Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: ulcerative colitis

37 Effects of Oral Resveratrol Supplementation on Inflammation and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: M. Samsami, A. Hekmatdoost, N. Ebrahimi Daryani, P. Rezanejad Asl

Abstract:

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease in which immune and inflammatory factors are thought to be effective in this disease. Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound. This study determined the effects of resveratrol compound on inflammatory factors in patients with ulcerative colitis. This study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted on 50 patients with UC. Subjects received one capsule daily for 6 wk of either resveratrol (500 mg) or a placebo. Inflammatory factors, anthropometric measures, and IBDQ-9 (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire-9) scores were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. STATA12 software was used for data analysis. No significant differences were found in the background variables between the two groups at baseline. The results indicated that resveratrol supplementation for 6 week significantly decreased plasma levels of TNF-a and hs-CRP and the activity of NF-κB over the placebo group (p<0.001). Significant differences remained after adjustment for vitamin C (p<0.0001). The IBDQ-9 scores increased significantly in the resveratrol group over the placebo group (p<0.001). The findings of this study showed that resveratrol supplementation can be useful in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Keywords: IBD, inflammation, resveratrol, ulcerative colitis

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36 Detecting Potential Biomarkers for Ulcerative Colitis Using Hybrid Feature Selection

Authors: Mustafa Alshawaqfeh, Bilal Wajidy, Echin Serpedin, Jan Suchodolski

Abstract:

Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is a disease of the colon with characteristic inflammation. Clinically IBD is detected using laboratory tests (blood and stool), radiology tests (imaging using CT, MRI), capsule endoscopy and endoscopy. There are two variants of IBD referred to as Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. This study employs a hybrid feature selection method that combines a correlation-based variable ranking approach with exhaustive search wrapper methods in order to find potential biomarkers for UC. The proposed biomarkers presented accurate discriminatory power thereby identifying themselves to be possible ingredients to UC therapeutics.

Keywords: ulcerative colitis, biomarker detection, feature selection, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

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35 Use of Amaranthus Roxburghianus Root Extract in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

Authors: S. A. Nirmal, J. M. Ingale, G. S. Asane, S. C. Pal, Subhash C. Mandal

Abstract:

The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski. (Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n = 6). Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Ulcer index, colitis severity, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue. Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A. roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation. Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg, respectively. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg, respectively. Similarly, this combination significantly reduced MPO and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue. Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone. 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl, eugenol and benzene, and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A. roxburghianus root.

Keywords: Amaranthus roxburghianus, ulcerative colitis, anti-inflammatory, ulcerative colitis

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34 Comparative Study between Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers on Ulcerative Colitis Induced Experimentally in Rats

Authors: Azza H. El-Medany, Hanan H. Hagar, Jamila H. El-Medany

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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of chronic inflammatory diseases primarily affecting colon with unknown etiology. Some researches papers mentioned the possibility of the use of drugs that affect the angiotensin II in reducing the complication of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential protective and therapeutic effects of captopril and valsartan on ulcerative colitis induced experimentally in rats using acetic acid. The results were assessed by histological assessment of colonic tissues and measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), transforming growth factor (TGF-1B), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), reduced glutathione (GSH) and platelet activating factor (PAF) levels in colonic tissues. Oral pre-treatment with captopril or valsartan in a dose of 30 mgkg-1 body weight for 2 weeks before induction of colitis (prophylactic groups) and continuously for 2 weeks after induction (therapeutic groups) significantly reduce MDA, TNF-α, PAF, TGF-1B and ACE levels in colonic tissues as compared to acetic acid control group. Also, a significant increase in GSH level was observed in colonic tissues. Captopril and valsartan attenuated the macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage induced by acetic acid. These results suggest that either captopril or valsartan may be effective as prophylactic or treatment of UC through inhibition of ACE and scavenging effect on oxygen-derived free radicals.

Keywords: captopril, valsartan, angiotensin converting enzyme, reduced glutathione, tumor necrosis factor

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33 The Importance of Clinicopathological Features for Differentiation Between Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: Ghada E. Esheba, Ghadeer F. Alharthi, Duaa A. Alhejaili, Rawan E. Hudairy, Wafaa A. Altaezi, Raghad M. Alhejaili

Abstract:

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consists of two specific gastrointestinal disorders: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Despite their distinct natures, these two diseases share many similar etiologic, clinical and pathological features, as a result, their accurate differential diagnosis may sometimes be difficult. Correct diagnosis is important because surgical treatment and long-term prognosis differ from UC and CD. Aim: This study aims to study the characteristic clinicopathological features which help in the differential diagnosis between UC and CD, and assess the disease activity in ulcerative colitis. Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 50 selected cases. The cases included 27 cases of UC and 23 cases of CD. All the cases were examined using H& E and immunohistochemically for bcl-2 expression. Results: Characteristic features of UC include: decrease in mucous content, irregular or villous surface, crypt distortion, and cryptitis, whereas the main cardinal histopathological features seen in CD were: epitheloid granuloma, transmural chronic inflammation, absence of mucin depletion, irregular surface, or crypt distortion. 3 cases of UC were found to be associated with dysplasia. UC mucosa contains fewer Bcl-2+ cells compared with CD mucosa. Conclusion: This study using multiple parameters such clinicopathological features and Bcl-2 expression as studied by immunohistochemical stain, helped to gain an accurate differentiation between UC and CD. Furthermore, this work spotted the light on the activity and different grades of UC which could be important for the prediction of relapse.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, dysplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis

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32 Preliminary Assessment for Protective Effect of Rhodiola rosea in Chemically Induced Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: Santram Lodhi, Alok Pal Jain, Awesh K. Yadav, Gopal Rai

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Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is commonly known as golden root or rose root. It is a perennial herbaceous plant and most investigated species of the genus Rhodiola. Rhodiola rosea contains flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoid glycosides and phenylethanol derivatives in the roots of the plant. The objective of present study was to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract from Rhodiola rosea roots in DSS induced colitis in mice. The ulcerative colitis was induced by DSS (3%, w/v) in mice and estimated weight loss and stool consistency. Various parameters including Colon length, spleen weights and ulcer index were also measured. The histological observations were observed by H&E staining. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract on various antioxidant parameter of rat colon such as tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), reduced GSH, SOD concentrations and lipid peroxidation were determined. Pro-inflammatory mediators, such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO) were determined by ELISA. In DSS induced group, mice body weight decreased gradually as compared to the control group. Redness and edema were observed in the colons intensely and scores representing inflammation in this group. The extract treated showed with tissue levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and MPO activity were significantly (p<0.05) increased. The mice treated with higher doses of hydroalcoholic extract (300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the activity compared with standard drug sulfasalazine (100 mg/kg. B.wt). Conclusion: Results of this study were suggested that the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract, especially at the higher dose, was similar to that of standard drug, which concerned its potential application as a natural medicine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

