Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 384

Search results for: inflammation

384 Ancelim: Health System Restoration Protocol for Cancer Patients

Authors: Mark Berry

Abstract:

A number of studies have identified several factors involved in the malignant progression of cancer cells. The Primary modulator in driving inflammation to these transformed cells has been identified as the transcription factor known as nuclear factor-κB. This essential regulator of inflammation and the development of cancer, combined with a microenvironment of inflammation and signaling molecules, plays a major role in the malignant progression of cancer, and this progression is the result of the mutagenic predisposition of persistent substances that combat infection at tumor sites and other areas of chronic inflammation. Inflammation-induced tumors, and their inflammatory cells and regulators may be the primary source of metastasis of tumor cells through angiogenesis. Previous research on cytokines and chemokines, including their downstream targets, has been the focus of the cancer/inflammation connection. The identification of the biological mechanisms of other proteins vital to the inflammation cascade and their interactions are crucial to novel and effective therapeutic protocols for the treatment of inflammation-induced cancers. The Ancelim HSRP Protocol is just such a therapeutic intervention.

Keywords: ancelim, cancer, inflammation, tumor

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383 Activation of TNF-α from Human Endothelial Cells by Exposure of the Mitochondrial Stress Protein (Hsp60) Secreted from THP-1 Monocytes to High Glucose

Authors: Ryan D. Martinus

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Inflammation of the endothelium is an important process leading to diabetic atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which diabetes contributes to endothelial inflammation remain to be established. Using In-vitro cultured Human cells and Hsp60 specific ELISA assays, we show that Hsp60 is not only induced in Human monocyte cells under hyperglycaemic conditions but that the Hsp60 is also secreted from these cells. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the Hsp60 secreted from these monocyte cells is also able to activate Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) from Human endothelial cells. This suggests that a potential link may exist between the hyperglycaemia-induced expression of Hsp60 in monocyte cells and vascular inflammation. Circulating levels of Hsp60 due to mitochondrial stress in diabetes patients could, therefore, be an important modulator of inflammation in endothelial cells and thus contribute to the increased incidences of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: mitochondria, Hsp60, inflammation, diabetes mellitus

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382 MiRNA Regulation of CXCL12β during Inflammation

Authors: Raju Ranjha, Surbhi Aggarwal

Abstract:

Background: Inflammation plays an important role in infectious and non-infectious diseases. MiRNA is also reported to play role in inflammation and associated cancers. Chemokine CXCL12 is also known to play role in inflammation and various cancers. CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis was involved in pathogenesis of IBD specially UC. Supplementation of CXCL12 induces homing of dendritic cells to spleen and enhances control of plasmodium parasite in BALB/c mice. We looked at the regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in UC colitis. Prolonged inflammation of colon in UC patient increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. We looked at the expression differences of CXCl12β and its targeting miRNA in cancer susceptible area of colon of UC patients. Aim: Aim of this study was to find out the expression regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in inflammation. Materials and Methods: Biopsy samples and blood samples were collected from UC patients and non-IBD controls. mRNA expression was analyzed using microarray and real-time PCR. CXCL12β targeting miRNA were looked by using online target prediction tools. Expression of CXCL12β in blood samples and cell line supernatant was analyzed using ELISA. miRNA target was validated using dual luciferase assay. Results and conclusion: We found miR-200a regulate the expression of CXCL12β in UC. Expression of CXCL12β was increased in cancer susceptible part of colon and expression of its targeting miRNA was decreased in the same part of colon. miR-200a regulate CXCL12β expression in inflammation and may be an important therapeutic target in inflammation associated cancer.

Keywords: inflammation, miRNA, regulation, CXCL12

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381 Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Myristic Acid through Inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells

Authors: Hyun Ji Hyun, Hyo Sun Suh, Min Kook Kim, Yong Chan Kwon, Byung-Mu Lee

Abstract:

Scope: This study is focused on the effect of myristic acid on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Methods and results: For the experiment, RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line was used. Results showed that treatment with myristic acid can attenuate LPS-induced inflammation. Moreover, myristic acid significantly suppressed expression of inflammatory mediators and down-regulating UVB-induced intracellular ROS generation. Furthermore, myristic acid reduced the expression of NF-κB by inhibiting degradation of IκB-α and ERK, JNK, and p38 pathways by inhibiting phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Conclusion: Overall, these data suggest that the myristic acid could reduce LPS-induced inflammation. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy(MOTIE), Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology(KIAT) through the Encouragement Program for The Industries of Economic Cooperation Region

Keywords: anti-inflammation, myristic acid, ROS, ultraviolet light

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380 Evaluation of Activity of Anacyclus Pyrethrum Methanolic Extract on Acute Inflammation Induced in Rats

Authors: Dalila Bouamra, Chekib Arslane Baki, Abdelhamid Bouchebour, Fatiha Koussa, Amel Benamara, Seoussen Kada

Abstract:

The activity of methanolic extract from Anacyclus pyrethrum was evaluated using λ-carrageenan 1% induced paw edema in Wistar Albinos rats. The oral administration of 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg, body weight of methanolic extract, one hour before induction of inflammation, exerted a significant inhibition effect of 47%, 57% and 62% respectively after 4h λ-carrageenan treatment and highly significant inhibition effect of 57%, 66% and 75% respectively after 8h λ-carrageenan treatment, compared to non treated group (100%) and that treated with aspirin, a standard anti-inflammatory drug. On the other hand, the effect of the plant extract on stomach was macroscopically and microscopically studied. The plant extract has an impact on the loss ratio of granulocytes that have invaded the stomach after a period of inflammation at a dose of 600 mg/kg body weight.

