Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Clarias gariepinus

31 Antioxidant Responses and Malondialdehyde Levels in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Eleyele River in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwatosin Adetola Arojojoye, Olajumoke Olufunlayo Alao, Philip Odigili

Abstract:

This study investigated the extent of pollution in Eleyele River in Oyo State, Nigeria by investigating the antioxidant status and malondialdehyde levels (index of lipid peroxidation) in the organs of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from the river. Clarias gariepinus weighing between 250g-400g were collected from Eleyele River (a suspected polluted river) and Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm (Durantee fisheries) were used as the control. Levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione concentration (GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were evaluated in the post-mitochondrial fractions of the liver, kidney and gills of the fishes. From the results, there were increases in malondialdehyde level and GSH concentration in the liver, kidney and gills of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control. Glutathione-S-transferase activity was induced in the liver and kidney of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control. However, the activity of this enzyme was depleted in the gills of fishes from Eleyele River compared with control. Also there was an induction in SOD activity in the liver of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control but there was a decrease in the activity of this enzyme in the kidney and gills of fishes from Eleyele River compared with control. Increase in lipid peroxidation and alterations in antioxidant system in Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River show that the fishes were under oxidative stress. These suggest that the river is polluted probably as a result of industrial, domestic and agricultural wastes frequently discharged into the river. This could pose serious health risks to consumers of water and aquatic organisms from the river.

Keywords: antioxidant, lipid peroxidation, Clarias gariepinus, Eleyele River

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30 Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Parkia biglobosa Pod on Weight Gain in the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus Juveniles

Authors: M. I. Oshimagye, V. O. Ayuba, P. A. Annune

Abstract:

The effect of Sublethal Concentrations of Parkia biglobosa pod extract on the growth and survival of Clarias gariepinus juveniles (mean weight 32.73g ± 0.0) were investigated under laboratory conditions for 8 weeks using the static renewal and continuous aeration system. Statistical analysis showed that fish exposed to various concentrations had significantly lower (P<0.05) growth rate than the control groups. The reduction in growth was observed to be directly proportional to increase in concentration. However, at 50 mg/L no significant depression in weight was observed.

Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, Parkia biglobosa, pod, weight

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29 Study on Hybridization between Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) and Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1809)

Authors: Wasiu Olaniyi, Ofelia Omitogun

Abstract:

Hybridization has been of importance in both research and commercial aquaculture due to its benefits such as increased growth rate, sex ratio manipulation, production of sterile species and many other desirable economic traits. In this study, we successfully produced hybrids between crosses of Clariid catfish species of Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis for stock improvement. Milt and eggs from parent broodstock of C. gariepinus and H. bidorsalis were collected for both intrageneric and interspecific hybridization, viz: same parent species crosses (♀C. gariepinus ×♂C. gariepinus; ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂H. bidorsalis) and inter-specific crosses (♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus; ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis). These crosses were made in triplicates whereby the data on latency period, fertility, hatchability, deformity, and survival were recorded. A phenotypic form of distinction was registered in the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis that was smooth-greyed while its reciprocal cross was marpatic. The parent species C. gariepinus had greyed-marpatic color while the H. bidorsalis was yellowish-brown. Fertility data revealed the significant difference (p < 0.05) between the hybrid cross ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis (88.00 ± 1.00%) compared to its reciprocal ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (71.67 ± 10.41%) which further had carried over effects to hatchability. The reciprocal ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus recorded the highest deformity (11.67 ± 3.06%) that was significantly different (p < 0.05) from the rest of the crosses. Also, an outcome of equal sex ratio in the hybrids compared with the two parent species was shown. Specific growth rate (SGR) data revealed highest significant difference (p < 0.05) in the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis (2.64 ± 0.09%), followed by the cross of ♀C. gariepinus × ♂ C. gariepinus (1.91 ± 0.02%) while there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the reciprocal hybrid ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (2.20 ± 0.57%) and ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂H. bidorsalis (2.19 ± 0.19%). The SGR analysis proved that the crosses ♀C. gariepinus × ♂C. gariepinus had slow growth performance compared to its hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis. Critical evaluation based on survival and specific growth performance showed the superiority of the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis. The least survival in reciprocal hybrid ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (27.33%) can be explained by significant deformity (11.67%) recorded due to maternal effects. Hence, the survival of hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis was better.

Keywords: aquaculture, hybridization, Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus bidorsalis

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28 Assessment of Some Heavy Metals (Manganese, Copper, Nickel and Zinc) in Muscle and Liver of the African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Ilushi River, Nigeria

Authors: Joshua I. Izegaegbe, Femi F. Oloye, Catherine E. Nasiru

Abstract:

This study determined the level of manganese, zinc, copper, and nickel in the liver and muscle of the African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from Ilushi River, Edo State, Nigeria with a view to determining the extent of contamination. Heavy metal determination of digested fish samples was done using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The results show that the muscles and livers were contaminated to varying levels with the presence of some non-metallic elements. The heavy metal load revealed that zinc had the highest mean concentration of 0.217±0.008µg/g in liver and 0.130±0.006µg/g in muscle, while copper recorded the least concentration in liver 0.063±0.004µg/g and 0.027±0.003µg/gin muscle. The distribution of the heavy metals in the muscles and livers of Clarias gariepinus showed significant variations and the results also revealed that the concentration of heavy metals (Zn, Cu,Ni and Mn) found in the liver was higher than those found in the muscle. This indicates that the liver is a better accumulator of heavy metal in Clarias gariepinus than the muscles. On comparison with WHO/FAO/FEPA/USFDA standards, the study shows that the concentrations of heavy metals in liver and muscle were within permissible limits safe for human consumption.

Keywords: clarias gariepinus, heavy metals, liver, muscle

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27 Galawaste Meal as Dietary Supplement in Practical Diets for African Giant Catfish Clarias Gariepinus Burchell 1822 Fingerlings

Authors: G. O. Fakunmoju, F. A. Fakunmoju

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth response of African giant catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fed with varying levels of Galawaste based diet, 300 clarias gariepinus fingerlings with mean body weight 10 ± 0.1g were assigned to five (treatment levels in which Gala waste meal replaced maize at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100% respectively in a completely randomized design. The trial fish were fed at 5% body weight daily for a period of 84 days. Data collected showed that body weight gain increased with an increase gala waste meal in the diet (P<0.05). The similar observation was recorded for feed intake but there was no significant (P>0.05) difference in feed conversion ratio among the treatments. All the fish fed the test ingredients performed better than the control groups hence, Gala waste meal could be recommended as a dietary supplement in the diet of African Giant Catfish.

