Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3148

Search results for: oxidative stress

3148 Epigallocatechin Gallate Protects against Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurotoxicity and Hippocampus Dysfunction Induced by Fluoride in Rats

Authors: S. Thangapandiyan, S. Miltonprabu

Abstract:

Fl (Fl) exposure engenders neurodegeneration and induces oxidative stress in the brain. The Neuroprotective role of EGCG on oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus has not yet been explored so far. Hence, the present study is focused on witnessing whether EGCG (40mg/kg) supplementation prevents Fl induced oxidative stress in the brain of rats with special emphasis on the hippocampus. Fl (25mg/kg) intoxication for four weeks in rats showed an increase in Fl concentration along with the decrease the AChE, NP, DA, and 5-HT activity in the brain. The oxidative stress markers (ROS, TBARS, NO, and PC) were significantly increased with decreased enzymatic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST, and G6PD) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (GSH, TSH, and Vit.C) in Fl intoxicated rat hippocampus. Moreover, Fl intoxicated rats exhibited an intrinsic and extrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats. Fl intoxication significantly increased the DNA damage as evidenced by increased DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, the toxic impact of Fl on hippocampus was also proved by the immunohistochemical, histological, and ultrastructural studies. Pre-administration of EGCG has significantly protected the Fl induced oxidative stress, biochemical changes, cellular apoptotic, and histological alternations in the hippocampus of rats. In conclusion, EGCG supplementation significantly attenuated the Fl induced oxidative stress mediated neurotoxicity via its free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity.

Keywords: brain, hippocampal, NaF, ROS, EGCG

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3147 Protective Role of Peroxiredoxin V against Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Mice

Authors: Eun Gyeong Lee, Ji Young Park, Hyun Ae Woo

Abstract:

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is involved in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in kidney of mice. Oxidative stress develops from an imbalance between ROS production and reduced antioxidant defenses. Many enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant systems including peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are present in kidney to maintain an appropriate level of ROS and prevent oxidative damage. Prxs are a family of peroxidases that reduce peroxides, with a conserved cysteine residue serving as the site of oxidation by peroxides. In this study, we examined the protective role of Prx V against I/R-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) using Prx V wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. We compared the response of Prx V WT and KO mice in mice model of I/R injury. Renal structure, functions, oxidative stress markers, protein levels of oxidative damage marker were worse in Prx V KO mice. Ablation of Prx V enhanced susceptibility to I/R-induced oxidative stress. Prx V KO mice were seen to have more severe renal damage than Prx V WT mice in mice model of I/R injury. Our results demonstrate that Prx V is protective against I/R-induced AKI.

Keywords: peroxiredoxin, ischemia/reperfusion, kidney, oxidative stress

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3146 The Antioxidant Effect of Vitamin C against Oxidative Stress Generate by Dietary Zn-Deficiency in Diabetic Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid

Abstract:

This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant effect of vitamin C on oxidative stress induced by dietary Zn-deficiency in albino diabetic rats. Thirty two males alloxan-diabetic rats divided into two groups of 16 individuals each; the first group was fed a zinc adequate diet (54 mg zinc/kg). The second group had given low zinc diet (1 mg zinc/kg). Then, half of each group was treated with vitamin C (1 g/l) in drinking water. After four weeks, animals were sacrificed and different parameters were determined. The findings showed that dietary deficiency zinc intake significantly increased serum glucose. Zn-deficiency was also led to an increase in oxidative stress, which was indicated by an increase of MDA level and glutathione-S-transferase activity. Meanwhile it was result in a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) content, glutathione peroxidase GSH-Px and catalase activities in liver. However, the administration of vitamin C restored all the previous parameters approximately to their normal values. In conclusion, vitamin C probably played a key role strong as antioxidant factor against oxidative stress provoked by dietary zinc inadequate. Therefore, it might be contributed in reduction diabetes complications.

Keywords: vitamin C, oxidative stress, zinc, experimental diabetes, rats

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3145 Appraisal of Oxidative Stress in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Non Descript Goat from Arid Tracts in India

Authors: Sudha Summarwar, Sudesh Agarwal, Deepali Lall, Nalini Kataria, Jyotsana Pandey

Abstract:

Assessment of antioxidant status is an effective tool to appraise the presence of oxidative stress. A combination of assays can be used to evaluate the antioxidant status like serum catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and monoamine oxidase (MAO). In human medicine pregnancy is known to be associated with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress produces harmful effects to the developing foetus. Several metabolic changes occur in the maternal body to meet the demand of energy of developing foetus. Due to these changes susceptibility of maternal body increases to oxidative stress. There is paucity of research work on this aspect in nondescript goats. Therefore, the present study was intended to appraise the oxidative stress in pregnant and non-pregnant non-descript goat. Blood samples were collected for serum separation in otherwise healthy pregnant and non-pregnant nondescript goats. Mean values of serum CAT, SOD and MAO were found on a higher side (p≤0.05) with serum SOD values showing a rise of 2.5 times higher than the control healthy value. Correlations among all the three parameters were found to be highly significant (p≤0.01) especially greatest in youngest group of pregnant animals. Illustration of result enlightened the veracity of bumped up production of free radicals in pregnant animals. Technical savoir-faire of oxidative stress supervision is essential for upholding of health status of foetus. The upshot of present study undoubtedly implied the development of oxidative stress in pregnant goats on the basis of altered antioxidant status. These findings conclude that initially the oxidative stress due to pregnancy is critically combated by the intricate defensive mechanism of natural antioxidant system of the body. It appears that this imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant must be checked in time to prevent cellular damage by regularly appraising the antioxidant status through laboratory methods.