Keywords: inflammation, Anacyclus pyrethrum, gastritis, Wistar Albinos rats

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379 Differential Expression of GABA and Its Signaling Components in Ulcerative Colitis and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Pathogenesis

Authors: Surbhi Aggarwal, Jaishree Paul

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Background: Role of GABA has been implicated in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, type1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis where they modulate the immune response but role in gut inflammation has not been defined. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and diarrhoeal predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) both involve inflammation of gastrointestinal tract. UC is a chronic, relapsing and idiopathic inflammation of gut. IBS is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by abdominal pain, discomfort and alternating bowel habits. Mild inflammation is known to occur in IBS-D. Aim: Aim of this study was to investigate the role of GABA in UC as well as in IBS-D. Materials and methods: Blood and biopsy samples from UC, IBS-D and controls were collected. ELISA was used for measuring level of GABA in serum of UC, IBS-D and controls. RT-PCR analysis was done to determine GABAergic signal system in colon biopsy of UC, IBS-D and controls. RT-PCR was done to check the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. CurveExpert 1.4, Graphpad prism-6 software were used for data analysis. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired, two-way student`s t-test. All sets of data were represented as mean± SEM. A probability level of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results and conclusion: Significantly decreased level of GABA and altered GABAergic signal system was detected in UC and IBS-D as compared to controls. Significantly increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines was also determined in UC and IBS-D as compared to controls. Hence we conclude that insufficient level of GABA in UC and IBS-D leads to overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines which further contributes to inflammation. GABA may be used as a promising therapeutic target for treatment of gut inflammation or other inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: diarrheal predominant irritable bowel syndrome, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), inflammation, ulcerative colitis

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378 Sulforaphane Attenuates Muscle Inflammation in Dystrophin-Deficient Mdx Mice via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Cuili Yang, Shujun Li, Ruilin Xue, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Dejia Li

Abstract:

Backgrounds: Inflammation is widely distributed in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), and ultimately leads to progressive deterioration of muscle function with the co-effects of chronic muscle damage, oxidative stress, and reduced oxidative capacity. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a critical role in defending against inflammation in different tissues via activation of phase II enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However, whether Nrf2/HO-1 pathway can attenuate muscle inflammation on DMD remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of Sulforaphane (SFN) on DMD. Methods: 4-week-old male mdx mice were treated with SFN by gavage (2 mg/kg body weight per day) for 4 weeks. Gastrocnemius, tibial anterior and triceps brachii muscles were collected for related analysis. Immune cell infiltration in skeletal muscles was analyzed by H&E staining and immuno-histochemistry. Moreover, the expressions of inflammatory cytokines,pro-inflammatory cytokines and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway were detected by western blot, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. Results: Our results demonstrated that SFN treatment increased the expression of muscle phase II enzymes HO-1 in Nrf2 dependent manner. Inflammation in mdx skeletal muscles was reduced by SFN treatment as indicated by decreased immune cell infiltration and lower expressions of the inflammatory cytokines CD45, pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in the skeletal muscles of mdx mice. Conclusions: Collectively, these results show that SFN can ameliorate muscle inflammation in mdx mice by Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, which indicates Nrf2/HO-1 pathway may represent a new therapeutic target for DMD.

Keywords: sulforaphane, Nrf2, HO-1, inflammation

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377 Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) Has Protective Effect on Colonic Inflammation: An in Vitro Study in Raw 264.7 and Caco-2 Cells

Authors: Aysegul Alyamac, Sukru Gulec

Abstract:

Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) is a plant extract used to stop bleeding caused by injuries and surgical interventions. ABS also involved in wound healing of intestinal mucosal damage due to oxidative stress and inflammation. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a common chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that causes abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal bleeding, and increases the risk of colon cancer. Inflammation is an essential factor in the development of IBD. The various studies have been performed about the physiological effects of ABS; however, ABS dependent mechanism on colonic inflammation has not been elucidated. Thus, the protective effect of ABS on colonic inflammation was investigated in this study. The Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were used as a model of in vitro colonic inflammation. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 12 hours to induce the inflammation, and a conditional medium was obtained. Caco-2 cells were treated with 15 µl/ml ABS for 4 hours, then incubated with conditional medium and the cells also were incubated with 15 µl/ml ABS and conditional medium together for 4 hours. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein levels were targeted in testing inflammatory condition and its level was significantly increased (25 fold, p<0.001) compared to the control group by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The COX-2 mRNA level was used as a marker gene to show the possible anti-inflammatory effect of ABS in Caco-2 cells. RAW cells-derived conditional medium significantly (3.3 fold, p<0.001) induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA levels in Caco-2 cells. The pretreatment of Caco-2 cells caused a significant decrease (3.3 fold, p<0.001) in COX-2 mRNA levels relative to conditional medium given group. Furthermore, COX-2 mRNA level was significantly reduced (4,7 fold, p<0.001) in ABS and conditional medium treated group. These results suggest that ABS might have an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro.

Keywords: Ankaferd blood stopper, CaCo-2, colonic inflammation, RAW 264.7

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376 Detecting Rat’s Kidney Inflammation Using Real Time Photoacoustic Tomography

Authors: M. Y. Lee, D. H. Shin, S. H. Park, W.C. Ham, S.K. Ko, C. G. Song

Abstract:

Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT) is a promising medical imaging modality that combines optical imaging contrast with the spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. It can also distinguish the changes in biological features. But, real-time PAT system should be confirmed due to photoacoustic effect for tissue. Thus, we have developed a real-time PAT system using a custom-developed data acquisition board and ultrasound linear probe. To evaluate performance of our system, phantom test was performed. As a result of those experiments, the system showed satisfactory performance and its usefulness has been confirmed. We monitored the degradation of inflammation which induced on the rat’s kidney using real-time PAT.