Keywords: Galawaste meal, Clarias gariepinus, replacement, growth performance, diets

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26 Antimicrobial Potential of Calendula officinalis Extracts on Flavobacterium columnare of Clarias gariepinus Fingerlings

Authors: Nelson Rotimi Osungbemiro, Sanni Rafiu Olugbenga, Abayomi Olufemi Olajuyigbe

Abstract:

Ninety Fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus were exposed to the pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare a Gram Negative bacteria responsible for high mortality in fish pond raised young fish (fries and fingerlings) of Clarias sp. in Southwestern Nigeria. After feeding with 40% crude protein pelletized fish feed for 5 days, the fishes were divided into two groups, one group was treated with extracts from Calendula officinalis flowers, while the second group was not treated (control). The results indicated that, at day 5, colony formation had been manifesting and at day 7, skin lesion occurred and at the 8th day, first mortality of fish occurred, and this continued steadily on the 9th-12th day when all the fishes were dead. Whereas, in the group that was treated with Calendula sp., no single mortality was recorded. This research shows that plant extract from Calendula flowers is an effective antimicrobial agent against the virulent pathogenic Flavobacterium columnare disease.

Keywords: antimicrobial, Flavobacterium columnare, Clarias gariepinus, fish

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25 Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) from Fish Mongers within Akure Metropolis, Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: O. O. Olawusi-Peters, K. I. Adejugbagbe

Abstract:

The concentration of heavy metal (Cd, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu) in Clarias gariepinus collected from fish markets; Fanibi (Station I) and Fiwasaye (Station II) in Akure metropolis, Ondo state, Nigeria were investigated to ascertain the safety for the consumers. 60 samples were collected from the two markets in three batches (I, II, III) for a period of six months and analyzed for heavy metals in the gills and muscles of the fish. Also, the Health Risk Index (HRI) was used to determine the health risk of these metals to the consumer. The results showed that the investigated metal concentration was higher in station I than station II, except Pb having higher concentration in station II than station I. In both stations, the highest concentration of Fe was recorded in the gills (12.60 ± 1.51; 6.94 ± 1.38) and muscles (3.72 ± 0.09; 3.86 ± 0.33) of samples in batch I. Also, the HRI revealed that consumption of Clarias gariepinus from these study areas did not pose any health risk (HRI < 1). In addition, concentrations of the heavy metals were all below the permissible limits recommended by FAO/WHO.

Keywords: health risk index, heavy metals, clarias gariepinus, akure metropolis, fish monger

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24 Bacteria Flora in the Gut and Respiratory Organs of Clarias gariepinus in Fresh and Brackish Water Habitats of Ondo State, South/West Nigeria

Authors: Nelson R. Osungbemiro, Rafiu O. Sanni, Rotimi F. Olaniyan, Abayomi O. Olajuyigbe

Abstract:

Bacteria flora of Clarias gariepinus collected from two natural habitats namely Owena River (freshwater) and Igbokoda lagoon (brackish water) were examined using standard microbiological procedures. Thirteen bacterial species were identified. The result indicated that from the identified bacteria isolated, Vibrio sp, Proteus sp. Shigella sp. and E. coli were present in both habitats (fresh and brackish waters). Others were habitat-selective such as Salmonella sp., Pseudomonas sp, Enterococcus sp, Staphylococcus sp. that were found only in freshwater habitat. While Branhamella sp, Streptococcus sp. and Micrococcus sp. were found in brackish water habitat. Bacteria load from Owena river (freshwater) was found to be the highest load recorded at 6.21 x 104cfu. T-test analysis also revealed that there was a marked significant difference between bacterial load in guts of sampled Clarias from fresh water and brackish water habitats.

Keywords: bacteria flora, gut, Clarias gariepinus, Owena river

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23 Effect of Substituting Groundnut Cake with Remnant of Food Composite on Survival and Growth of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: M. Y. Abubakar, M. Yunisa, A. N. Muhammad

Abstract:

Constraining the production Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus culture is the prohibitive cost of feed. We assess the performance of the species fingerlings on diets substituted with composite. Four dietary treatments (0%, 25%, 45%, and 75%) for C. gariepinus and five (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and whole food composite) for O. niloticus were formulated and each fed to 15 fingerlings for C. gariepinus and 10 fingerlings for O. niloticus stocked in 75ltrs plastic bowls, replicated trice in a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted 56 days. Percent survival rate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (57.78 ± 9.69) in C. gariepinus fed diet III. The growth and nutrient utilization indices were least in the fish fed diet IV, which was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in other treatments. Fish fed dietary treatment III, recorded the best in growth and nutrient utilization indices and was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those fed dietary treatments I & II which were non-significant (p > 0.05) and higher than those fed 75% substitution. Better profit index was in the fish fed diet with 50% substitution level. For O. niloticus, the survival (172.62 ± 39.03) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in those fed 25% substituted diet. For growth indices, the least performed were those fed whole composite while other treatments were non-significant (p > 0.05) different from each other. In terms of nutrient utilization, fish fed diet substituted at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% food composite had similar food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the profit index among the whole treatment. It can be concluded that food composite from Sokoto house-holds can optimally replace groundnut cake up to 50% level as a protein source in the diets of Clarias gariepinus and O. niloticus fingerlings without adverse effects on survival, growth, and nutrient utilization.

