Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 253

Search results for: apoptosis

253 Mechanistic Structural Insights into the UV Induced Apoptosis via Bcl-2 proteins

Authors: Akash Bera, Suraj Singh, Jacinta Dsouza, Ramakrishna V. Hosur, Pushpa Mishra

Abstract:

Ultraviolet C (UVC) radiation induces apoptosis in mammalian cells and it is suggested that the mechanism by which this occurs is the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis through the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The Bcl-2 family of proteins pro-and anti-apoptotic is the regulators of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Upon UVC irradiation, the proliferation of apoptosis is enhanced through the downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xl and up-regulation of Bax. Although the participation of the Bcl-2 family of proteins in apoptosis appears responsive to UVC radiation, to the author's best knowledge, it is unknown how the structure and, effectively, the function of these proteins are directly impacted by UVC exposure. In this background, we present here a structural rationale for the effect of UVC irradiation in restoring apoptosis using two of the relevant proteins, namely, Bid-FL and Bcl-xl ΔC, whose solution structures have been reported previously. Using a variety of biophysical tools such as circular dichroism, fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy, we show that following UVC irradiation, the structures of Bcl-xlΔC and Bid-FL are irreversibly altered. Bcl-xLΔC is found to be more sensitive to UV exposure than Bid-FL. From the NMR data, dramatic structural perturbations (α-helix to β-sheet) are seen to occur in the BH3 binding region, a crucial segment of Bcl-xlΔC which impacts the efficacy of its interactions with pro-apoptotic tBid. These results explain the regulation of apoptosis by UVC irradiation. Our results on irradiation dosage dependence of the structural changes have therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer.

Keywords: Bid, Bcl-xl, UVC, apoptosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
252 Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis Activity of Areca catechu Linn. Extract as Natural Anticancer Agent for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Liza Meutia Sari, Gus Permana Subita, Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

Abstract:

Background: Many herbs have been discovered to be potential sources of anticancer drugs. Biji Pinang or areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.) has a high content of phenolics and flavonoids, and which is related to antioxidant activity. However, data on its effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma is not available. Objectives: Identification of the cytotoxicity and apoptosis activity in HSC-2 and HSC-3. Methods: The areca nut was extracted by ethanol 96%, MTS assay and apoptosis activity with flow cytometry. Results: The extract of areca nut showed higher toxicity on HSC-3 cell compared to HSC-2. The IC₅₀ of HSC-3 was 164.06 μg/ml vs. 629.50 μg/ml in HSC-2. There was an increase in late apoptosis percentage after 24 and 48 hours in HSC-2. There was a significant increase in early apoptosis percentage after 24 hours and late in 48 hours in HSC-3. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of the extract of areca nut might be associated with the selective cytotoxicity on HSC-2 and HSC-3. Apoptosis is the major cell death mechanism involved. The areca nut may play an important role in anticancer herb medicine.

Keywords: areca nut, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oral carcinoma

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251 Induction of Apoptosis by Diosmin through Interleukins/STAT and Mitochondria Mediated Pathway in Hep-2 and KB Cells

Authors: M. Rajasekar, K. Suresh

Abstract:

Diosmin is a flavonoid, most abundantly found in many citrus fruits. As a flavonoid, it possesses a multitude of biological activities including anti-hyperglycemic, anti-lipid peroxidative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-mutagenic properties. At this point, we established the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities of diosmin in Hep-2 and KB cells. Diosmin has cytotoxic effects through inhibiting cellular proliferation of Hep-2 and KB cells, which leads to the induction of apoptosis, as apparent by an increase in the fraction of cells in the sub-G1phase of the cell cycle. Results exposed that inhibition of cell proliferation is associated with regulation of the Interleukins/STAT pathway. In addition, Diosmin treatment with Hep-2 and KB cells actively stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane depolarization. And also an imbalance in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio triggered the caspase cascade and shifting the balance in favor of apoptosis. These observations conclude that Diosmin induce apoptosis via Interleukins /STAT-mediated pathway.

Keywords: diosmin, apoptosis, antioxidant, STAT pathway

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
250 Studying the Antiapoptotic Activity of Β Cells from Cord Blood Based Mesenchymal Stem Cells as an Approach to Treat Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Parcha Sreenivasa Rao, P. Lakshmi

Abstract:

Diabetes Mellitus is metabolic disorder, characterized by high glucose levels in the blood due to one of the reason i.e., the death of β cells. The lack of β cells leads to the reduced insulin levels. The β cell death generally occurs due to apoptosis induced by the several cytokines. IL-1β, IFN- ϒ and TNF –α cytokines that are generally cause apoptosis to the β cell. The nutrient based apoptosis is generally seen with high glucose and free fatty acids. It is also noted that the β cell death triggered by Fas ligand and its receptor Fas at the surface of the activated CD8+ T- lymphocytes. Reports also reveal that the β cell apoptosis is under control of the transcription factors NF-kB and STAT- 1. The arresting or opposing of the β cell apoptosis can be overcome by the different growth factors like GLP-1, growth hormone, prolactin, VEGF, Dipeptidyl peptidase-4, Vildagliptin, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid, trichistatin-A, XIAP, Bcl-2, FGF-21. Present investigation explains antiapoptotic property of the β cells derived from the mesenchymal stem cells of umbilical cord.