Keywords: photoacoustic tomography, inflammation detection, rat, kidney, contrast agent, ultrasound

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375 Preclinical Studying of Stable Fe-Citrate Effect on 68Ga-Citrate Tissue Distribution

Authors: A. S. Lunev, A. A. Larenkov, O. E. Klementyeva, G. E. Kodina

Abstract:

Background and aims: 68Ga-citrate is one of prospective radiopharmaceutical for PET-imaging of inflammation and infection. 68Ga-citrate is 67Ga-citrate analogue using since 1970s for SPECT-imaging. There's known rebinding reaction occurs past Ga-citrate injection and gallium (similar iron Fe3+) binds with blood transferrin. Then radiolabeled protein complex is delivered to pathological foci (inflammation/infection sites). But excessive gallium bindings with transferrin are cause of slow blood clearance, long accumulation time in foci (24-72 h) and exception of application possibility of the short-lived gallium-68 (T½ = 68 min). Injection of additional chemical agents (e.g. Fe3+ compounds) competing with radioactive gallium to the blood transferrin joining (blocking of its metal binding capacity) is one of the ways to solve formulated problem. This phenomenon can be used for correction of 68Ga-citrate pharmacokinetics for increasing of the blood clearance and accumulation in foci. The aim of real studying is research of effect of stable Fe-citrate on 68Ga-citrate tissue distribution. Materials and methods: 68Ga-citrate without/with extra injection of stable Fe-citrate (III) was injected nonlinear mice with inflammation models (aseptic soft tissue inflammation, lung infection, osteomyelitis). PET/X-RAY Genisys4 (Sofie Bioscience, USA) was used for non-invasive PET imaging (for 30, 60, 120 min past injection 68Ga-citrate) with subsequent reconstruction of imaging and their analysis (value of clearance, distribution volume). Scanning time is 10 min. Results and conclusions: I. v. injection of stable Fe-citrate blocks the metal-binding capability of transferrin serum and allows decreasing gallium-68 radioactivity in blood significantly and increasing accumulation in inflammation (3-5 time). It allows receiving more informative PET-images of inflammation early (for 30-60 min after injection). Pharmacokinetic parameters prove it. Noted there is no statistically significant difference between 68Ga-citrate accumulation for different inflammation model because PET imaging is indication of pathological processes and is not their identification.

Keywords: 68Ga-citrate, Fe-citrate, PET imaging, mice, inflammation, infection

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374 Antioxidant Potential of Pomegranate Rind Extract Attenuates Pain, Inflammation and Bone Damage in Experimental Rats

Authors: Ritu Karwasra, Surender Singh

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Inflammation is an important physiological response of the body’s self-defense system that helps in eliminating and protecting organism from harmful stimuli and in tissue repair. It is a highly regulated protective response which helps in eliminating the initial cause of cell injury, and initiates the process of repair. The present study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of pomegranate rind extract on pain and inflammation. Hydroalcoholic standardized rind extract of pomegranate at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg and indomethacin (3 mg/kg) was tested against eddy’s hot plate induced thermal algesia, carrageenan (acute inflammation) and Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (chronic inflammation) induced models in Wistar rats. Parameters analyzed were inhibition of paw edema, measurement of joint diameter, levels of GSH, TBARS, SOD, TNF-α, radiographic imaging, tissue histology and synovial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine receptor (TNF-R1). Radiological and light microscopical analysis were carried out to find out the bone damage in CFA-induced chronic inflammatory model. Findings of the present study revealed that pomegranate rind extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg caused a significant (p<0.05) reduction in paw swelling in both the inflammatory models. Nociceptive threshold was also significantly (p<0.05) improved. Immunohistochemical analysis of TNF-R1 in CFA-induced group showed elevated level, whereas reduction in level of TNF-R1 was observed in pomegranate (200 mg/kg). Henceforth, we might say that pomegranate produced a dose-dependent reduction in inflammation and pain along with the reduction in levels of oxidative stress markers and tissue histology, and the effect was found to be comparable to that of indomethacin. Thus, it can be concluded that pomegranate is a potential therapeutic target in the pathogenesis of inflammation and pain, and punicalagin is the major constituents found in rind extract might be responsible for the activity.

Keywords: carrageenan, inflammation, nociceptive-threshold, pomegranate, histopathology

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373 Safety Study of Intravenously Administered Human Cord Blood Stem Cells in the Treatment of Symptoms Related to Chronic Inflammation

Authors: Brian M. Mehling, Louis Quartararo, Marine Manvelyan, Paul Wang, Dong-Cheng Wu

Abstract:

Numerous investigations suggest that Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) in general represent a valuable tool for therapy of symptoms related to chronic inflammatory diseases. Blue Horizon Stem Cell Therapy Program is a leading provider of adult and children’s stem cell therapies. Uniquely we have safely and efficiently treated more than 600 patients with documenting each procedure. The purpose of our study is primarily to monitor the immune response in order to validate the safety of intravenous infusion of human umbilical cord blood derived MSCs (UC-MSCs), and secondly, to evaluate effects on biomarkers associated with chronic inflammation. Nine patients were treated for conditions associated with chronic inflammation and for the purpose of anti-aging. They have been given one intravenous infusion of UC-MSCs. Our study of blood test markers of 9 patients with chronic inflammation before and within three months after MSCs treatment demonstrates that there is no significant changes and MSCs treatment was safe for the patients. Analysis of different indicators of chronic inflammation and aging included in initial, 24-hours, two weeks and three months protocols showed that stem cell treatment was safe for the patients; there were no adverse reactions. Moreover data from follow up protocols demonstrates significant improvement in energy level, hair, nails growth and skin conditions. Intravenously administered UC-MSCs were safe and effective in the improvement of symptoms related to chronic inflammation. Further close monitoring and inclusion of more patients are necessary to fully characterize the advantages of UC-MSCs application in treatment of symptoms related to chronic inflammation.

Keywords: chronic inflammatory diseases, intravenous infusion, stem cell therapy, umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs)

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372 YPFS Attenuating TH2 Cell-Mediated Allergic Inflammation by Regulating the TSLP Pathway

Authors: Xi Yu, Lili Gu, Huizhu Wang, Xiao Wei, Dandan Sheng, Xiaoyan Jiang, Min Hong

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Introduction: Hypersensitivity disease is difficult to cure completely because of its recurrence, yupingfengsan (YPFS) is used to treat the diseases with the advantage of reducing the recurrence,but the precise mechanism is not clear. Previous studies of our laboratory have shown that the extract of YPFS can inhibit Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis(ACD) induced by FITC.Besides, thymic stromal lymphopoietin(TSLP) have been proved to be a master switch for allergic inflammation. Based on these studies, we want to establish a mouse model of TSLP production based on Th2 cell-mediated allergic inflammation to explore the regulating mechanisms of YPFS on TSLP in Th2 cell-mediated allergic inflammation. Methods: Th2-type ACD mouse model: The mice were topically sensitized on the abdomens (induction phase) and elicited on its ears skin 6 day later (excitation phase) with FITC solution, and the ear swelling was measured to evaluate the allergic inflammation;A mouse model of TSLP production based on Th2 cell-mediated allergic inflammation (TSLP production model): the skin of the ear was sensitized on two consecutive days with FITC solution causing the production of TSLP;Mice were treated with YPFS extract,ELISA、Real-time PCR and Western-blotting were using to examine the mRNA and protein levels of TSLP\TSLPR and TLRs ect. Results: YPFS extract can attenuates Th2-type allergic inflammatory in mice;in TSLP production model, YPFS can inhibit the expression of TSLP、 TSLPR、TLRs and MyD88, So we deduce the possible mechanisms of YPFS to play a role of intervention is through TLRs- MyD88 dependent and independent pathway to reduce TSLP production.