Keywords: food composite, nutrient utilization, C. gariepinus, O. niloticus household, substitution levels

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22 Impact of Environmental Pollution on Oxidative Stress Indices in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Araromi River in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Arojojoye Oluwatosin Adetola, Nwaechefu Olajumoke Olufunlayo, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Jeremiah Moyinoluwalogo Afolabi, Asaolu Racheal Oluwabukola

Abstract:

The effects of man’s activities on the environment include depletion of natural resources alongside pollution of water bodies. Petroleum exploration in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has compromised the aquatic environment with grave consequences on the entire ecosystem. In this study, we assessed the environmental safety of Araromi River, located in an oil-producing area in Ondo State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria by determining the levels of heavy metals (copper, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) and some biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase and reduced glutathione) in Clarias gariepinus (350-400g) from the river using standard methods. Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm in the same geographical location as the reference site (Ilesannmi fishery) was used as a control. Water samples from both sites were also analysed for some physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and bacterial contamination. Our findings show a significant increase in malondialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) as well as alterations in antioxidant status in the organs of Clarias gariepinus from Araromi River compared with control. A significant increase in bacterial contaminants, heavy metal pollutants, and particulate matter deposits were also observed in the water sample from Araromi River compared with control. In conclusion, high levels of indicators of environmental pollution observed in the water sample from Araromi River coupled with induction of oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus from the river show that Araromi River is polluted; therefore, consumption of fishes and other aquatic organisms from the river may be unsafe for the people in that community.

Keywords: Araromi River, Clarias gariepinus, environmental pollution, heavy metals, oxidative stress

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21 Evaluation of Growth Performance and Survival Rate of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Fed with Graded Levels of Egg Shell Substituted Ration

Authors: A. Bello-Olusoji, M. O. Sodamola, Y. A. Adejola, D. D Akinbola

Abstract:

An eight (8) weeks study was carried out on Four hundred and five (405) African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles to examine the effect of graded levels of egg shell on their growth performance and survival rates. They were acclimatized for two (2) weeks after which they were weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments of three (3) replicates each and 27 fishes per replicate making a total number of eighty-one (81) fishes per treatment. The dietary treatments contained 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100(%) egg shell inclusion from treatment one to treatment five respectively. Parameter on daily feed intake, weekly weight gain, and daily mortalities were recorded. The result of the experiment indicated that treatment four (4) with 75% inclusion of egg shell was the best in terms of weight gain and survival rates and was significantly different (P<0.05) when compared with the other treatments. For Catfish farming to remain viable in the nearest future, lower feed cost and increased profit are required; it is therefore recommended that diets of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) be supplemented with well processed egg shell at 75% level of inclusion to achieve this.

Keywords: African catfish, egg shell, performance, performance, survival rate, weight gain

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20 Effects of Probiotic Pseudomonas fluorescens on the Growth Performance, Immune Modulation, and Histopathology of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Authors: Nelson R. Osungbemiro, O. A. Bello-Olusoji, M. Oladipupo

Abstract:

This study was carried out to determine the effects of probiotics Pseudomonas fluorescens on the growth performance, histology examination and immune modulation of African Catfish, (Clarias gariepinus) challenged with Clostridium botulinum. P. fluorescens, and C. botulinum isolates were removed from the gut, gill and skin organs of procured adult samples of Clarias gariepinus from commercial fish farms in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. The physical and biochemical tests were performed on the bacterial isolates using standard microbiological techniques for their identification. Antibacterial activity tests on P. fluorescens showed inhibition zone with mean value of 3.7 mm which indicates high level of antagonism. The experimental diets were prepared at different probiotics bacterial concentration comprises of five treatments of different bacterial suspension, including the control (T1), T2 (10³), T3 (10⁵), T4 (10⁷) and T5 (10⁹). Three replicates for each treatment type were prepared. Growth performance and nutrients utilization indices were calculated. The proximate analysis of fish carcass and experimental diet was carried out using standard methods. After feeding for 70 days, haematological values and histological test were done following standard methods; also a subgroup from each experimental treatment was challenged by inoculating Intraperitonieally (I/P) with different concentration of pathogenic C. botulinum. Statistically, there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in the growth performance and nutrient utilization of C. gariepinus. Best weight gain and feed conversion ratio were recorded in fish fed T4 (10⁷) and poorest value obtained in the control. Haematological analyses of C. gariepinus fed the experimental diets indicated that all the fish fed diets with P. fluorescens had marked significantly (p < 0.05) higher White Blood Cell than the control diet. The results of the challenge test showed that fish fed the control diet had the highest mortality rate. Histological examination of the gill, intestine, and liver of fish in this study showed several histopathological alterations in fish fed the control diets compared with those fed the P. fluorescens diets. The study indicated that the optimum level of P. fluorescens required for C. gariepinus growth and white blood cells formation is 10⁷ CFU g⁻¹, while carcass protein deposition required 10⁵ CFU g⁻¹ of P. fluorescens concentration. The study also confirmed P. fluorescens as efficient probiotics that is capable of improving the immune response of C. gariepinus against the attack of a virulent fish pathogen, C. botulinum.

Keywords: Clarias gariepinus, Clostridium botulinum, probiotics, Pseudomonas fluorescens

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19 In vivo Inhibition and Restoration of Acetyl Cholinesterase Activities in Induced Clarias Gariepinus

Authors: T. O. Ikpesu, I. Tongo, A. Ariyo

Abstract:

This study was conducted to assess the effects of an organophosphate pesticide glyphosate formulation on neurological enzymes in the brain, liver and serum of juvenile Clarias gariepinus, and also to examine the antidotal prospect of Garcinia kola seeds extract. The fish divided into five groups were exposed to different treatments of glyphosate formulation and Garcinia kola seeds extract. Acetyl cholinesterase activities in the brain, liver and serum of the fish were estimated in the experimental and control fishes on day -7, 14, 21 and of 28 by spectrophotometrical methods. The enzyme was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited in glyphosate formulation test. The inhibition percentages of AChE ranged for the brain, liver and serum between 40.7–59.4%, 50-57% and 27.5–51.3%, respectively. The aberrated parameters were recovered in G. kola seeds extract treated aquaria, and was dose and time dependent. The present study demonstrated that in vivo glyphosate formulation exposure caused AChE inhibition in the brain, liver and the serum. The brain tissue, however, might be suggested as a good indicator tissue for aquatic pollutants exposure in the fish and G. kola seeds extract has shown to be a good remedy for neurology restoration in a noxious circumstance. The findings has shown that xenobiotics could be eliminated from aquatic organisms, especially fish, and could be put into practice in areas at risk of pollutants. This approach can reduce the risks of biomagnification of poison in sea food. Hence, formulation of this plant extracts into capsule should be encouraged and supported.

