Search results for: Arojojoye Oluwatosin Adetola
17 Antioxidant Responses and Malondialdehyde Levels in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Eleyele River in Nigeria
Authors: Oluwatosin Adetola Arojojoye, Olajumoke Olufunlayo Alao, Philip Odigili
Abstract:This study investigated the extent of pollution in Eleyele River in Oyo State, Nigeria by investigating the antioxidant status and malondialdehyde levels (index of lipid peroxidation) in the organs of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus from the river. Clarias gariepinus weighing between 250g-400g were collected from Eleyele River (a suspected polluted river) and Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm (Durantee fisheries) were used as the control. Levels of malondialdehyde, glutathione concentration (GSH) and activities of antioxidant enzymes - superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were evaluated in the post-mitochondrial fractions of the liver, kidney and gills of the fishes. From the results, there were increases in malondialdehyde level and GSH concentration in the liver, kidney and gills of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control. Glutathione-S-transferase activity was induced in the liver and kidney of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control. However, the activity of this enzyme was depleted in the gills of fishes from Eleyele River compared with control. Also there was an induction in SOD activity in the liver of Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River when compared with control but there was a decrease in the activity of this enzyme in the kidney and gills of fishes from Eleyele River compared with control. Increase in lipid peroxidation and alterations in antioxidant system in Clarias gariepinus from Eleyele River show that the fishes were under oxidative stress. These suggest that the river is polluted probably as a result of industrial, domestic and agricultural wastes frequently discharged into the river. This could pose serious health risks to consumers of water and aquatic organisms from the river.
Keywords: antioxidant, lipid peroxidation, Clarias gariepinus, Eleyele RiverProcedia PDF Downloads 374
16 Impact of Environmental Pollution on Oxidative Stress Indices in African Cat Fish (Clarias gariepinus) from Araromi River in Ondo State, Nigeria
Authors: Arojojoye Oluwatosin Adetola, Nwaechefu Olajumoke Olufunlayo, Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Jeremiah Moyinoluwalogo Afolabi, Asaolu Racheal Oluwabukola
Abstract:The effects of man’s activities on the environment include depletion of natural resources alongside pollution of water bodies. Petroleum exploration in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria has compromised the aquatic environment with grave consequences on the entire ecosystem. In this study, we assessed the environmental safety of Araromi River, located in an oil-producing area in Ondo State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria by determining the levels of heavy metals (copper, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) and some biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase and reduced glutathione) in Clarias gariepinus (350-400g) from the river using standard methods. Clarias gariepinus from a clean fish farm in the same geographical location as the reference site (Ilesannmi fishery) was used as a control. Water samples from both sites were also analysed for some physicochemical parameters, heavy metals, and bacterial contamination. Our findings show a significant increase in malondialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) as well as alterations in antioxidant status in the organs of Clarias gariepinus from Araromi River compared with control. A significant increase in bacterial contaminants, heavy metal pollutants, and particulate matter deposits were also observed in the water sample from Araromi River compared with control. In conclusion, high levels of indicators of environmental pollution observed in the water sample from Araromi River coupled with induction of oxidative stress in Clarias gariepinus from the river show that Araromi River is polluted; therefore, consumption of fishes and other aquatic organisms from the river may be unsafe for the people in that community.
Keywords: Araromi River, Clarias gariepinus, environmental pollution, heavy metals, oxidative stressProcedia PDF Downloads 89
15 Power Quality Issues: Power Supply Interruptions as Key Constraint to Development in Ekiti State, Nigeria
Authors: Oluwatosin S. Adeoye
Abstract:The power quality issues in the world today are critical to the development of different nations. Prosperity of each nation depends on availability of constant power supply. Constant power supply is a major challenge in Africa particularly in Nigeria where the generated power is than thirty percent of the required power. The metrics of power quality are voltage dip, flickers, spikes, harmonics and interruptions. The level of interruptions in Ekiti State was examined through the investigation of the causes of power interruptions in the State. The method used was the collection of data from the Distribution Company, assessment through simple programming as a command for plotting the graphs through the use of MATLAB 2015 depicting the behavioural pattern of the interruption for a period of six months in 2016. The result shows that the interrelationship between the interruptions and development. Recommendations were suggested with the objective of solving the problems being set up by interruptions in the State and these include installation of reactors, automatic voltage regulators and effective tap changing system on the lines, busses and transformer substation respectively.