Keywords: YPFS, TSLP, TLRs, Th2-type allergic contact dermatitis

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371 Nanoparticles Activated Inflammasome Lead to Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Asthma

Authors: Pureun-Haneul Lee, Byeong-Gon Kim, Sun-Hye Lee, An-Soo Jang

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Background: Nanoparticles may pose adverse health effects due to particulate matter inhalation. Nanoparticle exposure induces cell and tissue damage, causing local and systemic inflammatory responses. The inflammasome is a major regulator of inflammation through its activation of pro-caspase-1, which cleaves pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into its mature form and may signal acute and chronic immune responses to nanoparticles. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify whether nanoparticles exaggerates inflammasome pathway leading to airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in an allergic mice model of asthma. Methods: Mice were treated with saline (sham), OVA-sensitized and challenged (OVA), or titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Lung interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18), NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and caspase-1 levels were assessed with Western Blot. Caspase-1 was checked by immunohistochemical staining. Reactive oxygen species were measured for the marker 8-isoprostane and carbonyl by ELISA. Results: Airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and these responses were exaggerated by TiO2 nanoparticles exposure. TiO2 nanoparticles treatment increased IL-1β and IL-18 protein expression in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice. TiO2 nanoparticles augmented the expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 leading to the formation of an active caspase-1 in the lung. Lung caspase-1 expression was increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and these responses were exaggerated by TiO2 nanoparticles exposure. Reactive oxygen species was increased in OVA-sensitized/challenged mice and in OVA-sensitized/challenged plus TiO2 exposed mice. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that inflammasome pathway activates in asthmatic lungs following nanoparticles exposure, suggesting that targeting the inflammasome may help control nanoparticles-induced airway inflammation and responsiveness.

Keywords: bronchial asthma, inflammation, inflammasome, nanoparticles

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370 Protective Effect of Bexarotene, a Selective RXRα Agonist, against Hypotension Associated with Inflammation and Tissue Injury Linked to Decreased Circulating iNOS Levels in A Rat Model of Septic Shock

Authors: Bahar Tunctan, Sefika Pinar Kucukkavruk, Meryem Temiz-Resitoglu, Demet Sinem Guden, Ayse Nihal Sari, Seyhan Sahan-Firat

Abstract:

We hypothesized that rexinoids such as bexarotene, a selective retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) agonist, may be beneficial for preventing mortality due to inflammation associated with increased expression/activity of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, we investigated effects of bexarotene on the changes in circulating protein levels of iNOS (an index for systemic iNOS expression), myeloperoxidase (MPO) (an index for systemic inflammation), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (an index for systemic tissue injury) in LPS-induced systemic inflammation model resulting in septic shock in rats. Rats were injected with saline (4 ml/kg; i.p.), LPS (10 mg/kg; i.p.), dimethylsulphoxide (4 ml/kg, 0.1%; s.c.) at time 0. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured using a tail-cuff device. Bexarotene (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg; s.c.) was administered to separate groups of rats 1 h after injection of saline or LPS. The rats were sacrificed 4 h after saline or LPS injection and blood was collected for measurement of serum iNOS, MPO, and LDH protein levels. Blood pressure decreased by 31 mmHg and heart rate increased by 63 bpm in the LPS-treated rats. Bexarotene at 0.3 and 1 mg/kg doses caused 20% mortality 4 h after LPS injection. In the LPS-treated rats, serum iNOS, MPO, and LDH protein levels were increased. Bexarotene only at 0.1 mg/kg dose prevented the LPS-induced hypotension and increased in iNOS, MPO, and LDH protein levels. These data are consistent with the view that a decrease in systemic iNOS levels contributes to the beneficial effect of bexarotene to prevent the hypotension associated with inflammation and tissue injury during rat endotoxemia. [This work was financially supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (SBAG-109S121)].

Keywords: bexarotene, inflammation, iNOS, lipopolisaccharide, RXRa

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369 Synthesis and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pyrazol-3-yl Thiazole 4-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives Targeting Enzyme in the Leukotriene Pathway

Authors: Shweta Sinha, Mukesh Doble, Manju S. L.

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Pyrazole scaffold is an important group of compound in heterocyclic chemistry and is found to possess numerous uses in chemistry. Pyrazole derivatives are also known to possess important biological activities including antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal, anticancer and anti-inflammatory. Inflammation is associated with pain, allergy and asthma. Leukotrienes are mediators of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is an important enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) and thus targeted for anti-inflammation. In vitro inhibitory activity of pyrazol-3-yl thiazole 4-carboxylic acid derivatives is tested against enzyme 5-LOX. Most of these compounds exhibit good inhibitory activity against this enzyme. Binding mode study of these compounds is determined by computational tool. Further experiments are being done to understand the mechanism of action of these compounds in inhibiting this enzyme. To conclude, these compounds appear to be a promising target in drug design against 5-LOX.