Keywords: glyphosate, Clarias gariepinus, brain, Garcinia kola, acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes

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18 Bioprophylaxis of Saprolegniasis in Incubated Clarias gariepinus Eggs Using Pyocyanin Extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: G. A. Oladosu1, P. O. Ogbodogbo, C. I. Makinde1, M. O. Tijani, O. A. Adegboyega

Abstract:

Saprolegniasis is a major pathogenic infection that contributes significantly to poor hatching rates in incubated fish eggs in the Africa catfish hatchery in Nigeria. Malachite green known to be very effective against this condition has been banned because it is carcinogenic. There is, therefore, the need for other effective yet safer methods of controlling saprolegniasis in incubated fish eggs. A total of 50 ml crude, chloroform extract of pyocyanin from which solvent was removed to attain 30 ml, having a concentration of 12.16 ug/ml was produced from 700 ml broth culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a previous study. In-vitro susceptibility of the fungus was investigated by exposing fungal infected eggs to two different time-concentration ratios of pyocyanin; 0.275 ug/ml and 2.75 ug/ml for 1 and 24 hours, and 5 mg/L malachite green as positive control while normal saline was the control. The efficacy of pyocyanin was evaluated using the degree of mycelial growth inhibition in different treatments. Fertilized Clarias gariepinus eggs (between 45 to 64 eggs) were then incubated in 20 ml of medium containing similar concentrations of pyocyanin and malachite green, with freshwater as a control for 24 hours. Hatching rates of the incubated eggs were observed. Three samples of un-hatched eggs were taken from each medium and observed for the presence of fungal pathogens using microscopy. Another batch of three samples of un-hatched eggs from each treatment was also inoculated on Sabourand dextrose agar (SDA) using Egg-Agar Transfer Technique to observe for fungal growth. Mycelial growth was inhibited in fungal infected eggs treated with 2.75 ug/ml for 24 hrs and the 5 mg/L malachite green for both 1 hr and 24 hrs. The mortality rate was 100% in fertilized C. gariepinus eggs exposed for 24 hrs to 0.275 and 2.75 ug/ml of pyocyanin. The mortality rate was least in malachite green followed by the control treatment. Embryonic development was observed to be arrested in the eggs treated with the two pyocyanin concentrations as they maintain their colour but showed no development beyond the gastrula stage, whereas viable eggs in the control and malachite green treatments developed fully into healthy hatchlings. Furthermore, microscopy of the un-hatched eggs revealed the presence of a protozoan ciliate; Colpidium sp, (Tetrahymenidae), as well as a pathogenic fungus; Saprolegnia sp. in the control but not in the malachite green and pyocyanin treatments. Growth of Saprolegnia sp was also observed in SDA culture of un-hatched eggs from the control, but not from pyocyanin and malachite green treated eggs. Pyocyanin treatment of incubated eggs of Clarias gariepinus effectively prevented fungal infection in the eggs, but also arrested the development of the embryo. Therefore, crude chloroform extract of pyocyanin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used in the control of Saprolegniasis in incubated Clarias gariepinus eggs at the concentration and duration tested in this study.

Keywords: African catfish, bioprophylaxis, catfish embryo, Saprolegniasis

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17 Growth Response and Nutrient Utilization of African Mud Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Fingerlings Fed Processed Macroalgae and Macroalgae-Based Formulated Feeds

Authors: A. O Amosu, A. M Hammed, G. W. Maneveldt, D. V. Robertson-Andersson

Abstract:

In aquaculture, feed utilization is an important factor affecting growth of the target species, and thus the success of the aquaculture operation. Growth of C. gariepinus fingerlings (weight 1.60 ± 0.05 g; length 4.50 ± 0.07cm) was monitored in a closed door hatchery for a period of 21 days in an experiment consisting of 4 treatments stocked at 20 fish/10 litre tanks, fed in triplicate twice daily (08:30, 17:30) at 4% body weight with weight changes recorded every 3 days. Treatments were: 1) FeedX; 2) 35% crude protein diet + non enriched Ulva spp (11.18% crude protein) (CD + NEU); 3) 35% crude protein diet + enriched Ulva spp (11.98% crude protein)(CD +EU) and 4) control diet of 35% crude protein (CD). The production of Ulva spp. biomass was cultivated for a period of 3 months. The result shows that the fish fed macroalgal enriched diet had good growth, though no significant difference (p > 0.05) was recorded amongst the weight gain, %weight gain, specific growth rates and nitrogen metabolism of diets CD + NEU, CD + EU and CD. Significant differences (p < 0.05), were, however, found in the food conversion ratio (FCR) and gross food conversion ratio (gFCR) among the fingerlings across all the different experimental diets. The best FCRs were recorded for control diet (0.79 ± 2.39) and the Ulva enriched (1.75 ± 1.34) diets. The results suggest that the fingerlings were able to utilize Ulva supplemented with control diet better than the FeedX. We have shown that Ulva supplemented diets are good substitutes for formulated and commercial feeds, with potential to be successful fish feed in aquaculture systems.

Keywords: aquaculture, clarias gariepinus, growth, macroalgae, nutrient, ulva

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16 Sublethal Effects of Industrial Effluents on Fish Fingerlings (Clarias gariepinus) from Ologe Lagoon Environs, Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Akintade O. Adeboyejo, Edwin O. Clarke, Oluwatoyin Aderinola

Abstract:

The present study is on the sub-lethal toxicity of industrial effluents (IE) from the environment of Ologe Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria on the African catfish fingerlings Clarias gariepinus. The fish were cultured in varying concentrations of industrial effluents: 0% (control), 5%, 15%, 25%, and 35%. Trials were carried out in triplicates for twelve (12) weeks. The culture system was a static renewable bioassay and was carried out in the fisheries laboratory of the Lagos State University, Ojo-Lagos. Weekly physico-chemical parameters: Temperature (0C), pH, Conductivity (ppm) and Dissolved Oxygen (DO in mg/l) were measured in each treatment tank. Length (cm) and weight (g) data were obtained weekly and used to calculate various growth parameters: mean weight gain (MWG), percentage weight gain (PWG), daily weight gain (DWG), specific growth rate (SGR) and survival. Haematological (Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red blood cells (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC), Neutrophil and Lymphocytes etc) and histological alterations were measured after 12 weeks. The physico-chemical parameters showed that the pH ranged from 7.82±0.25–8.07±0.02. DO range from 1.92±0.66-4.43±1.24 mg/l. The conductivity values increased with increase in concentration of I.E. While the temperature remained stable with mean value range between 26.08±2.14–26.38±2.28. The DO showed significant differences at P<0.05. There was progressive increase in length and weight of fish during the culture period. The fish placed in the control had highest increase in both weight and length while fish in 35% had the least. MWG ranged from 16.59–35.96, DWG is from 0.3–0.48, SGR varied from 1.0–1.86 and survival was 100%. Haematological results showed that C. gariepinus had PCV ranging from 13.0±1.7-27.7±0.6, RBC ranged from 4.7±0.6–9.1±0.1, and Neutrophil ranged from 26.7±4.6–61.0±1.0 amongst others. The highest values of these parameters were obtained in the control and lowest at 35%. While the reverse effects were observed for WBC and lymphocytes. This study has shown that effluents may affect the health status of the test organism and impair vital processes if exposure continues for a long period of time. The histological examination revealed several lesions as expressed by the gills and livers. The histopathology of the gills in the control tanks had normal tissues with no visible lesion, but at higher concentrations, there were: lifting of epithelium, swollen lamellae and gill arch infiltration, necrosis and gill arch destruction. While in the liver: control (0%) show normal liver cells, at higher toxic level, there were: vacoulation, destruction of the hepatic parenchyma, tissue becoming eosinophilic (i.e. tending towards Carcinogenicity) and severe disruption of the hepatic cord architecture. The study has shown that industrial effluents from the study area may affect fish health status and impair vital processes if exposure continues for a long period of time even at lower concentrations (Sublethal).

Keywords: sublethal toxicity, industrial effluents, clarias gariepinus, ologe lagoon

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15 Assessment of Water Pollution in the River Nile (Egypt) by Applying Blood Biomarkers in Two Excellent Model Species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus

Authors: Alaa G. M. Osman, Abd-El –Baset M. Abd El Reheem, Khaled Y. Abouelfadl, Usama M. Mahmoud, Mohsen A. Moustafa

Abstract:

This study aimed to explore new sites of biomarker research and to establish the use of blood parameters in wild fish populations. Four hundred and twenty fish samples were collected from six sites along the whole course of the river Nile, Egypt. The mean values of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value, and mean corpuscular volume were significantly lower in the blood of Nile tilapia and African catfish collected from downstream (contaminated) compared to upstream sites. In contrast, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in the peripheral blood of both fish species significantly increased from upstream to downstream river Nile. The leukocytes count was significantly decreased in contaminated sites compared to upstream area. Hematological variables in the peripheral blood of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus exhibited significant (p<0.05) correlation with nearly all the detected chemical and physical parameters along the Nile course. In the present study, lower cellular and nuclear areas and cellular and nuclear shape factor were recorded in the erythrocytes of fish collected from downstream compared to those caught from upstream sites. This was confirmed by higher immature ratios of red cells in the blood of fish sampled from downstream river Nile. Karyorrhetic and enucleated erythrocytes were significantly correlated with physiochemical parameters in water samples collected from the same sites is being higher in the blood of fish collected from downstream sites. To see if there was any correlation between fish altered physiological fitness and environmental stress, we measured serum biochemical variables namely; total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, chlorides, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid activity, creatinine, and serum glucose. The level of all the selected biochemical variables in the blood of O. niloticus niloticus and C. gariepinus were recorded to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in downstream sites. According to the present results, nearly all the detected haematological and blood biochemical variables are suitable indicators of contaminant exposure in O. niloticus niloticus and C. gariepinus. Also the detected erythrocytes malformations in blood collected from Nile tilapia and African catfish were proven to be suitable for bio-monitoring aquatic pollution. The results revealed species-specific differences in sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared to African catfish.

Keywords: biomarkers, water pollution, blood parameters, river nile, african catfish, nile tilapia

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14 Food and Feeding Habit of Clarias anguillaris in Tagwai Reservoir, Minna, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: B. U. Ibrahim, A. Okafor

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Sixty-two (62) samples of Clarias anguillaris were collected from Tagwai Reservoir and used for the study. 29 male and 33 female samples were obtained for the study. Body measurement indicated that different sizes were collected for the study. Males, females and combined sexes had standard length and total length means of 26.56±4.99 and 31.13±6.43, 27.17±5.21 and 30.62±5.43, 26.88±5.08 and 30.86±5.88 cm, respectively. The weights of males, females and combined sexes have mean weights of 241.10±96.27, 225.75±78.66 and 232.93±86.95 gm, respectively. Eight items; fish, insects, plant materials, sand grains, crustaceans, algae, detritus and unidentified items were eaten as food by Clarias anguilarias in Tagwai Reservoir. Frequency of occurrence and numerical methods used in stomach contents analysis indicated that fish was the highest, followed by insect, while the lowest was the algae. Frequency of stomach fullness of Clarias anguillaris showed low percentage of empty stomachs or stomachs without food (21.00%) and high percentage of stomachs with food (79.00%), which showed high abundance of food and high feeding intensity during the period of study. Classification of fish based on feeding habits showed that Clarias anguillaris in this study is an omnivore because it consumed both plant and animal materials.

Keywords: stomach content, feeding habit, Clarias anguillaris, Tagwai Reservoir

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13 Levels of Heavy Metals and Arsenic in Sediment and in Clarias Gariepinus, of Lake Ngami

Authors: Nashaat Mazrui, Oarabile Mogobe, Barbara Ngwenya, Ketlhatlogile Mosepele, Mangaliso Gondwe

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Over the last several decades, the world has seen a rapid increase in activities such as deforestation, agriculture, and energy use. Subsequently, trace elements are being deposited into our water bodies, where they can accumulate to toxic levels in aquatic organisms and can be transferred to humans through fish consumption. Thus, though fish is a good source of essential minerals and omega-3 fatty acids, it can also be a source of toxic elements. Monitoring trace elements in fish is important for the proper management of aquatic systems and the protection of human health. The aim of this study was to determine concentrations of trace elements in sediment and muscle tissues of Clarias gariepinus at Lake Ngami, in the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana, during low floods. The fish were bought from local fishermen, and samples of muscle tissue were acid-digested and analyzed for iron, zinc, copper, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, chromium, cadmium, lead, and arsenic using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Sediment samples were also collected and analyzed for the elements and for organic matter content. Results show that in all samples, iron was found in the greatest amount while cadmium was below the detection limit. Generally, the concentrations of elements in sediment were higher than in fish except for zinc and arsenic. While the concentration of zinc was similar in the two media, arsenic was almost 3 times higher in fish than sediment. To evaluate the risk to human health from fish consumption, the target hazard quotient (THQ) and cancer risk for an average adult in Botswana, sub-Saharan Africa, and riparian communities in the Okavango Delta was calculated for each element. All elements were found to be well below regulatory limits and do not pose a threat to human health except arsenic. The results suggest that other benthic feeding fish species could potentially have high arsenic levels too. This has serious implications for human health, especially riparian households to whom fish is a key component of food and nutrition security.