Keywords: phenylpropanoid, Rhodiola rosea, sulfasalazin, ulcerative colitis

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31 Ph-Triggered Cationic Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Mitigated Colitis in Mice

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Juho Lee, Jin-Wook Yoo

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In this study, we hypothesized that prolonged gastrointestinal transit at the inflamed colon conferred by a pH-triggered mucoadhesive smart nanoparticulate drug delivery system aids in achieving selective and sustained levels of the drug within the inflamed colon for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. We developed budesonide-loaded pH-sensitive charge-reversal solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) using a hot homogenization method. Polyetylenimine (PEI) was used to render SLNs cationic (PEI-SLNs). Eudragit S100 (ES) was coated on PEI-SLNs for pH-trigger charge-reversal SLNs (ES-PEI-SLNs). Therapeutic potential of the prepared SNLs formulation was evaluated in ulcerative colitis in mice. The transmission electron microscopy, zeta size and zeta potential data showed the successful formation of SLNs formulations. SLNs and PEI-SLNs showed burst drug release in acidic pH condition mimicking stomach and early small intestine environment which limiting their application as oral delivery systems. However, ES-PEI-SLNs prevented a burst drug release in acidic pH conditions and showed sustained release at a colonic pH. Most importantly, the surface charge of ES-PEI-SLNs switched from negative to positive in colonic conditions by pH-triggered removal of ES coating and accumulated selectively in inflamed colon. Furthermore, a charge reversal ES-PEI-SLNs showed a superior mitigation of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis in mice as compared to SLNs and PEI-SLNs treated groups. Moreover, histopathological analysis of distal colon sections stained with hematoxylin/eosin and E-cadherin immunostaining revealed attenuated inflammation in an ES-PEI-SLNs-treated group. We also found that ES-PEI-SLNs markedly reduced the myeloperoxidase level and expression of TNF-alpha in colon tissue. Our results suggest that the pH-triggered charge reversal SLNs presented in this study would be a promising approach for ulcerative colitis therapy.

Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticles, stimuli-triggered charge-reversal, ulcerative colitis, methacrylate copolymer, budesonide

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30 The Protective Effects of Naringenin on Iodoacetamide-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

Authors: Yomna T. Abdou, Hala F. Zaki, Sanaa A. Kenawy

Abstract:

Naringenin is a flavanone, a type of flavonoid, found in fruits such as grapefruit, oranges, and tomatoes, was found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of naringenin on iodoacetamide-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with sulfasalazine (300 mg/kg, p.o.) as standard anti-inflammatory drug or naringenin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days then UC was induced by intracolon administration of 0.1 ml (2%) iodoacetamide dissolved in 1% methylcelluose. One week later, animals were scarificed and the colonic tissues were dissected. Colon inflammation was evident by elevation in colon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme, prostaglandin- E2 (PG-E2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Additionally, oxidative stress was manifested by increased colon lipoperoxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH) depletion, elevated nitric oxide (NO) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Pretreatment with naringenin largely mitigated these alterations. The present study reinforces the hypothetical use of naringenin as an anti-inflammatory complement to conventional UC treatment and could be considered in the dietary prevention of intestinal inflammation and related disorders.

Keywords: iodoacetamide, naringenin, sulfasalazine, ulcerative colitis

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29 Altered Expression of Ubiquitin Editing Complex in Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: Ishani Majumdar, Jaishree Paul

Abstract:

Introduction: Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease of the colon resulting from an autoimmune response towards individual’s own microbiota. Excessive inflammation is characterized by hyper-activation of NFkB, a transcription factor regulating expression of various pro-inflammatory genes. The ubiquitin editing complex consisting of TNFAIP3, ITCH, RNF11 and TAX1BP1 maintains homeostatic levels of active NFkB through feedback inhibition and assembles in response to various stimuli that activate NFkB. TNFAIP3 deubiquitinates key signaling molecules involved in NFkB activation pathway. ITCH, RNF11 and TAX1BP1 provide substrate specificity, acting as adaptors for TNFAIP3 function. Aim: This study aimed to find expression of members of the ubiquitin editing complex at the transcript level in inflamed colon tissues of UC patients. Materials and Methods: Colonic biopsy samples were collected from 30 UC patients recruited at Department of Gastroenterology, AIIMS (New Delhi). Control group (n= 10) consisted of individuals undergoing examination for functional disorders. Real Time PCR was used to determine relative expression with GAPDH as housekeeping gene. Results: Expression of members of the ubiquitin editing complex was significantly altered during active disease. Expression of TNFAIP3 was upregulated while concomitant decrease in expression of ITCH, RNF11, TAX1BP1 was seen in UC patients. Discussion: This study reveals that increase in expression of TNFAIP3 was unable to control inflammation during active UC. Further, insufficient upregulation of ITCH, RNF11, TAX1BP1 may limit the formation of the ubiquitin complex and contribute to pathogenesis of UC.