Keywords: stem cells, umblical cord, diabetes, apoptosis

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249 The Role of Moringa oleifera Extract Leaves in Inducing Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cell Line

Authors: V. Yurina, H. Sujuti, E. Rahmani, A. R. Nopitasari

Abstract:

Breast cancer has the highest prevalence cancer in women. Moringa leaves (M. oleifera) contain quercetin, kaempferol, and benzyl isothiocyanate which can enhance induction of apoptosis. This research aimed to study the role of the leaf extract of Moringa to increase apoptosis in breast cancer cell line, MCF-7 cells. This research used in vitro experimental, post-test only, control group design on breast cancer cells MCF-7 in vitro. Moringa leaves were extracted by maceration method with ethanol 70%. Cells were treated with drumstick leaves extract on 1100, 2200, and 4400 μg/ml for Hsp27 and caspase-9 expression (immunocytochemistry) and apoptosis (TUNEL assay) test. The results of this study found that the IC50 2200 µg/ml. Moringa leaves extract can significantly increase the expression of caspase-9 (p<0.05) and decreased Hsp 27 expression (p<0.05). Moreover it can increase apoptosis (p<0.05) significantly in MCF-7 cells. The conclusion of this study is Moringa leaves extract is able to increase the expression of caspase-9, decrease Hsp27 expression and increase apoptosis in breast cancer cell-line MCF-7.

Keywords: apoptosis, breast cancer, caspase-9, Hsp27, Moringa oleifera

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248 Calpain-Mediated, Cisplain-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Shadia Al-Bahlani, Khadija Al-Bulushi, Zuweina Al-Hadidi, Buthaina Al-Dhahl, Nadia Al-Abri

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive type of breast cancer, which is defined by the absence of Estrogen (ER), Progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor (Her-2) receptors. The calpain system plays an important role in many cellular processes including apoptosis, necrosis, cell signaling and proliferation. However, the role of calpain in cisplatin (CDDP)-induced apoptosis in TNBC cells is not fully understood. Here, TNBC (MDA-MB231) cells were treated with different concentration of CDDP (0, 20 & 40 µM) and calpain activation and apoptosis were measured by western blot and Hoechst Stain respectively. In addition, calpain modulation by either activation and/or inhibition and its effect on CDDP-induced apoptosis were assessed by the same above approaches. Our findings showed that CDDP induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and thus Calcium release and subsequently activate calpain α-fodrin cleavage indicated by the increase in GRP78 and Calmodulin protein expression and respectively in MDA-MB231 cells. It also induced apoptosis as measured by Hoechst stain and caspase-12 cleavage. Calpain activation by both Cyclopiazonic acid and Thapsigargin showed similar effect and enhanced the sensitivity of these cells to CDDP treatment. On the other hand, calpain inhibition by either specific siRNA and/or exogenous inhibitor (Calpeptin) had an adverse effect where it attenuated calpain activation and thus CDDP- induced apoptosis in these cells. Altogether, these findings suggested that calpain activation play an essential role in sensitizing the TNBC cells to CDDP-induced apoptosis. This might lead to the discovery of novel treatment to over this aggressive type of breast cancer.

Keywords: calpain, cisplatin, apoptosis, breast cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
247 Preparation of Gramine Nanosuspension and Protective Effect of Gramine on Human Oral Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

Authors: K. Suresh, R. Arunkumar

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the preparation of gramine nano suspension and protective effect of Gramine on the apoptosis of laryngeal cancer cells cell line (HEp-2 and KB). The growth inhibition rate of Hep-2 and KB cells in vitro were measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by, levels of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, morphological changes and flowcytometry. Based on the results, we determined the effective doses of gramine as 127.23µm/ml for 24 hr and 119.81 µm/ml for 48hr in hep-2 cell line and 147.58 µm ml for 24 hr and 123.74µm µm/ml for 48hr in KB cell line. cytotoxicity effects of gramine were confirmed by treatment of HEp-2 cell and KB cell with IC50 concentration of gramine resulted in sequences of events marked by the enhance the apoptosis accompanied by loss of cell viability, modulation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest through the induction of G0/G1 phase arrest on HEp-2 cells. Our study suggests that the nanosuspension of gramine possesses the more cytotoxic effect of cancer cells and a novel candidate for cancer chemoprevention.

Keywords: apoptosis, HEp-2 cell line, KB cell line mitochondria, gramine, nanosuspension

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246 Hsa-miR-139-5p Acts as a Tumor Suppressor by Targeting C-Met in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Chengcao Sun, Shujun Li, Cuili Yang, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Feng Zhang, Dejia Li

Abstract:

Hsa-miRNA-139-5p (miR-139-5p) has recently been discovered having anticancer efficacy in different organs. However, the role of miR-139-5p on lung cancer is still ambiguous. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-139-5p on development of lung cancer. Results indicated miR-139-5p was significantly down-regulated in primary tumor tissues and very low levels were found in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-139-5p in NSCLC cell lines significantly suppressed cell growth through inhibition of cyclin D1 and up-regulation of p57(Kip2). In addition, miR-139-5p induced apoptosis, as indicated by up-regulation of key apoptosis gene cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl2. Moreover, miR-139-5p inhibited cellular metastasis through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and MMP-9. Further, oncogene c-Met was revealed to be a putative target of miR-139-5p, which was inversely correlated with miR-139-5p expression. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-139-5p plays a pivotal role in lung cancer through inhibiting cell proliferation, metastasis, and promoting apoptosis by targeting oncogenic c-Met.

