Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: cardiotoxicity

15 Cardioprotective Effect of Oleanolic Acid and Urosolic Acid against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Sameer N. Goyal, Chandragauda R. Patil

Abstract:

Oleanolic acid (3/3-hydroxy-olea-12-en-28-oic acid) and its isomer, Ursolic acid (38-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid) are triterpenoids compounds which exist widely in plant kingdom in the free acid form or as glycosidic triterpenoids saponins. The aim of the study is to evaluate intravenously administered oleanolic acid and ursolic acid in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity was induced in albino wistar rat with single intravenous injection of doxorubicin at dose of 67.75mg/kg i.v for 48 hrs at 12 hrs interval following doxorubicin administration in the same model cardioprotective effect of amifostine (90 mg/kg i.v, single dose prior 30 min before doxorubicin administration) was evaluated as standard treatment. Induction of cardiotoxicity was confirmed by rise in cardiac markers in serum such as CK–MB, LDH and also by electrocardiographically. The doxorubicin treated group significantly increased in QT interval, serum CK-MB, serum LDH, SGOT, SGPT and antioxidant parameter. Both the treatment group showed significant protective effect on Hemodynamic, electrocardiographic, biochemical, and antioxidant parameters. The oleanolic acid showed slight protective effect in histological lesions in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Hence, the results indicate that Oleanolic acid has more cardioprotective potential than ursolic acid against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

Keywords: cardioprotection, doxorubicin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid

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14 Comparing Trastuzumab-Related Cardiotoxicity between Elderly and Younger Patients with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Afrah Aladwani, Alexander Mullen, Mohammad AlRashidi, Omamah Alfarisi, Faisal Alterkit, Abdulwahab Aladwani, Asit Kumar, Emad Eldosouky

Abstract:

Introduction: Trastuzumab is a HER-2 targeted humanized monoclonal antibody that significantly improves the therapeutic outcomes of metastatic and non-metastatic breast cancer. However, it is associated with increased risk of cardiotoxicity that ranges from mild decline in the cardiac ejection fraction to permanent cardiomyopathy. Concerns have been raised in treating eligible older patients. This study compares trastuzumab outcomes between two age cohorts in the Kuwait Cancer Control Centre (KCCC). Methods: In a prospective comparative observational study, 93 HER-2 positive breast cancer patients undergoing different chemotherapy protocols + trastuzumab were included and divided into two cohorts based on their age (˂60 and ≥60 years old). The baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed and monitored every three months during trastuzumab treatment. Event of cardiotoxicity was defined as ≥10% decline in the LVEF from the baseline. The lower accepted normal limit of the LVEF was 50%. Results: The median baseline LVEF was 65% in both age cohorts (IQR 8% and 9% for older and younger patients respectively). Whereas, the median LVEF post-trastuzumab treatment was 51% and 55% in older and younger patients respectively (IQR 8%; p-value = 0.22), despite the fact that older patients had significantly lower exposure to anthracyclines compared to younger patients (60% and 84.1% respectively; p-value ˂0.001). 86.7% and 55.6% of older and younger patients, respectively, developed ≥10% decline in their LVEF from the baseline. Among those, only 29% of older and 27% of younger patients reached a LVEF value below 50% (p-value = 0.88). Statistically, age was the only factor that significantly correlated with trastuzumab induced cardiotoxicity (OR 4; p-value ˂0.012), but it did not increase the requirement for permanent discontinuation of treatment. A baseline LVEF value below 60% contributed to developing a post-treatment value below normal ranges (50%). Conclusion: Breast cancer patients aged 60 years and above in Kuwait were at 4-fold higher risk of developing ≥10% decline in their LVEF from the baseline than younger patients during trastuzumab treatment. Surprisingly, previous exposure to anthracyclines and multiple comorbidities were not associated with significant increased risk of cardiotoxicity.

