Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 11

Search results for: anti-inflammatory

11 Phytochemical Content and Bioactive Properties of Wheat Sprouts

Authors: Jasna Čanadanović-Brunet, Lidija Jevrić, Gordana Ćetković, Vesna Tumbas Šaponjac, Jelena Vulić, Slađana Stajčić


Wheat contains high amount of nutrients such as dietary fiber, resistant starch, vitamins, minerals and microconstituents, which are building blocks of body tissues, but also help in the prevention of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Sprouting enhances the nutritional value of whole wheat through biosynthesis of tocopherols, polyphenols and other valuable phytochemicals. Since the nutritional and sensory benefits of germination have been extensively documented, using of sprouted grains in food formulations is becoming a trend in healthy foods. The present work addressed the possibility of using freeze-dried sprouted wheat powder, obtained from spelt-wheat cv. ‘Nirvana’ (Triticum spelta L.) and winter wheat cv. ‘Simonida’ (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. vulgare var. lutescens), as a source of phytochemicals, to improve the functional status of the consumer. The phytochemicals' content (total polyphenols, flavonoids, chlorophylls and carotenoids) and biological activities (antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals and antiinflammatory activity) of sprouted wheat powders were assessed spectrophotometrically. The content of flavonoids (216.52 mg RE/100 g), carotenoids (22.84 mg β-carotene/100 g) and chlorophylls (131.23 mg/100 g), as well as antiinflammatory activity (EC50=3.70 mg/ml) was found to be higher in sprouted spelt-wheat powder, while total polyphenols (607.21 mg GAE/100 g) and antioxidant activity on DDPPH radicals (EC50=0.27 mmol TE/100 g) was found to be higher in sprouted winter wheat powders. Simulation of gastro-intestinal digestion of sprouted wheat powders clearly shows that intestinal digestion caused a higher release of polyphenols than gastric digestion for both samples, which indicates their higher bioavailability in the colon. The results of the current study have shown that wheat sprouts can provide a high content of phytochemicals and considerable bioactivities. Moreover, data reported show that they contain a unique pattern of bioactive molecules, which make these cereal sprouts attractive functional foods for a health-promoting diet.

Keywords: wheat, sprouts, phytochemicals, bioactivity

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10 Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Some Oxyindole Derivatives

Authors: Vivek Singh Bhadauria, Abhishek Pandey


Indole-2,3-diones are known for their various biological activities. By suitable control of a substituent, different novel indole-2,3-diones were synthesized. In this present study, various Schiff and Mannich bases were synthesized and characterized, and evaluated their for different pharmacological activities. The compounds were prepared by reacting indole-2,3-dione with benzyl chloride and 4-substituted thiosemicarbazides. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by the TLC, MP, Elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The compounds have been evaluated for their anticancer, antituberculosis, anticonvulsant, antiinflammatory as well as anti-SARS activity and the results are presented. Some of compounds possessed different pharmacological activity at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight and even at lower concentration.

Keywords: indoles, isatin, NMR, biological activities

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9 Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Nephrotoxicity Induced by Cadmium in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Hamed A. Alwadaani, Iyad Jresat


The present study investigated the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), against cadmium-induced kidney injury in rats. Cadmium chloride (1.2 mg Cd/kg/day, s.c.), was given for nine weeks. TQ treatment (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.) started on the same day of cadmium administration and continued for nine weeks. TQ significantly decreased serum creatinine, renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and significantly increased renal reduced glutathione in rats received cadmium. Histopathological examination showed that TQ markedly minimized renal tissue damage induced by cadmium. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TQ markedly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, and caspase-3 in renal tissue. It was concluded that TQ significantly protected against cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats, through its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptotic actions.

Keywords: thymoquinone, cadmium, kidney, rats

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8 Antiinflammatory and Wound Healing Activity of Sedum Essential Oils Growing in Kazakhstan