Keywords: inflammation, inhibition, 5-lipoxygenase, pyrazole

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368 The Relation Between Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Neopterin in the Paraquat-Induced Lung Toxicity

Authors: M. Toygar, I. Aydin, M. Agilli, F. N. Aydin, M. Oztosun, H. Gul, E. Macit, Y. Karslioglu, T. Topal, B. Uysal, M. Honca

Abstract:

Paraquat (PQ) is a well-known quaternary nitrogen herbicide. The major target organ in PQ poisoning is the lung. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation play a crucial role in the development of PQ-induced pulmonary injury. Neopterin is synthesized in macrophage by interferon g and other cytokines. We aimed to evaluate the utility of neopterin as a diagnostic marker in PQ-induced lung toxicity. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups (sham and PQ), administered intraperitoneally 1 mL saline and PQ (15 mg/kg/mL) respectively. Blood samples and lungs were collected for analyses. Lung injury and fibrosis were seen in the PQ group. Serum total antioxidant capacity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and lung transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-1) levels were significantly higher than the sham group (in all, p< 0.001). In addition, in the PQ group, serum neopterin and lung malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also significantly higher than the sham group (in all, p 1/4 0.001). Serum neopterin levels were correlated with LDH activities, lung MDA, lung TGF-1 levels, and the degree of lung injury. These findings demonstrated that oxidative stress, reduction of antioxidant capacity, and inflammation play a crucial role in the PQ-induced lung injury. Elevated serum neopterin levels may be a prognostic parameter to determine extends of PQ-induced lung toxicity. Further studies may be performed to clarify the role of neopterin by different doses of PQ.

Keywords: paraquat, inflammation, oxidative stress, neopterin, lung toxicity

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367 Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Carvedilol 1% Ointment in Topical Application to the Animal Model

Authors: Berina Pilipović, Saša Pilipović, Maja Pašić-Kulenović

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Inflammation is the body's response to impaired homeostasis caused by infection, injury or trauma resulting in systemic and local effects. Inflammation causes the body's response to injury and is characterized by a series of events including inflammatory response, response to pain receptors and the recovery process. Inflammation can be acute and chronic. The inflammatory response is described in three different phases. Free radical is an atom or molecule that has the unpaired electron and is therefore generally very reactive chemical species. Biologically important example of reaction with free radicals is called Lipid peroxidation (LP). Lipid peroxidation reactions occur in biological membranes, and if at the outset is not stopped with the action of antioxidants, it will bring damage to the membrane, which results in partial or complete loss of their physiological functions. Calcium antagonists and beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists are known drugs, and for many years and widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Some of these compounds also show antioxidant activity. The mechanism of antioxidant activities of calcium antagonists and beta-blockers is unknown, since their structure varies widely. This research investigated the possible local anti-inflammatory activity of ointments containing 1% carvedilol in the white petrolatum USP. Ear inflammation was induced by 3% croton oil acetone solution, in quantity of 10 µl on both mouse ears. Albino Swiss mouse (n = 8) are treated with 2.5 mg/ear ointment, and control group was treated on the same way as previous with hydrocortisone 1% ointment (2.5 mg/ear). The other ear of the same animal was used as control one. Ointments were administered once per day, on the left ear. After treatment, ears were observed for three days. After three days, we measured mass (mg) of 6 mm ear punch of treated and controlled ears. The results of testing anti-inflammatory effects of ointments with carvedilol in the mouse ear model show stronger observed effect than ointment with 1% hydrocortisone in the same basis. Identical results were confirmed by the difference between the mass of 6 mm ears punch. The results were also confirmed by histological examination. Ointments with carvedilol showed significant reduction of the inflammation process caused by croton oil on the mouse inflammation model.

Keywords: antioxidant, carvedilol, inflammation, mouse ear

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366 Links between Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Children with Morbid Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma

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Obesity is a clinical state associated with low-grade inflammation. It is also a major risk factor for insulin resistance (IR). In its advanced stages, metabolic syndrome (MetS), a much more complicated disease which may lead to life-threatening problems, may develop. Obesity-mediated IR seems to correlate with the inflammation. Human studies performed particularly on pediatric population are scarce. The aim of this study is to detect possible associations between inflammation and IR in terms of some related ratios. 549 children were grouped according to their age- and sex-based body mass index (BMI) percentile tables of WHO. MetS components were determined. Informed consent and approval from the Ethics Committee for Clinical Investigations were obtained. The principles of the Declaration of Helsinki were followed. The exclusion criteria were infection, inflammation, chronic diseases and those under drug treatment. Anthropometric measurements were obtained. Complete blood cell, fasting blood glucose, insulin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) analyses were performed. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), systemic immune inflammation (SII) index, tense index, alanine aminotransferase to aspartate aminotransferase ratio (ALT/AST), neutrophils to lymphocyte (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte, and lymphocyte to monocyte ratios were calculated. Data were evaluated by statistical analyses. The degree for statistical significance was 0.05. Statistically significant differences were found among the BMI values of the groups (p < 0.001). Strong correlations were detected between the BMI and waist circumference (WC) values in all groups. Tense index values were also correlated with both BMI and WC values in all groups except overweight (OW) children. SII index values of children with normal BMI were significantly different from the values obtained in OW, obese, morbid obese and MetS groups. Among all the other lymphocyte ratios, NLR exhibited a similar profile. Both HOMA-IR and ALT/AST values displayed an increasing profile from N towards MetS3 group. BMI and WC values were correlated with HOMA-IR and ALT/AST. Both in morbid obese and MetS groups, significant correlations between CRP versus SII index as well as HOMA-IR versus ALT/AST were found. ALT/AST and HOMA-IR values were correlated with NLR in morbid obese group and with SII index in MetS group, (p < 0.05), respectively. In conclusion, these findings showed that some parameters may exhibit informative differences between the early and late stages of obesity. Important associations among HOMA-IR, ALT/AST, NLR and SII index have come to light in the morbid obese and MetS groups. This study introduced the SII index and NLR as important inflammatory markers for the discrimination of normal and obese children. Interesting links were observed between inflammation and IR in morbid obese children and those with MetS, both being late stages of obesity.