Keywords: development, frequency, interruption, power, qualityProcedia PDF Downloads 104
14 Evaluation of Energy Supply and Demand Side Management for Residential Buildings in Ekiti State, Nigeria
Authors: Oluwatosin Samuel Adeoye
Abstract:Ekiti State is an agrarian state located in south western part of Nigeria. The injected power to the Ado-Ekiti and the entire state are 25MW and 37.6 MW respectively. The estimated power demand for Ado Ekiti and Ekiti state were 29.01MW and 224.116MW respectively. The distributed power to the consumers is characterized with shortcomings which include: in-adequate supply, poor voltage regulation, improper usage, illiteracy and wastage. The power generation in Nigeria is presently 1680.60MW which does not match the estimated power demand of 15,000MW with a population of over 170 million citizens. This paper evaluates the energy utilization in Ado Ekiti metropolis, the wastage and its economic implication as well as effective means of its management. The use of direct interviews, administration of questionnaires, measurements of current and voltage with clamp multimeter, and simple mathematical approach were used for the purpose of evaluation. Recommendations were made with the view of reducing energy waste from mean value of 10.84% to 2% in order to reduce the cost implication such that the huge financial waste can be injected to other parts of the economy as well as the management of energy in Ekiti state.
Keywords: consumers, demand, energy, management, power supply, wasteProcedia PDF Downloads 265
13 Review of Hydrologic Applications of Conceptual Models for Precipitation-Runoff Process
Authors: Oluwatosin Olofintoye, Josiah Adeyemo, Gbemileke Shomade
Abstract:The relationship between rainfall and runoff is an important issue in surface water hydrology therefore the understanding and development of accurate rainfall-runoff models and their applications in water resources planning, management and operation are of paramount importance in hydrological studies. This paper reviews some of the previous works on the rainfall-runoff process modeling. The hydrologic applications of conceptual models and artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the precipitation-runoff process modeling were studied. Gradient training methods such as error back-propagation (BP) and evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are discussed in relation to the training of artificial neural networks and it is shown that application of EAs to artificial neural networks training could be an alternative to other training methods. Therefore, further research interest to exploit the abundant expert knowledge in the area of artificial intelligence for the solution of hydrologic and water resources planning and management problems is needed.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, gradient training method, rainfall-runoff modelProcedia PDF Downloads 384
12 Marketing of Global Business Systems Technologies as a Panacea to Unemployment Problem in Ogun State, Nigeria
Authors: Oluwatosin Oyewale
Abstract:This research work seeks to take technology used for business systems as a product that requires marketing activities. Technology is invented and innovated upon in developed countries and are introduced into Africa through marketing activities. Businesses in Africa now adopt this technology for global competitiveness and hitherto unemployed but educationally advantaged people are trained in handling and utilising the technology. The aim of this study is to examine how marketing activities make this technology help in solving the unemployment problem in Africa. The areas of study are both the premier local government and the local government of the industrial haven in Ogun State, Nigeria. Area or cluster sampling technique was employed and Questionnaires were administered to two hundred respondents in the areas of study. Findings revealed that marketing has contributed to the promotion of technology; thereby making businesses globally competitive. In addition, technology has helped in reducing unemployment in developing countries. Recommendations are that training programmes that will address existing knowledge gap in technology utilisation needs to be conducted for the labour force in Africa. Moreover, adequate power supply that will aid effective utilisation of these technologies needs to be put in place by the government in these various African countries.