Keywords: hsa-miRNA-139-5p (miR-139-5p), c-Met, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), proliferation, apoptosis

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245 Prophylactic Effects of Dairy Kluyveromyces marxianus YAS through Overexpression of BAX, CASP 3, CASP 8 and CASP 9 on Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Amir Saber Gharamaleki, Beitollah Alipour, Zeinab Faghfoori, Ahmad YariKhosroushahi

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and intestinal microbial community plays an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Probiotics have recently been assessed as effective anti-proliferative agents and thus this study was performed to examine whether CRC undergo apoptosis by treating with isolated Iranian native dairy yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus YAS, secretion metabolites. The cytotoxicity assessments on cells (HT-29, Caco-2) were accomplished through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as well as qualitative DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining) and quantitative (flow cytometry assessments) evaluations of apoptosis. To evaluate the main mechanism of apoptosis, Real time PCR method was applied. Kluyveromyces marxianus YAS secretions (IC50) showed significant cytotoxicity against HT-29 and Caco-2 cancer cell lines (66.57 % and 66.34 % apoptosis) similar to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) while apoptosis only was developed in 27.57 % of KDR normal cells. The prophylactic effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus (PTCC 5195), as a reference yeast, was not similar to Kluyveromyces marxianus YAS indicating strain dependency of bioactivities on CRC disease prevention. Based on real time PCR results, the main cytotoxicity is related to apoptosis phenomenon and the core related mechanism is depended on the overexpression of BAX, CASP 9, CASP 8 and CASP 3 inducing apoptosis genes. However, several investigations should be conducted to precisely determine the effective compounds to be used as anticancer therapeutics in the future.

Keywords: anticancer, anti-proliferative, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, yeast

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244 Study of Age-Dependent Changes of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Apoptotic Properties

Authors: Anahit Hakobjanyan, Zdenka Navratilova, Gabriela Strakova, Martin Petrek

Abstract:

Aging has a suppressive influence on human immune cells. Apoptosis may play important role in age-dependent immunosuppression and lymphopenia. Prevention of apoptosis may be promoted by BCL2-dependent and BCL2-independent manner. BCL2 is an antiapoptotic factor that has an antioxidative role by locating the glutathione at mitochondria and repressing oxidative stress. STAT3 may suppress apoptosis in BCL2-independent manner and promote cell survival blocking cytochrome-c release and reducing ROS production. The aim of our study was to estimate the influence of aging on BCL2-dependent and BCL2-independent prevention of apoptosis via measurement of BCL2 and STAT3 mRNAs expressions. The study was done on Armenian population (2 groups: 37 healthy young (mean age±SE; min/max age, male/female: 37.6±1.1; 20/54, 15/22), 28 healthy aged (66.7±1.5; 57/85, 12/16)). mRNA expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) was determined by RT-PCR using PSMB2 as the reference gene. Statistical analysis was done with Graph-Pad Prism 5; P < 0.05 considered as significant. The expression of BCL2 mRNA was lower in aged group (0.199) compared with young ones (0.643)(p < 0.01). Decrease expression was also recorded for female and male subgroups (p < 0.01). The expression level of STAT3 mRNA was increased (young, 0.228; aged, 0.428) (p < 0.05) during aging (in the whole age group and male/female subgroups). Decreased level of BCL2 mRNA may indicate about the suppression of BCL2-dependent prevention of apoptosis during aging in peripheral blood leukocytes. At the same time increased the level of STAT3 may suggest about activation of BCL2-independent prevention of apoptosis during aging.

Keywords: BCL2, STAT3, aging, apoptosis

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243 Novel Steviosides Analogs Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancers

Authors: Ahmed Malki

Abstract:

Breast cancer has been identified as the most lethal form of cancer today. In our study, we designed and screened 16 steviosides derivatives for their cytotoxic activities in MCF-7human breast cancer cells and normal MCF-12a cells. Our data indicated that steviosides derivatives 9 and 15 decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells more thannormal breast cells epithelial cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed that both steviosides, derivatives 9 and 15 arrested the MCF-7 cells in G1 phase, which is further confirmed by the increased expression level of p21. Moreover, both steviosides derivatives increased caspase-9 activity, and the induction of apoptosis was significantly reduced after treating cells with caspase-9 inhibitor LEHD-CHO. Both steviosides derivatives increased Caspase 3 activities and induced Parp-1 cleavage in H1299 cells. Based on previous results, we have identified two novel steviosides derivatives which provoked apoptosis in breast cancer cells by arresting cells in G1 phase and increasing caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities which merits further development and investigations.

Keywords: steviosides, breast cancer, p53, cell cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
242 The Effect of Particulate Matter on Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis Through Mitochondrial Fission

Authors: Tsai-chun Lai, Szu-ju Fu, Tzu-lin Lee, Yuh-Lien Chen

Abstract:

There is much evidence that exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) from air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. According to previous reports, PM in the air enters the respiratory tract, contacts the alveoli, and enters the blood circulation, leading to the progression of cardiovascular disease. PM pollution may also lead to cardiometabolic disturbances, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease. The effects of PM on cardiac function and mitochondrial damage are currently unknown. We used mice and rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2) as animal and in vitro cell models, respectively, to simulate an air pollution environment using PM. These results indicate that the apoptosis-related factor PUMA, a regulator of apoptosis upregulated by p53, is increased in mice treated with PM. Apoptosis was aggravated in cardiomyocytes treated with PM, as measured by TUNEL assay and Annexin V/PI. Western blot results showed that CASPASE3 was significantly increased and BCL2 (B-cell lymphoid 2) was significantly decreased under PM treatment. Concurrent exposure to PM increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by MitoSOX Red staining. Furthermore, using Mitotracker staining, PM treatment significantly shortened mitochondrial length, indicating mitochondrial fission. The expression of mitochondrial fission-related proteins p-DRP1 (phosphodynamics-related protein 1) and FIS1 (mitochondrial fission 1 protein) was significantly increased. Based on these results, the exposure to PM worsens mitochondrial function and leads to cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

