health and safety, workplace safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
10 Assessment of Implementation of the Health and Safety Contents of the Nigerian Factories Act by Small and Medium Scale Industries in Anambra State, Nigeria

Authors: Vivian Uchechi Okpala

Abstract:

Background: Millions of workers die every year as a result of occupational hazards, accidents and injuries, which are as a result of non- compliance to the laws or legislations guiding the health, safety and welfare of workers in the industries. This and many more lead to the assessment of implementation of the health and safety contents of the Nigerian Factories Act (NFA) by small and medium scale industries in Anambra State. Objectives: The study is aimed at achieving the following specific objectives; to assess the extent of implementation of Part-II Health and Part -III Safety (General Provisions), implementation of Part II Health and Part -III Safety (General Provisions Nigerian Factories Acts based on the age of the industries, locations of the industries and level of education of the workers of the small and medium scale industries Methods: the research design that was used for this study was descriptive survey research design, Area of this study was Anambra state, The population for this study comprised 180 chairmen/presidents of union workers of manufacturing industries in Anambra State, The instrument used for this study was structured questionnaire titled ‘assessment of implementation of NFA health and safety contents by small and medium scale industries, results: From the analysis, the following findings were made: Results: The medium scale industries implemented the Part-II Health and Part III Safety (General provisions) better than the small scale industries in Anambra state, the age of the industries, location of the industries and the level of education of the workers in the industries significantly influenced the implementation of the Part III Safety (General Provisions) of NFA, the location of the industries significantly influenced the implementation of the Part II-Health (General Provisions) of NFA. Conclusion: there was generally a certain level of implementation of the factories Act, there is need for more improvement, strict inspection by the regulatory agencies. Implications of the study were highlighted and several suggestions for further studies were made. Based on the findings, several recommendations were made including that the Ministry of Labour and Productivity and the Ministry of Health should strengthen planned information, strict policies to sanction the offenders. Keywords: Occupational Health and Safety, Nigerian Factories Act

Keywords: occupational health and safety, Nigerian factories act, workers, welfare

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
9 Determining Components of Deflection of the Vertical in Owerri West Local Government, Imo State Nigeria Using Least Square Method

Authors: Chukwu Fidelis Ndubuisi, Madufor Michael Ozims, Asogwa Vivian Ndidiamaka, Egenamba Juliet Ngozi, Okonkwo Stephen C., Kamah Chukwudi David

Abstract:

Deflection of the vertical is a quantity used in reducing geodetic measurements related to geoidal networks to the ellipsoidal plane; and it is essential in Geoid modeling processes. Computing the deflection of the vertical component of a point in a given area is necessary in evaluating the standard errors along north-south and east-west direction. Using combined approach for the determination of deflection of the vertical component provides improved result but labor intensive without appropriate method. Least square method is a method that makes use of redundant observation in modeling a given sets of problem that obeys certain geometric condition. This research work is aimed to computing the deflection of vertical component of Owerri West local government area of Imo State using geometric method as field technique. In this method combination of Global Positioning System on static mode and precise leveling observation were utilized in determination of geodetic coordinate of points established within the study area by GPS observation and the orthometric heights through precise leveling. By least square using Matlab programme; the estimated deflections of vertical component parameters for the common station were -0.0286 and -0.0001 arc seconds for the north-south and east-west components respectively. The associated standard errors of the processed vectors of the network were computed. The computed standard errors of the North-south and East-west components were 5.5911e-005 and 1.4965e-004 arc seconds, respectively. Therefore, including the derived component of deflection of the vertical to the ellipsoidal model will yield high observational accuracy since an ellipsoidal model is not tenable due to its far observational error in the determination of high quality job. It is important to include the determined deflection of the vertical component for Owerri West Local Government in Imo State, Nigeria.