Keywords: children, inflammation, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, obesity

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365 Auricular Electroacupuncture Rescued Epilepsy Seizure by Attenuating TLR-2 Inflammatory Pathway in the Kainic Acid-Induced Rats

Authors: I-Han Hsiao, Chun-Ping Huang, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin

Abstract:

Epilepsy is chronic brain disorder that results in the sporadic occurrence of spontaneous seizures in the temporal lobe, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus. Clinical antiepileptic medicines are often ineffective or little benefits in the small amount of patients and usually initiate severe side effects. This inflammation contributes to enhanced neuronal excitability and the onset of epilepsy. Auricular electric-stimulation (AES) can increase parasympathetic activity and stimulate the solitary tract nucleus to induce the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Furthermore, it may be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of epilepsy. In the present study, we want to investigate the effects of AES on inflammatory mediators in kainic acid (KA)-induced epileptic seizure rats. Experimental KA injection increased expression of TLR-2 pathway associated inflammatory mediators, were further reduced by either 2Hz or 15 Hz AES in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and somatosensory cortex. We suggest that AES can successfully control the epileptic seizure by down-regulation of inflammation signaling pathway.

Keywords: auricular electric-stimulation, epileptic seizures, anti-inflammation

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364 Role of Sulforaphane on Alleviating Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy(DMD) through Activation of Nrf2

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Shujun Li, Dejia Li

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Sulforaphane (SFN) possesses powerful chemo-preventive effects and plays a crucial role on oxidative stress and inflammatory. In our recent study, SFN treatment could relieve muscular dystrophy in mdx mice by activating Nrf2 (NF-E2 related factor 2). Moreover, our findings indicated that SFN-activated Nrf2 alleviated muscle inflammation in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice through suppressing NF-κB signaling pathway. Collectively, SFN-induced Nrf2 molecular pathway might be a promising approach for treatment of the patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Keywords: sulforaphane, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Nrf2, inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress

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363 Evaluation of Immunology of Asthma Chronic Obstructive

Authors: Milad Gholizadeh

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Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are very shared inflammatory diseases of the airlines. They togethercause airway tapering and are cumulative in occurrence throughout the world, imposing huge burdens on health care. It is currently recognized that some asthmatic inflammation is neutrophilic, controlled by the TH17 subset of helper T cells, and that some eosinophilic inflammation is controlled by type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) temporary together with basophils. Patients who have plain asthma or are asthmatic patients who smoke with topographies of COPD-induced inflammation and might advantage from treatments targeting neutrophils, countingmacrolides, CXCR2 antagonists, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, p38 mitogen-activating protein kinase inhibitors, and antibodies in contradiction of IL-1 and IL-17.Viral and bacterial infections, not only reason acute exacerbations of COPD, but also intensify and continue chronic inflammation in steady COPD through pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Present treatment plans are absorbed on titration of inhaled therapies such as long-acting bronchodilators, with cumulative interest in the usage of beleaguered biologic therapies meant at the underlying inflammatory devices. Educationssuggest that the mucosal IgA reply is abridged in COPD, and a lacking conveyance of IgA across the bronchial epithelium in COPD has been recognized, perhaps involving neutrophil proteinases, which may damage the Ig receptor mediating this transepithelialdirection-finding. Future instructions for investigation will emphasis elucidating the diverse inflammatory signatures foremost to asthma and chronic obstrucive, the development of reliable analytic standards and biomarkers of illness, and refining the clinical organization with an eye toward targeted therapies.

Keywords: imminology, asthma, COPD, CXCR2 antagonists

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362 Caspase-11 and AIM2 Inflammasome are Involved in Smoking-Induced COPD and Lung Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Chiara Colarusso, Michela Terlizzi, Aldo Pinto, Rosalinda Sorrentino

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Cigarette smoking is the main cause and the most common risk factor for both COPD and lung cancer. In our previous studies, we proved that caspase-11 in mice and its human analogue, caspase-4, are involved in lung carcinogenesis and that AIM2 inflammasome might play a pro-cancerous role in lung cancer. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate potential crosstalk between COPD and lung cancer, focusing on AIM2 and caspase-11-dependent inflammasome signaling pathway. To mimic COPD, we took advantage of an experimental first-hand smoking mouse model and, to confirm what was observed in mice, we used human samples of lung adenocarcinoma patients stratified according to the smoking and COPD status. We demonstrated that smoke exposure led to emphysema-like features, bronchial tone impairment, and release of IL-1-like cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-33, IL-18) in a caspase-1 independent manner in C57Bl/6N. Rather, a dysfunctional caspase-11 in smoke-exposed 129Sv mice was associated to lower bronchial inflammation, collagen deposition, and IL-1-like inflammation. In addition, for the first time, we found that AIM2 inflammasome is involved in lung inflammation in smoking and COPD, in that its expression was higher in smoke-exposed C57Bl/6N compared to 129Sv smoking mice, who instead did not show any alteration of AIM2 in both macrophages and dendritic cells. Moreover, we found that AIM2 expression in the cancerous tissue, albeit higher than non-cancerous tissue, was not statistically different according to the COPD and smoking status. Instead, the higher expression of AIM2 in non-cancerous tissue of smoker COPD patients than smokers who did not have COPD was correlated to a higher hazard ratio of poor survival rate than patients who presented lower levels of AIM2. In conclusion, our data highlight that caspase-11 in mice is associated to smoke-induced lung latent inflammation which could drive the establishment of lung cancer, and that AIM2 inflammasome plays a role at the crosstalk between smoking/COPD and lung adenocarcinoma in that its higher presence is correlated to lower survival rate of smoker COPD adenocarcinoma.

