Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7823

Search results for: treatment

7823 Stability Analysis of SEIR Epidemic Model with Treatment Function

Authors: Sasiporn Rattanasupha, Settapat Chinviriyasit

Abstract:

The treatment function adopts a continuous and differentiable function which can describe the effect of delayed treatment when the number of infected individuals increases and the medical condition is limited. In this paper, the SEIR epidemic model with treatment function is studied to investigate the dynamics of the model due to the effect of treatment. It is assumed that the treatment rate is proportional to the number of infective patients. The stability of the model is analyzed. The model is simulated to illustrate the analytical results and to investigate the effects of treatment on the spread of infection.

Keywords: basic reproduction number, local stability, SEIR epidemic model, treatment function

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7822 Environmental Engineering Case Study of Waste Water Treatement

Authors: Harold Jideofor

Abstract:

Wastewater treatment consists of applying known technology to improve or upgrade the quality of a wastewater. Usually wastewater treatment will involve collecting the wastewater in a central, segregated location (the Wastewater Treatment Plant) and subjecting the wastewater to various treatment processes. Most often, since large volumes of wastewater are involved, treatment processes are carried out on continuously flowing wastewaters (continuous flow or "open" systems) rather than as "batch" or a series of periodic treatment processes in which treatment is carried out on parcels or "batches" of wastewaters. While most wastewater treatment processes are continuous flow, certain operations, such as vacuum filtration, involving storage of sludge, the addition of chemicals, filtration and removal or disposal of the treated sludge, are routinely handled as periodic batch operations.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, environmental engineering, waste water

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7821 Review on Optimization of Drinking Water Treatment Process

Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz

Abstract:

In the drinking water treatment processes, the optimization of the treatment is an issue of particular concern. In general, the process consists of many units as settling, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The optimization of the process consists of some measures to decrease the managing and monitoring expenses and improve the quality of the produced water. The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with methods and practices that enable to attain the most effective use of the facility and, in consequence, optimize the of the cubic meter price of the treated water. This paper proposes a review on optimization of drinking water treatment process by analyzing all of the water treatment units and gives some solutions in order to maximize the water treatment performances without compromising the water quality standards. Some solutions and methods are performed in the water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, optimization, turbidity removal, water treatment

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7820 Utilization of Torula Yeast (Zymomonas mobilis) as Main/Reciprocal for Degradation of Municipal Organic Waste as Feed for Goats

Authors: Nkutere Chikezie Kanu, Nnamdi M. Anigbogu, Johnson C. Ezike

Abstract:

The study was carried out to investigate the performance of Red Sokoto goats fed Municipal Oranic Wastes (MOW) subjected to two methods of in vivo degradation by Torula Yeast and Zymomonas mobilis. Two combination, Torula Yeast + Zymomonas mobilis (main degradation), and Zymomonas mobilis + Torula Yeast (Reciprocal degradation) were used to degrade MOW. Eighteen Red Sokoto goats of both sexes (9 males and 9 females) of ages between 6-8 were used for the study. The goats were randomly assigned into 3 treatments groups A, B and C respectively with 6 goats per treatment. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design and replicated 3 times. Treatment A groups were fed 30% Undegraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture, Treatment B groups were fed 30% Main degraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture, Treatment C groups were fed 30% Reciprocal degraded MOW base diet +concentrate mixture. The result of the daily weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) better than on the other Treatments. There was significant improvement (P<0.05) on the daily feed consumption in Treatment B than on the Treatments A and C. The feed conversion ratio revealed no significant (P>0.05) differences among the treatment groups but much better in the treatment B and C, the cost of feed consumed was much higher (P>0.05) in Treatment B followed by Treatment C, while Treatment A had the lowest. The cost/ kg weight gain that was recorded in Treatment A was better (P<0.05) than the Treatment B, followed by Treatment C, while the cost of production was high (P<0.05) in Treatment B than in other treatments. The gross profit was observed best (P<0.05) on the Treatment B, followed by Treatment C while Treatment A had the lowest. The net profit as noted in this study was much better (P<0.05) in Treatment B, and Treatment C, while the least was observed in Treatment A, where the return on investment was high in Treatments B and C, while Treatment A had the lowest.

