Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Search results for: ulcer

74 Mathematical Modelling of Different Types of Body Support Surface for Pressure Ulcer Prevention

Authors: Mahbub C. Mishu, Venktesh N. Dubey, Tamas Hickish, Jonathan Cole


Pressure ulcer is a common problem for today's healthcare industry. It occurs due to external load applied to the skin. Also when the subject is immobile for a longer period of time and there is continuous load applied to a particular area of human body,blood flow gets reduced and as a result pressure ulcer develops. Body support surface has a significant role in preventing ulceration so it is important to know the characteristics of support surface under loading conditions. In this paper we have presented mathematical models of different types of viscoelastic materials and also we have shown the validation of our simulation results with experiments.

Keywords: pressure ulcer, viscoelastic material, mathematical model, experimental validation

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73 Antiulcer Activity of Aloe vera Gel against Indomethacin and Ethanol Induced Gastric Ulcers in Rats

Authors: Jyoti Manandhar Shrestha, Saurab Raj Joshi, Maya Shrestha, Prashanna Shrestha, Kshitij Chaulagain


Background: The widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs has increased the incidence of ulcer and serious complications, such as perforation and bleeding. Although, the H2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors decrease the acid secretion and promote healing of ulcer, their value in preventing relapse, recurrence, “acid rebound” after cessation of therapy and associated long term adverse effects limit their utility. So to minimize this, the herbal plant Aloe vera having anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, mucus secreting, cyto-protective and healing property is believed to cure the peptic ulcer. Objectives: To observe whether oral treatment with Aloe vera gel can prevent peptic ulcer. Indomethacin and ethanol were used to induce gastric ulcers. Thirty six albino rats of either sex were randomly allotted to six groups of six animals each. The negative control was pretreated with normal saline, the positive controls received ranitidine (20 mg/kg) and the test group received Aloe vera gel (300 mg/kg) orally for eight days. Then, after a 24 hour fast Indomethacin (20 mg/kg) or 80% ethanol (2ml) was administered orally to induce ulceration. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed, their stomachs opened, the ulcer index studied and tissues sent for histopathological examination. Results: It was observed that, in indomethacin treated group, the ulcer index in control group was 8.167 ± 1.72.In the Aloe vera pretreated animals, the ulcer index was 2.83 ± 1.72 and the standard ranitidine pretreated group ulcer index was 1.67 ± 1.36. In ethanol treated group, the ulcer index in control group was 7.5 ± 2.73. In the Aloe vera pretreated animals, the ulcer index was 2.67 ± 1.75 and the standard ranitidine pretreated group ulcer index was 1.33±1.21. Both ranitidine and Aloe vera gel significantly prevented stomach from gastric ulceration induced by indomethacin and ethanol. Conclusion: The results indicated that Aloe vera gel is effective against indomethacin and ethanol mediated gastric ulcer.

Keywords: Aloe vera gel, ethanol, indomethacin, peptic ulcer, ranitidine

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72 Evaluation of the Anti Ulcer Activity of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Methanol Leaf Extract of Clerodendrum Capitatum

Authors: M. N. Ofokansi, Onyemelukwe Chisom, Amauche Chukwuemeka, Ezema Onyinye


The leaves of Clerodendrumcapitatum(Lamiaceae) is mostly used in the treatment of gastric ulcer in Nigerian folk medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiulcer activity of its crude methanol leaf extract and its ethyl acetate fraction in white albino rats. The effect of crude methanol leaf extract and its ethyl acetate fraction(250mg/kg, 500mg/kg) was evaluated using an absolute ethanol induced ulcer model. Crude methanol leaf extract and the ethyl acetate fraction was treated with distilled water and 6% Tween 80, respectively. crude methanol leaf extract was further investigated using a pylorus ligation induced ulcer model. Omeprazole was used as the standard treatment. Four groups of five albino rats of either sex were used. Parameters such as mean ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection were assessed in the ethanol-induced ulcer model, while the gastric volume, pH, and total acidity were assessed in the pyloric ligation induced ulcer model. Crude methanol leaf extract of Clerodendrumcapitatum(500mg/kg) showed a very highly significant reduction in mean ulcer index(p<0.001) in the absolute ethanol-induced model. ethyl acetate fraction of crude methanol leaf extract of Clerodendrumcapitatum(250mg/kg,500mg/kg) showed a very highly significant dose-dependent reduction in mean ulcer indices (p<0.001) in the absolute ethanol-induced model. The mean ulcer indices (1.6,2.2) with dose concentration (250mg/kg, 500mg/kg) of ethyl acetate fraction increased with ulcer protection (82.85%,76.42%) respectively when compared to the control group in the absolute ethanol-induced ulcer model. Crude methanol leaf extract of Clerodendrumcapitatum(250mg/kg, 500mg/kg) treated animals showed a highly significant dose-dependent reduction in mean ulcer index(p<0.01) with an increase in ulcer protection (56.77%,63.22%) respectively in pyloric ligated induced, ulcer model. Gastric parameters such as volume of gastric juice, pH, and total acidity were of no significance in the different doses of the crude methanol leaf extract when compared to the control group. The phytochemical investigation showed that the crude methanol leaf extracts Possess Saponins and Flavonoids while its ethyl acetate fraction possess only Flavonoids. The results of the study indicate that the crude methanol leaf extract and its ethyl acetate fraction is effective and has gastro protective and ulcer healing capacity. Ethyl acetate fraction is more potent than crude methanol leaf extract against ethanol-induced This result provides scientific evidence as a validation for its folkloric use in the treatment of gastric ulcer.

Keywords: gastroprotective, herbal medicine, anti-ulcer, pharmacology

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71 Anti-Ulcer Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extract of Ficus bengalensis Linn Bark in Experimental Rats

Authors: Jagdish Baheti, Sampat Navale


The present study was performed to evaluate the anti-ulcerogenic activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ficus bengalensis Linn. against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats and pylorus ligation gastric secretion in rats. Five groups of adult wistar rats were orally pre-treated respectively with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) solution (ulcer control group), Omeprazole 20 mg/kg (reference group), and 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract in CMC solution (experimental groups), one hour before oral administration of absolute ethanol to generate gastric mucosal injury. Rats were sacrificed and the ulcer index, gastric volume, gastric pH, free acidity, total acidity of the gastric content was determined. Grossly, the ulcer control group exhibited severe mucosal injury, whereas pre-treatment with F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract exhibited significant protection of gastric mucosal injury in both model. Histological studies revealed that ulcer control group exhibited severe damage of gastric mucosa, along with edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract which showed gastric mucosal protection, reduction or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer. Acute toxicity study did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. The present finding suggests that F. bengalensis Linn. bark extract promotes ulcer protection as ascertained grossly and histologically compared to the ulcer control group.