Keywords: breast cancer, elderly, Trastuzumab, cardiotoxicity

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13 Assessment of Cardioprotective Effect of Deferiprone on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Toxicity in a Rat Model

Authors: Sadaf Kalhori

Abstract:

Introduction: Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity is widely known as the most severe complication of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in patients with cancer. It is unknown whether Deferiprone (DFP), could reduce the severity of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting free radical reactions. Thus, this study was performed to assess the protective effect of Deferiprone on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in a rat model. Methods: The rats were divided into five groups. Group one was a control group. Group 2 was DOX (2 mg/kg/day, every other day for 12 days), and Group three to five which receiving DOX as in group 2 and DFP 75,100 and 150 mg/kg/day, for 19 days, respectively. DFP was starting 5 days prior to the first DOX injection and two days after the last DOX injection throughout the study. Electrocardiographic and hemodynamic studies, along with histopathological examination, were conducted. In addition, serum sample was taken and total cholesterol, Malone dialdehyde, triglyceride, albumin, AST, ALT, total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, total anti-oxidant and creatine kinase were assessed. Result: Our results showed the normal structure of endocardial, myocardial and pericardial in the control group. Pathologic data such as edema, hyperemia, bleeding, endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis, hyaline degeneration, cardiomyocyte necrosis, myofilament degeneration and nuclear chromatin changes were assessed in all groups. In the DOX group, all pathologic data was seen with mean grade of 2±1.25. In the DFP group with a dose of 75 and 100 mg, the mean grade was 1.41± 0.31 and 1±.23, respectively. In DFP group with a dose of 150, the pathologic data showed a milder change in comparison with other groups with e mean grade of 0.45 ±0.19. Most pathologic data in DFP groups showed significant changes in comparison with the DOX group (p < 0.001). Discussion: The results also showed that DFP treatment significantly improved DOX-induced heart damage, structural changes in the myocardium, and ventricular function. Our data confirm that DFP is protective against cardiovascular-related disorders induced by DOX. Clinical studies are needed to be involved to examine these findings in humans.

Keywords: cardiomyopathy, deferiprone, doxorubicin, rat

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12 Protective Effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Bark Extract against Doxorubicin Induced Cardiotoxicity: A Preliminary Study

Authors: J. A. N. Sandamali, R. P. Hewawasam, K. A. P. W. Jayatilaka, L. K. B. Mudduwa

Abstract:

Introduction: Doxorubicin is widely used in the treatment of solid organ tumors and hematological malignancies, but the dose-dependent cardiotoxicity due to free radical formation compromises its clinical utility. Therapeutic strategies which enhance cellular endogenous defense systems have been identified as promising approaches to combat oxidative stress-associated conditions. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) has a number antioxidant compounds, which can effectively scavenge reactive oxygen including superoxide anions, hydroxyl radicals and as well as other free radicals. Therefore, the objective of the study was to elucidate the most effective dose of Cinnamomum bark extract which ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and methods: Wistar rats were divided into seven groups of 10 animals in each. Group 1: normal control (distilled water, orally, for 14 days, 10 mL/kg saline, ip, after 16 hours fast on the 11th day); Group 2: doxorubicin control (distilled water, orally, for 14 days, 18 mg/kg doxorubicin, ip, after 16 hour fast on the 11th day); Groups 3-7: five doses of freeze dried aqueous bark extracts (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0g/kg, orally, daily for 14 days, 18 mg/kg doxorubicin, ip, after 16 hours fast on the 11th day). Animals were sacrificed on the 15th day and blood was collected for the estimation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), AST and LDH concentrations and myocardial tissues were collected for histopathological assessment of myocardial damage and irreversible changes were graded by developing a score. Results: cTnI concentration of groups 1-7 were 0, 161.9, 128.6, 95.9, 38, 19.41 & 12.36 pg/mL showing significant differences (p<0.05) between group 2 and groups 4-7. In groups 1-7, serum AST concentration were 26.82, 68.1, 37.18, 36.23, 26.8, 26.62 & 22.43U/L and LDH concentrations were 1166.13, 2428.84, 1658.35, 1474.34, 1277.58, 1110.21 & 974.40U/L and a significant difference (p<0.05) was observed between group 2 and groups 3-7. The maximum score for myocardial necrosis was observed in group 2. Parallel to the increase of the dosage of plant extract, a gradual reduction of the score for myocardial necrosis was observed in groups 3-7. Reversible histological changes such as vacuolation, congestion were observed in group 2 and all plant treated groups. Haemorrhages, inflammatory cell infiltrations, and interstitial oedema were observed in group 2, but absent in groups treated with higher doses of the plant extract. Discussion & Conclusion: According to the in vitro antioxidant assays performed, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Ceylon cinnamon) bark possesses high amounts of polyphenolic substances and high antioxidant activity. The present study showed that Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract at 2.0 g/kg possesses the most significant cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. It can be postulated that pretreatment with Cinnamomum bark extract may replenish the cardiomyocytes with antioxidants that are needed for the defense against oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin.