Authors: Dmitriy Yu. Korulkin, Raissa A. Muzychkina


The last decade the growth of severe and disseminated forms of inflammatory diseases is observed in Kazakhstan, in particular, septic shock, which progresses on 3-15% of patients with infectious complications of postnatal period. In terms of the rate of occurrence septic shock takes third place after hemorrhagic and cardiovascular shock, in terms of lethality it takes first place. The structure of obstetric sepsis has significantly changed. Currently the first place is taken by postabortive sepsis (40%) that is connected with usage of imperfect methods of artificial termination of pregnancy in late periods (intraamnial injection of sodium chloride, glucose). The second place is taken by postnatal sepsis (32%); the last place is taken by septic complications of caesarean section (28%). In this connection, search for and assessment of effectiveness of new medicines for treatment of postoperative infectious complications, having biostimulating effect and speeding up regeneration processes, is very promising and topical. Essential oil was obtained by the method hydrodistillation air-dry aerial part of Sedum L. plants using Clevenger apparatus. Pilot batch of plant medicinal product based on Sedum essential oils was produced by Chimpharm JSC, Santo Member of Polpharma Group (Kazakhstan). During clinical test of the plant medicinal product based on Sedum L. essential oils 37 female patients at the age from 35 to 57 with clinical signs of complicated postoperative processes and 12 new mothers with clinical signs of inflammatory process on sutures on anterior abdominal wall after caesarean section and partial disruption of surgical suture line on perineum were examined. Medicine usage methods - surgical wound treatment 2 times a day, treatment with other medicines of local action was not performed. Before and after treatment general clinical test, determination of immune status, bacterioscopic test of wound fluid was performed to all women, medical history data was taken into account, wound cleansing and healing time, full granulations, side effects and complications, satisfaction with the used medicine was assessed. On female patients with inflammatory infiltration and partial disruption of surgical suture line anesthetic wound healing effect of plant medicinal product based on Sedum L. essential oils was observed as early as on the second day after beginning of using it, wound cleansing took place, as a rule, within the first row days. Hyperemia in the area of suture line also was not observed for 2-3-d day of usage of medicine, good constant course was observed. The absence of clinical effect on this group of patients was not registered. The represented data give evidence of that clinical effect was accompanied with normalization of changed laboratory findings. No allergic responses or side effects were observed during usage of the plant medicinal products based on Sedum L. essential oils.

Keywords: antiinflammatory, bioactive substances, essential oils, isolation, sedum L., wound healing

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7 Biological Activities of Gentiana brachyphylla Vill. Herba from Turkey

Authors: Hulya Tuba Kiyan, Nilgun Ozturk


Gentiana, a member of Gentianaceae, is represented by approximately 400 species in the world and 12 species in Turkey. Flavonoids, iridoids, triterpenoids and also xanthones are the major compounds of this genus, have been previously reported to have antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, hypotensive, hypoglycaemic, DNA repair and immunomodulatory properties. The methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Gentiana brachyphylla Vill. from Turkey was evaluated for its biological activities and its total phenolic content in the present study. According to the antioxidant activity results, G. brachyphylla methanolic extract showed very strong anti-DNA damage antioxidant activity with an inhibition of 81.82%. It showed weak ferric-reducing power with a EC50 value of 0.65 when compared to BHT (EC50 = 0.2). Also, at 0.5 mg/ml concentration, the methanolic extract inhibited ABTS radical cation activity with an inhibition of 20.13% when compared to Trolox (79.01%). Chelating ability of G. brachyphylla was 44.71% whereas EDTA showed 78.87% chelating activity at 0.2 mg/ml. Also G. brachyphylla showed weak 27.21% AChE, 20.23% BChE, strong 67.86% MAO-A and moderate 50.06% MAO-B, weak 19.14% COX-1, 29.11% COX-2 inhibitory activities at 0.25 mg/ml. The total phenolic content of G. brachyphylla was 156.23 ± 2.73 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, cholinesterase inhibitory activity, Gentiana brachyphylla Vill., total phenolic content

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6 Antiinflammatory and Antinociceptive of Hydro Alcoholic Tanacetum balsamita L. Extract

Authors: S. Nasri, G. H. Amin, A. Azimi


The use of herbs to treat disease is accompanied with the history of human life. This research is aimed to study the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of "Tanacetum balsamita balsamita". In the experimental studies 144 male mice are used. In the inflammatory test, animals were divided into six groups: Control, positive control (receiving Dexamethason at dose of 15mg/kg), and four experimental groups receiving Tanacetum balsamita balsamita hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg. Xylene was used to induce inflammation. Formalin was used to study the nociceptive effects. Animals were divided into six groups: control group, positive control group (receiving morphine) and four experimental groups receiving Tanacetum balsamita balsamita (Tb.) hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200mg/kg. I.p. injection of drugs or normal saline was performed 30 minutes before test. The data were analyzed by using one way Variance analysis and Tukey post-test. Aerial parts of Tanacetum balsamita balsamita hydroalcoholic extract decreased significantly inflammatory at dose of 200mg/kg (P<0/001) and caused a significant decrease and alleviated the nociception in both first and second phases at doses of 200mg/kg (p<0/001) and 100mg/kg (P<0/05). Tanacetum balsamita balsamita extract has the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects which seems to be related with flavonoids especially Quercetin.

Keywords: inflammation, nociception, hydroalcoholic extract, aerial parts of Tanacetum balsamita balsamita L.

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5 Determination of Antioxidant Activity in Raphanus raphanistrum L.