Keywords: deflection of vertical, ellipsoidal height, least square, orthometric height

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
8 Unzipping the Stress Response Genes in Moringa oleifera Lam. through Transcriptomics

Authors: Vivian A. Panes, Raymond John S. Rebong, Miel Q. Diaz

Abstract:

Moringa oleifera Lam. is known mainly for its high nutritional value and medicinal properties contributing to its popular reputation as a 'miracle plant' in the tropical climates where it usually grows. The main objective of this study is to discover the genes and gene products involved in abiotic stress-induced activity that may impact the M. oleifera Lam. mature seeds as well as their corresponding functions. In this study, RNA-sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly were performed using two assemblers, Trinity and Oases, which produced 177,417 and 120,818 contigs respectively. These transcripts were then subjected to various bioinformatics tools such as Blast2GO, UniProt, KEGG, and COG for gene annotation and the analysis of relevant metabolic pathways. Furthermore, FPKM analysis was performed to identify gene expression levels. The sequences were filtered according to the 'response to stress' GO term since this study dealt with stress response. Clustered Orthologous Groups (COG) showed that the highest frequencies of stress response gene functions were those of cytoskeleton which make up approximately 14% and 23% of stress-related sequences under Trinity and Oases respectively, recombination, repair and replication at 11% and 14% respectively, carbohydrate transport and metabolism at 23% and 9% respectively and defense mechanisms 16% and 12% respectively. KEGG pathway analysis determined the most abundant stress-response genes in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis at counts of 187 and 166 pathways for Oases and Trinity respectively, purine metabolism at 123 and 230 pathways, and biosynthesis of antibiotics at 105 and 102. Unique and cumulative GO term counts revealed that majority of the stress response genes belonged to the category of cellular response to stress at cumulative counts of 1,487 to 2,187 for Oases and Trinity respectively, defense response at 754 and 1,255, and response to heat at 213 and 208, response to water deprivation at 229 and 228, and oxidative stress at 508 and 488. Lastly, FPKM was used to determine the levels of expression of each stress response gene. The most upregulated gene encodes for thiamine thiazole synthase chloroplastic-like enzyme which plays a significant role in DNA damage tolerance. Data analysis implies that M. oleifera stress response genes are directed towards the effects of climate change more than other stresses indicating the potential of M. oleifera for cultivation in harsh environments because it is resistant to climate change, pathogens, and foreign invaders.

Keywords: stress response, genes, Moringa oleifera, transcriptomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
7 Revision of Arthroplasty in Rheumatoid and Osteoarthritis: Methotrexate and Radiographic Lucency in RA Patients

Authors: Mike T. Wei, Douglas N. Mintz, Lisa A. Mandl, Arielle W. Fein, Jayme C. Burket, Yuo-Yu Lee, Wei-Ti Huang, Vivian P. Bykerk, Mark P. Figgie, Edward F. Di Carlo, Bruce N. Cronstein, Susan M. Goodman

Abstract:

Background/Purpose: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have excellent total hip arthroplasty (THA) survival, and methotrexate (MTX), an anti-inflammatory disease modifying drug which may affect bone reabsorption, may play a role. The purpose of this study is to determine the diagnosis leading to revision THA (rTHA) in RA patients and to assess the association of radiographic lucency with MTX use. Methods: All patients with validated diagnosis of RA in the institution’s THA registry undergoing rTHA from May 2007 - February 2011 were eligible. Diagnosis leading to rTHA and medication use was determined by chart review. Osteolysis was evaluated on available radiographs by measuring maximum lucency in each Gruen zone. Differences within RA patients with/without MTX in osteolysis, demographics, and medications were assessed with chi-squared, Fisher's exact tests or Mann-Whitney U tests as appropriate. The error rate for multiple comparisons of lucency in the different Gruen zones was corrected via false discovery rate methods. A secondary analysis was performed to determine differences in diagnoses leading to revision between RA and matched OA controls (2:1 match by sex age +/- 5 years). OA exclusion criteria included presence of rheumatic diseases, use of MTX, and lack of records. Results: 51 RA rTHA were identified and compared with 103 OA. Mean age for RA was 57.7 v 59.4 years for OA (p = 0.240). 82.4% RA were female v 83.5% OA (p = 0.859). RA had lower BMI than OA (25.5 v 28.2; p = 0.166). There was no difference in diagnosis leading to rTHA, including infection (RA 3.9 v OA 6.8%; p = 0.719) or dislocation (RA 23.5 v OA 23.3%; p = 0.975). There was no significant difference in the length of time the implant was in before revision: RA 11.0 v OA 8.8 years (p = 0.060). Among RA with/without MTX, there was no difference in use of biologics (30.0 v 43.3%, p = 0.283), steroids (47.6 v 50.0%, p = 0.867) or bisphosphonates (23.8 v 33.3%, p = 0.543). There was no difference in rTHA diagnosis with/without MTX, including loosening (52.4 v 56.7%, p = 0.762). There was no significant difference in lucencies with MTX use in any Gruen zone. Patients with MTX had femoral stem subsidence of 3.7mm v no subsidence without MTX (p = 0.006). Conclusion: There was no difference in the diagnosis leading to rTHR in RA and OA, although RA trended longer prior to rTHA. In this small retrospective study, there were no significant differences associated with MTX exposure or radiographic lucency among RA patients. The significance of subsidence is not clear. Further study of arthroplasty survival in RA patients is warranted.