Keywords: cardioprotection, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, doxorubicin, free radicals

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11 Protective Role of CoQ10 or L-Carnitine on the Integrity of the Myocardium in Doxorubicin Induced Toxicity

Authors: Gehan A. Hegazy, Hesham N. Mustafa, Sally A. El Awdan, Marawan AbdelBaset

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Doxorubicin (DOX) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of different cancers and its clinical usage is hindered by the oxidative injury-related cardiotoxicity. This work aims to declare if the harmful effects of DOX on the heart can be alleviated with the use of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) or L-carnitine. The study was performed on seventy-two female Wistar albino rats divided into six groups, 12 animals each: Control group; DOX group (10 mg/kg); CoQ10 group (200 mg/kg); L-carnitine group (100 mg/kg); DOX + CoQ10 group; DOX + L-carnitine group. CoQ10 and L-carnitine treatment orally started five days before a single dose of 10 mg/kg DOX that injected intraperitoneally (IP) then the treatment continued for ten days. At the end of the study, serum biochemical parameters of cardiac damage, oxidative stress indices, and histopathological changes were investigated. CoQ10 or L-carnitine showed noticeable effects in improving cardiac functions evidenced reducing serum enzymes as serum interleukin-1 beta (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-), leptin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Cardiotrophin-1, Troponin-I and Troponin-T. Also, alleviate oxidative stress, decrease of cardiac Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO) and restoring cardiac reduced glutathione levels to normal levels. Both corrected the cardiac alterations histologically and ultrastructurally. With visible improvements in -SMA, vimentin and eNOS immunohistochemical markers. CoQ10 or L-carnitine supplementation improves the functional and structural integrity of the myocardium.

Keywords: CoQ10, doxorubicin, L-Carnitine, cardiotoxicity

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10 Cardiotoxicity Associated with Radiation Therapy: The Role of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Cells in Improvement of Heart Function

Authors: Isalira Peroba Ramos, Cherley Borba Vieira de Andrade, Grazielle Suhett, Camila Salata, Paulo Cesar Canary, Guilherme Visconde Brasil, Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho, Regina Coeli dos Santos Goldenberg

Abstract:

Background: The therapeutic options for patients with cancer now include increasingly complex combinations of medications, radiation therapy (RT), and surgical intervention. Many of these treatments have important potential adverse cardiac effects and are likely to have significant effects on patient outcomes. Cell therapy appears to be promising for the treatment of chronic and degenerative diseases, including cardiomyopathy induced by RT, as the current therapeutic options are insufficient. Aims: To evaluate the potential of bone marrow mesenchymal cells (BMMCs) in radioinduced cardiac damage Methods: Female Wistar rats, 3 months old (Ethics Committee 054/14), were divided into 2 groups, non-treated irradiated group (IR n=15) and irradiated and BMMC treated (IRT n=10). Echocardiography was performed to evaluate heart function. After euthanasia, 3 months post treatment; the left ventricle was removed and prepared for RT-qPCR (VEGF and Pro Collagen I) and histological (picrosirius) analysis. Results: In both groups, 45 days after irradiation, ejection fraction (EF) was in the normal range for these animals (> 70%). However, the BMMC treated group had EF (83.1%±2.6) while the non-treated IR group showed a significant reduction (76.1%±2.6) in relation to the treated group. In addition, we observed an increase in VEGF gene expression and a decrease in Pro Collagen I in IRT when compared to IR group. We also observed by histology that the collagen deposition was reduced in IRT (10.26%±0.83) when compared to IR group (25.29%±0.96). Conclusions: Treatment with BMMCs was able to prevent ejection fraction reduction and collagen deposition in irradiated animals. The increase of VEGF and the decrease of pro collagen I gene expression might explain, at least in part, the cell therapy benefits. All authors disclose no financial or personal relationships with individuals or organizations that could be perceived to bias their work. Sources of funding: FAPERJ, CAPES, CNPq, MCT.

Keywords: mesenchymal cells, radioation, cardiotoxicity, bone marrow

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9 The Effects of Periostin in a Rat Model of Isoproterenol-Mediated Cardiotoxicity

Authors: Mahmut Sozmen, Alparslan Kadir Devrim, Yonca Betil Kabak, Tuba Devrim

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Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of deaths in the worldwide. Mature cardiomyocytes do not have the ability to regenerate instead fibrous tissue proliferate and granulation tissue to fill out. Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein from fasciclin family and it plays an important role in the cell adhesion, migration, and growth of the organism. Periostin prevents apoptosis while stimulating cardiomyocytes. The main objective of this project is to investigate the effects of the recombinant murine periostin peptide administration for the cardiomyocyte regeneration in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The experiment was performed on 84 male rats (6 months old) in 4 group each contains 21 rats. Saline applied subcutaneously (1 ml/kg) two times with 24 hours intervals to the rats in control group (Group 1). Recombinant periostin peptide (1 μg/kg) dissolved in saline applied intraperitoneally in group 2 on 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. days on same dates in group 4. Isoproterenol dissolved in saline applied intraperitoneally (85mg/kg/day) two times with 24 hours intervals to the groups 3 and 4. Rats in group 4 further received recombinant periostin peptide (1 μg/kg) dissolved in saline intraperitoneally starting one day after the final isoproterenol administration on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. Following the final application of periostin rats continued to feed routinely with pelleted chow and water ad libitum for further seven days. At the end of 7th day rats sacrificed, blood and heart tissue samples collected for the immunohistochemical and biochemical analysis. Angiogenesis in response to tissue damage, is a highly dynamic process regulated by signals from the surrounding extracellular matrix and blood serum. In this project, VEGF, ANGPT, bFGF, TGFβ are the key factors that contribute to cardiomyocyte regeneration were investigated. Additionally, the relationship between mitosis and apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax, PCNA, Ki-67, Phopho-Histone H3), cell cycle activators and inhibitors (Cyclin D1, D2, A2, Cdc2), the origin of regenerating cells (cKit and CD45) were examined. Present results revealed that periostin stimulated cardiomyocye cell-cycle re-entry in both normal and MCA damaged cardiomyocytes and increased angiogenesis. Thus, periostin contributes to cardiomyocyte regeneration during the healing period following myocardial infarction which provides a better understanding of its role of this mechanism, improving recovery rates and it is expected to contribute the lack of literature on this subject. Acknowledgement: This project was financially supported by Turkish Scientific Research Council- Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Research Support Group (TUBİTAK-TOVAG; Project No: 114O734), Ankara, TURKEY.