Keywords: particulate matter, cardiomyocyte, apoptosis, mitochondria

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241 Hsa-miR-326 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer through Targeting CCND1

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, Cuili Yang, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Feng Zhang, De-Jia Li

Abstract:

Hsa-miRNA-326 (miR-326) has recently been discovered having anticancer efficacy in different organs. However, the role of miR-326 on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is still ambiguous. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-326 on the development of NSCLC. The results indicated that miR-326 was significantly down-regulated in primary tumor tissues and very low levels were found in NSCLC cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-326 in NSCLC cell lines significantly suppressed cell growth as evidenced by cell viability assay, colony formation assay and BrdU staining, through inhibition of cyclin D1, cyclin D2, CDK4, and up-regulation of p57(Kip2) and p21(Waf1/Cip1). In addition, miR-326 induced apoptosis, as indicated by concomitantly with up-regulation of key apoptosis protein cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl2. Moreover, miR-326 inhibited cellular migration and invasiveness through inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and MMP-9. Further, oncogene CCND1 was revealed to be a putative target of miR-326, which was inversely correlated with miR-326 expression in NSCLC. Taken together, our results demonstrated that miR-326 played a pivotal role on NSCLC through inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and promoting apoptosis by targeting oncogenic CCND1.

Keywords: hsa-miRNA-326 (miR-326), cyclin D1, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), proliferation, apoptosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
240 Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Β Receptor/P38 Pathway May Be the Potential Liver Damage Mechanisms Caused by Saikosaponin D

Authors: Li Chen, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng

Abstract:

SaikosaponinD (SSD) is a major component of saikosaponins isolated from Bupleurumfalactum. Our current study was to examine the toxic effect of SSD on liver cells and explore the possible mechanism. The results demonstrated that SSD induced mouse liver injury and led to apoptosis in LO2 cells. HE staining and TUNEL analyses showed that SSD stimulated liver injury and hepatocyte apoptosis in vivo. Subsequent experiments showed that SSD down-regulated Bcl-2 but up-regulated Bax. In vitro, SSD-treated LO2 cells exhibited apparent down-regulated expression of p-p38. Moreover, PDGF-βR agonist PDGF-BB alone significantly upregulated p38 phosphorylation, while combined with SSD, p38 phosphorylation expression was reduced. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated PDGF-βR knockdown augmented the inactivation of p-p38 and Bcl2 but abrogated the activation of Bax, these results were more obvious when shRNA combined with SSD. These data indicated that SSD stimulated liver injury and apoptosis in hepatocytes and PDGF-βR /p38 pathway may be the potential mechanistic.

Keywords: saikosaponin D, hepatotoxicity, liver injury, apoptosis, platelet-derived growth factor-β receptor, p38

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239 New Quinazoline Derivative Induce Cytotoxic Effect against Mcf-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell

Authors: Maryam Zahedi Fard, Nazia Abdul Majid, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

Abstract:

New quinazoline schiff base 3-(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylideneamino)-2-(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one was investigated for anticancer activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line with involved mechanism of apoptosis. The compound demonstrated a remarkable antiproliferative effect, with an IC50 value of 3.41 ± 0.34, after 72 hours of treatment. Morphological apoptotic features in treated MCF-7 cells were observed by AO/PI staining. Furthermore, treated MCF-7 cells subjected to apoptosis death, as exhibited by perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release as well as increase in ROS generation. We also found activation of caspases 3/7 and -9. Moreover, acute toxicity test demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the compound in mice. Our results showed the selected compound significantly induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via intrinsic pathway, which might be considered as a potent candidate for further in vivo and clinical breast cancer studies.

Keywords: antiproliferative effect, MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, apoptosis, caspases

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238 Antiviral Activity of Interleukin-11 in Response to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection

Authors: Li Yuchen, Wu Qingxin, Jin Yuxing, Yang Qian

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Interleukin-11 (IL-11), a well-known anti-inflammatory factor, helps to protect against intestinal epithelium damage caused by physical or chemical factors. However, little is known about the role of IL-11 during viral infection. Herein, high mRNA and protein levels of IL-11 were found in epithelial cells and jejunum of piglets during porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, and IL-11 expression was positively correlated with the level of viral infection. Pretreatment with recombinant porcine IL-11 (pIL-11) suppressed PEDV replication in Vero E6 cells, while IL-11 knockdown promoted viral infection. Furthermore, pIL-11 inhibited viral infection by preventing PEDV-mediated apoptosis of cells through activating the IL-11/STAT3 signal pathway. Conversely, application of a STAT3 phosphorylation inhibitor significantly antagonized the anti-apoptosis function of pIL-11 and counteracted its inhibition of PEDV. Our data suggested that that IL-11 is a novel PEDV-inducible cytokine, and its production enhances the anti-apoptosis ability of epithelial cells against PEDV infection. The potential uses of IL-11 as a novel therapeutic against devastating viral diarrhea in piglets deserves more attention and study.