Keywords: Arsenic, African sharp tooth cat fish, Okavango delta, trace elements

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12 Pathophysiological Implications in Immersion Treatment Methods of Icthyophthiriasis Disease in African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) Using Moringa oleifera Extract

Authors: Ikele Chika Bright, Mgbenka Bernard Obialo, Ikele Chioma Faith

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Icthyophthiriasis is a prevalent protozoan (ectoparasite) mostly affecting cultured and aquarium fishes. The majority of the chemotherapeutants lack efficacy for completely eliminating Ich parasite without affecting the environment and they are not safe for human health. The present work is focused on the evaluating different immersion treatments of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) infected with ichthyophthiriasis and treated with a non-chemical and environmental friendly parasiticides Moringa oleifera. A total number of 800 apparently healthy parasites free (examined) post juvenile catfish were obtained from a reputable farm, disinfected with potassium permanganate in a quarantine tank to remove any possible external parasites. The fish were further challenged with approximately 44,000 infective stages of theronts which were obtained through serial passages by cohabitation. Seven groups (A-G) of post Juvenile were used for the experiment which was carried out into three stages; Dips (60minutes), short term treatment (24-96h) and prolong bath treatment (0-15 days). The concentrations selected were dependent on the outcome of the LC50 of the plant material from which dose-dependent factors were used to select various concentrations of the treatment. In Dips treatment, group D-G were treated with 1,500mg/L, 2500mg/L., 3500mg/L and 4500mg/L, short-term treatment was treated with 150mg/L, 250mg/L, 350mg/L and 450mg/L and prolong bath was treated with 15mg/L, 25mg/L, 35mg/L and 45mg/L of the plant extract whereas group A, B and C were normal control, Ich- infested not treated and Ich- infested treated with standard drug (Acriflavin), respectively. The various types of treatment applied with corresponding concentrations showed almost complete elimination of the adult parasites (trophonts) both in the gills and the body smear, thereby making M. oleifera a potential parasiticides. There were serious pathological alterations in the skin and gills which are usually the main point for Ich parasites invasion but no significant morphological characteristics was noted among the treated groups subjected to different immersion treatment patterns. Epitheliocystis, aneurysm, oedema, hemorrhage, and localization of the adult parasite in the gills were the overall common observations made in the gills whereas degeneration of muscle fibre, dermatitis, hemorrhage, oedema, abscess formation and keratinisation were observed in the skin. However, there are no pathological changes in the control group. Moreover, biochemical parameters such as urea, creatinine, albumin., globulin, total protein, ALT, AST), blood chemistry (sodium, chloride, potassium, bicarbonate), antioxidants (CAT, SOD, GPx, LPO), enzymatic activities (myeloperoxidase, thioreadoxin reductase), Inflammatory response (C-reactive protein), Stress markers (lactate dehydrogenase), heamatological parameters (RBC, PCV, WBC, HB and differential count), lipid profile (total cholesterol, tryglycerides , high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein) all showed various significant (P<0.05) and no significant (P>0.05) responses among the Ich-infested fish treated under three immersion treatments. It is suggested that M. oleifera may serve as an alternatives to chemotherapeutants for control of Ichthyophthiriasis in African catfish Clarias gariepinus.

Keywords: Icthyophthirius multifilis, immersion treatment, pathophysiology, African catfish

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11 Utilization and Proximate Composition of Nile Tilapia, Common Carp and African Mudfish Polycultured in Fertilized Ponds

Authors: I. A. Yola

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Impact of poultry dropping, cow dung and rumen content on utilization and proximate composition of Oreochromis niliticus, Clarias gariepinus and Cyprinus capio in a polyculture system were studied. The research was conducted over a period of 52 weeks. Poultry droppings (PD), cow dung (CD) and rumen content (RC) were applied at three levels 30g,60g and 120g/m2/week, 25g,50g and 100g/m2/week and 22g, 44g and 88g/m2/week treatment, respectively. The control only conventional feed with 40% CP without manure application was used. Physicochemical and biological properties measured were higher in manure pond than control. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05) between and within treatments with exception of temperature with a combined mean of 27.900C. The water was consistently alkaline with mean values for pH of 6.61, transparency 22.6cm, conductivity 35.00µhos/cm, dissolved oxygen 4.6 mg/l, biological oxygen demand 2.8mg/l, nitrate and phosphates 0.9mg/l and 0.35mg/l, respectively. The three fish species increase in weight with increased manure rate, with a higher value in PD treatment on C. capio record 340g, O. niloticus weighed 310g and C. gariepinus 280g over the experimental period. Fishes fed supplementary diet (control) grew bigger with highest value on C. capio (685g) O. niloticus (620g) and then C. gariepinus (526g). The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The result of whole body proximate analysis indicated that various manures and rates had an irregular pattern on the protein and ash gain per 100g of fish body weight gain. The combined means for whole fish carcass protein, lipids, moisture, ash and gross energy were 11.84, 2.43, 74.63, 3.00 and 109.9 respectively. The notable exceptions were significant (p < 0.05) increases in body fat and gross energy gains in all fish species accompanied by decreases in percentages of moisture as manure rates increased. Survival percentage decreases from 80% to 70%. It is recommended to use poultry dropping as manure/feeds at the rate of 120kg/ha/week for good performances in polyculture.