Keywords: COPD, inflammasome, lung cancer, lung inflammation, smoke

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361 The Effects of Grape Waste Bioactive Compounds on the Immune Response and Oxidative Stress in Pig Kidney

Authors: Mihai Palade, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Mariana Stancu, Veronica Chedea, Ionelia Taranu

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Nutrition is an important determinant of general health status, with especially focus on prevention and/or attenuation of the inflammatory-associated pathologies. People with chronic kidney disease can experience chronic inflammation that can lead to cardiovascular disease and even an increased rate of death. There are important links between chronic kidney diseases, inflammation and nutritional strategies that may prevent or protect against undesirable inflammation and oxidative stress. The grape by-products either seeds or pomace are rich in polyphenols which may be beneficial in prevention of inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial processes. As a model for studying the impact of grape seeds on renal inflammation and oxidative stress, we used in this study weaned piglets. After a feeding trial of 30 days with a control diet and an experimental diet containing 5% grape seed (GS), kidney samples were collected. In renal tissues were determined the expression and activity of important markers of immune respose and oxidative stress: pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-gamma), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10), anti-oxidant enzymes (catalase CAT, superoxide dismutase SOD, glutathione peroxidise GPx) and important mediators belonging to nuclear receptors (NF-kB1, Nrf-2 and PPAR-gamma). Gene expression was evaluated by qPCR, whereas protein concentration was determined using proteomic techniques (ELISA). The activity of anti-oxidant enzymes was determined using specific kits. Our results showed that GS enriched in polyphenols does not have effect on TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 beta gene expression and protein concentration in kidney. By contrast, the gene expression and protein level of IL-8 and IFN-gamma were decreased in GS kidney. Anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 gene levels were increased in kidneys collected from GS piglets in comparison with controls, with no modification of protein levels between the two groups. The activities of anti-oxidant enzymes CAT and GPx were increased in kidney by GS, whereas SOD activity was unmodified in comparison with control samples. Also, the GS diet was associated with no modulation of mRNAs for nuclear receptors NF-kB1, Nrf-2 and PPAR-gamma gene expressions in kidneys. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that GS enriched in bioactive compounds such polyphenols could modulate inflammation and oxidative stress markers in kidney tissues. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the mechanism of action of GS compounds in case kidney inflammation associated with oxidative stress, and signalling molecules involved in these mechanisms.

Keywords: animal model, kidney inflammation, oxidative stress, grape seed

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360 Maresin Like 1 Treatment: Curbing the Pathogenesis of Behavioral Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model

Authors: Yan Lu, Song Hong, Janakiraman Udaiyappan, Aarti Nagayach, Quoc-Viet A. Duong, Masao Morita, Shun Saito, Yuichi Kobayashi, Yuhai, Zhao, Hongying Peng, Nicholas B. Pham, Walter J Lukiw, Christopher A. Vuong, Nicolas G. Bazan

Abstract:

Aims: Neurodegeneration and behavior dysfunction occurs in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and as the disease progresses many patients develop cognitive impairment. 5XFAD mouse model of AD is widely used to study AD pathogenesis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maresin like 1 (MaR-L1) treatment in AD pathology using 5XFAD mice. Methods: We tested 12-month-old male 5XFAD mice and wild type control mice treated with MaR-L1 in a battery of behavioral tasks. We performed open field test, beam walking test, clasping test, inverted grid test, acetone test, marble burring test, elevated plus maze test, cross maze test and novel object recognition test. We also studied neuronal loss, amyloid β burden, and inflammation in the brains of 5XFAD mice using immunohistology and Western blotting. Results: MaR-L1 treatment to the 5XFAD mice showed improved cognitive function of 5XFAD mice. MaR-L1 showed decreased anxiety behavior in open field test and marble burring test, increased muscular strength in the beam walking test, clasping test and inverted grid test. Cognitive function was improved in MaR-L1 treated 5XFAD mice in the novel object recognition test. MaR-L1 prevented neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that behavioral abnormalities were normalized by the administration of MaR-L1 and the neuroprotective role of MaR-L1 in the AD. It also indicates that MaR-L1 treatment is able to prevent and or ameliorate neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Further experiments to validate the results are warranted using other AD models in the future.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, motor and cognitive behavior, 5XFAD mice, Maresin Like 1, microglial cell, astrocyte, neurodegeneration, inflammation, resolution of inflammation

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359 Simultaneous Targeting of MYD88 and Nur77 as an Effective Approach for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases

Authors: Uzma Saqib, Mirza S. Baig

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Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MYD88) has long been considered a central player in the inflammatory pathway. Recent studies clearly suggest that it is an important therapeutic target in inflammation. On the other hand, a recent study on the interaction between the orphan nuclear receptor (Nur77) and p38α, leading to increased lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperinflammatory response, suggests this binary complex as a therapeutic target. In this study, we have designed inhibitors that can inhibit both MYD88 and Nur77 at the same time. Since both MYD88 and Nur77 are an integral part of the pathways involving lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB-mediated inflammation, we tried to target both proteins with the same library in order to retrieve compounds having dual inhibitory properties. To perform this, we developed a homodimeric model of MYD88 and, along with the crystal structure of Nur77, screened a virtual library of compounds from the traditional Chinese medicine database containing ~61,000 compounds. We analyzed the resulting hits for their efficacy for dual binding and probed them for developing a common pharmacophore model that could be used as a prototype to screen compound libraries as well as to guide combinatorial library design to search for ideal dual-target inhibitors. Thus, our study explores the identification of novel leads having dual inhibiting effects due to binding to both MYD88 and Nur77 targets.

Keywords: drug design, Nur77, MYD88, inflammation

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358 Hematologic Inflammatory Markers and Inflammation-Related Hepatokines in Pediatric Obesity

Authors: Mustafa Metin Donma, Orkide Donma

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Obesity in children particularly draws attention because it may threaten the individual’s future life due to many chronic diseases it may lead to. Most of these diseases, including obesity itself altogether are related to inflammation. For this reason, inflammation-related parameters gain importance. Within this context, complete blood cell counts, ratios or indices derived from these counts have recently found some platform to be used as inflammatory markers. So far, mostly adipokines were investigated within the field of obesity. The liver is at the center of the metabolic pathways network. Metabolic inflammation is closely associated with cellular dysfunction. In this study, hematologic inflammatory markers and two major hepatokines, cytokines produced predominantly by the liver, fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) and fetuin A were investigated in pediatric obesity. Two groups were constituted from seventy-six obese children based on World Health Organization criteria. Group 1 was composed of children whose age- and sex-adjusted body mass index (BMI) percentiles were between 95 and 99. Group 2 consists of children who are above the 99ᵗʰ percentile. The first and the latter groups were defined as obese (OB) and morbid obese (MO). Anthropometric measurements of the children were performed. Informed consent forms and the approval of the institutional ethics committee were obtained. Blood cell counts and ratios were determined by an automated hematology analyzer. The related ratios and indexes were calculated. Statistical evaluation of the data was performed by the SPSS program. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of neutrophil-to lymphocyte ratio, monocyte-to-high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and the platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio between the groups. Mean platelet volume and platelet distribution width values were decreased (p<0.05), total platelet count, red cell distribution width (RDW) and systemic immune inflammation index values were increased (p<0.01) in MO group. Both hepatokines were increased in the same group; however, increases were not statistically significant. In this group, also a strong correlation was calculated between FGF-21 and RDW when controlled by age, hematocrit, iron and ferritin (r=0.425; p<0.01). In conclusion, the association between RDW, a hematologic inflammatory marker, and FGF-21, an inflammation-related hepatokine, found in MO group is an important finding discriminating between OB and MO children. This association is even more powerful when controlled by age and iron-related parameters.