Keywords: Ficus bengalensis Linn., gastric ulcer, hydroalcoholic, pylorus ligation

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70 Assessment of Knowledge and Practices of Diabetic Patients Regarding Diabetic Foot Care, in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Reda Goweda, Mokhtar Shatla, Arawa Alzaidi, Arij Alzaidi, Bashair Aldhawani, Hibah Alharbi, Noran Sultan, Daniah Alnemari, Badr Rawa


Background: 20.5% of Saudis between 20 and 79 years are diabetics. Diabetic foot is a chronic complication of diabetes. The incidence of non traumatic lower extremity amputations is at least 15 times greater in those with diabetes than non diabetics. Patient education is important to reduce lower extremity complications. Objective: To assess the knowledge and practices of the diabetic patients regarding foot care and diabetic foot complications. Methods: In Makkah hospitals, 350 diabetic patients who met the inclusion criteria were involved in this cross sectional study. Interviewing questionnaire and patients’ charts review were used to collect the data. Results: Mean age of patients was 53.0083±13.1 years, and mean duration of diabetes was 11.24±8.7 years. 35.1% had history of foot ulcer while 25.7% had ulcer on the time of interview. 11.7 % had history of amputation and 83.1% had numbness. 77.1 % examine their feet while 49.1% received foot care education and 34% read handouts on foot care. 34% walk around in bare feet. There is a significant statistical association between foot education, foot care practices, and diabetic foot ulcer (p-value < 0.022). Conclusion: Patient knowledge and practices regarding diabetic foot care is significantly associated with the reduction of diabetic foot ulcer.

Keywords: knowledge, practice, attitude, diabetes, foot, care

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69 Rare Case of Pyoderma Gangrenosum of the Upper Limb

Authors: Karissa A. Graham


Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a prototypic autoinflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis that is a rare disorder. It presents a diagnostic challenge owing to its variable presentation, clinical overlap with other conditions, it is often associated with other systemic conditions, and there is no definitive histological or laboratory characteristic. The Delphai consensus for PG includes the presence of at least one ulcer on the anterior lower limb. Systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapies are the mainstay treatment for PG. We describe a case report of delayed diagnosis of ulcerative pyoderma gangrenosum in a 44-year-old male on his forearm. The patient presented with an infected ulcer on his right forearm that had been present for over three years. The patient was a Type 2 Diabetic with no personal or family history of inflammatory bowel disease or other autoimmune diseases. The patient was initially investigated for malignancy, but biopsies returned as chronic inflammatory tissue with neutrophilic infiltrate and no malignancy. The patient was commenced on systemic prednisone for the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum. The diagnosis of ulcerative PG poses a challenge given the vast differential diagnosis for a cutaneous ulcer (i.e., malignant, vascular, autoimmune, trauma, infective, etc.). Diagnostic accuracy is important given that the treatment for PG with steroids does not go without risks and indeed may be contraindicated in other potential causes of the ulcer. Indeed, more common and more sinister causes of ulcers should be investigated first, as death from PG is quite rare.

Keywords: dermatological diagnosis, dermatosis, pyoderma gangrenosum, rare presentation

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68 Spectrum and Prevalence of Candida Infection in Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Authors: Seyed Reza Aghili, Tahereh Shokohi, Lotfollah Davoodi, Zahra Kashi, Azam Moslemi, Mahdi Abastabar, Iman Haghani, Sabah Mayahi, Asoudeh A.


Introduction: In diabetic foot ulcers, if fungal agents such as Candida species penetrate into the cutaneous or depth of ulcer, can increase the degree of the wound and cause Candia infection and make it more difficult to heal. Material & Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 100 diabetic foot ulcer patients in 2020 in Sari, Iran. patient's data and wound grade were recorded in a questionnaire. Candida infection was diagnosed with direct microscopic examination and culture of samples. Colony-PCR molecular method was used for ITS region of DNA and then PCR-RFLP with Msp1 enzyme and using HWP1 specific gene to determine species of Candida agent. Results: Of 100 patients, the mean age 62.1 ± 10.8 years, 95% type 2 diabetes, 83%>10 years duration diabetes, 59% male, 66%> poor education level, 99% married, 52% rural, 95% neuropathic symptoms, 88% using antibiotics, 69%HbA1C >9%, and mean ulcer degree 2.6±1.05 were. Candida infection was seen in 13% of the deep tissue of the wound and 7% cutaneous around the wound. The predominant Candida isolated was C. parapsilosis (71.5%), C .albicans (14.3%). Fungal infections caused by mold fungi were not detected. There was a statistically significant relationship between yeast infection and gender, rural, HbA1C and ulcer degree. Conclusion: Mycological evaluations often are ignored. Candida parapsilosis is the most common infectious agent in these patients and may require specific treatment. Therefore, more attention of physicians to Candida infections particularly, early diagnosis and effective treatment can help faster recovery and prevent amputation.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, candida infection, risk factors, c. parapsilosis

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67 Deep Neck Infection Associated with Peritoneal Sepsis: A Rare Death Case

Authors: Sait Ozsoy, Asude Gokmen, Mehtap Yondem, Hanife A. Alkan, Gulnaz T. Javan


Deep neck infection often develops due to upper respiratory tract and odontogenic infections. Gastrointestinal System perforation can occur for many reasons and is in need of the early diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment. In both cases late or incorrect diagnosis may lead to increase morbidity and high mortality. A patient with a diagnosis of deep neck abscess died while under treatment due to sepsis and multiple organ failure. Autopsy finding showed duodenal ulcer and this is reported in the literature.

Keywords: peptic ulcer perforation, peritonitis, retropharyngeal abscess, sepsis

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66 In vivo Activity of Pathogenic Bacteria on Natural Polyphenolic Compounds

Authors: Lubna Azmi, Ila Shukla, Shyam Sundar Gupta, Padam Kant, Ch. V. Rao


Gastric ulcer is a major global health threat, and it is the leading cause of stomach cancer death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori bacteriumis the most important etiologic factor for gastric ulcer. This infection is highly pervasive in South Asian developing countries, especially in India, Nepal, Srilanka etc. due to diversification in geographic area. Pathophysiology of gastric mucosal damage associated with non-invasive bacterium has not justified in detail, but it leads to change in histopathology, immunochemistry of the gastric and duodenal reason of host. The mechanism responsible for bacteria tissue tropism and mucosal damage in stomach variance during the disease is not clearly described and understood scientifically in treatment and control of pathogenic organisms. Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants and are generally involved in defense against aggression by pathogens. 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromen-4-one and 1-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-naphthalene-carboxaldehyde are polyphenolic compound obtained from popular Indian medicinal plants ghavpatta (ArgeriaspeciosaLinn.f) andBael (Aeglemarmelos) have long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. They have promising effects on ulcer, as detailed investigation has made in our laboratory. Therefore, the aim of present study is to explore membrane –dependent morphogenesis of H. pylori and associated apoptosis-mediated cell death. Based on this we analyzed immune gene expression in stomach of experimental animals with H. pylori, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(q RT-PCR). This revealed rapid induction of prostaglandin, interferon I (INF-I), interferon II (INF-II) and INF-I associated genes in the infected animal. Ultrastructural changes associated with H. pylori will be taken for advanced studies. This investigation shows that the biomarkers eradicate H. pylori bacterium caused gastric ulcer which is a major risk factor for gastric cancer.