Keywords: marketing, unemployment, problem, panaceaProcedia PDF Downloads 161
11 Heavy Metal Contamination of a Dumpsite Environment as Assessed with Pollution Indices
Authors: Olubunmi S. Shittu, Olufemi J. Ayodele, Augustus O. A. Ilori, Abidemi O. Filani, Adetola T. Afuye
Abstract:Indiscriminate refuse dumping in and around Ado-Ekiti combined with improper management of few available dumpsites, such as Ilokun dumpsite, posed the threat of heavy metals pollution in the surrounding soils and underground water that needs assessment using pollution indices. Surface soils (0-15 cm) were taken from the centre of Ilokun dumpsite (0 m) and environs at different directions and distances during the dry and wet seasons, as well as a background sample at 1000 m away, adjacent to the dumpsite at Ilokun, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The concentration of heavy metals used to calculate the pollution indices for the soils were determined using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. The soils recorded high concentrations of all the heavy metals above the background concentrations irrespective of the season with highest concentrations at the 0 m except Ni and Fe at 50 m during the dry and wet season, respectively. The heavy metals concentration were in the order of Ni > Mn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd > Fe during the dry season, and Fe > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Mn during the wet season. Using the Contamination Factor (CF), the soils were classified to be moderately contaminated with Cd and Fe to very high contamination with other metals during the dry season and low Cd contamination (0.87), moderate contamination with Fe, Pb, Mn and Ni and very high contamination with Cr and Cu during the wet season. At both seasons, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) indicates the soils to be generally polluted with heavy metals and the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) calculated shown the soils to be in unpolluted to moderately polluted levels. Enrichment Factor (EF) implied the soils to be deficiently enriched with all the heavy metals except Cr (7.90) and Cu (6.42) that were at significantly enrichment levels during the wet season. Modified Degree of Contamination (mCd) recorded, indicated the soils to be of very high to extremely high degree of contamination during the dry season and moderate degree of contamination during the wet season except 0 m with high degree of contamination. The concentration of heavy metals in the soils combined with some of the pollution indices indicated the soils in and around the Ilokun Dumpsite are being polluted with heavy metals from anthropogenic sources constituted by the indiscriminate refuse dumping.
Keywords: contamination factor, enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, modified degree of contamination, pollution load indexProcedia PDF Downloads 293
10 The Occurrence of Sporeformers in Processed Milk from Household Refrigerators and The Effect of Heat Treatment on Bacillus Spores Activation
Authors: Sarisha Devnath, Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi
Abstract:In recent years milk contamination has become a major problem in households; due to the likely occurrence of bacteria, even after the milk has been processed. One such genus of bacteria causing unwanted growth is Bacillus. This research project looks at the presence of spore formers in processed milk from household refrigerators and the effect of pasteurization and high temperature on Bacillus spores activation. 24 samples each of UHT milk and pasteurised milk from 24 households were sampled for the presence of spore formers. While anaerobic spore formers were not found in any of the samples, the average aerobic spore formers in UHT milk and pasteurized milk however were 5.77 cfu/ml and 5.88 cfu/ml respectively. After sequencing, it was detected that the mixed culture contained Bacillus cereus, for both pasteurised and UHT milk samples. For the activation study, raw milk samples were collected and subjected to four different temperatures; 65˚C, 72˚C, 80˚C, 100˚C respectively. Samples were stored for 7 days at 5˚C and 10˚C and analysed daily. The average aerobic spore formers in raw milk for samples stored at 5˚C range between 4.67-6.00 cfu/ml while it ranges between 4.84-6.00 cfu/ml at 10˚C, signifying that the high temperatures could have resulted in germination of dominant spores. Statistical analysis conducted on these results indicated a significant difference between the numbers of colonies present at the different treatment temperatures the bacterium was exposed to. This work showed that household milk may constitute public health risk furthermore; pasteurization and higher temperatures may not be effective to remove aerobic spore formers because of Bacillus spores activation.