Keywords: cardiotoxicity, immunohistochemistry, isoproterenol, periostin

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8 Effect of Pristine Graphene on Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos: Cardiovascular Defects, Apoptosis, and Globin Expression Analysis

Authors: Manjunatha Bangeppagari, Lee Sang Joon

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Recently, graphene-related nanomaterials are receiving fast-increasing attention with augmented applications in various fields. Especially, graphene-related materials have been widely applied to the biomedical field in the past years. In the present study, we evaluated the adverse effects of pristine graphene (pG) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in various aspects, such as mortality rate, heart rate, hatching rate, cardiotoxicity, cardiovascular defect, cardiac looping, apoptosis, and globin expression. For various trace concentrations of pG (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 μg/L), early life-stage parameters were observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hpf. As a result, pG induces significant developmental defects including yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, embryonic mortality, delayed hatching, heartbeat, several morphological defects, pericardial toxicity, and bradycardia. Moreover, the exposure to pG was found to be a potential risk factor to the cardiovascular system of zebrafish embryos. However, further study on their properties which vary according to production methods and surface functionalization is essentially required. In addition, the possible risks of pG flakes to aquatic animals, and public health should be evaluated before releasing them to the surrounding environment.

Keywords: apoptosis, cardiovascular toxicity, globin expression, pristine graphene, zebrafish embryos

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7 Design and Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Glutamate Racemase (MurI) Inhibitors

Authors: Prasanthi Malapati, R. Reshma, Vijay Soni, Perumal Yogeeswari, Dharmarajan Sriram

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In the present study, we attempted to develop Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) inhibitors by exploring the pharmaceutically underexploited enzyme targets which are majorly involved in cell wall biosynthesis of mycobacteria. For this purpose, glutamate racemase (coded by MurI gene) was selected. This enzyme racemize L-glutamate to D-glutamate required for the construction of peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell wall synthesis process. Furthermore this enzyme is neither expressed nor its product, D-glutamate is normally found in mammals, and hence designing inhibitors against this enzyme will not affect the host system as well act as potential antitubercular drugs. A library of BITS in house compounds were screened against Mtb MurI enzyme. Based on docking score, interactions and synthetic feasibility one hit lead was identified. Further optimization of lead was attempted and its derivatives were synthesized. Forty eight derivatives of 2-phenylbenzo[d]oxazole and 2-phenylbenzo[d]thiazole were synthesized and evaluated for Mtb MurI inhibition study, in vitro activities against Mtb, cytotoxicity against RAW 264.7 cell line. Chemical derivatization of the lead resulted in compounds NR-1213 AND NR-1124 as the potent M. tuberculosis glutamate racemase inhibitors with IC50 of 4-5µM which are remarkable and were found to be non-cytotoxic. Molecular dynamics, dormant models and cardiotoxicity studies of the most active molecules are in process.

Keywords: cell wall biosynthesis, dormancy, glutamate racemase, tuberculosis

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6 Doxorubicin and Cyclosporine Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles to Combat Multidrug Resistance

Authors: Senthil Rajan Dharmalingam, Shamala Nadaraju, Srinivasan Ramamurthy

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Doxorubicin is the most widely used anticancer drugs in chemotherapy treatment. However, problems related to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) and acute cardiotoxicity have led researchers to investigate alternative forms of administering doxorubicin for cancer therapy. Several methods have been attempted to overcome MDR, including the co-administration of a chemosensitizer inhibiting the efflux caused by ATP binding cassette transporters with anticancer drugs, and the bypass of the efflux mechanism. Co encapsulation of doxorubicin (Dox) and cyclosporine A (CSA) into poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles was emulsification-solvent evaporation method using polyvinyl alcohol as emulsion stabilizers. The Dox-CSA loaded nanoparticles were evaluated for particle size, zeta potential and PDI by light scattering analysis and thermal characterizations by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Loading efficiency (LE %) and in-vitro dissolution samples were evaluated by developed and validated HPLC method. The optimum particle size obtained is 298.6.8±39.4 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) is 0.098±0.092. Zeta potential is found to be -29.9±4.23. Optimum pH to increase Dox LE% was found 7.1 which gave 42.5% and 58.9% increase of LE% for pH 6.6 and pH 8.6 compared respectively. LE% achieved for Dox is 0.07±0.01 % and CSA is 0.09±0.03%. Increased volume of PVA and weight of PLGA shows increase in size of nanoparticles. DSC thermograms showed shift in the melting peak for the nanoparticles compared to Dox and CSA indicating encapsulation of drugs. In conclusion, these preliminary studies showed the feasibility of PLGA nanoparticles to entrap Dox and CSA and require future in-vivo studies to be performed to establish its potential.

