Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Sanaa A. Kenawy

21 The Protective Effects of Naringenin on Iodoacetamide-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

Authors: Yomna T. Abdou, Hala F. Zaki, Sanaa A. Kenawy


Naringenin is a flavanone, a type of flavonoid, found in fruits such as grapefruit, oranges, and tomatoes, was found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of naringenin on iodoacetamide-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with sulfasalazine (300 mg/kg, p.o.) as standard anti-inflammatory drug or naringenin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days then UC was induced by intracolon administration of 0.1 ml (2%) iodoacetamide dissolved in 1% methylcelluose. One week later, animals were scarificed and the colonic tissues were dissected. Colon inflammation was evident by elevation in colon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme, prostaglandin- E2 (PG-E2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Additionally, oxidative stress was manifested by increased colon lipoperoxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH) depletion, elevated nitric oxide (NO) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Pretreatment with naringenin largely mitigated these alterations. The present study reinforces the hypothetical use of naringenin as an anti-inflammatory complement to conventional UC treatment and could be considered in the dietary prevention of intestinal inflammation and related disorders.

Keywords: iodoacetamide, naringenin, sulfasalazine, ulcerative colitis

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20 Characterization and Properties of Novel Flame Retardants Based on s-Triazine

Authors: Sameh M. Osman, El-Refaie Kenawy, Zeid A. Al-Othman, Mohamed H. El-Newehy, El-Saied A. Aly, Sherine N. Khattab, Ayman El-Faham


Recently, there has been a huge interest in using cyanuric chloride in a wide range of functional group transformations, as Cyanuric chloride has temperature-dependent differential reactivity for displacement of chlorides with various nucleophiles In the present work, some copolymers based on s-triazine Unit were prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis. For comparison study, the copolymers were synthesized by the conventional method. Synthesized Copolymers were characterized by MP, IR, TGA, DSC and GPC. The result indicated that copolymers are thermally stable and in good in composition and yield. Further studies that involve the test for selected removal of transition elements such as Cu (II), Zn (II) and Mn (II). Moreover, the effects of the polymeric triazine derivatives containing different functional groups which expected to have a good thermal stability and char formation ability on thermal degradation and flame retardancy.

Keywords: flame retardants, heavy metals, microwave-assisted synthesis, s-triazine

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19 A Fast and Robust Protocol for Reconstruction and Re-Enactment of Historical Sites

Authors: Sanaa I. Abu Alasal, Madleen M. Esbeih, Eman R. Fayyad, Rami S. Gharaibeh, Mostafa Z. Ali, Ahmed A. Freewan, Monther M. Jamhawi


This research proposes a novel reconstruction protocol for restoring missing surfaces and low-quality edges and shapes in photos of artifacts at historical sites. The protocol starts with the extraction of a cloud of points. This extraction process is based on four subordinate algorithms, which differ in the robustness and amount of resultant. Moreover, they use different -but complementary- accuracy to some related features and to the way they build a quality mesh. The performance of our proposed protocol is compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms and toolkits. The statistical analysis shows that our algorithm significantly outperforms its rivals in the resultant quality of its object files used to reconstruct the desired model.

Keywords: meshes, point clouds, surface reconstruction protocols, 3D reconstruction

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18 Using Gene Expression Programming in Learning Process of Rough Neural Networks

Authors: Sanaa Rashed Abdallah, Yasser F. Hassan


The paper will introduce an approach where a rough sets, gene expression programming and rough neural networks are used cooperatively for learning and classification support. The Objective of gene expression programming rough neural networks (GEP-RNN) approach is to obtain new classified data with minimum error in training and testing process. Starting point of gene expression programming rough neural networks (GEP-RNN) approach is an information system and the output from this approach is a structure of rough neural networks which is including the weights and thresholds with minimum classification error.

Keywords: rough sets, gene expression programming, rough neural networks, classification

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17 Effects of Social Media on Class Layers in Kuwait

Authors: Bashaiar Al-Sanaa


Class has always been a vital distinguishing factor among people within any society. Clear borders between social layers; such as royals, nobles, aristocrats, the bourgeoisie, and working class; have been minimized and blurred due to the advent of social media. Unprecedented access to information has played a significant role in teaching different individuals about the nature of other social layers, hence, allowing for imitation and integration. This study aims to fill the void in research conducted on such topic. The research explores how social media may be slowly but surely dissolving apparent and rigid borderlines of social class. In order to present an overview of the topic, the study surveys individuals in Kuwait to measure how using social media changed their views and style of social class. It also draws a framework through which implications and suggestions for future research may be discussed to better serve the advancement of human communication.