Keywords: sporeformers, bacillus, spores, activation, milkProcedia PDF Downloads 382
9 Control of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC7644 in Fresh Tomato and Carrot with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles
Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi, Faith Semwayo
Abstract:Preference for consumption of fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables continues to be on the upward trend however food-borne outbreaks related to them have also been on the increase. In this study the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on controlling Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 in tomatoes and carrots during storage was investigated. Nutrient broth was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 and thereafter inoculated with 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 1.2mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution and 200ppm chlorine was used as a control. Whole tomatoes and carrots were also inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 after which they were dipped into zinc oxide nanoparticle solutions and chlorine solutions. 1.2 mg/ml had a 2.40 log reduction; 0.3mg/ml nano-zinc oxide solution had a log reduction of 2.15 in the broth solution. There was however a 4.89 log and 4.46 reduction by 200 ppm chlorine in tomato and carrot respectively. Control with 0.3 mg/ml zinc oxide nanoparticles resulted in a log reduction of 5.19 in tomato and 3.66 in carrots. 1.2 mg/ml nanozinc oxide solution resulted in a 5.53 log reduction in tomato and a 4.44 log reduction in carrots. A combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml nanozinc oxide was also used and resulted in log reductions of 5.76 and 4.84 respectively in tomatoes and carrots. Treatments were more effective in tomatoes than in carrots and the combination of 50ppm Chlorine and 0.3 mg/ml ZnO resulted in the highest log reductions in both vegetables. Statistical analysis however showed that there was no significant difference between treatments with Chlorine and nanoparticle solutions. This study therefore indicates that zinc oxide nanoparticles have the potential for use as a control agent in the fresh produce industry.
Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, nanoparticles, tomato, carrotProcedia PDF Downloads 446
8 Climate Change Effects and Cocoa Farmers Coping Strategies in Ilaro Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria
Authors: Irene Oluwatosin Uwabor
Abstract:Climate change is a global phenomenon which affects the environment and undermines agricultural activities, in particular, cocoa production in Nigeria. This study, therefore, assessed the farmers ‘coping strategies to climate change effects in Ilaro Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. A simple random sampling technique was used to select twenty-five cocoa farmers from each of the selected six wards to make up 150 cocoa farmers as sample size for this study. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis were used for the data analysis. The results showed that the average age of the respondents was 43.8 years and male dominated (80.00%) cocoa production. Most of the respondents had some level of formal education (93.4%). The mean of household and year of experience in cocoa farming were eight people and 11.6 years respectively. Family and Hired labour (41.3%) was the common source of labour to the respondents and majority (86.0%) of the respondents were aware of climate change. The study concluded that respondents experienced low yield and high rate of deformed beans in the pods due to climate change. The adjustment strategies used were planting of diseases and pest resistant cocoa varieties, using of heavy mulching, diversification into other non- agricultural income generating activities and tree crops cultivation to provide shade. Also, significant relationships existed between personal characteristics (χ²= 62.24, df = 6, p = 0.00), adjustment strategies (χ²= 103.1, df = 4, p = 0.00) and effect of climate change. It is hereby recommend that extension service providers should intensify more effort and advocating for improved agronomic practices to increase cocoa productivity in the study area.
Keywords: cocoa farmers, coping strategies, climate change, ilaroProcedia PDF Downloads 146
7 Therapeutic Effect of Diisopropyldithiocarbamate Sodium Salt Against Diclofenac Induced Testicular Damage in Male Wistar Rats
Authors: Tella Toluwani, Adegbegi Ademuyiwa, Musei Chiedu, Adekunle Odola, Ayangbenro Ayansina, Adaramoye Oluwatosin
Abstract:Dithiocarbamates are very useful biological agents with antioxidant properties. Diclofenac (DIC) is a non-steroidal analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic agent. The use of diclofenac has been linked with reproductive toxicity/damage. The purpose of this study is (i) To investigate the therapeutic potential of diisopropyldithiocarbamate sodium salt (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) and vitamin E (VIT E) against diclofenac induced toxicity in the testes of male Wistar rats. (ii) To investigate the effect of (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) and vitamin E on ameliorating damage done to the testes through histological analysis of the testes. Thirty-six (36) male Wistar rats were used for the experiment, they were divided into six (6) groups, the animals in group 1 served as control, animals in groups 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 received DIC only, DIC and (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)), DIC and VIT E, (Na(i-Pr₂dtc) only and VIT E only respectively. A single dose of 100 mg/kg body weight of DIC was administered to male Wistar rats, while 30 mg/kg body weight of (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) was used to treat both normal and DIC treated animals, control animals were treated with the vehicle, after 24 hrs of treatment the animals were euthanized and the testes were removed for analysis. The treatment of rats with Na(i-Pr₂dtc) significantly restored catalase (CAT) activity depressed by diclofenac. (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) also restored glutathione levels reduced by DIC treatment and this was also accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation (LPO) level. VIT E significantly restored superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity when compared with DIC only treated animals. Photomicrographs of testes from (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) treated rats showed seminiferous epithelium with no lesions. We conclude that (Na(i-Pr₂dtc)) has an antioxidant effect, which might be related to the dose and duration of administration.