Keywords: altered expression, inflammation, ubiquitin editing complex, ulcerative colitis

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28 Differential Expression of GABA and Its Signaling Components in Ulcerative Colitis and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Pathogenesis

Authors: Surbhi Aggarwal, Jaishree Paul

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Background: Role of GABA has been implicated in autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, type1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis where they modulate the immune response but role in gut inflammation has not been defined. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and diarrhoeal predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) both involve inflammation of gastrointestinal tract. UC is a chronic, relapsing and idiopathic inflammation of gut. IBS is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterised by abdominal pain, discomfort and alternating bowel habits. Mild inflammation is known to occur in IBS-D. Aim: Aim of this study was to investigate the role of GABA in UC as well as in IBS-D. Materials and methods: Blood and biopsy samples from UC, IBS-D and controls were collected. ELISA was used for measuring level of GABA in serum of UC, IBS-D and controls. RT-PCR analysis was done to determine GABAergic signal system in colon biopsy of UC, IBS-D and controls. RT-PCR was done to check the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. CurveExpert 1.4, Graphpad prism-6 software were used for data analysis. Statistical analysis was done by unpaired, two-way student`s t-test. All sets of data were represented as mean± SEM. A probability level of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results and conclusion: Significantly decreased level of GABA and altered GABAergic signal system was detected in UC and IBS-D as compared to controls. Significantly increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines was also determined in UC and IBS-D as compared to controls. Hence we conclude that insufficient level of GABA in UC and IBS-D leads to overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines which further contributes to inflammation. GABA may be used as a promising therapeutic target for treatment of gut inflammation or other inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: diarrheal predominant irritable bowel syndrome, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), inflammation, ulcerative colitis

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27 Anti-Colitic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus sakei K040706 in Mice with Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: Seunghwan Seo, Woo-Seok Lee, Ji-Sun Shin, Young Kyoung Rhee, Chang-Won Cho, Hee-Do Hong, Kyung-Tae Lee

Abstract:

Doenjang, known as traditional Korean food, is product of a natural mixed fermentation process carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus sakei K040706 (K040706) has been accepted as the most populous LAB in over ripened doenjang. Recently, we reported the immunostimulatory effects of K040706 in RAW 264.7 macrophages and in a cyclophosphamide-induced mouse model. In this study, we investigated the ameliorative effects of K040706 in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. We induced colitis using DSS in 5-week-ICR mice over 14 days with or without 0.1, 1 g/kg/day K040706 orally. The body weight, stool consistency, and gross bleeding were recorded for determination of the disease activity index (DAI). At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and colonic tissues were collected and subjected to histological experiments and myeloperoxidase (MPO) accumulation, cytokine determination, qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results showed that K040706 significantly attenuated DSS-induced DAI score, shortening of colon length, enlargement of spleen and immune cell infiltrations into colonic tissues. Histological examinations indicated that K040706 suppressed edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS. These results were correlated with the restoration of tight junction protein expression, such as, ZO-1 and occludin in K040706-treated mice. Moreover, K040706 reduced the abnormal secretions and mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). DSS-induced mRNA expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) in colonic tissues was also downregulated by K040706 treatment. Furthermore, K040706 suppressed the protein and mRNA expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phosphorylation of NF-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). These results suggest that K040706 has an anti-colitic effect by inhibition of intestinal inflammatory responses in DSS-induced colitic mice.

Keywords: Lactobacillus sakei, NF-κB, STAT3, ulcerative colitis

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26 Changes in Serum Hepcidin Levels in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Anti-Inflammatory Treatment

Authors: Eva Karaskova, Jana Volejnikova, Dusan Holub, Maria Velganova-Veghova, Michaela Spenerova, Dagmar Pospisilova

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Background: Hepcidin is the central regulator of iron metabolism. Its production is mainly affected by an iron deficiency and the presence of inflammatory activity in the body. The aim of this study was to compare serum hepcidin levels in paediatric patients with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease and hepcidin levels during maintenance therapy, correlate changes of serum hepcidin levels with selected markers of iron metabolism and inflammation and type of provided treatment. Methods: Children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) were included in this prospective study. Blood and stool samples were collected before treatment (baseline). Serum hepcidin, hemoglobin levels, platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL 6), ferritin, iron, soluble transferrin receptors, and fecal calprotectin were assessed. The same parameters were measured and compared with the baseline levels in the follow-up period, during maintenance therapy (average of 39 months after diagnosis). Results: Patients with CD (n=30) had higher serum hepcidin levels (expressed as a median and interquartile range) at diagnosis than subjects with UC (n=13). These levels significantly decreased during the follow-up (from 36.5 (11.5-79.6) ng/ml to 2.1 (0.9-6.7) ng/ml). Contrarily, no significant serum hepcidin level changes were observed in UC (from 5.4 (3.4-16.6) ng/ml to 4.8 (0.9-8.1) ng/ml). While in children with CD hepcidin level dynamics correlated with disease activity and inflammatory markers (ESR, CRP), an only correlation with serum iron levels was observed in patients with UC. Conclusion: Children with CD had higher serum hepcidin levels at diagnosis compared to subjects with UC. Decrease of serum hepcidin in the CD group during anti-inflammatory therapy has been observed, whereas low hepcidin levels in children with UC have remained unchanged. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by grant MH CZ–DRO (FNOl, 00098892).

Keywords: children, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, anaemia, hepcidin

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25 Dietary N-6/N-3 PUFA Ratios Affect the Homeostasis of CD4+ T Cells in Mice with Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

Authors: Cyoung-Huei Huang, Chiu-Li Yeh, Man-Hui Pai, Sung-Ling Yeh

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This study evaluated the effect of different dietary n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on modulating helper T (Th) and regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. There were 3 control and 3 colitis groups in this study. Mice were fed for 24 d with an AIN-93G diet either with soybean oil (S), a mixture of soybean oil and low fish oil content (LF) or high fish oil content (HF). The ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in the LF diet was 4:1, and that in the HF diet was 2:1. The control groups drank distilled water while colitis groups provided 2% DSS in drinking water during day 15-19. All mice drank distilled water from day 20-24 for recovery and sacrificed on day 25. The results showed that colitis resulted in higher Th1, Th2, and Th17 and lower Treg percentages in the blood. Also, plasma haptoglobin and proinflammatory chemokines were elevated in colon lavage fluid. Colitic groups with fish oil had lower inflammatory mediators in the plasma and colon lavage fluid. Further, the percentages of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells in the blood were lower, whereas Treg cell percentages were higher than those in the soybean oil group. The colitis group with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio 2:1 had more pronounce effects than ratio 4:1. These results suggest that diets with an n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 2:1 or 4:1 regulate the Th/Treg balance and attenuate inflammatory mediator production in colitis. Compared to the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio 4:1, the ratio of 2:1 was more effective in reducing inflammatory reactions in DSS-induced colitis.

Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, helper T lymphocyte, regulatory T lymphocyte

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24 Beneficial Effects of Curcumin against Stress Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulphonic Acid in Colon

Authors: Souad Mouzaoui, Bahia Djerdjouri

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Oxidative stress is one of the main factors involved in the onset and chronicity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of a potent natural antioxidant, curcumin (Cur) on colitis and mitochondrial dysfunction in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Rectal instillation of the chemical irritant TNBS (30 mg kg-1) induced the disruption of distal colonic architecture and a massive inflammatory cells influx to the mucosa and submucosa layers. Under these conditions, daily administration of Cur (25 mg kg-1) efficiently decreased colitis scores in the inflamed distal colon by reducing leukocyte infiltrate as attested by reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Moreover, the levels of nitrite, an end product of inducible NO synthase activity (iNOS) and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation increased in a time depending manner in response to TNBS challenge. Conversely, the markers of the antioxidant pool, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) were drastically reduced. Cur attenuated oxidative stress markers and partially restored CAT and GSH levels. Moreover, our results expanded the effect of Cur on TNBS-induced colonic mitochondrial dysfunction. In fact, TNBS induced mitochondrial swelling and lipids peroxidation. These events reflected in the opening of mitochondrial transition pore and could be an initial indication in the cascade process leading to cell death. TNBS inhibited also mitochondrial respiratory activity, caused overproduction of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-.) and reduced level of mitochondrial GSH. Nevertheless, Cur reduced the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by TNBS and restored colonic mitochondrial function. In conclusion, our results showed the critical role of oxidative stress in TNBS-induced colitis. They highlight the role of colonic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by TNBS, as a potential source of oxidative damages. Due to its potent antioxidant properties, Cur opens a promising therapeutic approach against oxidative inflammation in IBD.

Keywords: colitis, curcumin, mitochondria, oxidative stress, TNBS

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23 Cocrystal of Mesalamine for Enhancement of Its Biopharmaceutical Properties, Utilizing Supramolecular Chemistry Approach

Authors: Akshita Jindal, Renu Chadha, Maninder Karan

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Supramolecular chemistry has gained recent eminence in a flurry of research documents demonstrating the formation of new crystalline forms with potentially advantageous characteristics. Mesalamine (5-amino salicylic acid) belongs to anti-inflammatory class of drugs, is used to treat ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Unfortunately, mesalamine suffer from poor solubility and therefore very low bioavailability. This work is focused on preparation and characterization of cocrystal of mesalamine with nicotinamide (MNIC) a coformer of GRAS status. Cocrystallisation was achieved by solvent drop grinding in stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 using acetonitrile as solvent and was characterized by various techniques including DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry), PXRD (X-ray Powder Diffraction), and FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer). The co-crystal depicted single endothermic transitions (254°C) which were different from the melting peaks of both drug (288°C) and coformer (128°C) indicating the formation of a new solid phase. Different XRPD patterns and FTIR spectrums for the co-crystals from those of individual components confirms the formation of new phase. Enhancement in apparent solubility study and intrinsic dissolution study showed effectiveness of this cocrystal. Further improvement in pharmacokinetic profile has also been observed with 2 folds increase in bioavailability. To conclude, our results show that application of nicotinamide as a coformer is a viable approach towards the preparation of cocrystals of potential drug molecule having limited solubility.

Keywords: cocrystal, mesalamine, nicotinamide, solvent drop grinding

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22 Development of Site-Specific Colonic Drug Delivery System (Nanoparticles) of Chitosan Coated with pH Sensitive Polymer for the Management of Colonic Inflammation

Authors: Pooja Mongia Raj, Rakesh Raj, Alpana Ram

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Background: The use of multiparticulate drug delivery systems in preference to single unit dosage forms for colon targeting purposes dates back to 1985 when Hardy and co-workers showed that multiparticulate systems enabled the drug to reach the colon quickly and were retained in the ascending colon for a relatively long period of time. Methods: Site-specific colonic drug delivery system (nanoparticles) of 5-ASA were prepared and coated with pH sensitive polymer. Chitosan nanoparticles (CTNP) bearing 5-Amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) were prepared, by ionotropic gelation method. Nanoparticulate dosage form consisting of a hydrophobic core enteric coated with pH-dependent polymer Eudragit S-100 by solvent evaporation method, for the effective delivery of drug to the colon for treatment of ulcerative colitis. Results: The mean diameter of CTNP and ECTNP formulations were 159 and 661 nm, respectively. Also optimum value of polydispersity index was found to be 0.249 [count rate (kcps) was 251.2] and 0.170 [count rate (kcps) was 173.9] was obtained for both the formulations respectively. Conclusion: CTNP and Eudragit chitosan nanoparticles (ECTNP) was characterized for shape and surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) appeared to be spherical in shape. The in vitro drug release was investigated using USP dissolution test apparatus in different simulated GIT fluids showed promising release. In vivo experiments are in further proceeding for fruitful results.

Keywords: colon targeting, nanoparticles, polymer, 5-amino salicylic acid, edragit

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21 Dietary Gluten and the Balance of Gut Microbiota in the Dextran Sulphate Sodium Induced Colitis Model

Authors: Austin Belfiori, Kevin Rinek, Zach Barcroft, Jennifer Berglind

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Diet influences the composition of the gut microbiota and host's health. Disruption of the balance among the microbiota, epithelial cells, and resident immune cells in the intestine is involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To study the role of gut microbiota in intestinal inflammation, the microbiome of control mice (C57BL6) given a gluten-containing standard diet versus C57BL6 mice given the gluten-free (GF) feed (n=10 in each group) was examined. All mice received the 3% DSS for 5 days. Throughout the study, feces were collected and processed for DNA extraction and MiSeq Illumina sequencing of V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Alpha and beta diversities and compositional differences at phylum and genus levels were determined in intestinal microbiota. The mice receiving the GF diet showed a significantly increased abundance of Firmicutes and a decrease of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus at phylum level. Therefore, the gluten free diet led to reductions in beneficial gut bacteria populations. These findings indicate a role of wheat gluten in dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota.