Keywords: doxorubicin, cyclosporine, PLGA, nanoparticles

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5 Protective Effects of Genistein against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats: Involvement of Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Oxidant Activities

Authors: Dina F. Mansour, Dalia O. Saleh, Rasha E. Mostafa

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Cyclophosphamide (CP), the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, was reported to cause many side effects including urotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, gonadotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity; this limits its clinical practice. In the present study, the protective effect of genistein (GEN), the major phytoestrogen in soy products that possesses various pharmacological activities, has been investigated against CP-induced acute liver damage in rats. Forty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into five groups. The first group received the vehicles and act as normal control. In the other groups, rats were injected with a single dose of CP (200 mg/kg, i.p). The last three groups were pretreated with subcutaneous GEN at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 15 consecutive days prior CP injection. Forty-eight hours following CP injection, rats of all groups were investigated for the serum levels of alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase, as well as the liver contents of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, nitrite, interleukin-1β, and myeloperoxidase. Histopathological examination of liver tissues was also conducted. CP resulted in acute liver damage in rats as evidenced by alteration of liver function biomarkers, oxidative stress, and inflammatory markers; that was confirmed by the histopathological outcomes. Pretreatment of rats with GEN significantly protected against CP-induced deterioration of liver function and showed marked anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that were demonstrated by the biochemical and histopathological findings. In conclusion, the present findings demonstrated the protective effects of GEN against CP-induced liver damage and suggested role of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Keywords: cyclophosphamide, genistein, inflammation, interleukin-1β, liver, myeloperoxidase, oxidative stress

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4 Protective Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and N-Acetylcysteine on Myocardial Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Impaired Energy metabolism in Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Rats

Authors: Nayira A. Abd Elbaky, Amal J. Fatani, Hazar Yaqub, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed, Naglaa El-Orabi, Mai Osman

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The present work is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of N-acetyl cystiene (NAC), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and their combination against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. CCl4 treatment significantly elevated the levels of cardiac oxidative stress bio markers including nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA). A concomitant decrease in the level of reduced glutathione and the activity of membrane bound enzyme, calcium-adenosine triphosphatase were observed in the hearts of rats exposed to CCl4 compared to respective values in normal group. Quantitative analysis of myocardial energy metabolism revealed a significant decrease in the glucose content coupled with depletion in the activities of myocardial glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after CCl4 treatment. In addition, a significant elevation in myocardial hydroxyproline level was observed in CCl4 intoxicated rats indicating interstitial collagen accumulation. Pretreatment with either NAC, CoQ10 or their combination successively alleviated the alterations in myocardial oxidative stress and antioxidant markers, as well as effectively up-regulated the decrease in cardiac energetic biomarkers in CCl4 intoxicated rats. Moreover, these antioxidants markedly reduced myocardial hydroxyproline level versus that of CCl4-treated animals. In conclusion, the present results illustrated that the prophylactic use of the current antioxidant resulted in a remarkable cardioprotective effect against CCl4 induced myocardial damage, which suggest that they may candidates as prophylactic agents against different cardio-toxins.

Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, energy metabolism, hydroxyproline

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3 The Toxicity of Doxorubicin Connected with Nanotransporters

Authors: Iva Blazkova, Amitava Moulick, Vedran Milosavljevic, Pavel Kopel, Marketa Vaculovicova, Vojtech Adam, Rene Kizek

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Doxorubicin is one of the most commonly used and the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs. This antracycline drug isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces peuceticus var. caesius is sold under the trade name Adriamycin (hydroxydaunomycin, hydroxydaunorubicin). Doxorubicin is used in single therapy to treat hematological malignancies (blood cancers, leukaemia, lymphoma), many types of carcinoma (solid tumors) and soft tissue sarcomas. It has many serious side effects like nausea and vomiting, hair lost, myelosupression, oral mucositis, skin reactions and redness, but the most serious one is the cardiotoxicity. Because of the risk of heart attack and congestive heart failure, the total dose administered to patients has to be accurately monitored. With the aim to lower the side effects and to targeted delivery of doxorubicin into the tumor tissue, the different nanoparticles are studied. The drug can be bound on a surface of nanoparticle, encapsulated in the inner cavity, or incorporated into the structure of nanoparticle. Among others, carbon nanoparticles (graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes) are highly studied. Besides the number of inorganic nanoparticles, a great potential exhibit also organic ones mainly lipid-based and polymeric nanoparticle. The aim of this work was to perform a toxicity study of free doxorubicin compared to doxorubicin conjugated with various nanotransporters. The effect of liposomes, fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes on the toxicity was analyzed. As a first step, the binding efficacy of between doxorubicin and the nanotransporter was determined. The highest efficacy was detected in case of liposomes (85% of applied drug was encapsulated) followed by graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. For the toxicological studies, the chicken embryos incubated under controlled conditions (37.5 °C, 45% rH, rotation every 2 hours) were used. In 7th developmental day of chicken embryos doxorubicin or doxorubicin-nanotransporter complex was applied on the chorioallantoic membrane of the eggs and the viability was analyzed every day till the 17th developmental day. Then the embryos were extracted from the shell and the distribution of doxorubicin in the body was analyzed by measurement of organs extracts using laser induce fluorescence detection. The chicken embryo mortality caused by free doxorubicin (30%) was significantly lowered by using the conjugation with nanomaterials. The highest accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicin nanotransporter complexes was observed in the liver tissue

Keywords: doxorubicin, chicken embryos, nanotransporters, toxicity

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2 Effects of Starvation, Glucose Treatment and Metformin on Resistance in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells

Authors: Nehir Nebioglu

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Chemotherapy is widely used for the treatment of cancer. Doxorubicin is an anti-cancer chemotherapy drug that is classified as an anthracycline antibiotic. Antitumor antibiotics consist of natural products produced by species of the soil fungus Streptomyces. These drugs act in multiple phases of the cell cycle and are known cell-cycle specific. Although DOX is a precious clinical antineoplastic agent, resistance is also a problem that limits its utility besides cardiotoxicity problem. The drug resistance of cancer cells results from multiple factors including individual variation, genetic heterogeneity within a tumor, and cellular evolution. The mechanism of resistance is thought to involve, in particular, ABCB1 (MDR1, Pgp) and ABCC1 (MRP1) as well as other transporters. Several studies on DOX-resistant cell lines have shown that resistance can be overcome by an inhibition of ABCB1, ABCC1, and ABCC2. This study attempts to understand the effects of different concentration levels of glucose treatment and starvation on the proliferation of Doxorubicin resistant cancer cells lines. To understand the effect of starvation, K562/Dox and K562 cell lines were treated with 0, 5 nM, 50 nM, 500 nM, 5 uM and 50 uM Dox concentrations in both starvation and normal medium conditions. In addition to this, to interpret the effect of glucose treatment, different concentrations (0, 1 mM, 5 mM, 25 mM) of glucose were applied to Dox-treated (with 0, 5 nM, 50 nM, 500 nM, 5 uM and 50 uM) K562/Dox and K652 cell lines. All results show significant decreasing in the cell count of K562/Dox, when cells were starved. However, while proliferation of K562/Dox lines decrease is associated with the increasingly applied Dox concentration, K562/Dox starved ones remain at the same proliferation level. Thus, the results imply that an amount of K562/Dox lines gain starvation resistance and remain resistant. Furthermore, for K562/Dox, there is no clear effect of glucose treatment in terms of cell proliferation. In the presence of a moderate level of glucose (5 mM), proliferation increases compared to other concentration of glucose for each different Dox application. On the other hand, a significant increase in cell proliferation in moderate level of glucose is only observed in 5 uM Dox concentration. The moderate concentration level of Dox can be examined in further studies. For the high amount of glucose (25 mM), cell proliferation levels are lower than moderate glucose application. The reason could be high amount of glucose may not be absorbable by cells. Also, in the presence of low amount of glucose, proliferation is decreasing in an orderly manner of increase in Dox concentration. This situation can be explained by the glucose depletion -Warburg effect- in the literature.