Keywords: gastric ulcer, Helicobacter pylori, immunochemistry, polyphenols

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65 Mechanisms of Atiulcerogenic Activity of Costus speciosus Rhizome Extract in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

Authors: Somayeh Fani, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla


Costus speciosus is an important Malaysian medicinal plant commonly used traditionally in the treatment of many aliments. The present investigation is designed to elucidate preventive effects of ethanolic extracts of C. speciosus rhizome against absolute ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Five groups of rats were orally pre-treated with vehicle, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal control group (Group 1), ethanol as ulcer control group (Group 2), omeprazole 20 mg/kg (reference group) (Group 3), and 250 and 500 mg/kg of C. speciosus extract (experimental groups) (Group 4 and 5), respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to Group 1 rats and absolute ethanol was given orally to Group 2-5 rats to generate gastric mucosal injury. After an additional hour, the rats were sacrificed. Grossly, ulcer control group exhibited severe of gastric mucosal hemorrhagic injury and increased in ulcer area, whereas groups pre-treated with omeprazole or plant’s rhizomes exhibited the significant reduction of gastric mucosal injury. Significant increase in the pH and mucous of gastric content was observed in rats re-treated with C. speciosus rhizome. Histology, ulcer control rats, demonstrated remarkable disruption of gastric mucosa, increased in edema and inflammatory cells infiltration of submucosal layer compared to rats pre-treated with rhizomes extract. Periodic acid Schiff staining for glycoprotein, rats pre-fed with C. speciosus C. displayed remarkably intense uptake of magenta color by glandular gastric mucosa compared with ulcer control rats. Immunostaining of gastric epithelium, rats pre-treatment with rhizome extract provide evidence of up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins compared to ulcer control animals. Gastric tissue homogenate, C. speciosus significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), increased the level of non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and decreased the level of lipid peroxidation after ethanol administration. Acute toxicity test did not show any signs of toxicity. The mechanisms implicated the gasrtoprotective property of C. speciosus depend upon the antisecretory activity, increased in gastric mucus glycoprotein, up-regulation of HSP70 protein and down-regulation of Bax proteins, reduction in the lipid peroxidation and increase in the level of NP-SH and antioxidant enzymes activity in gastic homogenate.

Keywords: antioxidant, Costus speciosus, gastric ulcer, histology, omeprazole

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64 Association of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene +405 C>G and -460 T>C Polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patient in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital Jakarta

Authors: Dedy Pratama, Akhmadu Muradi, Hilman Ibrahim, Raden Suhartono, Alexander Jayadi Utama, Patrianef Darwis, S. Dwi Anita, Luluk Yunaini, Kemas Dahlan


Introduction: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene shows association with various angiogenesis conditions including Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) disease. In this study, we performed this study to examine VEGF gene polymorphism associated with DFU. Methods: Case-control study of polymorphism of VEGF gene +405 C>G and -460 T>C, of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 with Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital (RSCM) Jakarta from June to December 2016. Results: There were 203 patients, 102 patients with DFU and 101 patients without DFU. Forty-nine point 8 percent of total samples is male and 50,2% female with mean age 56,06 years. Distribution of the wild-type genotype VEGF +405 C>G wild type CC was found in 6,9% of respondents, the number of mutant heterozygote CG was 69,5% and mutant homozygote GG was 19,7%. Cumulatively, there were 6,9% wild-type and 85,2% mutant and 3,9% of total blood samples could not be detected on PCR-RFLP. Distribution of VEGF allele +405 C>G C alleles were 43% and G alleles were 57%. Distribution of genotype from VEGF gene -460 T>C is wild type TT 42,9%, mutant heterozygote TC 37,9% and mutant homozygote CC 13,3%. Cumulatively, there were 42,9% wild-type and 51% mutant type. Distribution of VEGF -460 T>C were 62% T allele and 38% C allele. Conclusion: In this study we found the distribution of alleles from VEGF +405 C>G is C 43% and G 57% and from VEGF -460 T>C; T 62% and C 38%. We propose that G allele in VEGF +405 C>G can act as a protective allele and on the other hands T allele in VEGF -460 T>C could be acted as a risk factor for DFU in diabetic patients.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, diabetes mellitus, polymorphism, VEGF

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63 In Vivo Antiulcer and Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity of Geraniol on Acetic Acid plus Helicobacter pylori Induced Ulcer in Rats

Authors: Subrat Kumar Bhattamisra, Vivian Lee Yean Yan, Chin Koh Lee, Chew Hui Kuean, Yun Khoon Liew, Mayuren Candasamy


Geraniol, an acyclic monoterpenoid is the main active constituent in the essential oils of rose and palmorosa. Antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer and antiulcer activity of geraniol was reported by many researchers. The present investigation was designed to study in vivo antiulcer and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of geraniol. Antiulcer and anti-H. pylori activity of geraniol was evaluated on acetic acid plus H. pylori induced ulcer in rats. Acetic acid (0.03 mL) was injected to the sub-serosal layer of the stomach through laparotomy under anaesthesia. Orogastric inoculation of H. pylori (ATCC 43504) was done twice daily for 7 days. Geraniol (15 and 30 mg/kg), vehicle and standard drugs (Amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg; clarithromycin, 25 mg/kg & omeprazole, 20 mg/kg) was administered twice daily for 14 days. Antiulcer activity of geraniol was examined by the determination of gastric ulcer index, measuring the volume of gastric juice, pH and total acidity, myeloperoxidase activity and histopathological examination. Histopathological investigation for the presence of inflammation, white blood cell infiltration, edema, the mucosal damage was studied. The presence of H. pylori was detected by placing a biopsy sample from antral part of the stomach into rapid urease test. Ulcer index in H. pylori inoculated control group was 4.13 ± 0.85 and was significantly (P < 0.05) lowered in geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug treated group. Geraniol increase the pH of the gastric juice (2.18 ± 0.13 in control vs. 4.14 ± 0.57 in geraniol 30mg/kg) and lower total acidity significantly (P < 0.01) in geraniol (15 & 30 mg/kg). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured in stomach homogenate of all the groups. H. pylori control group has significant (P < 0.05) increase in MPO activity compared to normal control group. Geraniol (30 mg/kg) was showed significant (P < 0.05) and most effective among all the groups. Histopathological examination of rat stomach was scored and the total score for H. pylori control group was 8. After geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug treatment, the histopathological score was significantly decreased and it was observed to be 3.5 and 2.0 respectively. Percentage inhibition of H. pylori infection in geraniol (30 mg/kg) and reference drug were found to be 40% and 50% respectively whereas, 100% infection in H. pylori control group was observed. Geraniol exhibited significant antiulcer and anti- H. pylori activity in the rats. Thus, geraniol has the potential for the further development as an effective medication in treating H. pylori associated ulcer.