Authors: Esma Hande Alıcı, Gülnur Arabacı


Antioxidants are compounds or systems that can safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged. The anti-oxidative effectiveness of these compounds depends on their chemical characteristics and physical location within a food (proximity to membrane phospholipids, emulsion interfaces, or in the aqueous phase). Antioxidants (e.g., flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins, vitamin C, vitamin E) have diverse biological properties, such as antiinflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherosclerotic effects, reduce the incidence of coronary diseases and contribute to the maintenance of gut health by the modulation of the gut microbial balance. Plants are excellent sources of antioxidants especially with their high content of phenolic compounds. Raphanus raphanistrum L., the wild radish, is a flowering plant in the family Brassicaceae. It grows in Asia and Mediterranean region. It has been introduced into most parts of the world. It spreads rapidly, and is often found growing on roadsides or in other places where the ground has been disturbed. It is an edible plant, in Turkey its fresh aerial parts are mostly consumed as a salad with olive oil and lemon juice after boiled. The leaves of the plant are also used as anti-rheumatic in traditional medicine. In this study, we determined the antioxidant capacity of two different solvent fractions (methanol and ethyl acetate) obtained from Raphanus raphanistrum L. plant leaves. Antioxidant capacity of the plant was introduced by using three different methods: DPPH radical scavenging activity, CUPRAC (Cupric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Capacity) activity and Reducing power activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, antioxidant capacity, Raphanis raphanistrum L., wild radish

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4 The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Liver Induced Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Elif Erdem, Mehmet Ali Kisacam, Gonca Ozan, Enver Ozan


Tobacco smokers continuously inhale thousands of carcinogens and free radicals. It is estimated that about 1017 oxidant molecules are present in each puff of tobacco smoke. It is known that smoking has adverse effects on the structure and functions of the liver. Ellagic acid (EA) has antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anticarcinogenic, antibacterial and antiinflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible protective effect of ellagic acid against tobacco smoke-mediated oxidative stress in the rat liver. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (control), group II (tobacco smoke), group III (tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. An equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated, and liver tissues were removed. Histological and biochemical analyzes were performed. Sinusoidal dilatation, inflammatory cell infiltration in portal area, increased Kuppfer cells were examined in tobacco smoke group and tobacco smoke+ corn oil groups. The results, observed in tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke+corn oil groups, were found significantly decreased in tobacco smoke+EA group. Group-II and group-III MDA levels were significantly higher, and GSH activities were not different than group-I. Compared to group-II, group-IV MDA level was decreased, and GSH activities was increased significantly. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the liver tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.

Keywords: ellagic acid, liver, rat, tobacco smoke

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3 Pioglitazone Ameliorates Methotrexate-Induced Renal Endothelial Dysfunction via Amending Detrimental Changes in Antioxidant Profile, Systemic Cytokines and Fas Production

Authors: Sahar M. El-Gowilly, Mai M. Helmy, Hanan M. El-Gowelli


Methotrexate (MTX) is widely used in treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. However, nephrotoxicity is one of its most important side effects. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, pioglitazone, is known to exert antiinflammatory and reno-protective effects in various kidney injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential involvement of endothelial damage in MTX-induced renal injury and to elaborate the possible protective effect of pioglitazone against MTX-induced endothelial impairment. Compared with saline-treated rats, treatment with MTX (7 mg/kg for 3 day) caused significant elevations in serum levels of urea and creatinine, increased renal nitrate/nitrite level and impaired renovascular responsiveness of isolated perfused kidney to endothelium-dependent vasodilations induced by acetylcholine (0.01-2.43 nmol) and isoprenaline (1µmol). These effects were abolished by concurrent treatment with pioglitazone (2.5 mg/kg, for 5 days starting two days before MTX). Alternatively, MTX treatment did not affect endothelium-independent renovascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (0.001-10 μmole). The possibility that alterations in renal antioxidants, circulating cytokine and apoptotic factor (Fas) levels contributed to MTX-pioglitazone interaction was assessed. Pioglitazone treatment abrogated renal oxidative stress (decreased reduced glutathione and catalase activity and increased malondialdehyde), elevated serum cytokine (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta1) and Fas induced by MTX. Histologically, MTX caused defused tubular cells swelling and vacuolization associated with endothelial damage in renal arterioles. These effects disappeared upon co-treated with pioglitazone. Collectively, pioglitazone abolished MTX-induced endothelium dysfunction and nephrotoxicity via ameliorating oxidative stress and rectifying cytokines and Fas abnormalities caused by MTX.