Keywords: reciprocal, torula yeast, Zymomonas mobilis, organic waste

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7819 Waste Water Treatment and Emerging Waste Water Contaminants in Developing Countries

Authors: Opata Obinna Johnpaul

Abstract:

Wastewater is one of the day-to–day concerns of humans and the environment, in general, due to its importance to the environment. This is because of the presence of various contaminants that are involved in waste water. Wastewater treatment can be defined as the proportion of wastewater that is treated, in order to reduce pollutants before being discharged to the environment, by the level of treatment. This work discusses wastewater treatment, its contaminants, as well as the technologies, involved.The major focus is to analyze Okomu Oil Palm Company Plc, their effluent treatment facility. Okomu Oil Palm Company is based in Nigeria, which is one of the developing countries of the world. Okomu Oil Palm Company uses aquatic treatment technology for their effluent treatment and applies the physio-chemical level of advanced chemical treatment of wastewater treatment process. This work will discuss the outcome of the laboratory sample taken on the 30th January, 2015 and analyzed between 30th January- 4th February 2015.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, contaminants, physio-chemical process, Okomu oil palm

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7818 Analysis and Treatment of Sewage Treatment Plant Wastewater of El-Karma, Oran

Authors: Larbi Hammadi, Abdellatif El Bari Tidjani

Abstract:

In order to reduce the flow of pollutants in the wastewater of the urban agglomerations of the city of Oran, a preliminary study was carried out at the El-Karma wastewater treatment plant. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the overall physicochemical pollution in the effluents of the El-Karma sewage treatment plant wastewater. It was found that the effluent of El-Karma wastewater treatment plant contains a significant amount of insoluble. Total suspended soli TSS concentrations ranged from 112 to 475 mg/l, with an average of 220.5 mg/l. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD₅) values remain within the reference range for domestic wastewater with an average value of COD < 125 and BOD₅ < 25. The COD/BOD₅ ratio of raw water entering the treatment plant is less than 2. This ratio would predict that the raw sewage from the El-Karma treatment plant is polluted by inorganic pollution strong enough.

Keywords: El-Karma wastewater, TSS concentrations, COD and BOD5, COD/BOD5 ratio, treatment

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7817 Effective of Different Doses of Bacterial Insecticide Against Trogoderma Granarium (Everts)

Authors: Fatima Huda Hallak

Abstract:

The current study aimed to evaluate the activity of bacterial insecticide Vertinic against the second star larvae of Trogoderma granarium (Everts) by four treatments: A, B, C, D, at seven concentrations: 0.001, 0.01, 0.1,1,10,100,1000 PPM. The mortality rate of larvae was 100% at concentrations 10 and 100 in treatments A and B after 24 hours and after 48 hours in treatment D at 1 PPM. The efficiency of treatment A was greater as compared to treatment B at all concentrations and all exposure times. The efficiency of treatment D was greater as compared to treatment C; for example, at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 PPM, after 120 hours, the Mortality rate of larve was 6.76, 13.33, 43.33, 100% in treatment D, which it was 0.00, 0.00, 23.33, 96.67%, respectively in the treatment C.

Keywords: bacterial insecticide, trogoderma granarium (everts), fourth star larvae, vertimic

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7816 Resons for Seeking Dental Care, Caries Profile and Treatment Need of Children in Tabuk, KSA

Authors: Syed Ameer Haider Jafri, Mariam Amri

Abstract:

Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease of childhood. The aims and objectives of this study were to identify the most common reason for seeking dental treatment and to determine caries profile and there is a treatment need in children visiting the hospital. A total of 170 Saudi children of age 1-5 years studied. Results show the most common reason for visiting hospital was decay followed by pain. These children show mean DMFT/DMFS of 9.8/22.4 and most commonly needed treatment was one-surface restoration followed by pulp treatment.