Keywords: geraniol, helicobacter pylori atcc 43504, myeloperoxidase, ulcer

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62 Quantitative Evaluation of Diabetic Foot Wound Healing Using Hydrogel Nanosilver Based Dressing vs. Traditional Dressing: A Prospective Randomized Control Study

Authors: Ehsan A. Yahia, Ayman E. El-Sharkawey, Magda M. Bayoumi


Background: Wound dressings perform a crucial role in cutaneous wound management due to their ability to protect wounds and promote dermal and epidermal tissue regeneration. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of using hydrogel/nano silver-based dressing vs. traditional dressing on diabetic foot wound healing. Methods: Sixty patients with type-2 diabetes hospitalized for diabetic foot wound treatment were recruited from selected Surgical departments. A prospective randomized control study was carried. Results: The results showed that the percentage of a reduction rate of the ulcer by the third week of the treatment in the hydrogel/nano silver-based dressing group was higher (15.11%) than in the traditional wound dressing group (33.44%). Moreover, the mean ulcer size "sq mm" in the hydrogel/nano silver-based dressing group recognized a faster healing rate (15.11±7.89) and considerably lesser in comparison to the traditional in the third week (21.65±8.4). Conclusion: The hydrogel/nanosilver-based dressing showed better results than traditional dressing in managing diabetic ulcer foot.

Keywords: diabetes, wound care, diabetic foot, wound dressing, hydrogel nanosilver

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61 Antigastritic Effect of Starch from Manihot utilissima on Male Wistar Rats Induced Aspirin

Authors: Naela Nabiela, Ahmad Hilmi Fahmi, M. Sukron, Ayu Elita Sari, Yusran, Suparmi


Aspirin is one of NSAIDs (non-steroid inflammatory drugs), can cause gastric ulcer as an side effect of prolonged consumption. The effort to prevent the increase of gastric HCl level can by treating with amylopectin was reported that can cover the gastric mucose. However, the effect of amylopectin in starch from Manihot utilissima which is believed as traditional treatment gastric ulcer have not been clear yet. This study was conducted to determine the effect of starch formed as syrup to HCl level and gastric histopatology. This experiment post test only control group design used 42 male wistar rats divided into 7 groups. All groups, except first group, were induced by 60 mg/100gBW/day aspirin for 3 days. The following day for 2 days each group was treated by starch syrup at dosed 0.45% w/v, 0.9% w/v, 1.8% w/v, 0% w/v, and sucralfate. Respectively, HCl level were measured by acidi-alkalimetri titration method, while the gastric histopathology were prepared by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The result shows that aspirin induction can increase the HCl level as 0,00767 N. Starch syrup at dose 1.8% w/v was effective to reduce HCl level and the grade of second gastric necrosis. It can be conclude that starch syrup is potention as a treatment to cure gastric ulcer caused by NSAIDs side effect.

Keywords: concentration of HCl stomach, gastric histopathology, gastritis, starch

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60 The Gastroprotective Potential of Clematis Flammula Leaf Extracts

Authors: Dina Atmani-Kilani, Farah Yous, Djebbar Atmani


The etiology of peptic ulcer is closely related to stress, excessive consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or ethanol. Clematis flammula (Ranunculaceae) is a medicinal plant widely used by rural populations to treat inflammatory disorders. This study was designed to assess the gastroprotective potential of C. flammula extracts. Gastric ulcer was induced by stress, indomethacin, HCl / ethanol, and absolute ethanol on NMRI-type mice. The antioxidant potency of the ethanolic extract of Clematis flammula (EECF) was evaluated on catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Glutathione (GSH) and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels were also quantified. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated through the effect of EECF on myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and vascular permeability. Complementary tests concerning the quantification of mucus levels, gastric motility, inhibition of ATPase H+/K+activity, as well as a histopathological study were also undertaken to explore the mechanism of action of the EECF. The EECF exhibited a significant (p <0.001) and optimal (100 mg/kg) gastroprotective effect by elevating SOD, CAT, and GSH levels, thereby minimizing the production of MDA and lowering the activity of MPO and vascular permeability. EECF also increased the rate of mucus production, decreased gastric motility, and completely suppressed the H+/K+ ATPase activity. Histopathological study confirmed the effectiveness of the extract in the prevention of peptic ulcer. The results obtained in this study demonstrated the gastro-protective effect of EECF via acidic antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and anti-secretory mechanisms, which may justify its use as a substitute in peptic ulcer treatment.

Keywords: clematis flammula, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase, ATPase, pump

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59 Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Argon Plasma Jet on Healing Process of the Wagner Grade 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Authors: M. Khaledi Pour, P. Akbartehrani, M. Amini, M. Khani, M. Mohajeri Tehrani, R. Radi, B. Shokri


Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) is one of the costly severe complications of diabetes. Neuropathy and Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) due to diabetes are significant causes of this complication. In 10 years the patients with DFUs are twice as likely to die as patients without DFUs. Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) is a promising tool for medical purposes. CAP generate reactive species at room temperature and are effective in killing bacteria and fibroblast proliferation. These CAP-based tools produce NO, which has bactericidal and angiogenesis properties. It also showed promising effects in the DFUs surface reduction and the time to wound closure. In this paper, we evaluated the effect of the Argon Plasma Jet (APJ) on the healing process of the Wagner Grade 2 DFUs in a randomized clinical trial. The 20 kHz sinusoidal voltage frequency derives the APJ. Patients (n=20) were randomly double-blinded assigned into two groups. These groups receive the standard care (SC, n=10) and the standard care with APJ treatment (SC+APJ, n=10) for five sessions in four weeks. The results showed that the APJ treatment along standard care could reduce the wound surface by 20 percent more than the standard care. Also, It showed a more influential role in controlling wound infection.