Keywords: drug resistance, cancer cells, chemotherapy, doxorubicin

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1 Inhibitory Effects of Crocin from Crocus sativus L. on Cell Proliferation of a Medulloblastoma Human Cell Line

Authors: Kyriaki Hatziagapiou, Eleni Kakouri, Konstantinos Bethanis, Alexandra Nikola, Eleni Koniari, Charalabos Kanakis, Elias Christoforides, George Lambrou, Petros Tarantilis

Abstract:

Medulloblastoma is a highly invasive tumour, as it tends to disseminate throughout the central nervous system early in its course. Despite the high 5-year-survival rate, a significant number of patients demonstrate serious long- or short-term sequelae (e.g., myelosuppression, endocrine dysfunction, cardiotoxicity, neurological deficits and cognitive impairment) and higher mortality rates, unrelated to the initial malignancy itself but rather to the aggressive treatment. A strong rationale exists for the use of Crocus sativus L (saffron) and its bioactive constituents (crocin, crocetin, safranal) as pharmaceutical agents, as they exert significant health-promoting properties. Crocins are water soluble carotenoids. Unlike other carotenoids, crocins are highly water-soluble compounds, with relatively low toxicity as they are not stored in adipose and liver tissues. Crocins have attracted wide attention as promising anti-cancer agents, due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects, interference with transduction pathways implicated in tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, and metastasis (disruption of mitotic spindle assembly, inhibition of DNA topoisomerases, cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis or cell differentiation) and sensitization of cancer cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The current research aimed to study the potential cytotoxic effect of crocins on TE671 medulloblastoma cell line, which may be useful in the optimization of existing and development of new therapeutic strategies. Crocins were extracted from stigmas of saffron in ultrasonic bath, using petroleum-ether, diethylether and methanol 70%v/v as solvents and the final extract was lyophilized. Identification of crocins according to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was determined comparing the UV-vis spectra and the retention time (tR) of the peaks with literature data. For the biological assays crocin was diluted to nuclease and protease free water. TE671 cells were incubated with a range of concentrations of crocins (16, 8, 4, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 mg/ml) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. Analysis of cell viability after incubation with crocins was performed with Alamar Blue viability assay. The active ingredient of Alamar Blue, resazurin, is a blue, nontoxic, cell permeable compound virtually nonfluorescent. Upon entering cells, resazurin is reduced to a pink and fluorescent molecule, resorufin. Viable cells continuously convert resazurin to resorufin, generating a quantitative measure of viability. The colour of resorufin was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the solution at 600 nm with a spectrophotometer. HPLC analysis indicated that the most abundant crocins in our extract were trans-crocin-4 and trans-crocin-3. Crocins exerted significant cytotoxicity in a dose and time-dependent manner (p < 0.005 for exposed cells to any concentration at 48, 72 and 96 hours versus cells not exposed); as their concentration and time of exposure increased, the reduction of resazurin to resofurin decreased, indicating reduction in cell viability. IC50 values for each time point were calculated ~3.738, 1.725, 0.878 and 0.7566 mg/ml at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, respectively. The results of our study could afford the basis of research regarding the use of natural carotenoids as anticancer agents and the shift to targeted therapy with higher efficacy and limited toxicity. Acknowledgements: The research was funded by Fellowships of Excellence for Postgraduate Studies IKY-Siemens Programme.

Keywords: crocetin, crocin, medulloblastoma, saffron

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