Keywords: antioxidant, oxidative stress, pregnancy, serum catalase

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3144 Night Shift Work as an Oxidative Stressor: A Systematic Review

Authors: Madeline Gibson

Abstract:

Night shift workers make up an essential part of the modern workforce. However, night shift workers have higher incidences of late in life diseases and earlier mortality. Night shift workers are exposed to constant light and experience circadian rhythm disruption. Sleep disruption is thought to increase oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance of excess pro-oxidative factors and reactive oxygen species over anti-oxidative activity. Oxidative stress can damage cells, proteins and DNA and can eventually lead to varied chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s and dementia. This review aimed to understand whether night shift workers were at greater risk of oxidative stress and to contribute to a consensus on this relationship. Twelve studies published in 2001-2019 examining 2,081 workers were included in the review. Studies compared both the impact of working a single shift and in comparisons between those who regularly work night shifts and only day shifts. All studies had evidence to support this relationship across a range of oxidative stress indicators, including increased DNA damage, reduced DNA repair capacity, increased lipid peroxidation, higher levels of reactive oxygen species, and to a lesser extent, a reduction in antioxidant defense. This research supports the theory that melatonin and the sleep-wake cycle mediate the relationship between shift work and oxidative stress. It is concluded that night shift work increases the risk for oxidative stress and, therefore, future disease. Recommendations are made to promote the long-term health of shift workers considering these findings.

Keywords: night shift work, coxidative stress, circadian rhythm, melatonin, disease, circadian rhythm disruption

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3143 Relationship of Oxidative Stress to Elevated Homocysteine and DNA Damage in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

Authors: Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Madiha Javeed Ghani, Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka

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Objective: Biochemical, environmental, physical and genetic factors have a strong effect on the development of coronary disease (CAD). Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) level and DNA damage play a pivotal role in its development and progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive strength of an oxidative stress, clinical biomarkers and total antioxidant status (TAS) in CAD patients to find the correlation of homocysteine, TOS and oxidative DNA damage with other clinical parameters. Methods: Sixty confirmed patients with CAD and 60 healthy individuals as control were included in this study. Different clinical and laboratory parameters were studied in blood samples obtained from patients and control subjects using commercially available biochemical kits and statistical software Results: As compared to healthy individuals, CAD patients had significantly higher concentrations of indices of oxidative stress: homocysteine (P=0.0001), total oxidative stress (TOS) (P=0.0001), serum cholesterol (P=0.04), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (P=0.01), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) (P=0.0001), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (P=0.001) than those of healthy individuals. Plasma homocysteine level and oxidative DNA damage were positively correlated with cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, urea, total protein and albumin (P values= 0.05). Both Hcy and oxidative DNA damage were negatively correlated with TAS and proteins. Conclusion: Coronary artery disease patients had a significant increase in homocysteine level and DNA damage due to increased oxidative stress. In conclusion, our study shows a significantly increase in lipid peroxidation, TOS, homocysteine and DNA damage in the erythrocytes of patients with CAD. A significant decrease level of HDL-C and TAS was observed only in CAD patients. Therefore these biomarkers may be useful diagnosis of patients with CAD and play an important role in the pathogenesis of CAD.

Keywords: antioxidants, coronary artery disease, DNA damage, homocysteine, oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, 8-Hydroxy-2’deoxyguanosine

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3142 Erythrophagocytic Role of Mast Cells in vitro and in vivo during Oxidative Stress

Authors: Priyanka Sharma, Niti Puri

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Anemia develops when blood lacks enough healthy erythrocytes. Past studies indicated that anemia, inflammatory process, and oxidative stress are interconnected. Erythrocytes are continuously exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) during circulation, due to normal aerobic cellular metabolism and also pathology of inflammatory diseases. Systemic mastocytosis and genetic depletion of mast cells have been shown to affect anaemia. In the present study, we attempted to reveal whether mast cells have a direct role in clearance or erythrophagocytosis of normal or oxidatively damaged erythrocytes. Murine erythrocytes were treated with tert-butyl hydroperoxidase (t-BHP), an agent that induces oxidative damage and mimics in vivo oxidative stress. Normal and oxidatively damaged erythrocytes were labeled with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) to track erythrophagocytosis. We show, for the first time, direct erythrophagocytosis of oxidatively damaged erythrocytes in vitro by RBL-2H3 mast cells as well as in vivo by murine peritoneal mast cells. Also, activated mast cells, as may be present in inflammatory conditions, showed a significant increase in the uptake of oxidatively damaged erythrocytes than resting mast cells. This suggests the involvement of mast cells in erythrocyte clearance during oxidative stress or inflammatory disorders. Partial inhibition of phagocytosis by various inhibitors indicated that this process may be controlled by several pathways. Hence, our study provides important evidence for involvement of mast cells in severe anemia due to inflammation and oxidative stress and might be helpful to circumvent the adverse anemic disorders.