Keywords: gluten, colitis, microbiota, DSS, dextran sulphate sodium

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20 In silico Analysis towards Identification of Host-Microbe Interactions for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Linked to Reactive Arthritis

Authors: Anukriti Verma, Bhawna Rathi, Shivani Sharda

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Reactive Arthritis (ReA) is a disorder that causes inflammation in joints due to certain infections at distant sites in the body. ReA begins with stiffness, pain, and inflammation in these areas especially the ankles, knees, and hips. It gradually causes several complications such as conjunctivitis in the eyes, skin lesions in hand, feet and nails and ulcers in the mouth. Nowadays the diagnosis of ReA is based upon a differential diagnosis pattern. The parameters for differentiating ReA from other similar disorders include physical examination, history of the patient and a high index of suspicion. There are no standard lab tests or markers available for ReA hence the early diagnosis of ReA becomes difficult and the chronicity of disease increases with time. It is reported that enteric disorders such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) that is inflammation in gastrointestinal tract namely Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) are reported to be linked with ReA. Several microorganisms are found such as Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia causing IBD leading to ReA. The aim of our study was to perform the in-silico analysis in order to find interactions between microorganisms and human host causing IBD leading to ReA. A systems biology approach for metabolic network reconstruction and simulation was used to find the essential genes of the reported microorganisms. Interactomics study was used to find the interactions between the pathogen genes and human host. Genes such as nhaA (pathogen), dpyD (human), nagK (human) and kynU (human) were obtained that were analysed further using the functional, pathway and network analysis. These genes can be used as putative drug targets and biomarkers in future for early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of IBD leading to ReA.

Keywords: drug targets, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, systems biology

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19 Risk of Fractures at Different Anatomic Sites in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study

Authors: Herng-Sheng Lee, Chi-Yi Chen, Wan-Ting Huang, Li-Jen Chang, Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen, Hsin-Yi Yang

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A variety of gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and coeliac disease, are recognized as risk factors for osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. One recent study suggests that individuals with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) might also be at increased risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Up to now, the association between IBS and the risk of fractures at different anatomic sites occurrences is not completely clear. We conducted a population-based cohort analysis to investigate the fracture risk of IBS in comparison with non-IBS group. We identified 29,505 adults aged ≥ 20 years with newly diagnosed IBS using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database in 2000-2012. A comparison group was constructed of patients without IBS who were matched according to gender and age. The occurrence of fracture was monitored until the end of 2013. We analyzed the risk of fracture events to occur in IBS by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Patients with IBS had a higher incidence of osteoporotic fractures compared with non-IBS group (12.34 versus 9.45 per 1,000 person-years) and an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.27, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.20 – 1.35). Site specific analysis showed that the IBS group had a higher risk of fractures for spine, forearm, hip and hand than did the non-IBS group. With further stratification for gender and age, a higher aHR value for osteoporotic fractures in IBS group was seen across all age groups in males, but seen in elderly females. In addition, female, elderly, low income, hypertension, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and depressive disorders as independent osteoporotic fracture risk factors in IBS patients. The IBS is considered as a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures, particularly in female individuals and fracture sites located at the spine, forearm, hip and hand.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, fracture, gender difference, longitudinal health insurance database, public health

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18 In vitro α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia) with Different Stage of Maturity

Authors: P. S. Percin, O. Inanli, S. Karakaya

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Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) is a medicinal vegetable, which is used traditionally to remedy diabetes. Bitter melon contains several classes of primary and secondary metabolites. In traditional Turkish medicine bitter melon is used for wound healing and treatment of peptic ulcers. Nowadays, bitter melon is used for the treatment of diabetes and ulcerative colitis in many countries. The main constituents of bitter melon, which are responsible for the anti-diabetic effects, are triterpene, protein, steroid, alkaloid and phenolic compounds. In this study total phenolics, total carotenoids and β-carotene contents of mature and immature bitter melons were determined. In addition, in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities of mature and immature bitter melons were studied. Total phenolic contents of immature and mature bitter melon were 74 and 123 mg CE/g bitter melon respectively. Although total phenolics of mature bitter melon was higher than that of immature bitter melon, this difference was not found statistically significant (p > 0.05). Carotenoids, a diverse group of more than 600 naturally occurring red, orange and yellow pigments, play important roles in many physiological processes both in plants and humans. The total carotenoid content of mature bitter melon was 4.36 fold higher than the total carotenoid content of immature bitter melon. The compounds that have hypoglycaemic effect of bitter melon are steroidal saponins known as charantin, insulin-like peptides and alkaloids. α-Amylase is one of the main enzymes in human that is responsible for the breakdown of starch to more simple sugars. Therefore, the inhibitors of this enzyme can delay the carbohydrate digestion and reduce the rate of glucose absorption. The immature bitter melon extract showed α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was higher than that of α-glucosidase inhibitory activity when IC50 values were compared. In conclusion, the present results provide evidence that aqueous extract of bitter melon may have an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate breakdown enzymes.

Keywords: bitter melon, in vitro antidiabetic activity, total carotenoids, total phenols

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17 Layer-by-Layer Coated Dexamethasone Microcrystals for Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease Therapy

Authors: Murtada Ahmed Oshi, Jin-Wook Yoo

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Layer-by-layer (LBL) coating has gained popularity for drug delivery of therapeutic drugs. Herein we described a novel approach for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of the locally administered dexamethasone (Dex) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We utilized a LBL-coating technique on Dex microcrystals (DexMCs) with multiple layers of polyelectrolytes composed of poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), poly (sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and Eudragit® S100 (ES). The successful deposition of the layers onto DexMCs surfaces were confirmed through zeta potential measurement and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The surface morphology was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The drug encapsulation efficiency was 95% with a mean particle size of 2 µm and negative surface charge (-40 mV). Moreover, in vitro drug release study showed a minimum release of the drug ( 15%) at an acidic condition during initial first 5 h, followed by sustained-release at an alkaline condition. For in vivo study, LBL-DxMCs were administered orally to ICR mice suffering from dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. LBL-DxMCs substantially enhanced anti-IBD activities as compared to DxMCs. Macroscopic, histological and biochemical (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and myeloperoxidase) examinations revealed marked improvements of colitis signs in the mice treated with LBL-DxMCs compared with those treated with DxMCs. Overall, LBL-DxMCs could be a suitable candidate for the treatment of IBD.