Keywords: dental caries, DMFT/DMFS index, prevalence, dental treatment need

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7815 Effect of T6 and Re-Aging Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties of 7055 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: M. Esmailian, M. Shakouri, A. Mottahedi, S. G. Shabestari

Abstract:

Heat treatable aluminium alloys such as 7075 and 7055, because of high strength and low density, are used widely in aircraft industry. For best mechanical properties, T6 heat treatment has recommended for this regards, but this temper treatment is sensitive to corrosion induced and Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) damage. For improving this property, the over-aging treatment (T7) applies to this alloy, but it decreases the mechanical properties up to 30 percent. Hence, to increase the mechanical properties, without any remarkable decrease in SCC resistant, Retrogression and Re-Aging (RRA) heat treatment is used. This treatment performs in a relatively short time. In this paper, the RRA heat treatment was applied to 7055 aluminum alloy and then effect of RRA time on the mechanical properties of 7055 has been investigated. The results show that the 40 minute time is suitable time for retrogression of 7055 aluminum alloy and ultimate strength increases up to 625MPa.

Keywords: 7055 Aluminum alloy, mechanical properties, SCC resistance, heat Treatment

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7814 Determinants of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Patients Who Underwent First-Line Treatment in Addis Ababa: A Case Control Study

Authors: Selamawit Hirpa, Girmay Medhin, Belaineh Girma, Muluken Melese, Alemayehu Mekonen, Pedro Suarez, Gobena Ameni

Abstract:

Worldwide, there were 650,000 multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases in 2010. Ethiopia is 15th among the 27 MDR-TB high-burden countries. A case control study was conducted at St. Peter Hospital and five health centers in Addis Ababa. Cases were MDR-TB patients who were in treatment at St. Peter Hospital during the study period. Controls were patients who were on first-line anti-TB treatment and were registered as cured or having completed treatment in the period 9 April 2009– 28 February 2010, in five health centers. A structured interview questionnaire was used to assess factors that could potentially be associated with the occurrence of MDR-TB. Factors that were significantly associated with MDR-TB: drug side effects during first-line treatment (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.5, 95% CI; 1.9 - 10.5); treatment not directly observed by a health worker (AOR = 11.7, 95% CI; 4–34.3); and retreatment with the Category II regimen (P = 0.000).

Keywords: adherence to TB treatment, MDR-TB, TB treatment, TB treatment regimens

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7813 Removal of Protein from Chromium Tanning Bath by Biological Treatment Using Pseudomonas sp.

Authors: Amel Benhadji, Mourad Taleb Ahmed, Rachida Maachi

Abstract:

The challenge for the new millennium is to develop an industrial system that has minimal socio-ecological impacts, without compromising quality of life. Leather industry is one of these industries demanding environmentally friendly products. In this study, we investigated the possibility of applying innovative low cost biological treatment using Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This strain tested the efficiency of the batch biological treatment in the recovery of protein and hexavalent chromium from chromium tanning bath. We have compared suspended and fixed bacteria culture. The results showed the removal of the total protein of treatment and a decrease of hexavalent chromium concentration is during the treatment. The better efficiency of the biological treatment is obtained when using fixed culture of P. aeruginosa.

Keywords: tanning wastewater, biological treatment, protein removal, hexavalent chromium

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7812 The Role of Maladaptive Personality Traits in Obesity Treatment – Quantitative Study

Authors: Judita Konečná, Dagmar Halo, Martin Matoulek

Abstract:

Background: Personality pathology does not have to be a contraindication nor an obstacle in obesity treatment, or eventually, surgical treatment. Detection of specific maladaptive personality traits can help us understand the manner of behavior leading to obesity as well as to address the treatment better. Objective: Using The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in combination with clinical interviews with the goal of gaining a psychological evaluation to set the treatment procedure. Data was collected from more than 400 patients to detect differences in constellations of maladaptive personality traits based on BMI, DM2 and gender. Conclusions: Besides the fact that a psychological evaluation can help address the treatment better, analyses showed that it is also useful to detect specific groups of patients. Implications for clinical practice are discussed, as well as recommendations for group education programs based on quantitative research.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, obesity, personality traits, PID-5, treatment

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7811 Comparison of Growth and Biomass of Red Alga Cultured on Rope and Net

Authors: Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Saeedeh Dashti, Hakimeh Fekrandish

Abstract:

This research has been conducted to study the method of culture and comparing growth and biomass of Gracilariacorticata cultured on rope and net for 50 days through two treatments (first treatment: culture of alga on net and the second treatment: culture of alga on rope and each treatment was repeated by four cases). During culture period, the water of aquariums was replaced once every two days for 40-50%. Also, 0.3-0.5 grams of Urea fertilizer was added to the culture environment for fertilization. Moreover, some of the environmental factors such as pH, salinity and temperature of the environment were measured on a daily basis. During the culture period, extent of longitudinal growth of the species of both treatments was equal. The said length was reached from 8-10 cm to 10.5-13 cm accordingly. The resulted weight in repetitions of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment in such a way as in the first treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 21.119 grams and in the second treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 17.663 grams. On a whole, it may be stated that that kind of alga being studied has a considerable growth with respect to its volume. The results have revealed that the percentage of daily growth and wet weight at the end of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment and it was registered as 0.934, 6.072 and 811.432 in the first treatment and 0.797, 4.990 and 758.071 in the second treatment respectively. This difference is significant (P < 0.05). Growth and biomass of G. corticata through culture on net was more emphasizing on numerous branches due to wider bed. Moreover, higher level of the species in this method was exposed to sunlight and this increased biosynthesis and eventually increases of growth and biomass.

Keywords: red alga, growth, biomass, culture, net, rope

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7810 Effect of Ultrasonic Treatment on the Suspension Stability, Zeta Potential and Contact Angle of Celestite

Authors: Kiraz Esmeli, Alper Ozkan

Abstract:

In this study, firstly, the effect of ultrasonic treatment on the stability of celestite suspension was investigated. In this context, the variations of the suspension stability with ultrasonic power, treatment time, immersion depth of ultrasonic probe, and treatment regime (batch and continuous) were determined. The experimental results showed that the suspension stability and zeta potential of celestite decreased with ultrasonic treatment. Also, the treatment time, immersion depth of probe, and treatment regime affected the stability of celestite suspension. Secondly, the effect of pre-treatment of the suspension with the ultrasonic process on the shear flocculation of celestite using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied and the variations of the flocculation, zeta potential, and contact angle of the mineral with SDS concentration were presented. It was found that the ultrasonic pre-treatment slightly improved the shear flocculation of celestite particles in accordance with the increase in the contact angles. In addition, the ultrasonic process again relatively reduced the magnitude of the negative potential of celestite particles in the presence of SDS.

Keywords: celestite, contact angle, suspension stability, ultrasonic treatment, zeta potential

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7809 Improvement of Mechanical Properties and Corrosion Resistance of AA7056 Aluminum Alloys by the Non-isothermal Aging Process

Authors: Tse-An Pan, Sheng-Long Lee

Abstract:

The effect of non-isothermal aging on the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of Al-9Zn-2.3Mg-1.9Cu (AA7056) alloys was investigated. The results revealed that thick materials were limited to retrogression and re-aging treatment (RRA). It could not reach the retrogression temperature in the RRA treatment. Compared with the RRA treatment, the non-isothermal aging (NIA) treatment produced discontinuous precipitates at grain boundaries, while the intragranular precipitates were fine and dense. The strength was similar to that of the RRA treatment; the corrosion resistance of the alloy was significantly improved by NIA aging. NIA treatment was less affected by the thickness of the alloy. The difference between the actual temperature and the setting temperature of the alloy is minimal during the aging process. The combination of properties could overcome the fact that RRA treatment cannot handle thick materials.

Keywords: Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy, corrosion, retrogression, re-aging, non-isothermal aging

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7808 Rationality and Evidence of Pre-Prepared Treatment Plan in Oesophageal HDR Brachytherapy

Authors: Jim S. Meng, Mammo H. Yewondwossen

Abstract:

As a part of routine oesophageal HDR brachytherapy procedure, treatment planning takes about 45 minutes while patients are under light sedation. Some patients may suffer gagging and/or spasms, and the treatment may need to be aborted. A pre-prepared plan generated before the patient’s sedation may reduce the brachytherapy procedure time by forty minutes. This paper reports the rationality and evidence of pre-prepared treatment plans. A retrospective study of 28 patients confirm that all of the pre-prepared plans would be acceptable. The rationality of pre-prepared HDR brachytherapy plans is further confirmed by a systemic study with a wide range of applicator curvature and treatment volume. Detailed comparison between CT based treatment plans and pre-prepared plans are discussed. This argument holds also for endobronchial HDR brachytherapy. With the above evidence, pre-prepared plans have been used for all oesophagus and bronchus HDR brachytherapy cases in our clinic.