Keywords: mast cells, anemia, erythrophagocytosis, oxidatively damaged erythrocytes

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3141 Effect of Oxidative Stress from Smoking on Erythrocyte Phosphatidylserine Externalization

Authors: Ratchaneewan Maneemaroj, Paveena Noisuwan, Chonlada Lakhonphon

Abstract:

The smoking is one of the major risk factors in Non-Communicable Disease. Free radicals from cigarette smoke can cause oxidative stress. The oxidative insults can lead to red blood cell (RBC) senescence and are involved in the clearance of red blood cells. The objective of the present study is to assess the association between smoke, oxidative stress evaluated with serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization (biomarker of RBC senescence) evaluated with annexin V binding. A total of sixty-four male volunteers aged 25-60 years old were recruited in this study. MDA was measured by colorimetric method. Annexin V binding was detected by flow cytometry. Our results show that there was a significant increase in MDA levels in cigarette smokers as compared to non-smokers (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant different between annexin V binding (% gate) in cigarette smokers and non-smokers (p = 0.978). These results provide evidence of free radical from smoking is associated with oxidative damage to erythrocytes. However, our results suggest that PS externalization is unlikely to have a role in RBC senescence pathway of stressed erythrocytes from cigarette smoke. The other biomarker of RBC senescence should be determined on cigarette smoker erythrocytes.

Keywords: malondialdehyde, phosphatidylserine, RBC senescence, annexin V

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3140 Effects of Benzo(k)Fluoranthene, a Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, on DNA Damage and Oxidative Stress in Marine Gastropod Morula Granulata

Authors: Jacky Bhagat, Baban S Ingole

Abstract:

In this study, in vivo experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of a toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), benzo(k)fluoranthene (B[k]F), on marine gastropod, Morula granulata collected from Goa, west coast of India. Snails were exposed to different concentrations of B(k)F (1, 10, 25 and 50 µg/L) for 96 h. The genotoxic effects were evaluated by measuring DNA strand breaks using alkaline comet assay and oxidative stress were measured with the help of battery of biomarkers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Concentration-dependent increase in percentage tail DNA (TDNA) was observed in snails exposed to B(k)F. Exposure concentrations above 1 µg/L of B(k)F, showed significant increase in SOD activity and LPO value in snails. After 96 h, SOD activity were found to be doubled for 50 µg/L of B(k)F with reference to control. Significant increase in CAT and GST activity was observed at all exposure conditions at the end of the exposure time. Our study showed that B(k)F induces oxidative stress in snails which further lead to genotoxic damage.

Keywords: benzo(k)fluoranthene, comet assay, gastropod, oxidative stress

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3139 Effect of Zinc-Lysine on Growth, Photosynthesis, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System and Chromium Uptake in Rice under Cr Stress

Authors: Shafaqat Ali, Afzal Hussain, Muhammad Rizwan, Longhua Wu

Abstract:

Chromium (Cr) is one of the widespread and toxic trace elements present in the agricultural land. Chromium can enter into the food chain mainly through agricultural crops grown on Cr-contaminated soils such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). The current study was done to evaluate the effects of increasing concentrations foliar applied zinc (Zn) chelated with lysine (Zn-lys) (0, 10, 20, and 30 mg L⁻¹) on rice biomass, photosynthesis, oxidative stress, key antioxidant enzyme activities and Cr uptake under increasing levels of Cr in the soil (0, 100, 500 mg kg⁻¹). Cr-induced toxicity reduced the height of plants, biomass, chlorophyll contents, gas exchange parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activities while increased the Cr concentrations and oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, electrolyte leakage, and H₂O₂) in shoots and roots than control plants. Foliar application of Zn-lys increased the plant growth, photosynthesis, Zn concentrations, and enzyme activities in rice seedlings. In addition, Zn-lys reduced the Cr concentrations and oxidative stress compared to the respective Cr treatments alone. The present results indicate that foliar Zn-lys stimulates the antioxidant defense system in rice, increase the rice growth while reduced the Cr concentrations in plants by promoting the Zn uptake and photosynthesis. Taken together, foliar spray of Zn-lys chelate can efficiently be employed for improving plant growth and Zn contents while reducing Cr concentration in rice grown in Cr-contaminated and Zn-deficient soils.

Keywords: antioxidants, chromium, zinc-lysine, oxidative stress, photosynthesis, tolerance

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3138 Fluoride-Induced Stress and Its Association with Bone Developmental Pathway in Osteosarcoma Cells

Authors: Deepa Gandhi, Pravin K. Naoghare, Amit Bafana, Krishnamurthi Kannan, Saravanadevi Sivanesana

Abstract:

Oxidative stress is known to depreciate normal functioning of osteoblast cells. Present study reports oxidative/inflammatory signatures in fluoride exposed human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells and its possible association with the genes involved in bone developmental pathway. Microarray analysis was performed to understand the possible molecular mechanisms of stress-mediated bone lose in HOS cells. Cells were chronically exposed with sub-lethal concentration of fluoride. Global gene expression is profiling revealed 34 up regulated and 2598 down-regulated genes, which were associated with several biological processes including bone development, osteoblast differentiation, stress response, inflammatory response, apoptosis, regulation of cell proliferation. Microarray data were further validated through qRT-PCR and western blot analyses using key representative genes. Based on these findings, it can be proposed that chronic exposure of fluoride may impair bone development via oxidative and inflammatory stress. The present finding also provides important biological clues, which will be helpful for the development of therapeutic targets against diseases related bone.

Keywords: bone, HOS cells, microarray, stress

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3137 Imipramine Ameliorate Altered Biochemical Parameter and Oxidative Damage in Depression

Authors: D. S. Mohale, A.V. Chandewar

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Study was undertaken to investigate the effect of imipramine on various biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers in short and long term depression on rats. Rats were subjected for short (21 days) and long term (84 days) social isolation for and checked for depression on force swim test and tail suspension method. Various markers of oxidative stress like lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), Supersoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and biochemical parameters like Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), Serum glutamate pyruate transaminase (SGPT), and blood glucose were determined in depressed, control, imipramine and Vitamin E treated group. The rats displayed an increase in depression on force swim test and tail suspension method relative to control. There was significant increase in the level of LPO and decrease in the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT after short and long term depression. Increased oxidative stress in depression which may leads to alteration of biochemical parameters. Treatment with imipramine an tricyclic antidepressant significantly decreases in level of LPO, SGOT, SGPT and increase in the levels of GSH, SOD and CAT in long term depression.