Keywords: class, communication, Kuwait, social media

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16 Engineering Seismological Studies in and around Zagazig City, Sharkia, Egypt

Authors: M. El-Eraki, A. A. Mohamed, A. A. El-Kenawy, M. S. Toni, S. I. Mustafa


The aim of this paper is to study the ground vibrations using Nakamura technique to evaluate the relation between the ground conditions and the earthquake characteristics. Microtremor measurements were carried out at 55 sites in and around Zagazig city. The signals were processed using horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) technique to estimate the fundamental frequencies of the soil deposits and its corresponding H/V amplitude. Seismic measurements were acquired at nine sites for recording the surface waves. The recorded waveforms were processed using the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method to infer the shear wave velocity profile. The obtained fundamental frequencies were found to be ranging from 0.7 to 1.7 Hz and the maximum H/V amplitude reached 6.4. These results together with the average shear wave velocity in the surface layers were used for the estimation of the thickness of the upper most soft cover layers (depth to bedrock). The sediment thickness generally increases at the northeastern and southwestern parts of the area, which is in good agreement with the local geological structure. The results of this work showed the zones of higher potential damage in the event of an earthquake in the study area.

Keywords: ambient vibrations, fundamental frequency, surface waves, zagazig

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15 Effects of Synchronous Music in Gymnastics' Motor Skill Performance among Undergraduate Female Students in Physical Education College

Authors: Sanaa Ali Ahmed Alrashid


The present study aimed to investigate the effect of synchronous music in gymnastics' motor skill performance among undergraduate female students in physical education college at Basra University. The researcher used an experimental design. 20 female students of physical education divided equally into two groups, (10)experimental group with music, (10) control group without music. All participants complete 8 weeks in testing. Data analysis based on T-test shows a significant difference at (α = 0.05) in all skills level between experimental and control groups in favor of the experimental group. Results of this study contribute to developing the role of synchronous music in improving gymnastic skills performance.

Keywords: performance, motor skill, music, synchronous

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14 SC-LSH: An Efficient Indexing Method for Approximate Similarity Search in High Dimensional Space

Authors: Sanaa Chafik, Imane Daoudi, Mounim A. El Yacoubi, Hamid El Ouardi


Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is one of the most promising techniques for solving nearest neighbour search problem in high dimensional space. Euclidean LSH is the most popular variation of LSH that has been successfully applied in many multimedia applications. However, the Euclidean LSH presents limitations that affect structure and query performances. The main limitation of the Euclidean LSH is the large memory consumption. In order to achieve a good accuracy, a large number of hash tables is required. In this paper, we propose a new hashing algorithm to overcome the storage space problem and improve query time, while keeping a good accuracy as similar to that achieved by the original Euclidean LSH. The Experimental results on a real large-scale dataset show that the proposed approach achieves good performances and consumes less memory than the Euclidean LSH.

Keywords: approximate nearest neighbor search, content based image retrieval (CBIR), curse of dimensionality, locality sensitive hashing, multidimensional indexing, scalability

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13 Genistein Treatment Confers Protection Against Gliopathy & Vasculopathy of the Diabetic Retina in Rats

Authors: Sanaa AM Elgayar, Sohair A Eltony, Maha Mahmoud Abd El Rouf


Background: Retinopathy remains an important complication of diabetes. Aim of work: This work was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of genistein from diabetic retinopathy in rat. Material and Methods: Fifteen adult male albino rats were divided into two groups; Group I: control (n=5) and Group II: streptozotocin induced diabetic group (n=10), which is equally divided into two subgroups; IIa (diabetic vehicle control) and IIb (diabetic genistein-treated). Specimens were taken from the retina 12 weeks post induction, processed and examined using light, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural techniques. Blood samples were assayed for the levels of glucose. Results: In comparison with the diabetic non-treated group, the histological changes in macro and microglial glial cells reactivity and retinal blood capillaries were improved in genistein-treated groups. In addition, GFAP and iNOS expressions in the retina and the blood glucose level were reduced. Conclusion: Genistein ameliorates the histological changes of diabetic retinopathy reaching healing features, which resemble that of a normal retina.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, genistein, glia, capillaries.