Keywords: HDR brachytherapy, treatment planning, oesophageal carcinoma, pre-planning

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7807 Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Various Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Different Material: A Review

Authors: Prashant Dhiman, Viranshu Kumar, Pradeep Joshi

Abstract:

Lot of research is going on to study the effect of cryogenic treatment on materials. Cryogenic treatment is a heat treatment process which is used widely to enhance the mechanical and metallurgical properties of various materials whether the material is ferrous or non ferrous. In almost all ferrous metals, it is found that retained austenite is converted into martensite. Generally deep cryogenic treatment is done using liquid nitrogen having temperature of -195 ℃. The austenite is unstable at this stage and converts into martensite. In non ferrous materials there presents a microcavity and under the action of stress it becomes crack. When this crack propagates, fracture takes place. As the metal contract under low temperature, by doing cryogenic treatment these microcavities will be filled hence increases the soundness of the material. Properties which are enhanced by cryogenic treatment of both ferrous and non ferrous materials are hardness, tensile strength, wear rate, electrical and thermal conductivity, and others. Also there is decrease in residual stress. A large number of manufacturing process (EDM, CNC etc.) are using cryogenic treatment on different tools or workpiece to reduce their wear. In this Review paper the use of cryogenic heat treatment in different manufacturing has been shown along with their advantages.

Keywords: cyrogenic treatment, EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining), CNC (Computer Numeric Control), Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties

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7806 Evaluation Treatment of 130 Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP) Cats with GS-441524 in Iran

Authors: Manely Ansary Mood, Farzaneh Aziizi, Mahmoud Akbarian

Abstract:

This investigation included 130 cats diagnosed with FIP (Feb 2021-March 2022) in Iran, 74 with effusive FIP, and 56 with non-effusive FIP. The patients' initial dosage regime consisted of a subcutaneous injection of GS-441524 was 6-15mg/kg-every 24h (based on the wet or ocular and neurologic signs). The minimum treatment period was twelve weeks, extended in animals that still had abnormal lab values, clinical signs, and sonographic findings. The outcomes of the 130 cats that completed the duration of treatment (14 died, 116 cured) were checked and recorded. Clinical, sonographic, and laboratory responses were checked and compared on days 28, 56, and 83 of treatment. 2 of the 116 cured cats relapsed within observation days. At the time of this publication (May 2022), 114 of the studied patients remained healthy. We could conclude that GS-441524 appears to be an effective option for FIP treatment, and also, to the base of our knowledge, this is the first report for group treatment of infected cats of FIP with GS-441524 in Iran.

Keywords: FIP, cat, GS-441524, treatment

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7805 The Use of Ketamine in Conjunction with Antidepressants for Treatment Resistant Depression

Authors: Zumra Mehmedovic, Susan Luhrmann

Abstract:

Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a debilitating mental health disorder for which there are very few available treatment options. Current research suggests that ketamine may be a safe and effective option for the treatment of TRD. Research utilizing a review of the literature was conducted to determine if ketamine in conjunction with antidepressants is more effective than antidepressants alone in the treatment of TRD. The literature consists of ten journal articles which include quantitative studies based on primary research. A critique of the literature was done to determine whether the findings are reliable, critiquing elements influencing the believability and robustness of the research. The research was based on the neuroplasticity theory of depression, hypothesizing that ketamine, in conjunction with antidepressants, will be more effective than antidepressants alone as they have different mechanisms of action. All the studies except one found ketamine in conjunction with antidepressants to be a more effective treatment than antidepressants alone in the treatment of TRD. Results of the studies indicate that ketamine is effective in treating TRD at various doses, settings, and routes of administration. Further research is necessary, though, to further explore and confirm the findings. Several gaps in literature were identified, including the optimal dose of ketamine, its long-term efficacy and safety, and effects of ketamine in repeated doses. The research topic is highly significant to advanced practice nursing, as based on the findings, ketamine can be utilized as a safe and effective treatment for TRD.