Keywords: argon plasma jet, cold atmospheric plasma, diabetes, diabetic foot ulcer

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58 Complicated Corneal Ulceration in Cats: Clinical Diagnosis and Surgical Management of 80 Cases

Authors: Khaled M. Ali, Ayman A. Mostafa, Soliman M. Soliman


Objectives: To describe the most common clinical and endoscopic findings associated with complicated corneal ulcers in cats, and to determine the short-term outcomes after surgical treatment of these cats. Animals Eighteen client-owned cats of different breeds (52 females and 28 males), ranging in age from 3 months to 6 years, with corneal ulcers. Procedures: Cats were clinically evaluated to initially determine the concurrent corneal abnormalities. Endoscopic examination was performed to determine the anterior and posterior segments abnormalities. Superficial and deep stromal ulcers were treated using conjunctival flap. Corneal sequestrum was treated by partial keratectomy and conjunctival flap. Anterior synechia was treated via peripheral iridectomy and separation of the adhesion between the iris and the inner cornea. Symblepharon was treated by removal of the adhered conjunctival membrane from the cornea. Incurable endophthalmitis was treated surgically by extirpation. Short-term outcomes after surgical managements of selected corneal abnormalities were then assessed clinically and endoscopically. Results: Deep stromal ulcer with descemetocele, endophthalmitis, symblepharon, corneal sequestration and anterior synechia with secondary glaucoma and corneal scarring were the most common complications of corneal ulcer. FHV-1 was a common etiologic factor of corneal ulceration. Persistent corneal scars of varying shape and size developed in cats with deep stromal ulcer, anterior synechia, and corneal sequestration. Conclusions: Domestic shorthaired and Persian cats were the most predisposed breeds to FHV-1 infection and subsequent corneal ulceration. Immediate management of patients with corneal ulcer would prevent serious complications. No age or sex predisposition to complicated corneal ulceration in cats.

Keywords: cats, complicated corneal ulceration, clinical, endoscopic diagnosis, FHV-1

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57 Treatment Outcome Of Corneal Ulcers Using Levofloxacin Hydrate 1.5% Ophthalmic Solution And Adjuvant Oral Ciprofloxacin, A Treatment Strategy Applicable To Primary Healthcare

Authors: Celine Shi Ying Lee, Jong Jian Lee


Background: Infectious keratitis is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Prompt treatment with effective medication will control the infection early, preventing corneal scarring and visual loss. fluoroquinolones ophthalmic medication is used because of its broad-spectrum properties, potency, good intraocular penetration, and low toxicity. The study aims to evaluate the treatment outcome of corneal ulcers using Levofloxacin 1.5% ophthalmic solution (LVFX) with adjuvant oral ciprofloxacin when indicated and apply this treatment strategy in primary health care as first-line treatment. Methods: Patients with infective corneal ulcer treated in an eye center were recruited. Inclusion criteria includes Corneal infection consistent with bacterial keratitis, single or multiple small corneal ulcers. Treatment regime: LVFX hourly for the first 2 days, 2 hourly from the 3rd day, and 3 hourly on the 5th day of review. Adjuvant oral ciprofloxacin 500mg BD was administered for 5 days if there were multiple corneal ulcers or when the location of the cornea ulcer was central or paracentral. Results: 47 subjects were recruited. There were 16 (34%) males and 31 (66%) females. 40 subjects (85%) were contact lens (CL) related to corneal ulcer, and 7 subjects (15%) were non-contact lens related. 42 subjects (89%) presented with one ulcer, of which 20 of them (48%) needed adjuvant therapy. 5 subjects presented with 2 or 3 ulcers, of which 3 needed adjuvant therapy. A total of 23 subjects (49%) was given adjuvant therapy (oral ciprofloxacin 500mg BD for 5 days).21 of them (91%) were CL related. All subjects recovered fully, and the average duration of treatment was 3.7 days, with 49% of the subjects resolved on the 3rd day, 38% on the 5thday of and 13% on the 7thday. All subjects showed symptoms of relief of pain, light-sensitivity, and redness on the 3rd day with full visual recovery post-treatment. No adverse drug reactions were recorded. Conclusion: Our treatment regime demonstrated good clinical outcome as first-line treatment for corneal ulcers. A corneal ulcer is a common eye condition in Singapore, mainly due to CL wear. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most frequent and potentially sight-threatening pathogen involved in CL related corneal ulcer. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus Pneumoniae were seen in non-CL users. All these bacteria exhibit good sensitivity rates to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. It is therefore logical in our study to use LVFX Eyedrops and adjuvant ciprofloxacin oral antibiotics when indicated as first line treatment for most corneal ulcers. Our study of patients, both CL related and non-CL related, have shown good clinical response and full recovery using the above treatment strategy. There was also a full restoration of visual acuity in all the patients. Eye-trained primary Healthcare practitioners can consider adopting this treatment strategy as first line treatment in patients with corneal ulcers. This is relevant during the COVID pandemic, where hospitals are overwhelmed with patients and in regions with limited access to specialist eye care. This strategy would enable early treatment with better clinical outcome.

Keywords: corneal ulcer, levofloxacin hydrate, treatment strategy, ciprofloxacin

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56 A Clinico-Bacteriological Study and Their Risk Factors for Diabetic Foot Ulcer with Multidrug-Resistant Microorganisms in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee


This study was done to determine the bacteriological profile and antibiotic resistance of the isolates and to find out the potential risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant organisms. Diabetic foot ulcer is a major medical, social, economic problem and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing countries like India. 25 percent of all diabetic patients develop a foot ulcer at some point in their lives which is highly susceptible to infections and that spreads rapidly, leading to overwhelming tissue destruction and subsequent amputation. Infection with multidrug resistant organisms (MDRO) may increase the cost of management and may cause additional morbidity and mortality. Proper management of these infections requires appropriate antibiotic selection based on culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Early diagnosis of microbial infections is aimed to institute the appropriate antibacterial therapy initiative to avoid further complications. A total of 200 Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus patients with infection were admitted at GD Hospital and Diabetes Institute, Kolkata. 60 of them who developed ulcer during the year 2013 were included in this study. A detailed clinical history and physical examination were carried out for every subject. Specimens for microbiological studies were obtained from ulcer region. Gram-negative bacilli were tested for extended spectrum Beta-lactamase (ESBL) production by double disc diffusion method. Staphylococcal isolates were tested for susceptibility to oxacillin by screen agar method and disc diffusion. Potential risk factors for MDRO-positive samples were explored. Gram-negative aerobes were most frequently isolated, followed by gram-positive aerobes. Males were predominant in the study and majority of the patients were in the age group of 41-60 years. The presence of neuropathy was observed in 80% cases followed by peripheral vascular disease (73%). Proteus spp. (22) was the most common pathogen isolated, followed by E.coli (17). Staphylococcus aureus was predominant amongst the gram-positive isolates. S.aureus showed a high rate of resistance to antibiotic tested (63.6%). Other gram-positive isolates were found to be highly resistant to erythromycin, tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, 40% each. All isolates were found to be sensitive to Vancomycin and Linezolid. ESBL production was noted in Proteus spp and E.coli. Approximately 70 % of the patients were positive for MDRO. MDRO-infected patients had poor glycemic control (HbA1c 11± 2). Infection with MDROs is common in diabetic foot ulcers and is associated with risk factors like inadequate glycemic control, the presence of neuropathy, osteomyelitis, ulcer size and increased the requirement for surgical treatment. There is a need for continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria to provide the basis for empirical therapy and reduce the risk of complications.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcer, bacterial infection, multidrug-resistant organism, extended spectrum beta-lactamase