Keywords: organic manure, Nile tilapia, African mud fish, common carp, proximate composition

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10 Fish Species Composition and Distribution of a Semi-Oxbow Lake in North Central Nigeria

Authors: Adeyemi, Samuel Olusegun

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The paper reports on the result of experimental gill net assessment of the fishery of Gbedikere Lake in Kogi State between October 2006 and September 2008. Three stations A-C were sampled. Twelve species from ten families were represented in the experimental gill-net catches. These composed of families Protopteridae, Mormyridae, Clariidae, Mochokidae, Cichlidae, Cyprinidae, Malapteruridae, Osteoglossidae, Gymnarchidae, and Citharinidae. The Cichlids dominated the catches. This is made up of Oreochromis niloticus (17.90%), and Tilapia zilli (13.01%). These combined to make up 30.91% of the total number of fish caught. Also, the Cichlids formed 30.91% of the total catch by weight followed Heterotis niloticus (15.56%), Clarias gariepinus (13.16%), Gmynarchus niloticus (8.78%), Heterobranchus bidorsalis (7.14%), Synodontis nigrita (6.69%), Mormyrus rume (5.68%), Citharinus citharus (3.91%), Labeo senegalensis (2.93%), and Protopterus annectens (2.74%), respectively.

Keywords: experimental gill net, species diversity, abundance, distribution, Oxbow Lake and yield

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9 Enhancement of Genetic Diversity through Cross Breeding of Two Catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis and Clarias batrachus) in Bangladesh

Authors: M. F. Miah, A. Chakrabarty

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Two popular and highly valued fish, Stinging catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) and Asian catfish (Clarias batrachus) are considered for observing genetic enhancement. Cross breeding was performed considering wild and farmed fish through inducing agent. Five RAPD markers were used to assess genetic diversity among parents and offspring of these two catfish for evaluating genetic enhancement in F1 generation. Considering different genetic data such as banding pattern of DNA, polymorphic loci, polymorphic information content (PIC), inter individual pair wise similarity, Nei genetic similarity, genetic distance, phylogenetic relationships, allele frequency, genotype frequency, intra locus gene diversity and average gene diversity of parents and offspring of these two fish were analyzed and finally in both cases higher genetic diversity was found in F1 generation than the parents.

Keywords: Heteropneustes fossilis, Clarias batrachus, cross breeding, genetic enhancement

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8 Acute Toxic Effects of Zn(SO4) on Gill and Liver Tissues of Fresh Water Catfish Clarias batrachus (L.)

Authors: Muneesh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Sangeeta Devi

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Heavy metals are a major problem because they are toxic and tend to accumulate in living organisms. This study was carried out with the aims of studying on histopathology of Zn(SO4) toxicity on gill and liver tissues of catfish (Clarias batrachus) within the period of 96 h. Totally, 140 fishes with mean weight 50±10 g were stocked in 12 aquariums with capacity of 200 L water and divided in to 3 trails including control, 4 ppm and 8 ppm of Zn with 3 replicates. Tissue samples were fixed by bouin’s solution and sectioned in 7 μm based on histological regular method and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) method for microscopic study within the period of 96 h. Results showed some damaged such as hyperplasia, telangiectasis and edema, necrosis of second filaments, jerky movement, aneurism, hyperemia and fusion of second filaments in gills; and cell atrophy, necrosis, fatty degeneration, hyperemia and bile stagnation at different treatments in comparison with control. Gill and liver tissue damages were severed with the increase of Zn concentration and days. Therefore, Zn had acute toxicity effects on gill and liver tissues in Catfish at 5 and 10 ppm concentrations.

Keywords: gill, liver, histopathology, zinc, Clarias batrachus

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7 Physiological Responses of the Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Male) X Clarias gariepinus (Female) Hybrid (Heteroclarias) Fingerlings to Different Temperature Levels under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: A. V. Ayanwale, S. M. Tsadu, S. L. Lamai, R. J. Kolo, Y. I. Auta, A. Z. Mohammed

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A twelve weeks experiment was carried out on Heteroclarias freshwater hybrid fish fingerlings under laboratory conditions to study the effects of different temperature levels, 26.91 (control), 28.00, 30.00, 32.00°C respectively and their physiological responses to oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and opercular respiratory beats were evaluated. The oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and opercular respiratory beats were determined weekly based on standard procedures. The findings revealed that the oxygen consumption of Heteroclarias hybrid fingerlings significantly (p<0.05) increased with increase in temperature. The ammonia excretion were not significantly different (p>0.05) in all the temperature levels. The opercular respiratory beats per minutes showed similar trend in weeks 1,2,4 and 8 but indicated significantly higher (p<0.05) opercular respiratory beats (range= 117.10±2.26 at 30oC to 142.75±3.04 opercular beat at 32oC in week 8) at highest tested temperature levels. However, there was a decreasing trend in the opercular respiratory beats per minute of the controlled fingerlings. Generally, the opercular respiratory beats per minute decreased with increase in fish size. The findings of this study confirmed that increase in water temperature affects the physiology of Heteroclarias hybrid and hence for effective rearing and for profit making, it is essential for the hybrid to be cultured in the temperature range between 26.91°C (control) and 28.00°C.

Keywords: heteroclarias, hybrid, physiological responses, temperature

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6 Effects of Feeding Time on Survival Rates, Growth Performance and Feeding Behavior of Juvenile Catfish

Authors: Abdullahi Ibrahim

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The culture of Clarias gariepinus for fish production is becoming increasingly essential as the fish is contributing to the food abundance and nutritional benefit to family health, income generation, and employment opportunities. The effect of feeding frequency was investigated over a period of ten (10) weeks; the experiment was conducted to monitor survival rates, growth performance, and feeding behavior of juvenile catfish. The experimental fish were randomly assigned to five treatment groups; (i.e., with different feeding frequency intervals) of 100 fish each. Each treatment was replicated twice with 50 fish per replicate. All the groups were fed with floating fish feed (blue crown®). The five treatments (feeding frequency) were T1- once a day feeding of night hours only, T2- twice a day feeding time of morning and night hours, T3- trice a day feeding time of morning, evening and night hours, T-4 four times a day feeding of morning, afternoon, evening, and night hours, T-5 five times a day feeding at four hours interval. There were significant differences (p > 0.05) among treatments. Feed intake and weight gain improved significantly (p < 0.05) in T-4 and T-3. The best of the feeding time on weight gain, survival rate, and feed conversion ratio were obtained at three times a day feeding (T-3) compared to other treatments, especially those fed once and five times feeding a regiment. This might be attributed to the high level of dissolve oxygen and less stress. Feeding fish three times a day is therefore recommended for efficient catfish production to maximize profits as the feed represents more than 50% of aquaculture inputs, particularly in intensive farming systems.