Keywords: ketamine, major depressive disorder, treatment-resistant depression, treatment

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7804 Advances in Natural Fiber Surface Treatment Methodologies for Upgradation in Properties of Their Reinforced Composites

Authors: G. L. Devnani, Shishir Sinha

Abstract:

Natural fiber reinforced polymer composite is a very attractive area among the scientific community because of their low cost, eco-friendly and sustainable in nature. Among all advantages there are few issues which need to be addressed, those issues are the poor adhesion and compatibility between two opposite nature materials that is fiber and matrix and their relatively high water absorption. Therefore, natural fiber modifications are necessary to improve their adhesion with different matrices. Excellent properties could be achieved with the surface treatment of these natural fibers ultimately leads to property up-gradation of their reinforced composites with different polymer matrices. Lot of work is going on to improve the adhesion between reinforced fiber phase and polymer matrix phase to improve the properties of composites. Researchers have suggested various methods for natural fiber treatment like silane treatment, treatment with alkali, acetylation, acrylation, maleate coupling, etc. In this study a review is done on the different methods used for the surface treatment of natural fibers and what are the advance treatment methodologies for natural fiber surface treatment for property improvement of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites.

Keywords: composites, acetylation, natural fiber, surface treatment

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7803 Open Trial of Group Schema Therapy for the Treatment of Eating Disorders

Authors: Evelyn Smith, Susan Simpson

Abstract:

Background: Eating disorder (ED) treatment is complicated by high rates of chronicity, comorbidity, complex personality traits and client dropout. Given these complexities, Schema Therapy (ST) has been identified as a suitable treatment option. The study primarily aims to evaluate the efficacy of group ST for the treatment of EDs. The study further evaluated the effectiveness of ST in reducing schemas and improving quality of life. Method: Participant suitability was ascertained using the Eating Disorder Examination. Following this, participants attended 90-minute weekly group sessions over 25 weeks. Groups consisted of six to eight participants and were facilitated by two psychologists, at least one of who is trained in ST. Measures were completed at pre, mid and post-treatment. Measures assessed ED symptoms, cognitive schemas, schema mode presentations, quality of life, self-compassion and psychological distress. Results: As predicted, measures of ED symptoms were significantly reduced following treatment. No significant changes were observed in early maladaptive schema severity; however, reductions in schema modes were observed. Participants did not report improvements in general quality of life measures following treatment, though improvement in psychological well-being was observed. Discussion: Overall, the findings from the current study support the use of group ST for the treatment of EDs. It is expected that lengthier treatment is needed for the reduction in schema severity. Given participant dropout was considerably low, this has important treatment implications for the suitability of ST for the treatment of EDs.

Keywords: eating disorders, schema therapy, treatment, quality of life

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7802 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae

Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel

Abstract:

Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.

Keywords: microalgae, wastewater treatment, phosphorus, nitrogen, light, operation, ponds, growth

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7801 Time to Second Line Treatment Initiation Among Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in Nepal

Authors: Shraddha Acharya, Sharad Kumar Sharma, Ratna Bhattarai, Bhagwan Maharjan, Deepak Dahal, Serpahine Kaminsa

Abstract:

Background: Drug-resistant (DR) tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a threat in Nepal, with an estimated 2800 new cases every year. The treatment of DR-TB with second line TB drugs is complex and takes longer time with comparatively lower treatment success rate than drug-susceptible TB. Delay in treatment initiation for DR-TB patients might further result in unfavorable treatment outcomes and increased transmission. This study thus aims to determine median time taken to initiate second-line treatment among Rifampicin Resistant (RR) diagnosed TB patients and to assess the proportion of treatment delays among various type of DR-TB cases. Method: A retrospective cohort study was done using national routine electronic data (DRTB and TB Laboratory Patient Tracking System-DHIS2) on drug resistant tuberculosis patients between January 2020 and December 2022. The time taken for treatment initiation was computed as– days from first diagnosis as RR TB through Xpert MTB/Rif test to enrollment on second-line treatment. The treatment delay (>7 days after diagnosis) was calculated. Results: Among total RR TB cases (N=954) diagnosed via Xpert nationwide, 61.4% were enrolled under shorter-treatment regimen (STR), 33.0% under longer treatment regimen (LTR), 5.1% for Pre-extensively drug resistant TB (Pre-XDR) and 0.4% for Extensively drug resistant TB (XDR) treatment. Among these cases, it was found that the median time from diagnosis to treatment initiation was 6 days (IQR:2-15.8). The median time was 5 days (IQR:2.0-13.3) among STR, 6 days (IQR:3.0-15.0) among LTR, 30 days (IQR:5.5-66.8) among Pre-XDR and 4 days (IQR:2.5-9.0) among XDR TB cases. The overall treatment delay (>7 days after diagnosis) was observed in 42.4% of the patients, among which, cases enrolled under Pre-XDR contributed substantially to treatment delay (72.0%), followed by LTR (43.6%), STR (39.1%) and XDR (33.3%). Conclusion: Timely diagnosis and prompt treatment initiation remain fundamental focus of the National TB program. The findings of the study, however suggest gaps in timeliness of treatment initiation for the drug-resistant TB patients, which could bring adverse treatment outcomes. Moreover, there is an alarming delay in second line treatment initiation for the Pre-XDR TB patients. Therefore, this study generates evidence to identify existing gaps in treatment initiation and highlights need for formulating specific policies and intervention in creating effective linkage between the RR TB diagnosis and enrollment on second line TB treatment with intensified efforts from health providers for follow-ups and expansion of more decentralized, adequate, and accessible diagnostic and treatment services for DR-TB, especially Pre-XDR TB cases, due to the observed long treatment delays.