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55 Observation on Microbiological Profile of Type2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer and Its Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: Pampita Chakraborty, Sukumar Mukherjee


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is commonly encountered metabolic disorder in clinical practice. An estimated 25 percent of DM patients develop foot problems. Foot ulceration and infection are one of the major causes of morbidity, hospitalization or even amputation. Objective: To isolate and identify bacterial pathogens in Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) and to observe its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. Methodology: A prospective study was conducted for a period of 9 months at the Department of Microbiology, GD Hospital & Diabetes Institute, Kolkata. 75 DFU patients were recruited in the study. Specimens for microbiological studies obtained from ulcer base were examined as gram stained smear and was cultured aerobically on Nutrient agar, Blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. Antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed by disc diffusion techniques according to CLSI guidelines. Result: In this study out of 75cases, 73% (55/75) were male and 27% (20/75) were females with mean (SD) age of 51.11(±10) years. Out of 75 pus cultures, 63(84%) showed growth of microorganism making total of 81 bacterial isolates with 71.42% of monomicrobial infection and 28.57% of polymicrobial infection. Out of 81 isolates 53(65.43%) were gram negative and 21(25.92%) were gram positive. E.coli was relatively common isolate 21(26%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus 15(18.5%), Klebsiella pneumonia 14(17.28%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12 (14.81%), Proteus spp. 3 (3.70%), and Enterococcus faecalis 6 (7.40%). 75% of Gram-negative microorganism were extended Beta-lactamase enzyme (ESBL) producer and around 20 % of Klebsiella and Proteus spp. were carbapenemase enzyme producer. Among Gram positive, around 50% of S.aureus was MRSA, sensitive only to Vancomycin, Teicoplanin & Linezolid. Conclusion: More prevalence of monomicrobial gram-negative bacteria than gram-positive bacteria in DFU was observed. This study emphasizes that Beta-Lactam group of antibiotics should not be the empirical treatment of choice for Gram-negative isolates; instead alternatives like Carbapenems, Amikacin could be a better option. On the other hand, Vancomycin and Linezolid are preferred for most of the infection with gram-positive aerobes. Continuous surveillance of resistant bacteria is required for empiric therapy.

Keywords: antibiotic resistant, antimicrobial susceptibility, diabetic foot ulcer, surveillance

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54 Feature Extraction Based on Contourlet Transform and Log Gabor Filter for Detection of Ulcers in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy

Authors: Nimisha Elsa Koshy, Varun P. Gopi, V. I. Thajudin Ahamed


The entire visualization of GastroIntestinal (GI) tract is not possible with conventional endoscopic exams. Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a low risk, painless, noninvasive procedure for diagnosing diseases such as bleeding, polyps, ulcers, and Crohns disease within the human digestive tract, especially the small intestine that was unreachable using the traditional endoscopic methods. However, analysis of massive images of WCE detection is tedious and time consuming to physicians. Hence, researchers have developed software methods to detect these diseases automatically. Thus, the effectiveness of WCE can be improved. In this paper, a novel textural feature extraction method is proposed based on Contourlet transform and Log Gabor filter to distinguish ulcer regions from normal regions. The results show that the proposed method performs well with a high accuracy rate of 94.16% using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier in HSV colour space.

Keywords: contourlet transform, log gabor filter, ulcer, wireless capsule endoscopy

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53 Gastroprotective Effect of Copper Complex On Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer In Rats. Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

Authors: Heba M. Saad Eldien, Ola Abdel-Tawab Hussein, Ahmed Yassein Nassar


Background: Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti inflammatory drug. Indomethacin induces an injury to gastrointestinal mucosa in experimental animals and humans and their use is associated with a significant risk of hemorrhage, erosions and perforation of both gastric and intestinal ulcers. The anti-inflammatory action of copper complexes is an important activity of their anti-ulcer effect achieved by their intermediary role as a transport form of copper that allow activation of the several copper-dependent enzymes. Therefore, several copper complexes were synthesized and investigated as promising alternative anti-ulcer therapy. Aim of the work: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a copper chelating complex consisting of egg albumin and copper as one of the copper peptides that can be used as anti-inflammatory agent and effective in ameliorates the hazards of the indomethacin on the histological structure of the fundus of the stomach that could be added to raise the efficacy of the currently used simple and cheap gastric anti-inflammatory drug mucogel. Material &methods: This study was carried out on 40 adult male albino rats,divided equally into 4 groups;Group I(control group) received distilled water,Group II(indomethacin treated group) received (25 mg/kg body weight, oral intubation) once, Group III (mucogel treated group)2 mL/rat once daily, oral incubation, Group IV(copper complex group) 1 mL /rat of 30 gm of copper albumin complex was mixed uniformly with mucogel to 100 mL. Treatment has been started six hour after Induction of Ulcers and continued till the 3rd day. The animals sacrificed and was processed for light, transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and immunostaining for inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS). Results: Fundic mucosa of group II, showed exfoliation of epithelial cells lining the gland, discontinuity of surface epithelial cells (ulcer formation), vacuolation and detachment of cells, eosinophilic infiltration and congestion of blood vessels in the lamina propria and submucosa. There was thickening and disarrangement of mucosa, weak positive reaction for PAS and marked increase in the collagen fibers lamina propria and the submucosa of the fundus. TEM revealed degeneration of cheif and parietal cells.Marked increase positive reactive of iNOS in all cells of the fundic gland. Group III showed reconstruction of gastric gland with cystic dilatation and vacuolation, moderate decrease of collagen fibers, reduced the intensity of iNOS while in Group IV healthy mucosa with normal surface lining epithelium and fundic glands, strong positive reaction for PAS, marked decrease of collagen fibers and positive reaction for iNOS. TEM revealed regeneration of cheif and parietal cells. Conclusion: Co treatment of copper-albumin complex seems to be useful for gastric ulcer treatment and ameliorates most of hazards of indomethacin.