Keywords: methotrexate, pioglitazone, endothelium, kidney

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2 Physicochemical Investigation of Caffeic Acid and Caffeinates with Chosen Metals (Na, Mg, Al, Fe, Ru, Os)

Authors: Włodzimierz Lewandowski, Renata Świsłocka, Aleksandra Golonko, Grzegorz Świderski, Monika Kalinowska


Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic) is distributed in a free form or as ester conjugates in many fruits, vegetables and seasonings including plants used for medical purpose. Caffeic acid is present in propolis – a substance with exceptional healing properties used in natural medicine since ancient times. The antioxidant, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of caffeic acid are widely described in the literature. The biological activity of chemical compounds can be modified by the synthesis of their derivatives or metal complexes. The structure of the compounds determines their biological properties. This work is a continuation of the broader topic concerning the investigation of the correlation between the electronic charge distribution and biological (anticancer and antioxidant) activity of the chosen phenolic acids and their metal complexes. In the framework of this study the synthesis of new metal complexes of sodium, magnesium, aluminium, iron (III) ruthenium (III) and osmium (III) with caffeic acid was performed. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds were studied by means of FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Vis, ¹H and ¹³C NMR. The quantum-chemical calculations (at B3LYP/LAN L2DZ level) of caffeic acid and selected complexes were done. Moreover the antioxidant properties of synthesized complexes were studied in relation to selected stable radicals (method of reduction of DPPH and method of reduction of ABTS). On the basis of the differences in the number, intensity and locations of the bands from the IR, Raman, UV/Vis and NMR spectra of caffeic acid and its metal complexes the effect of metal cations on the electronic system of ligand was discussed. The geometry, theoretical spectra and electronic charge distribution were calculated by the use of Gaussian 09 programme. The geometric aromaticity indices (Aj – normalized function of the variance in bond lengths; BAC - bond alternation coefficient; HOMA – harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity and I₆ – Bird’s index) were calculated and the changes in the aromaticity of caffeic acid and its complexes was discussed. This work was financially supported by National Science Centre, Poland, under the research project number 2014/13/B/NZ7/02-352.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, caffeic acid, metal complexes, spectroscopic methods

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1 (Anti)Depressant Effects of Non-Steroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs in Mice

Authors: Horia Păunescu


Purpose: The study aimed to assess the depressant or antidepressant effects of several Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) in mice: the selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor meloxicam, and the non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors lornoxicam, sodium metamizole, and ketorolac. The current literature data regarding such effects of these agents are scarce. Materials and methods: The study was carried out on NMRI mice weighing 20-35 g, kept in a standard laboratory environment. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy „Carol Davila”, Bucharest. The study agents were injected intraperitoneally, 10 mL/kg body weight (bw) 1 hour before the assessment of the locomotor activity by cage testing (n=10 mice/ group) and 2 hours before the forced swimming tests (n=15). The study agents were dissolved in normal saline (meloxicam, sodium metamizole), ethanol 11.8% v/v in normal saline (ketorolac), or water (lornoxicam), respectively. Negative and positive control agents were also given (amitryptilline in the forced swimming test). The cage floor used in the locomotor activity assessment was divided into 20 equal 10 cm squares. The forced swimming test involved partial immersion of the mice in cylinders (15/9cm height/diameter) filled with water (10 cm depth at 28C), where they were left for 6 minutes. The cage endpoint used in the locomotor activity assessment was the number of treaded squares. Four endpoints were used in the forced swimming test (immobility latency for the entire 6 minutes, and immobility, swimming, and climbing scores for the final 4 minutes of the swimming session), recorded by an observer that was "blinded" to the experimental design. The statistical analysis used the Levene test for variance homogeneity, ANOVA and post-hoc analysis as appropriate, Tukey or Tamhane tests.Results: No statistically significant increase or decrease in the number of treaded squares was seen in the locomotor activity assessment of any mice group. In the forced swimming test, amitryptilline showed an antidepressant effect in each experiment, at the 10 mg/kg bw dosage. Sodium metamizole was depressant at 100 mg/kg bw (increased the immobility score, p=0.049, Tamhane test), but not in lower dosages as well (25 and 50 mg/kg bw). Ketorolac showed an antidepressant effect at the intermediate dosage of 5 mg/kg bw, but not so in the dosages of 2.5 and 10 mg/kg bw, respectively (increased the swimming score, p=0.012, Tamhane test). Meloxicam and lornoxicam did not alter the forced swimming endpoints at any dosage level. Discussion: 1) Certain NSAIDs caused changes in the forced swimming patterns without interfering with locomotion. 2) Sodium metamizole showed a depressant effect, whereas ketorolac proved antidepressant. Conclusion: NSAID-induced mood changes are not class effects of these agents and apparently are independent of the type of inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX-1 or COX-2). Disclosure: This paper was co-financed from the European Social Fund, through the Sectorial Operational Programme Human Resources Development 2007-2013, project number POSDRU /159 /1.5 /S /138907 "Excellence in scientific interdisciplinary research, doctoral and postdoctoral, in the economic, social and medical fields -EXCELIS", coordinator The Bucharest University of Economic Studies.

Keywords: antidepressant, depressant, forced swim, NSAIDs

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