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12 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Essential Oils Extracted from Six Eucalyptus Species

Authors: Sanaa K. Bardaweel, Mohammad M. Hudaib, Khaled A. Tawaha, Rasha M. Bashatwah


Eucalyptus species are well reputed for their traditional use in Asia as well as in other parts of the world; therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities associated with essential oils from different Eucalyptus species. Essential oils from the leaves of six Eucalyptus species, including: Eucalyptus woodwardi, Eucalyptus stricklandii, Eucalyptus salubris, Eucalyptus sargentii, Eucalyptus torquata and Eucalyptus wandoo were separated by hydrodistillation and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the oils. The results indicate that examined oils exhibit substantial antioxidant activities relative to ascorbic acid. Previously, these oils were evaluated for their antimicrobial activities, against wide range of bacterial and fungal strains, and they were shown to possess significant antimicrobial activities. In this study, further investigation into the growth kinetics of oil-treated microbial cultures was conducted. The results clearly demonstrate that the microbial growth was markedly inhibited when treated with sub-MIC concentrations of the oils. Taken together, the results obtained indicate a high potential of the examined essential oils as bioactive oils, for nutraceutical and medical applications, possessing significant antioxidant and anti microbial activities.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidants, essential (volatile) oil, Eucalyptus

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11 Assessment the Infiltration of the Wastewater Ponds and Its Impact on the Water Quality of Pleistocene Aquifer at El Sadat City Using 2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Water Chemistry

Authors: Abeer A. Kenawy, Usama Massoud, El-Said A. Ragab, Heba M. El-Kosery


2-D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and hydrochemical study have been conducted at El Sadat industrial city. The study aims to investigate the area around the wastewater ponds to determine the possibility of water percolation from the wastewater ponds to the Pleistocene aquifer and to inspect the effect of this seepage on the groundwater chemistry. Pleistocene aquifer is the main groundwater reservoir in this area, where El Sadat city and its vicinities depend totally on this aquifer for water supplies needed for drinking, agricultural, and industrial activities. In this concern, seven ERT profiles were measured around the wastewater ponds. Besides, 10 water samples were collected from the ponds and the nearby groundwater wells. The water samples have been chemically analyzed for major cations, anions, nutrients, and heavy elements. Also, the physical parameters (pH, Alkalinity, EC, TDS) of the water samples were measured. Inspection of the ERT sections shows that they exhibit lower resistivity values towards the water ponds and higher values in opposite sides. In addition, the water table was detected at shallower depths at the same sides of lower resistivity. This could indicate a wastewater infiltration to the groundwater aquifer near the oxidation ponds. Correlation of the physical parameters and ionic concentrations of the wastewater samples with those of the groundwater samples indicates that; the ionic levels are randomly varying and no specific trend could be obtained. In addition, the wastewater samples shows some ionic levels lower than those detected in other groundwater samples. Besides, the nitrate level is higher in samples taken from the cultivated land than the wastewater samples due to the over using of nitrogen fertilizers. Then, we can say that the infiltrated water from wastewater ponds are not the main controller of the groundwater chemistry in this area, but rather the variable ionic concentrations could be attributed to local, natural, and anthropogenic processes.

Keywords: El Sadat city, ERT, hydrochemistry, percolation, wastewater ponds

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10 Polyphosphate Kinase 1 Active Site Characterization for the Identification of Novel Antimicrobial Targets

Authors: Sanaa Bardaweel


Inorganic polyphosphate (poly P) is present in all living forms tested to date, from each of the three kingdoms of life. Studied mainly in prokaryotes, poly P and its associated enzymes are vital in diverse basic metabolism, in at least some structural functions and, notably, in stress responses. These plentiful and unrelated roles for poly P are probably the consequence of its presence in life-forms early in evolution. The genomes of many bacterial species, including pathogens, encode a homologue of a major poly P synthetic enzyme, poly P kinase 1 (PPK1). Genetic deletion of ppk1 results in reduced poly P levels and loss of pathogens virulence towards protozoa and animals. Thus far, no PPK1 homologue has been identified in higher-order eukaryotes and, therefore, PPK1 represents a novel target for chemotherapy. The idea of the current study is to purify the PPK1 from Escherichia coli to homogeneity in order to study the effect of active site point mutations on PPK1 catalysis via the application of site-directed mutagenesis strategy. The knowledge obtained about the active site of PPK1 will be utilized to characterize the catalytic and kinetic mechanism of PPK1 with model substrates. Comprehensive understanding of the enzyme kinetic mechanism and catalysis will be used to design and screen a library of synthetic compounds for potential discovery of selective PPK1-inhibitors.