Keywords: catfish, floating fish feed, dissolve oxygen, juvenile

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5 Improving Traditional Methods of Handling Fish from Integrated Pond Culture Systems in Monai Village, New Bussa, Nigeria

Authors: Olokor O. Julius, Ngwu E. Onyebuchi, Ajani K. Emmanuel, Omitoyin O. Bamidele, Olokor O. Linda, Akomas Stella

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The study assessed the quality changes of Clarias gariepenus obtained from integrated culture systems (rice, poultry and fish) which were displayed at 31-33oC average daily temperature on the traditional market table used by local fish farmers to sell fish harvested from their ponds and those on an improved table designed for this study. Unlike the conventional table, the improved table was screened against flies and indiscriminate touch by customers. The fishes were displayed on both tables for 9 hours and quality attributes were monitored hourly by trained panelists. For C. gariepinus, the gills, and intestine recorded faster deterioration starting from the fourth and fifth hours while those on the improved table were prolonged by one hour. Scores for skin brightness and texture did not indicate quality deterioration throughout the display period. However, at the end of the storage time, samples on the improved table recorded 1.5 x 104 cfu/g while samples in unscreened table recorded 3.7 x 10 7 cfu/g. The study shows how simple modifications of a traditional practice can help extend keeping qualities of farmed fish, reduce health hazards in local communities where there is no electricity to preserve fish in whatever form despite a boom in aquaculture. Monai community has a fish farm estate of over 200 small holder farmers with annual output capacity of over $10 million dollars. The simple improvement made to farmers practice in this study is to ensure Community hygiene and boost income of peasant fish farmers by improving the market quality of their products.

Keywords: fish spoilage, improved handling, income generation, retail table

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4 Non Chemical-Based Natural Products in the Treatment and Control of Disease in Fish

Authors: Albert P. Ekanem, Austin I. Obiekezie, Elizabeth X. Ntia

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Introduction: Some African plants and bile from animals have shown efficacies in the treatment and control of diseases in farmed fish. The background of the study is based on the fact the African rain forest is blessed with the abundance of medicinal plants that should be investigated for their use in the treatment of diseases. The significance of the study is informed by the fact that chemical-based substances accumulate in the tissues of food fish, thereby reducing the food values of such products and moreover, the continuous use of chemotherapeutics in the aquatic environments tends to degrade the affected environment. Methodology: Plants and animal products were extracted, purified and applied under in vitro and in vivo conditions to the affected organisms. Effective plants and bills were analyzed for biologically active substances responsible for the activities by both qualitative and HPLC methods. Results: Extracts of Carica papaya and Mucuna pruriens were effective in the treatment of Ichthyophthiriasis in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) with high host tolerance. Similarly, ectoparasitic monogeneans were effectively dislodged from the gills and skin of goldfish by the application of extracts of Piper guineense at therapeutic concentrations. Artemesia annua with known antimalarial activities in human was also effective against fish monogenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus in a concentration-related manner without detriments to the host. Effective antibacterial activities against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of the African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) were demonstrated in some plants such as Phylanthus amarus, Allium sativum, A. annua, and Citrus lemon. Bile from some animals (fish, goat, chicken, cow, and pig) showed great antibacterial activities against some gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens of fish. Conclusions: African plants and some animal bile have shown potential promise in the treatment of diseases in fish and other aquatic animals. The use of chemical-based substances for control of diseases in the aquatic environments should be restricted.

Keywords: control, diseases, fish, treatment

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3 Non Chemical-Based Natural Products in the Treatment and Control of Fish Diseases

Authors: Albert P. Ekanem, Austin I. Obiekezie, Elizabeth X. Ntia

Abstract:

Introduction: Some African plants and bile from animals have shown efficacies in the treatment and control of diseases in farmed fish. The background of the study is based on the fact the African rain forest is blessed with abundance of medicinal plants that should be investigated for their use in the treatment of diseases. The significance of the study is informed by the fact that chemical-based substances accumulates in the tissues of food fish, thereby reducing the food values of such products and moreover, the continuous use of chemotherapeutants in the aquatic environments tends to degrades the affected environment. Methodology: Plants and animal products were extracted, purified and applied under in vitro and in vivo conditions to the affected organisms. Effective plants and biles were analyzed for active biological substances responsible for the activities by both qualitative and HPLC methods. Results: Extracts of Carica papaya and Mucuna pruriens were effective in the treatment of Ichthyophthiriasis in goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) with high host tolerance. Similarly, ectoparasitic monogeneans were effectively dislodged from the gills and skin of goldfish by the application of extracts of Piper guineense at therapeutic concentrations. Artemesia annua with known antimalarial activities in human was also effective against fish monogenean parasites of Clarias gariepinus in a concentration related manner without detriments to the host. Effective antibacterial activities against Aeromonas and Pseudomonas diseases of the African catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis) were demonstrated in some plants such as Phylanthus amarus, Allium sativum, A. annua, and Citrus lemon. Bile from some animals (fish, goat, chicken, cow, and pig) showed great antibacterial activities against some gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens of fish. Conclusions: African plants and some animal bile have shown potential promise in the treatment of diseases in fish and other aquatic animals. The use of chemical-based substances for control of diseases in the aquatic environments should be restricted.

Keywords: control, diseases, fish, natural products, treatment

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2 Chronic Exposure of Mercury on Amino Acid Level in Freshwater Fish Clarias batrachus (Linn.)

Authors: Mary Josephine Rani

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Virtually all metals are toxic to aquatic organisms because of the devastating effect of these metals on humans; heavy metals are one of the most toxic forms of aquatic pollution. Metal concentrations in aquatic organisms appear to be of several magnitudes higher than concentrations present in the ecosystem. Mercury is one of the most toxic heavy metals in the environment. The principal sources of contamination in wastewater are chloralkali plants, battery factories, mercury switches, and medical wastes. Elevated levels of mercury in aquatic organisms specially fish represent both an ecological and human concern. Amino acid levels were estimated in five tissues (gills, liver, kidney, brain and muscle) of Clariasbatrachus after 28 days of chronic exposure to mercury. Free amino acids serve as precursor for energy production under stress and for the synthesis of required proteins to face the metal challenge.

Keywords: amino acids, fish, mercury, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 245