Keywords: diisopropyldithiocarbamate sodium salt, diclofenac, vitamin E, testesProcedia PDF Downloads 130
6 Green Synthesis and Characterisation of Gold Nanoparticles from the Stem Bark and Leaves of Khaya Senegalensis and Its Cytotoxicity on MCF7 Cell Lines
Authors: Stephen Daniel Iduh, Evans Chidi Egwin, Oluwatosin Kudirat Shittu
Abstract:The process for the development of reliable and eco-friendly metallic Nanoparticles is an important step in the field of Nanotechnology for biomedical application. To achieve this, use of natural sources like biological systems becomes essential. In the present work, extracellular biosynthesis of gold Nanoparticles using aqueous leave and stembark extracts of K. senegalensis has been attempted. The gold Nanoparticles produced were characterized using High Resolution scanning electron microscopy, Ultra Violet–Visible spectroscopy, zeta-sizer Nano, Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDAX) Spectroscopy and Fourier Transmission Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The cytotoxicity of the synthesized gold nanoparticles on MCF-7 cell line was evaluated using MTT assay. The result showed a rapid development of Nano size and shaped particles within 5 minutes of reaction with Surface Plasmon Resonance at 520 and 525nm respectively. An average particle size of 20-90nm was confirmed. The amount of the extracts determines the core size of the AuNPs. The core size of the AuNPs decreases as the amount of extract increases and it causes the shift of Surface Plasmon Resonance band. The FTIR confirms the presence of biomolecules serving as reducing and capping agents on the synthesised gold nanoparticles. The MTT assay shows a significant effect of gold nanoparticles which is concentration dependent. This environment-friendly method of biological gold Nanoparticle synthesis has the potential and can be directly applied in cancer therapy.
Keywords: biosynthesis, gold nanoparticles, characterization, calotropis procera, cytotoxicityProcedia PDF Downloads 424
5 Process Optimization and Microbial Quality of Provitamin A-Biofortified Amahewu, a Non-Alcoholic Maize Based Beverage
Authors: Temitope D. Awobusuyi, Eric O. Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela, Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi
Abstract:Provitamin A-biofortified maize has been developed to alleviate Vitamin A deficiency; a major public health problem in developing countries. Amahewu, a non-alcoholic fermented maize based beverage is produced using white maize, which is deficient in Vitamin A. In this study, the suitable processing conditions for the production of amahewu using provitamin A-biofortified maize and the microbial quality of the processed products were evaluated. Provitamin A-biofortified amahewu was produced with reference to traditional processing method. Processing variables were Inoculum types (Malted provitamin A maize, Wheat bran, and lactobacillus mixed starter culture with either malted provitamin A or wheat bran) and concentration (0.5 %, 1 % and 2 %). A total of four provitamin A-biofortified amahewu products after fermentation were subjected to different storage conditions: 4ᴼC, 25ᴼC and 37ᴼC. pH and TTA were monitored throughout the storage period. Sample of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu were plated and observed every day for 5 days to assess the presence of Aerobic and Anaerobic spore formers, E.coli, Lactobacillus and Mould. The addition of starter culture substantially reduced the fermentation time (6 hour, pH 3.3) compared to those with no addition of starter culture (24 hour pH 3.5). It was observed that Lactobacillus were present from day 0 for all the storage temperatures. The presence of aerobic spore former and mould were observed on day 3. E.coli and Anaerobic spore formers were not present throughout the storage period. These microbial growth were minimal at 4ᴼC while 25ᴼC had higher counts of growth with 37ᴼC having the highest colony count. Throughout the storage period, pH of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu was stable. Provitamin A-biofortified amahewu stored under refrigerated condition (4ᴼC) had better storability compared to 25ᴼC and 37ᴼC. The production and microbial quality of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu might be important in combating Vitamin A Deficiency.