Keywords: hip arthroplasty, methotrexate, revision arthroplasty, rheumatoid arthritis

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
6 Link People from Different Age Together: Attitude and Behavior Changes in Inter-Generational Interaction Program

Authors: Qian Sun, Dannie Dai, Vivian Lou

Abstract:

Background: Changes in population structure and modernization have left traditional channels of achieving intergenerational solidarity in crisis. Policies and projects purposefully structuring intergenerational interaction are regarded as effective ways to enhance positive attitude changes between generations. However, few inter-generational interaction program has put equal emphasis on promoting positive changes on both attitude and behavior across generational groups. Objective: This study evaluated the effectiveness of an intergenerational interaction program which aims to facilitate positive attitude and behavioral interaction between both young and old individuals in Hong Kong. Method: A quasi-experimental design was adopted with the sample of 150 older participants and 161 young participants. Among 73 older and 78 young participants belong to experiment groups while 77 older participants and 84 young participants belong to control groups. The Age Group Evaluation and Description scale (AGED) was adopted to measure attitude toward young people by older participants and the Chinese version of Kogan’s Attitude towards Older People (KAOP) as well as Polizzi’s refined version of the Ageing Semantic Differential Scale (ASD) were used to measure attitude toward older people by the younger generation. The interpersonal behaviour of participants was assessed using Beglgrave’s behavioural observation tool. Six primary verbal or non-verbal interpersonal behaviours including smiles, looks, touches, encourages, initiated conversations and assists were identified and observed. Findings Effectiveness of attitude and behavior changes on both younger and older participants was confirmed in results. Compared with participants from the control group, experimental participants of elderly showed significant positive changes of attitudes toward the younger generation as assessed by AGED (F=138.34, p < .001). Moreover, older participants showed significant positive changes on three out of six behaviours (visual attention: t=2.26, p<0.05; initiate conversation: t=3.42, p<0.01; and touch: t=2.28, p<0.05). For younger participants, participants from experimental group showed significant positive changes in attitude toward older people (with F-score of 47.22 for KAOP and 72.75 for ASD, p<.001). Young participants also showed significant positive changes in two out of six behaviours (visual attention: t=3.70, p<0.01; initiate conversation: t=2.04, p<0.001). There is no significant relationship between attitude change and behaviour change in both older (p=0.86) and younger (p=0.22) groups. Conclusion: This study has brought practical implications for social work. The effective model of this program could assist social workers and allied professionals to design relevant projects for nurture intergenerational solidarity. Furthermore, insignificant results between attitude and behavior changes revealed that attitude change was not a strong predictor for behavior change, hence, intergenerational programs against age-stereotype should put equal emphasis on both attitudinal and behavioral aspects.

Keywords: attitude and behaviour changes, intergenerational interaction, intergenerational solidarity, program design

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
5 The Impact of Speech Style on the Production of Spanish Vowels by Spanish-English Bilinguals and Spanish Monolinguals

Authors: Vivian Franco

Abstract:

There has been a great deal of research about vowel production of second language learners of Spanish, vowel variation across Spanish dialects, and more recently, research related to Spanish heritage speakers’ vowel production based on speech style. However, there is little investigation reported on Spanish heritage speakers’ vowel production in regard to task modality by incorporating own comparison groups of monolinguals and late bilinguals. Thus, the present study investigates the influence of speech style on Spanish heritage speakers’ vowel production by comparing Spanish-English early and late bilinguals and Spanish monolinguals. The study was guided by the following research question: How do early bilinguals (heritage speakers) differ/relate to advanced L2 speakers of Spanish (late bilinguals) and Spanish monolinguals in their vowel quality (acoustic distribution) and quantity (duration) based on speech style? The participants were a total of 11 speakers of Spanish: 7 early Spanish-English bilinguals with a similar linguistic background (simultaneous bilinguals of the second generation); 2 advanced L2 speakers of Spanish; and 2 Spanish monolinguals from Mexico. The study consisted of two tasks. The first one adopted a semi-spontaneous style by a solicited narration of life experiences and a description of a favorite movie with the purpose to collect spontaneous speech. The second task was a reading activity in which the participants read two paragraphs of a Mexican literary essay 'La nuez.' This task aimed to obtain a more controlled speech style. From this study, it can be concluded that early bilinguals and monolinguals show a smaller formant vowel space overall compared to the late bilinguals in both speech styles. In terms of formant values by stress, the early bilinguals and the late bilinguals resembled in the semi-spontaneous speech style as their unstressed vowel space overlapped with that of the unstressed vowels different from the monolinguals who displayed a slightly reduced unstressed vowel space. For the controlled data, the early bilinguals were similar to the monolinguals as their stressed and unstressed vowel spaces overlapped in comparison to the late bilinguals who showed a more clear reduction of unstressed vowel space. In regard to stress, the monolinguals revealed longer vowel duration overall. However, findings of duration by stress showed that the early bilinguals and the monolinguals remained stable with shorter values of unstressed vowels in the semi-spontaneous data and longer duration in the controlled data when compared to the late bilinguals who displayed opposite results. These findings suggest an implication for Spanish heritage speakers and L2 Spanish vowels research as it has been frequently argued that Spanish bilinguals differ from the Spanish monolinguals by their vowel reduction and centralized vowel space influenced by English. However, some Spanish varieties are characterized by vowel reduction especially in certain phonetic contexts so that some vowels present more weakening than others. Consequently, it would not be conclusive to affirm an English influence on the Spanish of these bilinguals.

Keywords: Spanish-English bilinguals, Spanish monolinguals, spontaneous and controlled speech, vowel production.

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
4 The Gaps of Environmental Criminal Liability in Armed Conflicts and Its Consequences: An Analysis under Stockholm, Geneva and Rome

Authors: Vivian Caroline Koerbel Dombrowski

Abstract:

Armed conflicts have always meant the ultimate expression of power and at the same time, lack of understanding among nations. Cities were destroyed, people were killed, assets were devastated. But these are not only the loss of a war: the environmental damage comes to be considered immeasurable losses in the short, medium and long term. And this is because no nation wants to bear that cost. They invest in military equipment, training, technical equipment but the environmental account yet finds gaps in international law. Considering such a generalization in rights protection, many nations are at imminent danger in a conflict if the water will be used as a mass weapon, especially if we consider important rivers such as Jordan, Euphrates and Nile. The top three international documents were analyzed on the subject: the Stockholm Convention (1972), Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Convention (1977) and the Rome Statute (1998). Indeed, some references are researched in doctrine, especially scientific articles, to substantiate with consistent data about the extent of the damage, historical factors and decisions which have been successful. However, due to the lack of literature about this subject, the research tends to be exhaustive. From the study of the indicated material, it was noted that international law - humanitarian and environmental - calls in some of its instruments the environmental protection in war conflicts, but they are generic and vague rules that do not define exactly what is the environmental damage , nor sets standards for measure them. Taking into account the mains conflicts of the century XX: World War II, the Vietnam War and the Gulf War, one must realize that the environmental consequences were of great rides - never deactivated landmines, buried nuclear weapons, armaments and munitions destroyed in the soil, chemical weapons, not to mention the effects of some weapons when used (uranium, agent Orange, etc). Extending the search for more recent conflicts such as Afghanistan, it is proven that the effects on health of the civilian population were catastrophic: cancer, birth defects, and deformities in newborns. There are few reports of nations that, somehow, repaired the damage caused to the environment as a result of the conflict. In the pitch of contemporary conflicts, many nations fear that water resources are used as weapons of mass destruction, because once contaminated - directly or indirectly - can become a means of disguised genocide side effect of military objective. In conclusion, it appears that the main international treaties governing the subject mention the concern for environmental protection, however leave the normative specifications vacancies necessary to effectively there is a prevention of environmental damage in armed conflict and, should they occur, the repair of the same. Still, it appears that there is no protection mechanism to safeguard natural resources and avoid them to become a mass destruction weapon.