Keywords: drug-resistant, tuberculosis, treatment initiation, Nepal, treatment delay

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7800 Risk Allocation in Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects for Wastewater Treatment Plants

Authors: Samuel Capintero, Ole H. Petersen

Abstract:

This paper examines the utilization of public-private partnerships for the building and operation of wastewater treatment plants. Our research focuses on risk allocation in this kind of projects. Our analysis builds on more than hundred wastewater treatment plants built and operated through PPP projects in Aragon (Spain). The paper illustrates the consequences of an inadequate management of construction risk and an unsuitable transfer of demand risk in wastewater treatment plants. It also shows that the involvement of many public bodies at local, regional and national level further increases the complexity of this kind of projects and make time delays more likely.

Keywords: wastewater, treatment plants, PPP, construction

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7799 Preliminary Treatment in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Operation and Maintenance Aspects

Authors: Priscila M. Lima, Corine A. P. de Almeida, Muriele R. de Lima, Fernando J. C. Magalhães Filho

Abstract:

This work characterized the preliminary treatment in WWTPs in the state of Mato Grosso Do Sul (Brazil) and analyzed aspects of operation and maintenance of solid waste retained, and was evaluated the interference of this step in treatment efficiency beyond the relationship between solid waste generation with rainfall and seasonality in the region of each WTPs. The results shown that the standard setting in the preliminary treatment consists of grid along with Sand Trap, followed by Parshall that is used in 94.12% of WWTPs analyzed, and in 5.88% of WWTPs it was added the air-lift to the Sand Trap. Was concluded that the influence of rainfall, flow and seasonality associated with the rate of waste generation in the preliminary treatment, had little relation to the operation and maintenance of the primary treatment. But in some cases, precipitation data showed increased rainfall converging with increased flow and solid waste generation.

Keywords: pretreatment, sewage, solid waste, wastewater

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7798 Online Self-Help Metacognitive Therapy for OCD: A Case Series

Authors: C. Pearcy, C. Rees

Abstract:

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and exposure and response prevention (ERP) are currently the most efficacious treatments for Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Many clients, however, remain symptomatic following treatment. As a result, refusal of treatment, withdrawal from treatment, and partial adherence to treatment are common amongst ERP. Such limitations have caused few professionals to actually engage in ERP therapy, which has warranted the exploration of alternative treatments. This study evaluated an online self-help treatment program for OCD (the OCD Doctor Online); a 4-week Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) program which has implemented strategies from Wells’ Metacognitive model of OCD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an online self-help treatment using MCT would reduce symptoms of OCD, reduce unhelpful metacognitions and improve quality of life. Treatment effectiveness was assessed using a case series methodology in 3 consecutively referred individuals. At post-treatment, all participants showed reductions in unhelpful metacognitive beliefs (MCQ-30) and improvements in quality of life (Q-LES-Q), which were maintained through to 4 week follow-up. Two of the three participants showed reductions in OCD symptomology (OCI-R), which were further reduced at 4-week follow-up. The present study suggests that internet-based self-help treatment may be an effective means of delivering MCT to adults with OCD.