Keywords: biofortification, fermentation, maize, vitamin A deficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 364
4 Inhibition of Echis ocellatus Venom Metalloprotease by Flavonoid-Rich Ethyl Acetate Sub-fraction of Moringa oleifera Leaves (Lam.): in vitro and in silico Approaches
Authors: Adeyi Akindele Oluwatosin, Mustapha Kaosarat Keji, Ajisebiola Babafemi Siji, Adeyi Olubisi Esther, Damilohun Samuel Metibemu, Raphael Emuebie Okonji
Abstract:Envenoming by Echis ocellatus is potentially life-threatening due to severe hemorrhage, renal failure, and capillary leakage. These effects are attributed to snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs). Due to drawbacks in the use of antivenom, natural inhibitors from plants are of interest in studies of new antivenom treatment. Antagonizing effects of bioactive compounds of Moringa oleifera, a known antisnake plant, are yet to be tested against SVMPs of E. ocellatus (SVMP-EO). Ethanol crude extract of M. oleifera was partitioned using n-hexane and ethyl acetate. Each partition was fractionated using column chromatography and tested against SVMP-EO purified through ion-exchange chromatography with EchiTab-PLUS polyvalent anti-venom as control. Phytoconstituents of ethyl acetate fraction were screened against the catalytic site of crystal of BaP1-SVMP, while drug-likeness and ADMET toxicity of compound were equally determined. The molecular weight of isolated SVMP-EO was 43.28 kDa, with a specific activity of 245 U/ml, a percentage yield of 62.83 %, and a purification fold of 0.920. The Vmax and Km values are 2 mg/ml and 38.095 μmol/ml/min, respectively, while the optimal pH and temperature are 6.0 and 40°C, respectively. Polyvalent anti-venom, crude extract, and ethyl acetate fraction of M. oleifera exhibited a complete inhibitory effect against SVMP-EO activity. The inhibitions of the P-1 and P-II metalloprotease’s enzymes by the ethyl acetate fraction are largely due to methanol, 6, 8, 9-trimethyl-4-(2-phenylethyl)-3-oxabicyclo[3.3.1]non-6-en-1-yl)- and paroxypropione, respectively. Both compounds are potential drug candidates with little or no concern of toxicity, as revealed from the in-silico predictions. The inhibitory effects suggest that this compound might be a therapeutic candidate for further exploration for treatment of Ocellatus’ envenoming.
Keywords: Echis ocellatus, Moringa oleifera, anti-venom, metalloproteases, snakebite, molecular dockingProcedia PDF Downloads 84
3 Spatial Analysis of Survival Pattern and Treatment Outcomes of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Patients in Lagos, Nigeria
Authors: Akinsola Oluwatosin, Udofia Samuel, Odofin Mayowa
Abstract:The study is aimed at assessing the Geographic Information System (GIS)-based spatial analysis of Survival Pattern and Treatment Outcomes of Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) cases for Lagos, Nigeria, with an objective to inform priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) develops due to problems such as irregular drug supply, poor drug quality, inappropriate prescription, and poor adherence to treatment. The shapefile(s) for this study were already georeferenced to Minna datum. The patient’s information was acquired on MS Excel and later converted to . CSV file for easy processing to ArcMap from various hospitals. To superimpose the patient’s information the spatial data, the addresses was geocoded to generate the longitude and latitude of the patients. The database was used for the SQL query to the various pattern of the treatment. To show the pattern of disease spread, spatial autocorrelation analysis was used. The result was displayed in a graphical format showing the areas of dispersing, random and clustered of patients in the study area. Hot and cold spot analysis was analyzed to show high-density areas. The distance between these patients and the closest health facility was examined using the buffer analysis. The result shows that 22% of the points were successfully matched, while 15% were tied. However, the result table shows that a greater percentage of it was unmatched; this is evident in the fact that most of the streets within the State are unnamed, and then again, most of the patients are likely to supply the wrong addresses. MDR-TB patients of all age groups are concentrated within Lagos-Mainland, Shomolu, Mushin, Surulere, Oshodi-Isolo, and Ifelodun LGAs. MDR-TB patients between the age group of 30-47 years had the highest number and were identified to be about 184 in number. The outcome of patients on ART treatment revealed that a high number of patients (300) were not ART treatment while a paltry 45 patients were on ART treatment. The result shows the Z-score of the distribution is greater than 1 (>2.58), which means that the distribution is highly clustered at a significance level of 0.01.