Keywords: Interleukin-11, Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, STAT3, anti-apoptosis

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237 DNA Damage and Apoptosis Induced in Drosophila melanogaster Exposed to Different Duration of 2400 MHz Radio Frequency-Electromagnetic Fields Radiation

Authors: Neha Singh, Anuj Ranjan, Tanu Jindal

Abstract:

Over the last decade, the exponential growth of mobile communication has been accompanied by a parallel increase in density of electromagnetic fields (EMF). The continued expansion of mobile phone usage raises important questions as EMF, especially radio frequency (RF), have long been suspected of having biological effects. In the present experiments, we studied the effects of RF-EMF on cell death (apoptosis) and DNA damage of a well- tested biological model, Drosophila melanogaster exposed to 2400 MHz frequency for different time duration i.e. 2 hrs, 4 hrs, 6 hrs,8 hrs, 10 hrs, and 12 hrs each day for five continuous days in ambient temperature and humidity conditions inside an exposure chamber. The flies were grouped into control, sham-exposed, and exposed with 100 flies in each group. In this study, well-known techniques like Comet Assay and TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) Assay were used to detect DNA damage and for apoptosis studies, respectively. Experiments results showed DNA damage in the brain cells of Drosophila which increases as the duration of exposure increases when observed under the observed when we compared results of control, sham-exposed, and exposed group which indicates that EMF radiation-induced stress in the organism that leads to DNA damage and cell death. The process of apoptosis and mutation follows similar pathway for all eukaryotic cells; therefore, studying apoptosis and genotoxicity in Drosophila makes similar relevance for human beings as well.

Keywords: cell death, apoptosis, Comet Assay, DNA damage, Drosophila, electromagnetic fields, EMF, radio frequency, RF, TUNEL assay

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236 Hsa-miR-329 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor through Targeting MET in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, Cuili Yang, Yongyong Xi, Liang Wang, Feng Zhang, De-Jia Li

Abstract:

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as key regulators of multiple cancers. Hsa-miR-329 (miR-329) functions as a tumor suppressor in some malignancies. However, its role on lung cancer remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-329 on the development of lung cancer. The results indicated that miR-329 was decreased in primary lung cancer tissues compared with matched adjacent normal lung tissues and very low levels were found in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Ectopic expression of miR-329 in lung cancer cell lines substantially repressed cell growth as evidenced by cell viability assay, colony formation assay and BrdU staining, through inhibiting cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and up-regulatiing p57(Kip2) and p21(WAF1/CIP1). In addition, miR-329 promoted NSCLC cell apoptosis, as indicated by up-regulation of key apoptosis gene cleaved caspase-3, and down-regulation of anti-apoptosis gene Bcl2. Moreover, miR-329 inhibited cellular migration and invasiveness through inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-7 and MMP-9. Further, oncogene MET was revealed to be a putative target of miR-329, which was inversely correlated with miR-329 expression. Furthermore, down-regulation of MET by siRNA performed similar effects to over-expression of miR-329. Collectively, our results demonstrated that miR-329 played a pivotal role in lung cancer through inhibiting cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and promoting apoptosis by targeting oncogenic MET.

Keywords: hsa-miRNA-329(miR-329), MET, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), proliferation, apoptosis

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235 Effects of New Anthraquinone Derivatives on Resistance Ovarian Cancer Cells and The Mechanism Investigation

Authors: Hui-Hsin Huang, Sheng-Tung Huang, Chi-Ming Lee, Chiao-Han Yen, Chun-Mao Lin

Abstract:

At initiation stage, there are no symptoms at initiation stage; however, at late stage, patients suffer symptoms as soon as ovarian cancer metastasis. Moreover, ovarian cancer cells are resistant to some anti-ovarian cancer drugs in clinical. Thus, it is very important to find an effective treatment for resistant ovarian cancer. Anthraquinone derivatives are able to induce DNA damage and lead to cell apoptosis, so several derivatives have been used for clinical application. Therefore, to explore more effective anti-ovarian cancer drugs, this study investigates the mechanism of three new anthraquinone compounds bearing different functional groups to camptothecin-resistance ovarian cell line A2780R2000. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay after treating A2780R2000 with the three new anthraquinone compounds. The results indicated that IC50 values are 33.44μM (Compound I), 25.77μM (Compound II) and 24.59μM (Compound III). Next, through cell cycle analysis, the results demonstrated that three new anthraquinone compounds not only induced A2780R2000 cell cycle arrest at early stage but also apoptosis at late stage. Besides, through apoptosis assay, the results indicated new anthraquinone compound induced apoptosis at late stage. Furthermore, the results of western blot show that the three new anthraquinone compounds lead to A2780R2000 apoptosis through intrinsic pathway. Theses results suggested that three new anthraquinone compounds may be potential new drugs for clinical cancer treatment in the future.

Keywords: anthraquinone, camptothecin, resistance, ovarian cancer

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234 New Quinazoline Derivative Exhibit Cytotoxic Effect agaisnt MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell

Authors: Maryam Zahedifard, Fadhil Lafta Faraj, Nazia Abdul Majid, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla

Abstract:

The new quinazoline Schiff bases have been synthesized through condensation reaction of 2-aminobenzhydrazide with 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and 3-methoxy-5-bromosalicylaldehyde. The compound was investigated for anticancer activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. It demonstrated a remarkable antiproliferative effect, with an IC50 value of 3.41±0.34, after 72 hours of treatment. Most apoptosis morphological features in treated MCF-7 cells were observed by AO/PI staining. The results of cell cycle analysis indicate that compounds did not induce S and M phase arrest in cell after 24 hours of treatment. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells treated with compound subjected to apoptosis death, as exhibited by perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome C release as well as increase in ROS generation. We also found activation of caspases 3/7 and -9. Moreover, acute toxicity results demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the compounds in mice. Our results showed the selected compound significantly induce apoptosis in MCF-7 cells via intrinsic pathway, which might be considered as a potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical breast cancer studies.