Keywords: copper complex, gastric ulcer, indomethacin, rat

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52 Development and Characterization of Double Liposomes Based Dual Drug Delivery System for H. Pylori Targeting

Authors: Ashish Kumar Jain, Deepak Mishra


The objective of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate a vesicular dual drug delivery system for effective management of mucosal ulcer. Inner encapsulating and Double liposomes were prepared by glass bead and reverse phase evaporation method respectively. The formulation consisted of inner liposomes bearing Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate (RBC) and outer liposomes encapsulating Amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX). The optimized inner liposomes and double liposomes were extensively characterized for vesicle size, morphology, zeta potential, vesicles count, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. In vitro, the double liposomes demonstrated a sustained release of AMOX and RBC viz 91.4±1.8% and 77.2±2.1% respectively at the end of 72 hr. Furthermore binding specificity and targeting propensity toward H. pylori (SKP-56) was confirmed by agglutination and in situ adherence assay. Reduction of the absolute alcohol induced ulcerogenic index from 3.01 ± 0.25 to 0.31 ± 0.09 and 100% H. pylori clearance rate was observed. These results suggested that double liposomes are potential vector for the development of dual drug delivery for effective treatment of H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer.

Keywords: double liposomes, H. pylori targeting, PE liposomes, glass-beads method, peptic ulcers

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51 Refractory Visceral Leishmaniasis Responding to Second-Line Therapy

Authors: Preet Shah, Om Shrivastav


Introduction : In India, Leishmania donovani is the only parasite causing Leishmaniasis. The parasite infects the reticuloendothelial system and is found in the bone marrow, spleen and liver. Treatment of choice is amphotericin-B with sodium stibogluconate being an alternative. Miltefosine is useful in refractory cases. In our case, Leishmaniasis occurred in a person residing in western India (which is quite rare) and it failed to respond to two different drugs (again an uncommon feature) before it finally responded to a third one. Description: A 50 year old lady, a resident of western India, with no history of recent travel, presented with an ulcer on the left side of the nose since 8 months. She was apparently alright 8 months back, when she noticed a small ulcerated lesion on the left ala of the nose which was immediately biopsied. The biopsy revealed amastigotes of Leishmania for which she was administered intra-lesional sodium stibogluconate for 1 month (4 doses every 8 days).Despite this, there was no regression of the ulcer and hence she presented to us for further management. On examination, her vital parameters were normal. Barring an ulcer on the left side of the nose, rest of the examination findings were unremarkable. Complete blood count was normal. Ultrasound abdomen showed hepatomegaly. PET-CT scan showed increased metabolic activity in left ala of nose, hepatosplenomegaly and increased metabolic activity in spleen and bone marrow. Bone marrow biopsy was done which showed hypercellular marrow with erythroid preponderance. Considering a diagnosis of leishmaniasis which had so far been unresponsive to sodium stibogluconate, she was started on liposomal amphotericin-B. At the time of admission, her creatinine level was normal, but it started rising with the administration of liposomal amphotericin-B, hence the dose was reduced. Despite this, creatinine levels did not improve, and she started developing hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia as side effects of the drug, hence further reductions in the dosage were made. Despite a total of 3 weeks of liposomal amphotericin-B, there was no improvement in the ulcer. As had so far failed to respond to sodium stibogluconate and liposomal amphotericin-B, it was decided to start her on miltefosine. She received the miltefosine for a total of 12 weeks. At the end of this duration, there was a marked regression of the cutaneous lesion. Conclusion: Refractoriness to amphotericin-B in leishmaniasis may be seen in up to 5 % cases. Here, an alternative drug such as miltefosine is useful and hence we decided to use it, to which she responded adequately. Furthermore, although leishmaniasis is common in the eastern part of India, it is a relatively unknown entity in the western part of the country with the occurrence being very rare. Because of these 2 reasons, we consider our case to be a unique one.

Keywords: amphotericin-b, leishmaniasis, miltefosine, tropical diseases

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50 Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Spontaneous Nanosilver Resistant Bacterium Proteus mirabilis Strain scdr1

Authors: Amr Saeb, Khalid Al-Rubeaan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Hamsa Tayeb


Background: P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. Methodology: P. mirabilis SCDR1 was isolated from a diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, the commercial nano-silver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics. We utilized next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), bioinformatics, phylogenetic analysis and pathogenomics in the identification and characterization of the infectious pathogen. Results: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is a multi-drug resistant isolate that also showed high levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, nano-silver chitosan composite and the commercially available nano-silver and silver bandages. The P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome size is 3,815,621 bp with G+C content of 38.44%. P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome contains a total of 3,533 genes, 3,414 coding DNA sequence genes, 11, 10, 18 rRNAs (5S, 16S, and 23S), and 76 tRNAs. Our isolate contains all the required pathogenicity and virulence factors to establish a successful infection. P. mirabilis SCDR1 isolate is a potential virulent pathogen that despite its original isolation site, wound, it can establish kidney infection and its associated complications. P. mirabilis SCDR1 contains several mechanisms for antibiotics and metals resistance including, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, efflux systems, and enzymatic detoxification. Conclusion: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is the spontaneous nano-silver resistant bacterial strain. P. mirabilis SCDR1 strain contains all reported pathogenic and virulence factors characteristic for the species. In addition, it possesses several mechanisms that may lead to the observed nano-silver resistance.

Keywords: Proteus mirabilis, multi-drug resistance, silver nanoparticles, resistance, next generation sequencing techniques, genome analysis, bioinformatics, phylogeny, pathogenomics, diabetic foot ulcer, xenobiotics, multidrug resistance efflux, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, resistome, glutathione S-transferase, copper/silver efflux system, altruism

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49 Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (Evar) with Endoanchors: For Tandem Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm (Aaa) with Hostile Neck & Proximal Penetrating Atherosclerotic Ulcer

Authors: Von Jerick Tenorio, Jonald Lucero, Marivic Vestal, Edwin Tiempo


In patients with hostile aortic neck anatomy, the risks of proximal seal complications and stent migration remain with EVAR despite improved endograft technology. This case report discusses how the technical challenges of the hostile neck anatomy, proximal penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) and tortuous femoral access were addressed. The CT aortogram of a 63-year-old hypertensive and diabetic man with recurring abdominal discomfort revealed a fusiform infra-renal aneurysm measuring 8.8 cm in length and 5.7 cm in diameter. The proximal landing zone only has a 3 mm healthy neck with a conicity of > 10% and a thrombus of 4 mm thick. Proximal to the aneurysm is a PAU with a circumferential mural thrombus. The right femoral artery is tortuous with > 90o angulation. A 20% oversized Endurant II endograft and Aptus Heli-FX EndoAnchors were deployed as prophylaxis for type I endoleaks and endograft migration consequent to the conical neck and proximal aneurysm extension consequent to the PAU. A stiff Backup Meier guide wire facilitated the deployment of the endograft. Coil embolization of the right internal iliac artery was performed as prophylaxis for type II endoleaks. EndoAnchors can be used as an adjunct to EVAR as prophylaxis for proximal seal complications and stent migration in patients with hostile aortic aneurysm neck anatomy and concomitant proximal PAU.