Keywords: childhood obesity, fetuin A , fibroblast growth factor-21, hematologic markers, red cell distribution width

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357 SUMOylation Enhances Nurr1/1a Mediated Transactivation in a Neuronal Cell Type

Authors: Jade Edey, Andrew Bennett, Gareth Hathway

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Nuclear receptor-related 1 protein (also known as Nurr1 or NR4A2) is an orphan nuclear receptor which plays a vital role in the development, survival and maintenance of dopaminergic (DA) neurons particularly in the substantia nigra (SN). Increasing research has investigated Nurr1’s additional role within microglia and astrocytes where it has been suggested to act as a negative regulator of inflammation; potentially offering neuroprotection. Considering both DA neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are commonly accepted constituents of Parkinson’s Disease (PD), understanding the mechanisms by which Nurr1 regulates inflammatory processes could provide an attractive therapeutic target. Nurr1 regulates inflammation via a transrepressive mechanism possibly dependent upon SUMOylation. In addition, Nurr1 can transactivate numerous genes involved in DA synthesis, such as Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH). A C-terminal splice variant of Nurr1, Nurr-1a, has been reported in both neuronal and glial cells. However, research into its transcriptional activity is minimal. We employed in vitro methods such as SUMO-Pulldown experiments alongside Luciferase reporter assays to investigate the SUMOylation status and transactivation capabilities of Nurr1 and Nurr-1a respectively. The SUMO-Pulldown assay demonstrated Nurr-1a undergoes significantly more SUMO modification than its full-length variant. Consequently, despite having less transcriptional activation than Nurr1, Nurr1a may play a more prominent role in repression of microglial inflammation. Contrary to published literature we also identified that SUMOylation enhances transcriptional activation by Nurr1 and Nurr1a. SUMOylation-dependent increases in Nurr1 and Nurr1a transcriptional activation were only evident in neuronal SHSY5Y cells but not in HEK293 cells. This research provides novel insight into the regulation of Nurr-1a and indicates differential effects of SUMOylation dependent regulation in neuronal and inflammatory cells.

Keywords: nuclear receptors, Parkinson’s disease, inflammation, transcriptional regulation

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356 Punica granatum (Pomegranate) of a Libyan Variety Exhibits in vitro Anti-Inflammatory Potential

Authors: Lamees A. Ben Saad, Kah Hwi Kim, Chin Chew Quah, Mustafa Shahimi

Abstract:

Background: Punica granatum (pomegranate) was used as a traditional medicine in different parts of the world. It has been used in the treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions such as peptic ulcer. The numerous risks associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the treatment of pain and inflammation give rise to using medicinal herbs as alternative therapies. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the ethyl acetate pomegranate fraction (EtOAc) by determination of its inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stimulated nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxxgenase-2 (COX2) release from RAW264.7cells. Methods: The inhibitory effect of EtOAc was evaluated on (LPS) induced NO production, PGE2, and IL-6 quantified by immunoassay kit and prostaglandin E2 competitive ELISA kit. COX2 production is an in vitro indication of possible anti-inflammatory activity and was estimated by Western blotting. Results: EtOAc potentially inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin, and IL-6 production. With these findings, it was evident that the EtOAc could reduce the LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level in a dose-dependent manner as determined by Western blotting. Conclusion: The results emphasize potential therapeutic applications of Punica granatum in the treatment of inflammation.

Keywords: inflammation, Punica granatum, cytotoxicity, cytokines

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355 The Second Generation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Afatinib Controls Inflammation by Regulating NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation

Authors: Shujun Xie, Shirong Zhang, Shenglin Ma

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Background: Chronic inflammation might lead to many malignancies, and inadequate resolution could play a crucial role in tumor invasion, progression, and metastases. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial shows that IL-1β inhibition with canakinumab could reduce incident lung cancer and lung cancer mortality in patients with atherosclerosis. The process and secretion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β are controlled by the inflammasome. Here we showed the correlation of the innate immune system and afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in non-small cell lung cancer. Methods: Murine Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), peritoneal macrophages (PMs) and THP-1 were used to check the effect of afatinib on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. The assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome was check by co-immunoprecipitation of NLRP3 and apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS)-cross link of ASC. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis and Alum-induced peritonitis were conducted to confirm that afatinib could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 in vivo. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients before or after taking afatinib were used to check that afatinib inhibits inflammation in NSCLC therapy. Results: Our data showed that afatinib could inhibit the secretion of IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner in macrophage. Moreover, afatinib could inhibit the maturation of IL-1β and caspase-1 without affecting the precursors of IL-1β and caspase-1. Next, we found that afatinib could block the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome and the ASC speck by blocking the interaction of the sensor protein NLRP3 and the adaptor protein ASC. We also found that afatinib was able to alleviate the LPS-induced sepsis in vivo. Conclusion: Our study found that afatinib could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophage, providing new evidence that afatinib could target the innate immune system to control chronic inflammation. These investigations will provide significant experimental evidence in afatinib as therapeutic drug for non-small cell lung cancer or other tumors and NLRP3-related diseases and will explore new targets for afatinib.

Keywords: inflammasome, afatinib, inflammation, tyrosine kinase inhibitor

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