Keywords: depression, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione

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3136 Diallyl Trisulfide Protects the Rat Liver from CCl4-Induced Injury and Fibrogenesis by Attenuating Oxidative Stress

Authors: Xiao-Jing Zhu, Liang Zhou, Shi-Zhong Zheng

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Various studies have shown that diallyl trisulfide (DATS) can protect the liver injury, and DATS has a strong antioxidant property. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vivo role of DATS in protecting the liver against injury and fibrogenesis and further explores the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that DATS protected the liver from CCl4-caused injury by suppressing the elevation of ALT and AST activities, and by improving the histological architecture of the liver. Treatment with DATS or colchicine improved the liver fibrosis by sirius red staining and immunofluorescence. In addition, immunohistochemistry, western blot, and RT-PCR analyses indicated that DATS inhibited HSC activation. Furthermore, DATS attenuated oxidative stress by increasing glutathione and reducing lipid peroxides and malondialdehyde. These findings suggest that the protective effect of DATS on CCl4-caused liver injury and liver fibrogenesis was, at least partially, attributed to its antioxidant activity.

Keywords: liver fibrogenesis, liver injury, oxidative stress, DATS

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3135 Beneficial Effects of Curcumin against Stress Oxidative and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Trinitrobenzene Sulphonic Acid in Colon

Authors: Souad Mouzaoui, Bahia Djerdjouri

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Oxidative stress is one of the main factors involved in the onset and chronicity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this study, we investigated the beneficial effects of a potent natural antioxidant, curcumin (Cur) on colitis and mitochondrial dysfunction in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in mice. Rectal instillation of the chemical irritant TNBS (30 mg kg-1) induced the disruption of distal colonic architecture and a massive inflammatory cells influx to the mucosa and submucosa layers. Under these conditions, daily administration of Cur (25 mg kg-1) efficiently decreased colitis scores in the inflamed distal colon by reducing leukocyte infiltrate as attested by reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Moreover, the levels of nitrite, an end product of inducible NO synthase activity (iNOS) and malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation increased in a time depending manner in response to TNBS challenge. Conversely, the markers of the antioxidant pool, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase activity (CAT) were drastically reduced. Cur attenuated oxidative stress markers and partially restored CAT and GSH levels. Moreover, our results expanded the effect of Cur on TNBS-induced colonic mitochondrial dysfunction. In fact, TNBS induced mitochondrial swelling and lipids peroxidation. These events reflected in the opening of mitochondrial transition pore and could be an initial indication in the cascade process leading to cell death. TNBS inhibited also mitochondrial respiratory activity, caused overproduction of mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2-.) and reduced level of mitochondrial GSH. Nevertheless, Cur reduced the extent of mitochondrial oxidative stress induced by TNBS and restored colonic mitochondrial function. In conclusion, our results showed the critical role of oxidative stress in TNBS-induced colitis. They highlight the role of colonic mitochondrial dysfunction induced by TNBS, as a potential source of oxidative damages. Due to its potent antioxidant properties, Cur opens a promising therapeutic approach against oxidative inflammation in IBD.

Keywords: colitis, curcumin, mitochondria, oxidative stress, TNBS

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3134 Modulation of Isoprenaline-Induced Myocardial Damage by Atorvastatin

Authors: Dalia Atallah, Lamiaa Ahmed, Hala Zaki, Mahmoud Khattab

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Background: Isoprenaline (ISO) administration induces myocardial damage via oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. Atorvastatin (ATV) treatment improves both oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction yet recent studies have reported a pro-oxidant effect upon ATV administration on both clinical and experimental studies. The present study was directed to investigate the effect of ATV pre-treatment and treatment on ISO-induced myocardial damage. Methods: Male rats were divided into five groups (n = 10). Rats were given ISO (5mg/kg/day, i.p.) for one week with or without ATV (10mg/kg/day, p.o.). ATV was given either as pre-treatment for one week before its co-administration with ISO for another week or as a treatment for two weeks at the end of the ISO administration. At the end of the experiment, the electrocardiographic examination was done and blood was isolated for the estimation of plasma creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) activity. Rats were then sacrificed and the whole ventricles were isolated for histological examination and the estimation of lipid peroxides as malondialdehyde (MDA) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, catalase activity, total nitrate-nitrite (NOx), as well as the estimation of both endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression. Results: ISO-induced myocardial damage showed a significant elevation in ST segment, an increase in CK-MB activity, as well as increased oxidative stress biomarkers. Also, ISO-treated rats showed a significant decrease in myocardial NOx level and eNOS as well as degeneration in the myocardium. ATV pre-treatment didn’t show any protection to ISO-treated rats. On the other hand, ATV treatment showed a significant decrease in both the elevated ST wave and CK-MB activity. Moreover, ATV Treatment succeeded to improve oxidative stress biomarkers, tissue NOx, and eNOS protein expression, as well as amelioration of the histological alterations. Conclusion: Pre-treatment with ATV failed to protect against ISO-induced damage. This might suggest a synergistic pro-oxidant effect upon administration of the pro-oxidant ISO along with ATV as demonstrated by the increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. On the other side, ATV treatment succeeded to significantly improve oxidative stress biomarkers, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial degeneration.