Keywords: antimicobial, Escherichia coli, inorganic polyphosphate, PPK1-inhibitors

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9 Amelioration of Over-Expression of bax, Nrf2 and NFК–β in Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide-Intoxicated Mice by Potent Antioxidants

Authors: Maha Z. Rizk, Sami A. Fattah, Heba M. Darwish, Sanaa A. Ali, Mai O. Kadry


The increasing use of nanomaterials in consumer and industrial products has aroused global concern regarding their fate in biological systems resulting in demand for parallel risk assessment. The objective of this study is investigating either the effect of individual or combined doses of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E on amelioration of some biochemical indices of nano sized titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPS) induced metabolic disorders in mice liver. TiO2-NPS was administered in an oral dose of 150 mg/kg for consecutive 14 days followed by oral daily doses of the aforementioned antioxidants for 1 month. TiO2-NPS induced a significant elevation in serum level of ALT and AST, hepatic inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) and increased the percent of DNA damage which was assessed by COMET assay in addition to the apoptotic marker Caspase-3. Moreover, mRNA gene expression observed by RT-PCR showed a significant overexpression in nuclear factor relation-2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-Kβ) and the apoptotic factor (bax), and a significant down-regulation in the antiapoptotic factor (bcl2) level. In conclusion, idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E ameliorated the deviated parameters with a variable degree with the most pronounced role in alleviating the hazardous effect of TiO2 NPS toxicity following the combination regimen.

Keywords: idebenone, carnosine, vitamin E, TiO2 NPS, caspase-3, NrF2, NF-KB

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8 Characterization of the Groundwater Aquifers at El Sadat City by Joint Inversion of VES and TEM Data

Authors: Usama Massoud, Abeer A. Kenawy, El-Said A. Ragab, Abbas M. Abbas, Heba M. El-Kosery


Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Transient Electro Magnetic (TEM) survey have been applied for characterizing the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat industrial area. El-Sadat city is one of the most important industrial cities in Egypt. It has been constructed more than three decades ago at about 80 km northwest of Cairo along the Cairo–Alexandria desert road. Groundwater is the main source of water supplies required for domestic, municipal, and industrial activities in this area due to the lack of surface water sources. So, it is important to maintain this vital resource in order to sustain the development plans of this city. In this study, VES and TEM data were identically measured at 24 stations along three profiles trending NE–SW with the elongation of the study area. The measuring points were arranged in a grid like pattern with both inter-station spacing and line–line distance of about 2 km. After performing the necessary processing steps, the VES and TEM data sets were inverted individually to multi-layer models, followed by a joint inversion of both data sets. Joint inversion process has succeeded to overcome the model-equivalence problem encountered in the inversion of individual data set. Then, the joint models were used for the construction of a number of cross sections and contour maps showing the lateral and vertical distribution of the geo-electrical parameters in the subsurface medium. Interpretation of the obtained results and correlation with the available geological and hydrogeological information revealed TWO aquifer systems in the area. The shallow Pleistocene aquifer consists of sand and gravel saturated with fresh water and exhibits large thickness exceeding 200 m. The deep Pliocene aquifer is composed of clay and sand and shows low resistivity values. The water bearing layer of the Pleistocene aquifer and the upper surface of Pliocene aquifer are continuous and no structural features have cut this continuity through the investigated area.