Keywords: internet-based, metacognitive therapy, obsessive-compulsive disorder, self-help

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7797 The Effects of Boronizing Treatment on the Friction and Wear Behavior of 0.35 VfTiC- Ti3SiC2 Composite

Authors: M. Hadji, A. Haddad, Y. Hadji

Abstract:

The effects of boronizing treatment on the friction coefficient and wear behavior of 0.35 Vf TiC- Ti3 SiC2 composite were investigated. In order to modity the surface properties of Ti3SiC2, boronizing treatment was carried out through powder pack cementation in the 1150-1350 °C temperature range. After boronizing treatment, one mixture layer, composed of TiB2 and SiC, forms on the surface of Ti3SiC2. The growth of the coating is processed by inward diffusion of Boron and obeys a linear rule. The Boronizing treatment increases the hardness of Ti3SiC2 from 6 GPa to 13 GPa. In the pin-on-disc test, i twas found that the material undergoes a steady-state coefficient of friction of around 0.8 and 0.45 in case of Ti3SiC2/Al2O3 tribocouple under 7N load for the non treated and the boronized samples, respectively. The wear resistance of Ti3SiC2 underAl2O3 ball sliding has been significantly improved, which indicated that the boronizing treatment is a promising surface modification way of Ti3SiC2.

Keywords: MAX phase, wearing, friction, boronizing

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
7796 Effect of Aging Treatment on Tensile Properties of AZ91D Mg Alloy

Authors: Ju Hyun Won, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Phase equilibria of AZ91D Mg alloys for nonflammable use, containing Ca and Y, were carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, which revealed that solid solution treatment, could be performed at temperatures from 400 to 450 °C. Solid solution treatment of AZ91D Mg alloy without Ca and Y was successfully conducted at 420 °C and supersaturated microstructure with all beta phase resolved into matrix was obtained. In the case of AZ91D Mg alloy with some Ca and Y, however, a little amount of intermetallic particles were observed after solid solution treatment. After solid solution treatment, each alloy was annealed at temperatures of 180 and 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 48 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak aging conditions were deduced as at the temperature of 200 °C for 10 hrs.

Keywords: Mg alloy, AZ91D, nonflammable alloy, phase equilibrium, peak aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
7795 Separation of Hazardous Brominated Plastics from Waste Plastics by Froth Flotation after Surface Modification with Mild Heat-Treatment

Authors: Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Byeong-Kyu Lee

Abstract:

This study evaluated to facilitate separation of ABS plastics from other waste plastics by froth flotation after surface hydrophilization of ABS with heat treatment. The mild heat treatment at 100oC for 60s could selectively increase the hydrophilicity of the ABS plastics surface (i.e., ABS contact angle decreased from 79o to 65.8o) among other plastics mixture. The SEM and XPS results of plastic samples sufficiently supported the increase in hydrophilic functional groups and decrease contact angle on ABS surface, after heat treatment. As a result of the froth flotation (at mixing speed 150 rpm and airflow rate 0.3 L/min) after heat treatment, about 85% of ABS was selectively separated from other heavy plastics with 100% of purity. The effect of optimum treatment condition and detailed mechanism onto separation efficiency in the froth floatation was also investigated. This research is successful in giving a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for ABS separation from waste plastics.

Keywords: ABS, hydrophilic, heat treatment, froth flotation, contact angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
7794 Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Boron-Containing AZ91D Mg Alloys

Authors: Ji Chan Kim, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Effect of boron addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of AZ91D Mg alloy was investigated in this study. Through calculation of phase equilibria, carried out by using FactSage® and FTLite database, solution treatment temperature was decided as 420 °C where supersaturated solid solution can be obtained. Solid solution treatment was conducted at 420 °C for 24 hrs followed by hot rolling at 420 °C and the total reduction was about 60%. Recrystallization heat treatment was followed at 420 °C for 6 hrs to obtain equiaxed microstructure. After recrystallization treatment, aging heat treatment was conducted at temperature of 200 °C for time intervals from 1 min to 200 hrs and hardness of each condition was measured by micro-Vickers method. Peak hardness was observed after 20 hrs. Tensile tests were also conducted on the specimens aged for various time intervals and the results were compared with hardness.

Keywords: AZ91D Mg alloy, boron, heat treatment, microstructure, mechanical properties, hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 267