Keywords: armed conflicts, criminal liability, environmental damages, humanitarian law, mass weapon

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
3 A Sustainable Training and Feedback Model for Developing the Teaching Capabilities of Sessional Academic Staff

Authors: Nirmani Wijenayake, Louise Lutze-Mann, Lucy Jo, John Wilson, Vivian Yeung, Dean Lovett, Kim Snepvangers

Abstract:

Sessional academic staff at universities have the most influence and impact on student learning, engagement, and experience as they have the most direct contact with undergraduate students. A blended technology-enhanced program was created for the development and support of sessional staff to ensure adequate training is provided to deliver quality educational outcomes for the students. This program combines innovative mixed media educational modules, a peer-driven support forum, and face-to-face workshops to provide a comprehensive training and support package for staff. Additionally, the program encourages the development of learning communities and peer mentoring among the sessional staff to enhance their support system. In 2018, the program was piloted on 100 sessional staff in the School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences to evaluate the effectiveness of this model. As part of the program, rotoscope animations were developed to showcase ‘typical’ interactions between staff and students. These were designed around communication, confidence building, consistency in grading, feedback, diversity awareness, and mental health and wellbeing. When surveyed, 86% of sessional staff found these animations to be helpful in their teaching. An online platform (Moodle) was set up to disseminate educational resources and teaching tips, to host a discussion forum for peer-to-peer communication and to increase critical thinking and problem-solving skills through scenario-based lessons. The learning analytics from these lessons were essential in identifying difficulties faced by sessional staff to further develop supporting workshops to improve outcomes related to teaching. The face-to-face professional development workshops were run by expert guest speakers on topics such as cultural diversity, stress and anxiety, LGBTIQ and student engagement. All the attendees of the workshops found them to be useful and 88% said they felt these workshops increase interaction with their peers and built a sense of community. The final component of the program was to use an adaptive e-learning platform to gather feedback from the students on sessional staff teaching twice during the semester. The initial feedback provides sessional staff with enough time to reflect on their teaching and adjust their performance if necessary, to improve the student experience. The feedback from students and the sessional staff on this model has been extremely positive. The training equips the sessional staff with knowledge and insights which can provide students with an exceptional learning environment. This program is designed in a flexible and scalable manner so that other faculties or institutions could adapt components for their own training. It is anticipated that the training and support would help to build the next generation of educators who will directly impact the educational experience of students.

Keywords: designing effective instruction, enhancing student learning, implementing effective strategies, professional development

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2 Influence of Interpersonal Communication on Family Planning Practices among Rural Women in South East Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Okpoko, Vivian Atasie

Abstract:

One of the leading causes of death amongst women of child-bearing age in southeast Nigeria is pregnancy. Women in the reproductive age group die at a higher rate than men of the same age bracket. Furthermore, most maternal deaths occur among poor women who live in rural communities, and who generally fall within the low socio-economic group in society. Failure of policy makers and the media to create the strategic awareness and communication that conform with the sensibilities of this group account, in part, for the persistence of this malaise. Family planning (FP) is an essential component of safe motherhood, which is designed to ensure that women receive high-quality care to achieve an optimum level of health of mother and infant. The aim is to control the number of children a woman can give birth to and prevent maternal and child mortality and morbidity. This is what sustainable development goal (SDG) health target of World Health Organization (WHO) also strives to achieve. FP programmes reduce exposure to the risks of child-bearing. Indeed, most maternal deaths in the developing world can be prevented by fully investing simultaneously in FP and maternal and new-born care. Given the intrinsic value of communication in health care delivery, it is vital to adopt the most efficacious means of awareness creation and communication amongst rural women in FP. In a country where over 50% of her population resides in rural areas with attendant low-level profile standard of living, the need to communicate health information like FP through indigenous channels becomes pertinent. Interpersonal communication amongst family, friends, religious groups and other associations, is an efficacious means of communicating social issues in rural Africa. Communication in informal settings identifies with the values and social context of the recipients. This study therefore sought to determine the place of interpersonal communication on the knowledge of rural women on FP and how it influences uptake of FP. Descriptive survey design was used in the study, with interviewer administered questionnaire constituting the instrument for data collection. The questionnaire was administered on 385 women from rural communities in southeast Nigeria. The results show that majority (58.5%) of the respondents agreed that interpersonal communication helps women understand how to plan their family size. Many rural women (82%) prefer the short term natural method to the more effective modern contraceptive methods (38.1%). Husbands’ approval of FP, as indicated in the Mean response of 2.56, is a major factor that accounts for the adoption of FP messages among rural women. Socio-demographic data also reveal that educational attainment and/or exposure influenced women’s acceptance or otherwise of FP messages. The study, therefore, recommends amongst others, the targeting of husbands in subsequent FP communication interventions, since they play major role on contraceptive usage.

Keywords: family planning, interpersonal communication, interpersonal interaction, traditional communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 35