Keywords: El Sadat city, joint inversion, VES, TEM

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7 The Attitude of Egyptian Nubian University Students towards Arabic and Nubian Languages

Authors: Sanaa Abouras


This research investigates the attitude of Egyptian Nubian University students towards the Arabic and the two Nubian languages, Nobiin, and Kenuzi-Dongola. The Nubian languages are called by Egyptian Nubians, Fadijja/Fadicca and Kenzi, respectively. Nubians are people who live in the Nubia area which lies between Egypt’s southern borders with the northern part of Sudan. Nubia is divided into two parts - one under the Egyptian regime, and the other under the Sudanese regime. The number of participants used in the study was forty - half male and half female. Twenty of these participants live in the Nubian region and are enrolled at the South Valley University in Aswan, Egypt. This number was compared with an additional twenty Egyptian-Nubian university students who live outside the Nubian region and attend various Egyptian universities located in Alexandria and Cairo. The hypothesis of this study is that Egyptian Nubian University students tend to have positive attitudes toward Arabic and also the Nubian languages. This research is a qualitative and partially quantitative one. Observations, questionnaires, and interviews were used to collect data in order to explore the following: (1) the language students prefer to speak at home and in public and if language preferences are gender-related, (2) the factors that influence the Egyptian Nubian university students' attitudes towards Arabic and Nubian languages, and (3) a look at the future of these ethnic Nubian languages. Results that answered the main question on the attitude of Egyptian Nubian University students toward Arabic and Nubian languages revealed that students who live inside and outside the Nubian region tend to have positive attitudes towards both the Arabic and the Nubian languages.

Keywords: language attitude, minority, Arabic language, Nubian Language

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6 Evaluation of Goji By-Product as a Value-Added Ingredient for the Functional Food Industry

Authors: Sanaa Ragaee, Paragyani Bora, Wee Teng Tan, Xin Hu


Goji berry (Lycium barbarum) is a member of the family Solanaceae which is grown widely in China, Tibet, and other parts of Asia. Its fruits are 1–2 cm-long, bright orange-red ellipsoid berries and it has a long tradition as a food and medicinal plant. Goji berries are believed to boost immune system properties. The berries are considered an excellent source of macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, minerals and several bioactive components. Studies have shown effects of goji fruit on aging, neuroprotection, general well-being, fatigue/endurance, metabolism/energy expenditure, glucose control in diabetics and glaucoma, antioxidant properties, immunomodulation and anti-tumor activity. Goji berries are being used to prepare Goji beverage, and the remaining solid material is considered as by-product. The by-product is currently unused and disposed as waste despite its potential as a value-added food ingredient. Therefore, this study is intended to evaluate nutritional properties of Goji by-product and its potential applications in the baking industry. The Goji by-product was freeze dried and ground to pass through 1 mm screen prior to evaluation and food use. The Goji by-product was found to be a rich source of fiber (54%) and free phenolic components (1,307 µg/g), protein (13.6%), ash (3.3%) and fat (10%). Incorporation of the Goji by-product in muffins and cookies at various levels (10-40%) significantly improved the nutritional quality of the baked products. The baked products were generally accepted and highly rated by panelists at 20% replacement level. The results indicate the potential of Goji by-product as a value-added ingredient in particular as a source of dietary fiber and protein.

Keywords: Goji, by-product, phenolics, fibers, baked products

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5 The Influence of Migration on Migrants' Culture: A Study on Egyptian Nubians' Migration to Investigate Culture Changes

Authors: Tarek Hassan, Sanaa Abouras


Some factors such as interaction of migration process, cultural identity have an impact in a way that may lead to cultural disinheritance. Even if migrants' culture would not be lost, it may be affected by the new society culture. Therefore, it is anticipated that migration of an ethnic group would impact the culture of that group. Nubians; an ethnic group originated in South Egypt, have experienced migration that took place in the sixties of the past century. Nubians were forced to leave their origin land and relocate to Kom Ombo; an Egyptian town to the north of Aswan. The effect of migration on national culture, social homogeneity or the interest of social contact influences the attitudes of natives towards migration. Hence, it is very important for societies to help migrants to adapt to the new culture and at the same time not to impede migrants' effort to maintain their own culture. This study aims to investigate the effect of internal migration on the culture of Egyptian Nubians in order to predict if Nubian can maintain their own culture after the migration. Research question: what is the cultural influence of Nubians' migration from Egyptian Nubia to their new destinations? The researchers' hypothesis: there is mutual influence between the two cultures of Nubians and non-Nubians in Egypt. Results supported researchers' hypothesis as they observed that the Nubians managed to reserve balance between the maintenance of their own culture and the adoption of some cultural features of the community of their new destination(s). Also, the study examined why Nubians adhere to their culture although they left their land forever. Questionnaire and interviews were used to collect data from 80 informants; 40 Nubians and 40 non-Nubians in Kom-Ombo and the two cities of Cairo and Alexandria. Results suggested that there is obvious mutual cultural impact between Nubians and non-Nubians. The findings of this study would trigger the researchers to conduct further research on minorities for the deeper understanding of the impact of/on the culture of minorities.