Keywords: tuberculosis, patients, treatment, GIS, MDR-TBProcedia PDF Downloads 95
2 An Exploratory Study to Appraise the Current Challenges and Limitations Faced in Applying and Integrating the Historic Building Information Modelling Concept for the Management of Historic Buildings
Authors: Oluwatosin Adewale
Abstract:The sustainability of built heritage has become a relevant issue in recent years due to the social and economic values associated with these buildings. Heritage buildings provide a means for human perception of culture and represent a legacy of long-existing history; they define the local character of the social world and provide a vital connection to the past with their associated aesthetical and communal benefits. The identified values of heritage buildings have increased the importance of conservation and the lifecycle management of these buildings. The recent developments of digital design technology in engineering and the built environment have led to the adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) by the Architecture, Engineering, Construction, and Operations (AECO) industry. BIM provides a platform for the lifecycle management of a construction project through effective collaboration among stakeholders and the analysis of a digital information model. This growth in digital design technology has also made its way into the field of architectural heritage management in the form of Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM). A reverse engineering process for digital documentation of heritage assets that draws upon similar information management processes as the BIM process. However, despite the several scientific and technical contributions made to the development of the HBIM process, it doesn't remain easy to integrate at the most practical level of heritage asset management. The main objective identified under the scope of the study is to review the limitations and challenges faced by heritage management professionals in adopting an HBIM-based asset management procedure for historic building projects. This paper uses an exploratory study in the form of semi-structured interviews to investigate the research problem. A purposive sample of heritage industry experts and professionals were selected to take part in a semi-structured interview to appraise some of the limitations and challenges they have faced with the integration of HBIM into their project workflows. The findings from this study will present the challenges and limitations faced in applying and integrating the HBIM concept for the management of historic buildings.
Keywords: building information modelling, built heritage, heritage asset management, historic building information modelling, lifecycle managementProcedia PDF Downloads 19
1 Bartlett Factor Scores in Multiple Linear Regression Equation as a Tool for Estimating Economic Traits in Broilers
Authors: Oluwatosin M. A. Jesuyon
Abstract:In order to propose a simpler tool that eliminates the age-long problems associated with the traditional index method for selection of multiple traits in broilers, the Barttlet factor regression equation is being proposed as an alternative selection tool. 100 day-old chicks each of Arbor Acres (AA) and Annak (AN) broiler strains were obtained from two rival hatcheries in Ibadan Nigeria. These were raised in deep litter system in a 56-day feeding trial at the University of Ibadan Teaching and Research Farm, located in South-west Tropical Nigeria. The body weight and body dimensions were measured and recorded during the trial period. Eight (8) zoometric measurements namely live weight (g), abdominal circumference, abdominal length, breast width, leg length, height, wing length and thigh circumference (all in cm) were recorded randomly from 20 birds within strain, at a fixed time on the first day of the new week respectively with a 5-kg capacity Camry scale. These records were analyzed and compared using completely randomized design (CRD) of SPSS analytical software, with the means procedure, Factor Scores (FS) in stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) procedure for initial live weight equations. Bartlett Factor Score (BFS) analysis extracted 2 factors for each strain, termed Body-length and Thigh-meatiness Factors for AA, and; Breast Size and Height Factors for AN. These derived orthogonal factors assisted in deducing and comparing trait-combinations that best describe body conformation and Meatiness in experimental broilers. BFS procedure yielded different body conformational traits for the two strains, thus indicating the different economic traits and advantages of strains. These factors could be useful as selection criteria for improving desired economic traits. The final Bartlett Factor Regression equations for prediction of body weight were highly significant with P < 0.0001, R2 of 0.92 and above, VIF of 1.00, and DW of 1.90 and 1.47 for Arbor Acres and Annak respectively. These FSR equations could be used as a simple and potent tool for selection during poultry flock improvement, it could also be used to estimate selection index of flocks in order to discriminate between strains, and evaluate consumer preference traits in broilers.
Keywords: alternative selection tool, Bartlet factor regression model, consumer preference trait, linear and body measurements, live body weightProcedia PDF Downloads 145