Keywords: quinazoline Schiff base, apoptosis, MCF-7, caspase, cell cycle, acute toxicity

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233 An Investigation of Anticancer Fluorinated Aza-Heterocycles

Authors: Darya O. Prima, Elena V. Vorontsova, Yuri G. Slizhov, Andrey V. Zibarev

Abstract:

A broad family of carbocycle-fluorinated aza-heterocycles including 1,3-benzodiazoles (benzimidazoles), 1,2,3-benzotriazoles, 2,1,3-benzothia/selenadiazoles and 1,4-benzodiazines (quinoxalines) was synthesized in the unified way and assessed for cytotoxicity towards the Hep2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma, a kind of oral cancer) cells. The diazoles, triazoles and selenadiazoles revealed low medium inhibitory concentrations IC50 = 2.2-26.4 µМ and induced the cells’ apoptosis at low concentrations C = 1-25 µМ. For selenadiazoles, cell death dynamics was observed already in the first hours after the treatment. Replacement of one atom F by group Me2N in some cases enlarged apoptotic activity of the compounds towards the Hep2 cells. In contrast, the archetypal (i.e. non-fluorinated) 1,3-benzodiazole, 1,2,3-benzotriazole and 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole were low toxic (IC50 > 100 µM) and induced apoptosis only at high concentrations. The chlorinated congeners of the heterocycles under discussion were highly toxic towards the Hep2 cells but revealed insignificant ability to induce their apoptosis. Overall, the findings above suggest that fluorinated 1,3-benzodiazole, 1,2,3-benzotriazole and 2,1,3-benzoselenadiazole derivatives can be considered as potential anticancer drugs. For the laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma (for which, according to available statistics, the five-year survival rate remained ~50% during the past 30 years), it is especially important since surgical treatment is seriously complicated here thus encouraging medicament one.

Keywords: Apoptosis, aza-heterocycles, cytotoxicity, fluorinated, Hep2 cells, synthesis

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232 Relationship between Iron-Related Parameters and Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor-Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis in Obese Children

Authors: Mustafa M. Donma, Orkide Donma

Abstract:

Iron is physiologically essential. However, it also participates in the catalysis of free radical formation reactions. Its deficiency is associated with amplified health risks. This trace element establishes some links with another physiological process related to cell death, apoptosis. Both iron deficiency and iron overload are closely associated with apoptosis. Soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) has the ability to trigger apoptosis and plays a dual role in the physiological versus pathological inflammatory responses of tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of these parameters as well as the associations among them in children with obesity, a low-grade inflammatory state. The study was performed on groups of children with normal body mass index (N-BMI) and obesity. Forty-three children were included in each group. Based upon age- and sex-adjusted BMI percentile tables prepared by World Health Organization, children whose values varied between 85 and 15 were included in N-BMI group. Children whose BMI percentile values were between 99 and 95 comprised obese (OB) group. Institutional ethical committee approval and informed consent forms were taken prior to the study. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, head circumference, neck circumference) and blood pressure values (systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure) were recorded. Routine biochemical analysis including serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation percent (Tf Sat %), and ferritin were performed. Soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Study data was evaluated using appropriate statistical tests performed by the statistical program SPSS. Serum iron levels were 91±34 mcrg/dl and 75±31 mcrg/dl in N-BMI and OB children, respectively. The corresponding values for TIBC, Tf Sat %, ferritin were 265 mcrg/dl vs 299 mcrg/dl, 37.2±19.1 % vs 26.7±14.6 %, and 41±25 ng/ml vs 44±26 ng/ml. in N-BMI and OB groups, sTWEAK concentrations were measured as 351 ng/L and 325 ng/L, respectively (p>0.05). Correlation analysis revealed significant associations between sTWEAK levels and iron related parameters (p<0.05) except ferritin. In conclusion, iron contributes to apoptosis. Children with iron deficiency have decreased apoptosis rate in comparison with that of healthy children. sTWEAK is inducer of apoptosis. Obese children had lower levels of both iron and sTWEAK. Low levels of sTWEAK are associated with several types of cancers and poor survival. Although iron deficiency state was not observed in this study, the correlations detected between decreased sTWEAK and decreased iron as well as Tf Sat % values were valuable findings, which point out decreased apoptosis. This may induce a proinflammatory state, potentially leading to malignancies in the future lives of obese children.

Keywords: apoptosis, children, iron-related parameters, obesity, soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis

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231 Therapeutical Role of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles (CuO NPs) for Breast Cancer Therapy

Authors: Dipranjan Laha, Parimal Karmakar

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Metal oxide nanoparticles are well known to generate oxidative stress and deregulate normal cellular activities. Among these, transition metals copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are more compelling than others and able to modulate different cellular responses. In this work, we have synthesized and characterized CuO NPs by various biophysical methods. These CuO NPs (~30 nm) induce autophagy in human breast cancer cell line, MCF7 in a time and dose-dependent manner. Cellular autophagy was tested by MDC staining, induction of green fluorescent protein light chain 3 (GFP-LC3B) foci by confocal microscopy, transfection of pBABE-puro mCherry-EGFP-LC3B plasmid and western blotting of autophagy marker proteins LC3B, beclin1, and ATG5. Further, inhibition of autophagy by 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) decreased LD50 doses of CuO NPs. Such cell death was associated with the induction of apoptosis as revealed by FACS analysis, cleavage of PARP, dephosphorylation of Bad and increased cleavage product of caspase3. siRNA-mediated inhibition of autophagy-related gene beclin1 also demonstrated similar results. Finally, induction of apoptosis by 3-MA in CuO NPs treated cells were observed by TEM. This study indicates that CuO NPs are a potent inducer of autophagy which may be a cellular defense against the CuO NPs mediated toxicity and inhibition of autophagy switches the cellular response into apoptosis. A combination of CuO NPs with the autophagy inhibitor is essential to induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Acknowledgments: The authors would like to acknowledge for financial support for this research work to the Department of Biotechnology (No. BT/PR14661/NNT/28/494/2010), Government of India.