Keywords: culture change, culture influence, culture maintenance, minority migration

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4 Spatial Indeterminacy: Destabilization of Dichotomies in Modern and Contemporary Architecture

Authors: Adrian Lo


Since the beginning of modern architecture, ideas of free plan and transparency have proliferated well into current trends of building design, from houses to highrise office buildings. The movement’s notion of a spatially homogeneous, open, and limitless ‘free plan’ stands opposite to the spatially heterogeneous ‘separation of rooms’ defined by load-bearing walls, which in turn triggered new notions of transparency achieved by vast expanses of glazed walls. Similarly, transparency was also dichotomized as something that was physical or optical, as well as something conceptual, akin to spatial organization. As opposed to merely accepting the duality and possible incompatibility of these dichotomies, this paper seeks to ask how can space be both literally and phenomenally transparent, as well as display both homogeneous and heterogeneous qualities? This paper explores this potential destabilization or blurring of spatial phenomena by dissecting the transparent layers and volumes of a series of selected case studies to investigate how different architects have devised strategies of spatial ambivalence, ambiguity, and interpenetration. Projects by Peter Eisenman, Sou Fujimoto, and SANAA will be discussed and analyzed to show how the superimposition of geometries and spaces achieve different conditions of layering, transparency, and interstitiality. Their particular buildings will be explored to reveal various innovative kinds of spatial interpenetration produced through the articulate relations of the elements of architecture, which challenge conventional perceptions of interior and exterior whereby visual homogeneity blurs with spatial heterogeneity. The results show how spatial conceptions such as interpenetration and transparency have the ability to subvert not only inside-outside dialectics but could also produce multiple degrees of interiority within complex and indeterminate spatial dimensions in constant flux as well as present alternative forms of social interaction.

Keywords: interpenetration, literal and phenomenal transparency, spatial heterogeneity, visual homogeneity

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3 Lactate in Critically Ill Patients an Outcome Marker with Time

Authors: Sherif Sabri, Suzy Fawzi, Sanaa Abdelshafy, Ayman Nagah


Introduction: Static derangements in lactate homeostasis during ICU stay have become established as a clinically useful marker of increased risk of hospital and ICU mortality. Lactate indices or kinetic alteration of the anaerobic metabolism make it a potential parameter to evaluate disease severity and intervention adequacy. This is an inexpensive and simple clinical parameter that can be obtained by a minimally invasive means. Aim of work: Comparing the predictive value of dynamic indices of hyperlactatemia in the first twenty four hours of intensive care unit (ICU) admission with other static values are more commonly used. Patients and Methods: This study included 40 critically ill patients above 18 years old of both sexes with Hyperlactamia (≥ 2 m mol/L). Patients were divided into septic group (n=20) and low oxygen transport group (n=20), which include all causes of low-O2. Six lactate indices specifically relating to the first 24 hours of ICU admission were considered, three static indices and three dynamic indices. Results: There were no statistically significant differences among the two groups regarding age, most of the laboratory results including ABG and the need for mechanical ventilation. Admission lactate was significantly higher in low-oxygen transport group than the septic group [37.5±11.4 versus 30.6±7.8 P-value 0.034]. Maximum lactate was significantly higher in low-oxygen transport group than the septic group P-value (0.044). On the other hand absolute lactate (mg) was higher in septic group P-value (< 0.001). Percentage change of lactate was higher in the septic group (47.8±11.3) than the low-oxygen transport group (26.1±12.6) with highly significant P-value (< 0.001). Lastly, time weighted lactate was higher in the low-oxygen transport group (1.72±0.81) than the septic group (1.05±0.8) with significant P-value (0.012). There were statistically significant differences regarding lactate indices in survivors and non survivors, whether in septic or low-oxygen transport group. Conclusion: In critically ill patients, time weighted lactate and percent in lactate change in the first 24 hours can be an independent predictive factor in ICU mortality. Also, a rising compared to a falling blood lactate concentration over the first 24 hours can be associated with significant increase in the risk of mortality.