Keywords: atorvastatin, endothelial dysfunction, isoprenaline, oxidative stress

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3133 Oxidative Stress Markers in Sports Related to Training

Authors: V. Antevska, B. Dejanova, L. Todorovska, J. Pluncevic, E. Sivevska, S. Petrovska, S. Mancevska, I. Karagjozova

Abstract:

Introduction: The aim of this study was to optimise the laboratory oxidative stress (OS) markers in soccer players. Material and methods: In a number of 37 soccer players (21±3 years old) and 25 control subjects (sedenters), plasma samples were taken for d-ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites) and NO (nitric oxide) determination. The d-ROMs test was performed by measurement of hydroperoxide levels (Diacron, Italy). For NO determination the method of nitrate enzyme reduction with the Greiss reagent was used (OXIS, USA). The parameters were taken after the training of the soccer players and were compared with the control group. Training was considered as maximal exercise treadmill test. The criteria of maximum loading for each subject was established as >95% maximal heart rate. Results: The level of d-ROMs was found to be increased in the soccer players vs. control group but no significant difference was noticed. After the training d-ROMs in soccer players showed increased value of 299±44 UCarr (p<0.05). NO showed increased level in all soccer players vs. controls but significant difference was found after the training 102±29 μmol (p<0.05). Conclusion: Due to these results we may suggest that the measuring these OS markers in sport medicine may be useful for better estimation and evaluation of the training program. More oxidative stress should be used to clarify optimization of the training intensity program.

Keywords: oxidative stress markers, soccer players, training, sport

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3132 Protective Effect of Celosia Argentea Leaf Extract on Cadmium Induced Toxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rats

Authors: Sulyman Abdulhakeem Olarewaju, S. O. Malomo, M. T. Yakubu, J. O. Akolade

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The ameliorative effect of Celosia argentea var. cristata leaf extract against cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative stress and toxicity in selected tissues of rats was investigated. Toxicity coupled with oxidative stress was induced in rats by oral administration of Cd (8 mg/kg b. wt). Preliminary quantitative phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant analyses showed that the methanolic extract of C. argentea leaves was constituted by polyphenols (5.72%), saponins (3.20%), tannins (0.65%) and cadenolides (0.006%). IC50 of 9800, 7406, and 45.04 μg/ml were recorded for inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydrogen peroxide radicals respectively. Simultaneous administration of C. argentea leaf extract with Cd significantly attenuated Cd-induced elevation of serum enzyme markers such as aspartate and alanine transaminase, alkaline and acid phosphatase as well as γ-glutaryltransferase in a dose-dependent fashion, while their reduced level in the liver were significantly increased. Higher levels of enzymatic antioxidants; superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were observed in the liver, brain, kidney and testes of the Cd-induced rats treated with C. argentea extract, while lipid peroxidation expressed in malondialdehyde concentrations were lower when compared to values in rats administered Cd only. Other Cd-induced toxicity and stress markers in the serum viz. reduced uric acid and albumin levels as well as elevated total and unconjugated bilirubin were attenuated by the extract and their values compared favorably with those animals co-administered cadmium with ascorbic acid. Data from the study showed that oral administration of extract from the leaf C. argentea may ameliorate Cd-induced oxidative stress and toxicity in rats.

Keywords: toxicity, cadmium, celosia, antioxidants, oxidative stress

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3131 Phyllantus nuriri Protect against Fe2+ and SNP Induced Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Rich Fractions of Rats Brain

Authors: Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti, Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo, Joao Batista Teixeira Rocha

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We evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of Phyllantus nuriri against Fe2+ and SNP induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of rats brain. Cellular viability was assessed by MTT reduction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured using the probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Glutathione content was measured using dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB). Fe2+ (10µM) and SNP (5µM) significantly decreased mitochondrial activity, assessed by MTT reduction assay, in a dose-dependent manner, this occurred in parallel with increased glutathione oxidation, ROS production and lipid peroxidation end-products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS). The co-incubation with methanolic extract of Phyllantus nuriri (10-100 µg/ml) reduced the disruption of mitochondrial activity, gluthathione oxidation, ROS production as well as the increase in TBARS levels caused by both Fe2+ and SNP in a dose dependent manner. HPLC analysis of the extract revealed the presence of gallic acid (20.54±0.01), caffeic acid (7.93±0.02), rutin (25.31±0.05), quercetin (31.28±0.03) and kaemferol (14.36±0.01). This result suggests that these phytochemicals account for the protective actions of Phyllantus nuriri against Fe2+ and SNP -induced oxidative stress. Our results show that Phyllantus nuriri consist important bioactive molecules in the search for an improved therapy against the deleterious effects of Fe2+, an intrinsic producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that leads to neuronal oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

Keywords: Phyllantus niruri, neuroprotection, oxidative stress, mitochondria, synaptosome

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3130 The Growth Reaction, Membrane Potential and Oxidative Stress of Maize Coleoptile Cells Incubated in the Presence of the Naphthoquinones

Authors: Malgorzata Rudnicka, Waldemar Karcz

Abstract:

Introduction: Naphthoquinones are widely occurring organic compounds produced by bacteria, fungi, and plants. They can act as the functional components of biochemical systems (plastoquinone) as well as biologically active substances, which have a negative impact on environmental processes. Naphthoquinones seem to act through two mechanisms: a covalent modification of biological molecules at their nucleophilic sites or by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) connected with redox cycling. Investigating the effect of naphthoquinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone and naphthazarin) on the elongation growth, membrane potential and the level of oxidative stress of maize cells seems to be important due to the possibility of using these substances as herbicides. Methods: All experiments were performed on etiolated maize coleoptile segments. Simultaneous measurements of elongation growth and pH of the incubation medium were carried out using an angular position transducer, allowing a precise record of the growth kinetics. To compare the oxidative stress level induced by all tested naphthoquinones, the changes in malondialdehyde content, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. In order to measure the membrane potential of parenchymal cells the standard electrophysiology technique was used. Results: Naphthoquinones such as: 1,4-naphthoquinone, lawsone and naphthazarin were studied. It was found that all of the naphthoquinones diminished the growth of the maize coleoptile cells depending on the type of naphthoquinones and their concentration. Interestingly, naphthazarin at the intermediate concentration was less toxic compared to the others. In addition, the effect of naphthoquinones on the oxidative stress was dependent on their concentration as well. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were changed in the presence of higher concentrations of naphthoquinones. Similar interrelations were observed for membrane potential changes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that naphthoquinones tested differ in their toxic effect on the growth of maize coleoptile cells. Furthermore, naphthoquinones can be distinguish considering the oxidative stress level and membrane potential changes. The results presented here give new insight into the possible opportunities of practical usage of naphthoquinones for herbicides improvement.

Keywords: growth rate, membrane potential, naphthoquinones, oxidative stress

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3129 The Oxidative Damage Marker for Sodium Formate Exposure on Lymphocytes

Authors: Malinee Pongsavee

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Sodium formate is the chemical substance used for food additive. Catalase is the important antioxidative enzyme in protecting the cell from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resultant level of oxidative stress in sodium formatetreated lymphocytes was investigated. The sodium formate concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL were treated in human lymphocytes for 12 hours. After 12 treated hours, catalase activity change was measured in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes. The results showed that the sodium formate concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL significantly decreased catalase activities in lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The change of catalase activity in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes may be the oxidative damage marker for detect sodium formate exposure in human.

Keywords: sodium formate, catalase activity, oxidative damage marker, toxicity

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3128 Ethylene Response Factor BnERF from Brassica napus L. Enhances Submergence Tolerance and Alleviates the Oxidative Damage Caused by Submergence in Arabidopsis thaliana

Authors: Sanxiong Fu, Yanyan Lv, Song Chen, Wei Zhang, Cunkou Qi

Abstract:

Ethylene response factor proteins are known to play an important role in regulating a variety of stress responses in plants, but their exact functions in submergence stress are not completely understood. In this study, we isolated BnERF from Brassica napus L. to study the function of BnERF in submergence tolerance. The expression of BnERF gene in Brassica napus L. and the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in transgenic Arabidopsis were analyzed by Quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that expression of BnERF is apparently induced by submergence in Brassica napus L. and overexpression of BnERF in Arabidopsis increases the tolerance level to submergence and oxidative stress. Histochemical method detected lower level of H2O2, O2•− and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Compared to wild type, transgenic lines also have higher soluble sugar content and higher activity of antioxidant enzymes, which helps protect the plants against the oxidative damage caused by submergence. It was concluded that BnERF can increase the tolerance of plants to submergence stress and BnERF might be involved in regulating soluble sugar content and the antioxidant system in the defense against submergence stress.

Keywords: antioxidant enzyme, Arabidopsis, ethylene response factor, submergence

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3127 NS5ABP37 Inhibits Liver Cancer by Impeding Lipogenesis and Cholesterogenesis

Authors: Shenghu Feng, Jun Cheng

Abstract:

The molecular mechanism underlying nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, immunohistochemistry staining result showed that NS5ABP37 protein expression decreased as with increasing degree of HCC malignancy. In agreement, NS5ABP37 protein overexpression significantly suppressed cell proliferation, caused G1/S cell cycle arrest, and induced apoptosis by increasing caspase-3/7 activity and cleaved caspase-3 levels. In addition, NS5ABP37 overexpression resulted in decreased intracellular TG and TC contents, with level reduction in SREBPs and downstream effectors. Furthermore, NS5ABP37 overexpression decreased SREBP1c and SREBP2 levels by inducing their respective promoters. Finally, ROS levels and ER-stress were both induced by NS5ABP37 overexpression. These findings together demonstrate that NS5ABP37 inhibits cancer cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis, by altering SREBP-dependent lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis in HepG2 cells and inducing oxidative stress and ER stress.

Keywords: NS5ABP37, liver cancer, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, ER stress

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3126 Effects of Live Yeast Supplementation to Reduce Oxidative Stress and Increase Lactation Performance of Dairy Cattle during the Summer Season

Authors: Ahmad Nawid Mirzad, Akira Goto, Takuto Endo, Hitoshi Ano, Hiromu Katamoto, Takenori Yamauchi

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of live yeast supplementation on oxidative stress biomarker and antioxidant vitamin levels as well as lactation performance in Holstein Friesian cows during the summer season in Fukuoka prefecture. Sixteen lactating cows weighing 707.50 ± 13.09 kg (Mean ± SE) were used and randomly assigned to either supplemented (n = 8) or control (n = 8) group. The cows in supplemented group were administered with live yeast product at 10 g/d per cow from middle of July to middle of September for eight weeks. In treatment group, serum levels of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) were lower at week six. In addition, serum levels of glucose and retinol were higher at week eight and those of α-tocopherol were higher at week 2 in treatment group. During study period daily average milk yield decreased in both groups. Daily average milk yield 63 days after the onset of supplementation in treatment and control groups were 23.5 and 22.2 kg, respectively. The reduction rate of milk yield in treatment group tended to be lower (17.6 vs. 20.0%). These results suggest that live yeast supplementation may reduce oxidative stress and improve energy metabolism in lactating dairy cows during the summer season.