Keywords: nanoparticle, autophagy, apoptosis, siRNA-mediated inhibition

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230 DNA Fragmentation and Apoptosis in Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines by Sesamum indicum Dried Seeds

Authors: Mohd Farooq Naqshbandi

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The four fractions of aqueous extract of Sesame Seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) were studied for invitro DNA fragmentation, cell migration, and cellular apoptosis on SW480 and HTC116 human colorectal cancer cell lines. The seeds of Sesamum indicum were extracted with six solvents, including Methanol, Ethanol, Aqueous, Chloroform, Acetonitrile, and Hexane. The aqueous extract (IC₅₀ value 154 µg/ml) was found to be the most active in terms of cytotoxicity with SW480 human colorectal cancer cell lines. Further fractionation of this aqueous extract on flash chromatography gave four fractions. These four fractions were studied for anticancer and DNA binding studies. Cell viability was assessed by colorimetric assay (MTT). IC₅₀ values for all these four fractions ranged from 137 to 548 µg/mL for the HTC116 cancer cell line and 141 to 402 µg/mL for the SW480 cancer cell line. The four fractions showed good anticancer and DNA binding properties. The DNA binding constants ranged from 10.4 ×10⁴ 5 to 28.7 ×10⁴, showing good interactions with DNA. The DNA binding interactions were due to intercalative and π-π electron forces. The results indicate that aqueous extract fractions of sesame showed inhibition of cell migration of SW480 and HTC116 human colorectal cancer cell lines and induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. This was demonstrated by calculating the low wound closure percentage in cells treated with these fractions as compared to the control (80%). Morphological features of nuclei of cells treated with fractions revealed chromatin compression, nuclear shrinkage, and apoptotic body formation, which indicate cell death by apoptosis. The flow cytometer of fraction-treated cells of SW480 and HTC116 human colorectal cancer cell lines revealed death due to apoptosis. The results of the study indicate that aqueous extract of sesame seeds may be used to treat colorectal cancer.

Keywords: Sesamum indicum, cell migration inhibition, apoptosis induction, anticancer activity, colorectal cancer

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229 Biological Activities of Flaxseed Peptides (Linusorbs)

Authors: Youn Young Shim, Martin J. T. Reaney

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Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is gaining popularity in the food industry as a super-food due to its health-promoting properties. The flax plant synthesizes an array of biolog-ically active cyclic peptides or linusorbs (LOs, a.k.a. cyclolinopeptides) from three or more ribosome-derived precursors. [1–9-NαC]-linusorb B3 and [1–9-NαC]-linusorb B2, sup-press immunity, induce apoptosis in human epithelial cancer cell line (Calu-3) cells, and inhibit T-cell proliferation, but the mechanism of LOs action is unknown. Using gene ex-pression analysis in nematode cultures and human cancer cell lines we have observed that LOs exert their activity, in part, through induction of apoptosis. Specific LOs’ properties include: 1) distribute throughout the body after flaxseed consumption; 2) induce heat shock protein (HSP) 70A production as an indicator of stress and addressed the issue in Caeno-rhabditis elegans (exposure of nematode cultures to [1–9-NαC]-linusorb B3 induced a 30% increase in production of the HSP 70A protein); 3) induce apoptosis in Calu-3 cells; and 4) modulate regulatory genes in microarray analysis. These diverse activities indicate that LOs might induce apoptosis in cancer cells or act as versatile platforms to deliver a variety of biologically active molecules for cancer therapy.

Keywords: flaxseed, linusorb, oil seed, heat shock protein, anti-cancer

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228 Apoptosis Activity of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm Bark Methanolic Crude Extract

Authors: P. Narrima, C. Y. Looi, M. A. Mohd, H. M. Ali

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Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm is a member of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in Southeast Asia. It is from the same genus with avocado (Persea americana Mill), which is widely consumed as food and for medicinal purposes. In the present study, we examined the anticancer properties of Persea declinata (Bl.) Kosterm bark methanolic crude extract (PDM). PDM exhibited a potent antiproliferative effect in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, with an IC50 value of 16.68 µg/mL after 48h of treatment. We observed that PDM caused cell cycle arrest and subsequent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as exhibited by increased population at G0/G1 phase, higher lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and DNA fragmentation. Mechanistic studies showed that PDM caused significant elevation in ROS production, leading to perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, cell permeability, and activation of caspases-3/7. On the other hand, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis showed that PDM treatment increased the expression of the proapoptotic molecule, Bax, but decreased the expression of prosurvival proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, in a dose-dependent manner. These findings imply that PDM could inhibit proliferation in MCF-7 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction, indicating its potential as a therapeutic agent worthy of further development.