Keywords: critically ill patients, lactate indices, mortality in intensive care, anaerobic metabolism

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2 Utility of Cardiac Biomarkers in Combination with Exercise Stress Testing in Patients with Suspected Ischemic Heart Disease

Authors: Rawa Delshada, Sanaa G. Hamab, Rastee D. Koyeec


Eighty patients with suspected ischemic heart disease were enrolled in the present study. They were classified into two groups: patients with positive exercise stress test results (n=40) and control group with negative exercise stress test results (n=40). Serum concentration of troponin I, Heart-type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP) and Ischemia Modified Albumin (IMA) were measured one hour after performing stress test. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay was used to measure both troponin I, H-FABP levels, while IMA levels were measured by albumin cobalt binding test. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean concentration of troponin I between two groups (0.75±0.55ng/ml) for patients with positive test result vs. (0.71±0.55ng/ml) for negative test result group with P>0.05. Contrary to our expectation, mean IMA level was slightly higher among control group (70.88±39.76U/ml) compared to (62.7±51.9U/ml) in positive test result group, but still with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Median H-FABP level was also higher among negative exercise stress testing group compared the positive one (2ng/ml vs. 1.9ng/ml respectively), but failed to reach statistically significant difference (P>0.05). When quartiles model used to explore the possible association between each study biomarkers with the others; serum H-FABP level was lowest (1.7ng/ml) in highest quartile of IMA and lowest H-FABP (1.8ng/ml) in highest quartile of troponin I but with no statistically significant association (P>0.05). Myocardial ischemia, more likely occurred after exercise stress test, is not capable of causing troponin I release. Furthermore, an increase in H-FABP and IMA levels after stress test are not reflecting myocardial ischemia. Moreover, the combination of troponin I, H-FABP and IMA after measuring their post exercise levels does not improve the diagnostic utility of exercise stress test enormously.

Keywords: cardiac biomarkers, ischemic heart disease, troponin I, ischemia modified albumin, heart-type fatty acid binding protein, exercise stress testing

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1 Down Regulation of Smad-2 Transcription and TGF-B1 Signaling in Nano Sized Titanium Dioxide-Induced Liver Injury in Mice by Potent Antioxidants

Authors: Maha Z. Rizk, Sami A. Fattah, Heba M. Darwish, Sanaa A. Ali, Mai O. Kadry


Although it is known that nano-TiO2 and other nanoparticles can induce liver toxicity, the mechanisms and the molecular pathogenesis are still unclear. The present study investigated some biochemical indices of nano-sized Titanium dioxide (TiO2 NPS) toxicity in mice liver and the ameliorative efficacy of individual and combined doses of idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E. Nano-anatase TiO2 (21 nm) was administered as a total oral dose of 2.2 gm/Kg daily for 2 weeks followed by the afore-mentioned antioxidants daily either individually or in combination for 1month. TiO2-NPS induced a significant elevation in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and hepatic oxidative stress biomarkers [lipid peroxides (LP), and nitric oxide levels (NOX), while it significantly reduced glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase(GPX) levels. Moreover the quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that nano-anatase TiO2 can significantly alter the mRNA and protein expressions of the fibrotic factors TGF-B1, VEGFand Smad-2. Histopathological examination of hepatic tissue reinforced the previous biochemical results. Our results also implied that inflammatory responses and liver injury may be involved in nano-anatase TiO2-induced liver toxicity Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin -6 (IL-6) and increased the percent of DNA damage which was assessed by COMET assay in addition to the apoptotic marker Caspase-3. Moreover mRNA gene expression observed by RT-PCR showed a significant overexpression in nuclear factor relation -2 (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-Kβ) and the apoptotic factor (bax), and a significant down regulation in the antiapoptotic factor (bcl2) level. In conclusion idebenone, carnosine and vitamin E ameliorated the deviated previously mentioned parameters with variable degrees with the most pronounced role in alleviating the hazardous effect of TiO2 NPS toxicity following the combination regimen.

Keywords: Nano-anatase TiO2, TGF-B1, SMAD-2

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