Keywords: dexamethasone, inflammatory bowel disease, LBL-coating, polyelectrolytes

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16 Characterization of Polymorphic Forms of Rifaximin

Authors: Ana Carolina Kogawa, Selma Gutierrez Antonio, Hérida Regina Nunes Salgado

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Rifaximin is an oral antimicrobial, gut - selective and not systemic with adverse effects compared to placebo. It is used for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, travelers diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, Clostridium difficile, ulcerative colitis and acute diarrhea. The crystalline form present in the rifaximin with minimal systemic absorption is α, being the amorphous form significantly different. Regulators are increasingly attention to polymorphisms. Polymorphs can change the form by altering the drug characteristics compromising the effectiveness and safety of the finished product. International Conference on Harmonization issued the ICH Guidance Q6A, which aim to improve the control of polymorphism in new and existing pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to obtain polymorphic forms of rifaximin employing recrystallization processes and characterize them by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry - TG and differential scanning calorimetry - DSC), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and solubility test. Six polymorphic forms of rifaximin, designated I to VI were obtained by the crystallization process by evaporation of the solvent. The profiles of the TG curves obtained from polymorphic forms of rifaximin are similar to rifaximin and each other, however, the DTG are different, indicating different thermal behaviors. Melting temperature values of all the polymorphic forms were greater to that shown by the rifaximin, indicating the higher thermal stability of the obtained forms. The comparison of the diffractograms of the polymorphic forms of rifaximin with rifaximin α, β and γ constant in patent indicate that forms III, V and VI are formed by mixing polymorph β and α and form III is formed by polymorph β. The polymorphic form I is formed by polymorph β, but with a significant amount of amorphous material. Already, the polymorphic form II consists of polymorph γ, amorphous. In scanning electron microscope is possible to observe the heterogeneity of morphological characteristics of crystals of polymorphic forms among themselves and with rifaximin. The solubility of forms I and II was greater than the solubility of rifaximin, already, forms III, IV and V presented lower solubility than of rifaximin. Similarly, the bioavailability of the amorphous form of rifaximin is considered significantly higher than the form α, the polymorphic forms obtained in this work can not guarantee the excellent tolerability of the reference medicine. Therefore, studies like these are extremely important and they point to the need for greater requirements by the regulatory agencies competent about polymorphs analysis of the raw materials used in the manufacture of medicines marketed globally. These analyzes are not required in the majority of official compendia. Partnerships between industries, research centers and universities would be a viable way to consolidate researches in this area and contribute to improving the quality of solid drugs.

Keywords: electronic microscopy, polymorphism, rifaximin, solubility, X-ray diffraction

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15 Mesalazine-Induced Myopericarditis in a Professional Athlete

Authors: Tristan R. Fraser, Christopher D. Steadman, Christopher J. Boos

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Myopericarditis is an inflammation syndrome characterised by clinical diagnostic criteria for pericarditis, such as chest pain, combined with evidence of myocardial involvement, such as elevation of biomarkers of myocardial damage, e.g., troponins. It can rarely be a complication of therapeutics used for dysregulated immune-mediated diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), for example, mesalazine. The infrequency of mesalazine-induced myopericarditis adds to the challenge in its recognition. Rapid diagnosis and the early introduction of treatment are crucial. This case report follows a 24-year-old professional footballer with a past medical history of ulcerative colitis, recently started on mesalazine for disease control. Three weeks after mesalazine was initiated, he was admitted with fever, shortness of breath, and chest pain worse whilst supine and on deep inspiration, as well as elevated venous blood cardiac troponin T level (cTnT, 288ng/L; normal: <13ng/L). Myocarditis was confirmed on initial inpatient cardiac MRI, revealing the presence of florid myocarditis with preserved left ventricular systolic function and an ejection fraction of 67%. This was a longitudinal case study following the progress of a single individual with myopericarditis over four acute hospital admissions over nine weeks, with admissions ranging from two to five days. Parameters examined included clinical signs and symptoms, serum troponin, transthoracic echocardiogram, and cardiac MRI. Serial measurements of cardiac function, including cardiac MRI and transthoracic echocardiogram, showed progressive deterioration of cardiac function whilst mesalazine was continued. Prior to cessation of mesalazine, transthoracic echocardiography revealed a small global pericardial effusion of < 1cm and worsening left ventricular systolic function with an ejection fraction of 45%. After recognition of mesalazine as a potential cause and consequent cessation of the drug, symptoms resolved, with cardiac MRI performed as an outpatient showing resolution of myocardial oedema. The patient plans to make a return to competitive sport. Patients suffering from myopericarditis are advised to refrain from competitive sport for at least six months in order to reduce the risk of cardiac remodelling and sudden cardiac death. Additional considerations must be taken in individuals for whom competitive sport is an essential component of their livelihood, such as professional athletes. Myopericarditis is an uncommon, however potentially serious medical condition with a wide variety of aetiologies, including viral, autoimmune, and drug-related causes. Management is mainly supportive and relies on prompt recognition and removal of the aetiological process. Mesalazine-induced myopericarditis is a rare condition; as such increasing awareness of mesalazine as a precipitant of myopericarditis is vital for optimising the management of these patients.

Keywords: myopericarditis, mesalazine, inflammatory bowel disease, professional athlete

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14 Antiulcer Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1 Inducers

Authors: Gaweł Magdalena, Lipkowska Anna, Olbert Magdalena, Frąckiewicz Ewelina, Librowski Tadeusz, Nowak Gabriel, Pilc Andrzej

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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), also known as heat shock protein 32 (HSP32), has been shown to be implicated in cytoprotection in various organs. Its activation plays a significant role in acute and chronic inflammation, protecting cells from oxidative injury and apoptosis. This inducible isoform of HO catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in heme degradation to produce equimolar quantities of biologically active products: carbon monoxide (CO), free iron and biliverdin. CO has been reported to possess anti-apoptotic properties. Moreover, it inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines and stimulates the synthesis of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10), as well as promotes vasodilatation at sites of inflammation. The second product of catalytic HO-1 activity, free cytotoxic iron, is promptly sequestered into the iron storage protein ferritin, which lowers the pro-oxidant state of the cell. The third product, biliverdin, is subsequently converted by biliverdin reductase into the bile pigment bilirubin, the most potent endogenous antioxidant among the constituents of human serum, which modulates immune effector functions and suppresses inflammatory response. Furthermore, being one of the so-called stress proteins, HO-1 adaptively responds to different stressors, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines and heavy metals and thus protects cells against such conditions as ischemia, hemorrhagic shock, heat shock or hypoxia. It is suggested that pharmacologic modulation of HO-1 may represent an effective strategy for prevention of stress and drug-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. HO-1 is constitutively expressed in normal gastric, intestinal and colonic mucosa and up-regulated during inflammation. It has been proven that HO-1 up-regulated by hemin, heme and cobalt-protoporphyrin ameliorates experimental colitis. In addition, the up-regulation of HO-1 partially explains the mechanism of action of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is used clinically as an anti-colitis agent. In 2009 Ueda et al. has reported for the first time that mucosal protection by Polaprezinc, a chelate compound of zinc and L-carnosine used as an anti-ulcer drug in Japan, is also attributed to induction of HO-1 in the stomach. Since then, inducers of HO-1 are desired subject of research, as they may constitute therapeutically effective anti-ulcer drugs.