Keywords: antiproliferative, apoptosis, MCF-7 human breast cancer, Persea declinata

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227 Natural Honey and Effect on the Activity of the Cells

Authors: Abujnah Dukali

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Natural honey was assessed in cell culture system for its anticancer activity. Human leukemic cell line HL 60 was treated with honey and cultured for 5 days and cytotoxicity was calculated by MTT assay. Honey showed cytotoxicity with CC50 value of 174.20 µg/ml. Radical modulation activities was assessed by lipid peroxidation assay using egg lecithin. Honey showed antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 159.73 µg/ml. In addition, treatment with HL60 cells also resulted in nuclear DNA fragmentation, as seen in agarose gel electrophoresis. This is a hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis was performed by staining the cells with Annexin V and FACS analysis. Apoptosis is an active, genetically regulated disassembly of the cell form within. Disassembly creates changes in the phospholipid content of the cytoplasmic membrane outer leaflet. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is translocated from the inner to the outer surface of the cell for phagocytic cell recognition. The human anticoagulant, annexin V, is a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid protein with a high affinity for PS. Annexin V labeled with fluorescein can identify apoptotic cells in the population It is a confirmatory test for apoptosis. Annexin V-positive cells were defined as apoptotic cells. Since honey shows both antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity at almost the same concentration, it can prevent the free radical induced cancer as prophylactic agent and kill the cancer cells by apoptotic process as a chemotherapeutic agent. Everyday intake of honey can prevent the cancer induction.

Keywords: anticancer, cells, DNA, honey

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226 Evaluation of ROS Mediated Apoptosis Induced by Tuber Extract of Dioscorea Bulbifera on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma

Authors: Debasmita Dubey, Rajesh Kumar Meher, Smruti Pragya Samal, Pradeep Kumar Naik

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Background: To determine antioxidant properties and anticancer activity by ROS and mitochondrial transmembrane potential mediated apoptosis against MCF7, MDA-MB-231, cell line. Methods: Leaf sample was extracted using methanol by microwave digestion technique. The antioxidant properties of the methanolic extract were determined by a DPPH scavenging assay. In vitro anticancer activity, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, apoptosis activity and DNA fragmentation study, as well as intracellular ROS activity of most potential leaf extract, were also determined by using the MDA-MB-231cell line. In vivo animal toxicity study was carried out using mice model. Results: Methanolic leaf extract has shown the highest antioxidant, as well as anticancer activity, is based on the assay conducted. For the identification of active phytochemicals from methanolic extract, High-resolution mass spectroscopy-LCMS was used. In vitro cytotoxicity study against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell line and IC 50 value was found to be 37.5µg/ml. From histopathological studies, no toxicity in liver and kidney tissue was identified. Conclusion: This plant tuber can be used as a regular diet to reduce the chance of breast cancer. Further, more studies should be conducted to isolate and identify the responsible compound.

Keywords: human breast adenocarcinoma, ROS, mitochondrial transmembrane, apoptosis

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225 Annona muricata Leaves Induced Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis in A549 Cells

Authors: Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Habsah Abdul Kadir, Mohammadjavad Paydar, Elham Rouhollahi, Hamed Karimian

Abstract:

The present study was designed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of Annona muricata leaves ethyl acetate extract (AMEAE) against lung cancer A549 cells. Cell viability analysis revealed the selective cytotoxic effect of AMEAE towards A549 cells. Treatment of A549 cells with AMEAE significantly elevated the reactive oxygen species formation, followed by attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential via upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2, accompanied by cytochrome c release to the cytosol. The released cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. In addition, AMEAE-induced apoptosis was accompanied by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Our data showed for the first time that AMEAE inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death through activation of the mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway.

Keywords: Annona muricata, lung cancer, apoptosis, mitochondria

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224 Profiling of Apoptotic Protein Expressions after Trabectedin Treatment in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Line PC-3 by Protein Array Technology

Authors: Harika Atmaca, Emir Bozkurt, Latife Merve Oktay, Selim Uzunoglu, Ruchan Uslu, Burçak Karaca

Abstract:

Microarrays have been developed for highly parallel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) applications. The most common protein arrays are produced by using multiple monoclonal antibodies, since they are robust molecules which can be easily handled and immobilized by standard procedures without loss of activity. Protein expression profiling with protein array technology allows simultaneous analysis of the protein expression pattern of a large number of proteins. Trabectedin, a tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid derived from a Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata, has been shown to have antitumor effects. Here, we used a novel proteomic approach to explore the mechanism of action of trabectedin in prostate cancer cell line PC-3 by apoptosis antibody microarray. XTT cell proliferation kit and Cell Death Detection Elisa Plus Kit (Roche) was used for measuring cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Human Apoptosis Protein Array (R&D Systems) which consists of 35 apoptosis related proteins was used to assess the omic protein expression pattern. Trabectedin induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells in a time and concentration-dependent manner. The expression levels of the death receptor pathway molecules, TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL R2/DR5, TNF R1/TNFRSF1A, FADD were significantly increased by 4.0-, 21.0-, 4.20- and 11.5-fold by trabectedin treatment in PC-3 cells. Moreover, mitochondrial pathway related pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, Bad, Cytochrome c, and Cleaved Caspase-3 expressions were induced by 2.68-, 2.07-, 2.8-, and 4.5-fold and the expression levels of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL were reduced by 3.5- and 5.2-fold in PC-3 cells. Proteomic (antibody microarray) analysis suggests that the mechanism of action of trabectedin may be exerted via the induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. The antibody microarray platform can be utilised to explore the molecular mechanism of action of novel anticancer agents.

Keywords: trabectedin, prostate cancer, omic protein expression profile, apoptosis

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