Keywords: cow, live yeast, milk, oxidative stress, summer season

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3125 Cucurbita pepo L. Attenuates Diabetic Neuropathy by Targeting Oxidative Stress in STZ-Nicotinamide Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Navpreet Kaur, Randhir Singh

Abstract:

Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus which affects more than 50% of diabetic patients. The present study targeted oxidative stress mediated nerve damage in diabetic rats using a hydro-alcohol extract of Cucurbita pepo L. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) and its potential in treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes neuropathy was induced in Wistar rats by injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, i.p.) 15 min after Nicotinamide (230 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. Hydro-alcohol extract of C. pepo seeds was assessed by oral administration at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg in STZ-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Thermal hyperalgesia (Eddy's hot plate and tail immersion), mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall-Selitto) and tactile allodynia (Von Frey hair tests) were evaluated in all groups of streptozotocin diabetic rats to assess the extent of neuropathy. Tissue (sciatic nerve) antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH and LPO) levels were measured along with the formation of AGEs in serum to assess the effect of hydro-alcohol extract of C. pepo in ameliorating oxidative stress. Diabetic rats exhibited significantly decreased tail-flick latency in the tail-immersion test and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in both Randall-Selitto and von-Frey hair test. A decrease in the nociceptive threshold was accompanied by significantly increased oxidative stress in sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Treatment with the C. pepo hydro-alcohol extract significantly attenuated all the behavioral and biochemical alterations in a dose-dependent manner. C. pepo attenuated the diabetic condition and also reversed neuropathic pain through modulation of oxidative stress and thus it may find application as a possible therapeutic agent against diabetic neuropathy.

Keywords: advanced glycation end products, antioxidant enzymes, cucurbita pepo, hyperglycemia

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3124 Preventive Effect of Stem Back Extracts of Coula edulis Baill. against High-Fat / High Sucrose Diet-Induced Insulin Resistance and Oxidative Stress in Rats

Authors: Eric Beyegue, Boris Azantza, Judith Laure Ngondi, Julius E. Oben

Abstract:

Background: Insulin resistance (IR) and oxidative stress are associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus, and other cardio metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Coula edulis extracts (CEE) on insulin resistance and oxidative stress markers in high-fat/high sucrose diet-induced insulin resistance in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty male rats were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each fed, received daily oral administration of CE extracts for 8 weeks as follows: Group 1 or negative control group, fed with standard diet (SD); Group 2 fed with high-fat/high sucrose diet (HFHS) only; Group3 fed with HFHS + CEAq 200; Group 4 fed with HFHS + CEAq 400; Group 5 fed with HFHS + CEEt 200; Group 6 fed with HFHS + CEEt 400. At the end of the experiment (8 weeks), animals were sacrificed plasma lipid profile, glucose, insulin, oxidative marker and digestive enzyme activities were measured. The homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was determined. Results: Feedings with HFHS significantly (p < 0.01) induced plasma hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels, decreased high-density lipoprotein levels, alterations of α amylase, and glucose-6-phosphatase activities, and oxidative stress. Daily oral administration with CEE for eight weeks after insulin resistance induction had a hypolipidaemic action, antioxidative activities and modulated metabolic markers. Ethanolic extract at the higher dose had the best effect on body weight gain and insulin resistance, whereas aqueous extract showed the better activity on hyperlipidemia. Conclusion: These results suggest that CEAq and CEEt at 400mg/kg are promising complementary supplements that can be used to protect better from metabolic disorders associated with HFHS.

Keywords: Coula edulis Baill, high-fat / high sucrose diet, insulin resistance, oxidative stress

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3123 Role of Sulforaphane on Alleviating Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy(DMD) through Activation of Nrf2

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Shujun Li, Dejia Li

Abstract:

Sulforaphane (SFN) possesses powerful chemo-preventive effects and plays a crucial role on oxidative stress and inflammatory. In our recent study, SFN treatment could relieve muscular dystrophy in mdx mice by activating Nrf2 (NF-E2 related factor 2). Moreover, our findings indicated that SFN-activated Nrf2 alleviated muscle inflammation in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice through suppressing NF-κB signaling pathway. Collectively, SFN-induced Nrf2 molecular pathway might be a promising approach for treatment of the patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Keywords: sulforaphane, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Nrf2, inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress

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3122 Silica Nanoparticles Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in MRC-5 Human Lung Fibroblasts

Authors: Anca Dinischiotu, Sorina Nicoleta Voicu

Abstract:

Silica nanoparticles (SiO2-NPs) are widely used in consumer products such as paints, plastics, insulation materials, tires, concrete production, as well as in gene delivery systems and imaging procedures. Environmental human exposure to them occurs during utilization of these products, in a time-dependent manner, the uptake being by topic and inhalation route especially. SiO2-NPs enter cells and induce membrane damage, oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions in a concentration-dependent manner. In this study, MRC-5 cells (human fetal lung fibroblasts) were exposed to amorphous SiO2-NPs at a dose of 62.5 μg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The size distribution of NPs was a lognormal function, in the range 3-14 nm. A time-dependent decrease of total reduced glutathione concentration by 36%, 50%, and 78% and an increase of NO level by 62%, 32%, respectively 24% compared to control were noticed. An up-regulation of NF-kB expression by 20%, 50% respectively 10% and of Nrf-2 by 139%, 58%, and 16% compared to control after 24, 48 and 72 hours was noticed also. The expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and COX-2 was up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. Also, the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were down-regulated after 48 and 72 hours, whereas their activities raised in a time-dependent manner. Exposure of cells to NPs up-regulated the expression of inducible NO synthase, as previously was shown, and probably this is the reason for the increased level of NO, that can react with the thiol groups of reduced glutathione molecules, diminishing its concentration Nrf2 is a transcription factor translocated in nucleus, under oxidative stress, where downstream gene expression activates in order to modulate the adaptive intracellular response against oxidative stress. The cross-talk between Nrf2 and NF-kB activities regulates the inflammatory processes. The activation of NF-kB could activate up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8. The increase of COX-2 expression could be correlated with IL-1β one. Also, probably in response to the pro-inflammatory cytokines, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were induced and activated. In conclusion, the exposure of MRC-5 cells to SiO2-NPs generated inflammation in a time-dependent manner.

Keywords: inflammation, MRC-5 cells, oxidative stress, silica nanoparticles

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3121 Effect of Clerodendrum Species on Oxidative Stress with Possible Implication in Alleviating Carcinogenesis

Authors: Somit Dutta, Pallab Kar, Arnab Kumar Chakraborty, Arnab Sen, Tapas Kumar Chaudhuri

Abstract:

In the present study three species of Clerodendrum; Clerodendrum indicum, Volkameria inermis and Clerodendrum colebrookianum were used to investigate the possible activity against oxidative stress. A detailed in-vivo and in-vitro antioxidant profiling, directly associated with inflammation-related carcinogenesis, has been executed with a motive to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of Clerodendrum extract. Measurement of cell viability and ROS generation in HEK-293 (Human Embryonic Kidney Cell Line) cells was also estimated. The immune cell proliferative properties (MTT) and in-vitro assay for evaluation of their antioxidant activities including hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide, singlet oxygen, peroxinitrate and hydrogen peroxide, etc. were investigated. GC-MS and FTIR analyses have been performed to identify the active biological compounds. These active biological compounds were further studied to assess their potential medicinal properties, aided by molecular docking and interaction analysis between the active compounds and different proteins related to oxidative stress leading to progression of carcinogenesis. The research article clearly demonstrates the role of ROS in various phases of carcinogenesis. Therefore, the antioxidant and free radical scavenging capacity of all the Clerodendrum species might prove beneficial for the immune system. It might be concluded that this plant species offers great promise for cancer prevention and therapy due to the presence of several bioactive compounds and potent antioxidant capacity of C. colebrookianum.

Keywords: antioxidant, cancer, oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS)

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3120 Antioxidant Effects of C-Phycocyanin on Oxidized Astrocyte in Brain Injury Using 2D and 3D Neural Nanofiber Tissue Model

Authors: Seung Ju Yeon, Seul Ki Min, Jun Sang Park, Yeo Seon Kwon, Hoo Cheol Lee, Hyun Jung Shim, Il-Doo Kim, Ja Kyeong Lee, Hwa Sung Shin

Abstract:

In brain injury, depleting oxidative stress is the most effective way to reduce the brain infarct size. C-phycocyanin (C-Pc) is a well-known antioxidant protein that has neuroprotective effects obtained from green microalgae. Astrocyte is glial cell that supports the nerve cell such as neuron, which account for a large portion of the brain. In brain injury, such as ischemia and reperfusion, astrocyte has an important rule that overcomes the oxidative stress and protect from brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) injury. However little is known about how C-Pc regulates the anti-oxidants effects of astrocyte. In this study, when the C-Pc was treated in oxidized astrocyte, we confirmed that inflammatory factors Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-3 were increased and antioxidants enzyme, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was upregulated, and neurotrophic factors, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) was alleviated. Also, it was confirmed to reduce infarct size of the brain in ischemia and reperfusion because C-Pc has anti-oxidant effects in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) animal model. These results show that C-Pc can help astrocytes lead neuroprotective activities in the oxidative stressed environment of the brain. In summary, the C-PC protects astrocytes from oxidative stress and has anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neurotrophic effects under ischemic situations.

Keywords: c-phycocyanin, astrocyte, reactive oxygen species, ischemia and reperfusion, neuroprotective effect

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3119 Olive Oil (Olea europea L.) Protects against Mercury (II) Induced Oxidative Tissue Damage in Rats

Authors: Ahlem Bahi, Youcef Necib, Sakina Zerizer, Cherif Abdennour, Mohamed Salah Boulakoud

Abstract:

Mercury (II) is a highly toxic metal which induces oxidative stress in the body. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of olive oil, an antioxidant agent, against experimental mercury toxicity in rat model. Administration of mercuric chloride induced significant increase in serum: ALT, AST, and LPA activities; interleukine1, interleukine6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels. Mercuric chloride also induced oxidative stress, as indicate by decreased tissue of GSH level, GSH-Px, and GST activities along with increase the level of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of kidney and liver weight and decreased body weight. Virgin olive oil treatment markedly reduced elevated serum: AST, ALT, and LPA activities; interleukine1, interleukine6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), creatinine, urea, and uric acid levels and contracted the deterious effects of mercuric chloride on oxidative stress markers changes caused by HgCl2 in tissue as compared to control group. Our results implicate that mercury induced oxidative damage in liver and kidney tissue protected by virgin olive oil, with its antioxidant effects.

Keywords: mercury, antioxidant enzymes, pro-inflammatory cytokine, virgin olive oil, lipid peroxidation

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