Keywords: heme oxygenase-1, gastric lesions, gastroprotection, Polaprezinc

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13 Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (Dress) Syndrome Presenting as Multi-Organ Failure

Authors: Keshari Shrestha, Philip Vatterott

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Introduction: Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal drug-related syndrome. DRESS classically presents with a diffuse maculopapular rash, fevers, and eosinophilia more than three weeks after drug exposure. DRESS can present with multi-organ involvement, with liver damage being the most common and severe. Pulmonary involvement is a less common manifestation and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Chest imaging is often nonspecific, and symptoms can range from mild cough to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) . This is a case of a 49-year-old female with a history of recent clostridium difficile colitis status post treatment with oral vancomycin who presented with rash, acute liver and kidney failure, as well as diffuse nodular alveolar lung opacities concerning for DRESS syndrome with multi-organ involvement. Clinical Course: This patient initially presented to an outside hospital with clostridium difficile colitis, acute liver injury, and acute kidney injury. She developed a desquamating maculopapular rash in the setting of recent oral vancomycin, meloxicam, and furosemide initiation. She was hospitalized on two additional occasions with worsening altered mental status, liver injury, and acute kidney injury and was initiated on intermittent hemodialysis. Notably, she was found to have systemic eosinophilia (4100 cells/microliter) several weeks prior. She was transferred to this institution for further management where she was found to have encephalopathy, jaundice, lower extremity edema, and diffuse bilateral rhonchorous breath sounds on pulmonary examination. The patient was started on methylprednisolone for suspected DRESS syndrome. She underwent an evaluation for alternative causes of her organ failure. Her workup included a negative infectious, autoimmune, metabolic, toxic, and malignant work-up. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound were remarkable for evidence of hepatic steatosis and possible cirrhotic morphology. Additionally, a chest CT demonstrated diffuse and symmetric nodular alveolar lung opacities with peripheral sparing not consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome or edema. Ultimately, her condition continued to decline, and she required intubation on several occasions. On hospital day 25 she succumbed to distributive shock in the setting of probable sepsis and multi-organ failure. Discussion: DRESS syndrome occurs in 1 in 1,000 to 10,000 patients with a mortality rate of around 10%. Anti-convulsant, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and sulfonamide drugs are the most common drugs implicated in the development of DRESS syndrome; however, the list of offending agents is extensive . The diagnosis of DRESS syndrome is made after excluding other causes of disease such as infectious and autoimmune etiologies. The RegiSCAR scoring system is used to diagnose DRESS syndrome with 2-3 points indicating possible disease, 4-5 probable disease, and >5 definite disease. This patient scored a 7 on the RegiSCAR scale for eosinophilia, rash, organ involvement, and exclusion of other causes (infectious and autoimmune). While the pharmacologic trigger in this case is unknown, it is speculated to be caused by vancomycin, meloxicam, or furosemide due to the favorable timeline of initiation. Despite aggressive treatment, DRESS syndrome can often be fatal. Because of this, early diagnosis and treatment of patients with suspected DRESS syndrome is imperative.

Keywords: drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, multi-organ failure, pulmonary involvement, renal failure

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12 Regulation of SHP-2 Activity by Small Molecules for the Treatment of T Cell-Mediated Diseases

Authors: Qiang Xu, Xingxin Wu, Wenjie Guo, Xingqi Wang, Yang Sun, Renxiang Tan

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The phosphatase SHP-2 is known to exert regulatory activities on cytokine receptor signaling and the dysregulation of SHP-2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. Here we report several small molecule regulators of SHP-2 for the treatment of T cell-mediated diseases. The new cyclodepsipeptide trichomides A, isolated from the fermentation products of Trichothecium roseum, increased the phosphorylation of SHP-2 in activated T cells, and ameliorated contact dermatitis in mice. The trichomides A’s effects were significantly reversed by using the SHP-2-specific inhibitor PHPS1 or T cell-conditional SHP-2 knockout mice. Another compound is a cerebroside Fusaruside isolated from the endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. IFB-121. Fusaruside also triggered the tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP-2, which provided a possible mean of selectively targeting STAT1 for the treatment of Th1 cell-mediated inflammation and led to the discovery of the non-phosphatase-like function of SHP-2. Namely, the Fusaruside-activated pY-SHP-2 selectively sequestrated the cytosolic STAT1 to prevent its recruitment to IFN-R, which contributed to the improvement of experimental colitis in mice. Blocking the pY-SHP-2-STAT1 interaction, with SHP-2 inhibitor NSC-87877 or using T cells from conditional SHP-2 knockout mice, reversed the effects of fusaruside. Furthermore, the fusaruside’s effect is independent of the phosphatase activity of SHP-2, demonstrating a novel role for SHP-2 in regulating STAT1 signaling and Th1-type immune responses.