Keywords: endoAnchors, endoleaks, EVAR, hostile neck

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48 Association of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Gene 1800469 C > T and 1982073 C > T Polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patient in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital Jakarta

Authors: Dedy Pratama, Akhmadu Muradi, Hilman Ibrahim, Patrianef Darwis, Alexander Jayadi Utama, Raden Suhartono, D. Suryandari, Luluk Yunaini, Tom Ch Adriani


Objective: Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU) is one of the complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) that can lead to disability and death. Inadequate vascularization condition will affect healing process of DFU. Therefore, we investigated the expression of polymorphism TGF- β1 in the relation of the occurrence of DFU in T2DM. Methods: We designed a case-control study to investigate the polymorphism TGF- β1 gene 1800469 C > T and 1982073 C > T in T2DM in Cipto Mangunkusumo National Hospital (RSCM) Jakarta from June to December 2016. We used PCR techniques and compared the results in a group of T2DM patients with DFU as the case study and without DFU as the control group. Results: There were 203 patients, 102 patients with DFU and 101 patients control without DFU. 49,8% is male and 50,2% female with mean age about 56 years. Distribution of wild-type genotype TGF-B1 1800469 C > T wild type CC was found in 44,8%, the number of mutant heterozygote CT was 10,8% and mutant homozygote is 11,3%. Distribution of TGF-B1 1982073 C>T wild type CC was 32,5%, mutant heterozygote is 38,9% and mutant homozygote 25,1%. Conclusion: Distribution of alleles from TGF-B1 1800469 C > T is C 75% and T 25% and from TGF-B1 1982073 C > T is C53,8% and T 46,2%. In the other word polymorphism TGF- β1 plays a role in the occurrence and healing process of the DFU in T2DM patients.

Keywords: diabetic foot ulcers, diabetes mellitus, polymorphism, TGF-β1

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47 A Cros Sectional Observational Study of Prescription Pattern of Gastro-Protective Drugs with Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Nilgiris, India

Authors: B.S. Roopa


Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of concomitant use of GPDs in patients treated with NSAIDs and GPDs in recommended dose and frequency as prophylaxis. And also to know the association between risk factors and prescription of GPDs in patients treated with NSAIDs. Methods: Study was a prospective, observational, cross-sectional survey. Data from patients with prescription of NSAIDs at the out-patient departments of secondary care Hospital, Nilgiris, India were collected in a specially designed proforma for a period of 45 days. Analysis using χ2 tests for discrete variables. Factors that might be associated with prescription of GPD with NSIADs were assessed in multiple logistic regression models. Results: Three hundred and three patients were included in this study, and the rate of GPD prescription was 89.1%. Most of the patients received H2-receptor antagonist, and, to a lesser degree, antacid and proton pump inhibitor. Patients with history of GI ulcer/bleeding were much more likely to be co-prescribed GPD than those who had no history of GI disorders .Compared with patients who were managed in general outpatient clinic, those managed in Secondary care hospital in Nilgrisis, India were more likely to receive GPD. Conclusions: The prescription rate of GPD with NSAIDs is high. Patients were prescribed with H2RA with dose of 150mg twice daily, which are not effective in reducing the risk of NSAIDs induced gastric ulcer. Only the frequency of NSAIDs prescription was considered significant determinant for the co-prescription with GPAs in patients who are < 65 years and ≥ 65 years old.

Keywords: gastro protective agents, non steridol anti inlfammatory agents

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46 Investigation of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Exposure Protocol on Wound Healing in Diabetic Foot Ulcer

Authors: P. Akbartehrani, M. Khaledi Pour, M. Amini, M. Khani, M. Mohajeri Tehrani, E. Ghasemi, P. Charipoor, B. Shokri


A common problem between diabetic patients is foot ulcers which are chronic and require specialized treatment. Previous studies illustrate that Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has beneficial effects on wound healing and infection. Nevertheless, the comparison of different cap exposure protocols in diabetic ulcer wound healing remained to be studied. This study aims to determine the effect of two different exposure protocols on wound healing in diabetic ulcers. A prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted at two clinics. Diabetic patients with G1 and G2 wanger classification diabetic foot ulcers were divided into two groups of study. One group was treated by the first protocol, which was treating wounds by argon-generated cold atmospheric plasma jet once a week for five weeks in a row. The other group was treated by the second protocol, which was treating wounds every three days for five weeks in a row. The wounds were treated for 40 seconds/cubic centimeter, while the nozzle tip was moved nonlocalized 1 cm above the wounds. A patient with one or more wounds could participate in different groups as wounds were separately randomized, which allow a participant to be treated several times during the study. The study's significant findings were two different reductions rate in wound size, microbial load, and two different healing speeds. This study concludes that CAP therapy by the second protocol yields more effective healing speeds, reduction in wound sizes, and microbial loads of foot ulcers in diabetic patients.

Keywords: wound healing, diabetic ulcers, cold atmospheric plasma, cold argon jet

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45 Knowledge and Attitude towards Helicobacter pylori: Awareness about Health Impacts of H. pylori Gastric Ulcer and Its Carcinogenic Potential among Adults in Sharjah

Authors: Abdullah Malek, Muzn Al Khaldi, Lian Odeh, Atheer Tariq, Mohammad Al Fardan, Hiba Barqawi


H. pylori bacterium is a known underlying agent for gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer and is believed to infect half of the world’s population. Even with the ubiquity of H. pylori bacterium, there is lack of knowledge regarding its modes of transmission, associated diseases, carcinogenic effect and means of prevention; especially in the UAE. A cross sectional study of 500 participants, of which 58% (n= 289) of the respondents were female, and 42% (n=210) were male, was conducted in Sharjah to assess the knowledge, and explore the attitudes and practices among UAE residents towards Helicobacter Pylori and its associated PUD as well as its carcinogenic nature. A structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the target population to establish their demographic background and selected aspects of their lifestyle. General knowledge about H. Pylori was poor, only 24.6% stated they have heard of H. pylori. Attitudes towards prevention and practices were relatively poor as well. Subjects who suffered from severe symptoms (ALARM symptoms) had significantly lower habit scores than those with mild and moderate symptoms (p=0.0078**). To the authours’ knowledge, no previous studies were conducted in the United Arab Emirates regarding the epidemiology of the infection to detect the extent of H. Pylori’s impact on the public health. The results of this study can be used to draw conclusions about the average knowledge of the UAE population regarding H. pylori. It can also be a starting point to devise new education programs and campaigns that raise awareness of this health issue which could be easily avoided with early diagnosis and antibiotic treatment.

Keywords: chronic gastritis, community health, gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori, peptic ulcers

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