Keywords: SHP-2, small molecules, T cell, T cell-mediated diseases

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11 Determination of the Effect of Kaolin on the Antimicrobial Activity of Metronidazole-Kaolin Interaction

Authors: Omaimah Algohary

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Kaolin is one of the principle intestinal adsorbents, has traditionally been used internally in the treatment of various enteric disorders, colitis, enteritis, dysentery, and diarrhea associated with food and alkaloidal poisoning and in traveler’s diarrhea. It binds to and traps bacteria and its toxins and gases in the gut. It also binds to water in the gut, which helps to make the stools firmer, hence giving symptomatic relief. Metronidazole is a synthetic antibacterial agent that is used primarily in the treatment of various anaerobic infections such as intra-abdominal infections, antiprotozoal, and as amebicidal. The need for safe, therapeutically effective antidiarrheal combination continuously lead to effective treatment. Metronidazol used for treatment of anaerobic bacteria and kaolin , when administered simultaneously, Metronidazole–Kaolin interactions have been reported by FDA but not studied. This project is the first to study the effect of Metronidazole–Kaolin interactions on the antimicrobial activity of metronidazole. Agar diffusion method performed to test the antimicrobial activity of metronidazole–kaolin antidiarrheal combination from aqueous solutions at an in-vivo simulated pHs conditions that obtained at 37+0.5 °C on Helicobacter pylori as anaerobic bacteria and E.coli as aerobic bacteria and used as a control for the technique. The antimicrobial activity of metronidazole combination as 1:1 and 1:2 with kaolin was abolished in acidic media as no zones of inhibition shown compared to only metronidazole that used as a control. In alkaline media metronidazole combination as 1:1 and 1:2 with kaolin showed diminutive activity compared to the control. These results proved that the kaolin adsorb metronidazole and abolish its antimicrobial activity and such combination should be avoided.

Keywords: kaolin, metronidazole, interaction, Helicobacter pylori. E. coli, antimicrobial activity

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10 MiRNA Regulation of CXCL12β during Inflammation

Authors: Raju Ranjha, Surbhi Aggarwal

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Background: Inflammation plays an important role in infectious and non-infectious diseases. MiRNA is also reported to play role in inflammation and associated cancers. Chemokine CXCL12 is also known to play role in inflammation and various cancers. CXCL12/CXCR4 chemokine axis was involved in pathogenesis of IBD specially UC. Supplementation of CXCL12 induces homing of dendritic cells to spleen and enhances control of plasmodium parasite in BALB/c mice. We looked at the regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in UC colitis. Prolonged inflammation of colon in UC patient increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. We looked at the expression differences of CXCl12β and its targeting miRNA in cancer susceptible area of colon of UC patients. Aim: Aim of this study was to find out the expression regulation of CXCL12β by miRNA in inflammation. Materials and Methods: Biopsy samples and blood samples were collected from UC patients and non-IBD controls. mRNA expression was analyzed using microarray and real-time PCR. CXCL12β targeting miRNA were looked by using online target prediction tools. Expression of CXCL12β in blood samples and cell line supernatant was analyzed using ELISA. miRNA target was validated using dual luciferase assay. Results and conclusion: We found miR-200a regulate the expression of CXCL12β in UC. Expression of CXCL12β was increased in cancer susceptible part of colon and expression of its targeting miRNA was decreased in the same part of colon. miR-200a regulate CXCL12β expression in inflammation and may be an important therapeutic target in inflammation associated cancer.

Keywords: inflammation, miRNA, regulation, CXCL12

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9 Molecular Evolutionary Relationships Between O-Antigens of Enteric Bacteria

Authors: Yuriy A. Knirel

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Enteric bacteria Escherichia coli is the predominant facultative anaerobe of the colonic flora, and some specific serotypes are associated with enteritis, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Shigella spp. are human pathogens that cause diarrhea and bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). They are in effect E. coli with a specific mode of pathogenicity. Strains of Salmonella enterica are responsible for a food-borne infection (salmonellosis), and specific serotypes cause typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. All these bacteria are closely related in respect to structure and genetics of the lipopolysaccharide, including the O-polysaccharide part (O‑antigen). Being exposed to the bacterial cell surface, the O antigen is subject to intense selection by the host immune system and bacteriophages giving rise to diverse O‑antigen forms and providing the basis for typing of bacteria. The O-antigen forms of many bacteria are unique, but some are structurally and genetically related to others. The sequenced O-antigen gene clusters between conserved galF and gnd genes were analyzed taking into account the O-antigen structures established by us and others for all S. enterica and Shigella and most E. coli O-serogroups. Multiple genetic mechanisms of diversification of the O-antigen forms, such as lateral gene transfer and mutations, were elucidated and are summarized in the present paper. They include acquisition or inactivation of genes for sugar synthesis or transfer or recombination of O-antigen gene clusters or their parts. The data obtained contribute to our understanding of the origins of the O‑antigen diversity, shed light on molecular evolutionary relationships between the O-antigens of enteric bacteria, and open a way for studies of the role of gene polymorphism in pathogenicity.

Keywords: enteric bacteria, O-antigen gene cluster, polysaccharide biosynthesis, polysaccharide structure

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8 Prevalence and Distribution of Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (Vtec) Non-O157 Serotypes in Cattle in Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: S. I. Enem, S. I. Oboegbulem

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Objective: The most frequently implicated E. coli serotype causing haemorrhagic colitis and haemorrhagic uraemic syndrome (HUS) is VTEC 0157. However, non-O157 VTEC is now known to be as prevalent as VETC O157 infection (or even more) in most parts of the world. The objective of the study was to establish the occurrence of non-O157 VTEC serotypes in cattle in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria. The level of significance of the infection with sex, age and season were also tested. Methods: The study was carried out in the FCT, Abuja, Nigeria which is located between latitude 8o and 90 25` North of the equator and longitude 60 45` and 7045` East of the Greenwich meridian. The cross sectional epidemiological method and multi-staged sampling technique were used in this study. Samples were collected from the freshly voided faeces of both apparently healthy and diarrhoeic cattle in selected abattoirs and cattle herds. Enriched samples were analyzed bacteriologically and biochemically after which they were characterised using commercially prepared latex agglutination test kits. Results: A total of 718 faecal samples from cattle were analyzed for the presence of VTEC non-O157. Thirty eight (5.23%) were positive for non-O157. There was no significant association (p > 0.05) between sex and infection with non-O157 VTEC in cattle. There was a significant association (P < 0.05) between age and infection with non-O157 VTEC in cattle. Calves were more associated than the adults. There was also a significant association (P < 0.05) between season and infection with non-O157 VTEC in cattle. The dry season was more associated than the wet season. Conclusion: The study established the occurrence and prevalence of non-O157 VTEC in cattle in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. As a major food animal in Nigeria, infection in cattle provides an epidemiological causal association to the infection in humans. The result showed that warmer seasons (dry season) stimulate the presence of VTEC infection in animals and thus, as a consequence, increases the number of human cases. The prevalence was also higher in younger calves (< 6 months) probably as a result of undeveloped immune system.

Keywords: prevalence, distribution, Verocytotoxigenic escherichia coli (VTEC), non-O157 serotypes, cattle

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