Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Yomna T. Abdou

11 The Diglossia and the Bilingualism: Concept, Problems, and Solutions

Authors: Abdou Mahmoud Abdou Hussein


We attempt, in this paper, to spot the light on the difference between the two concepts (diglossia and bilingualism). Thus, we will show the definition of these two concepts among various perspectives. On the other hand, we will emphasize and highlight 'diglossa' in The Arabic language historically. Furthermore, we will illustrate the factors of the diglossia, the impact of diglossia on the learners of Arabic (native and non native speakers) and finally the suggested solutions for this issue.

Keywords: Arabic linguistics, diglossia, bilingualism, native and non-native speakers

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10 The Protective Effects of Naringenin on Iodoacetamide-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

Authors: Yomna T. Abdou, Hala F. Zaki, Sanaa A. Kenawy


Naringenin is a flavanone, a type of flavonoid, found in fruits such as grapefruit, oranges, and tomatoes, was found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of naringenin on iodoacetamide-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with sulfasalazine (300 mg/kg, p.o.) as standard anti-inflammatory drug or naringenin (50 mg/kg, p.o.) for 7 consecutive days then UC was induced by intracolon administration of 0.1 ml (2%) iodoacetamide dissolved in 1% methylcelluose. One week later, animals were scarificed and the colonic tissues were dissected. Colon inflammation was evident by elevation in colon tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) enzyme, prostaglandin- E2 (PG-E2) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Additionally, oxidative stress was manifested by increased colon lipoperoxidation (MDA), glutathione (GSH) depletion, elevated nitric oxide (NO) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Pretreatment with naringenin largely mitigated these alterations. The present study reinforces the hypothetical use of naringenin as an anti-inflammatory complement to conventional UC treatment and could be considered in the dietary prevention of intestinal inflammation and related disorders.

Keywords: iodoacetamide, naringenin, sulfasalazine, ulcerative colitis

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9 Residents’ Perceptions towards the Application of Vertical Landscape in Cairo, Egypt

Authors: Yomna Amr Ahmed Lotfi Koraim, Dalia Moati Rasmi Elkhateeb


Vertical landscape is introduced in this study as an alternative innovative technology for urban sustainable developments for its diverse environmental, economic, and psycho-social advantages. The main aim is to investigate the social acceptance of vertical landscape in Cairo, Egypt. The study objectives were to explore the perceptions of residents concerning this certain phenomenon and their opinions about its implementation. Survey questionnaires were administrated to 60 male and female residents from the Greater Cairo area. Despite the various concerns expressed about the application of vertical landscape, there was a clear majority of approval about its suitability. This is quite encouraging for the prospect of vertical landscape implementation in Cairo, Egypt.

Keywords: vertical landscape, green facades, vertical greening, social acceptance, sustainable urban development

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8 Sliding Mode MRAS Observer for Optimized Backstepping Control of Induction Motor

Authors: Chaouch Souad, Abdou Latifa, Larbi Chrifi Alaoui


This paper deals with sensorless backstepping control of induction motor using MRAS technique associated to sliding mode approach. A high order genetic algorithm structure is used to approximate a control law designed by the Backstepping technique, and to find the best parameters globally optimized. However, the Backstepping control approach is unsuitable for high performance applications because the need of a speed sensor for increased accuracy and the absence of any error decay mechanism. In this paper a nonlinear observer, obtained by combining sliding mode structure and model reference adaptive system (MRAS), is designed for the rotor flux and rotor speed estimations. To validate the proposed method, the results are presented for showing the improved drive characteristics and performances.

Keywords: Backstepping Control, Induction Motor, Genetic Algorithm, Sliding Mode observer

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7 Nonclassical Antifolates: Synthesis, Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Study of Some New Quinazolin-4-One Analogues as Dihydrofolate Reductase Inhibitors

Authors: Yomna Ibrahim El-Gazzar, Hussien Ibrahim El-Subbagh, Hanan Hanaa Georgey, Ghada S. Hassan Hassan


Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an enzyme that has pivotal importance in biochemistry and medicinal chemistry. It catalyzes the reduction of dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate and intimately couples with thymidylate synthase. Thymidylate synthase is a crucial enzyme that catalyzes the reductive methylation of (dUMP) to (dTMP) utilizing N5, N10-methylenetetrahydrofolate as a cofactor. A new series of 2-substituted thio-quinazolin-4-one analogs was designed that possessed electron withdrawing or donating functional groups (Cl or OCH3) at position 6- or 7-, 4-methoxyphenyl function at position 3-.The thiol function is used to connect to either 1,2,4-triazole, or 1,3,4-thiadiazole via a methylene bridge. Most of the functional groups designed to be accommodated on the quinazoline ring such as thioether, alkyl to increase lipid solubility of polar compounds, a character very much needed in the nonclassical DHFR inhibitors. The target compounds were verified with spectral data and elemental analysis. DHFR inhibitions, as well as antitumor activity, were applied on three cell lines (MCF-7, CACO-2, HEPG-2).

Keywords: nonclassical antifolates, DHFR Inhibitors, antitumor activity, quinazoline ring

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6 High Performance Direct Torque Control for Induction Motor Drive Fed from Photovoltaic System

Authors: E. E. EL-Kholy, Ahamed Kalas, Mahmoud Fauzy, M. El-Shahat Dessouki, Abdou M. El-refay, Mohammed El-Zefery


Direct Torque Control (DTC) is an AC drive control method especially designed to provide fast and robust responses. In this paper a progressive algorithm for direct torque control of three-phase induction drive system supplied by photovoltaic arrays using voltage source inverter to control motor torque and flux with maximum power point tracking at different level of insolation is presented. Experimental results of the new DTC method obtained by an experimental rapid prototype system for drives are presented. Simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed system gives quick, robust torque and speed responses at constant switching frequencies.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) array, direct torque control (DTC), constant switching frequency, induction motor, maximum power point tracking (MPPT)

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5 Application of Simulated Annealing to Threshold Optimization in Distributed OS-CFAR System

Authors: L. Abdou, O. Taibaoui, A. Moumen, A. Talib Ahmed


This paper proposes an application of the simulated annealing to optimize the detection threshold in an ordered statistics constant false alarm rate (OS-CFAR) system. Using conventional optimization methods, such as the conjugate gradient, can lead to a local optimum and lose the global optimum. Also for a system with a number of sensors that is greater than or equal to three, it is difficult or impossible to find this optimum; Hence, the need to use other methods, such as meta-heuristics. From a variety of meta-heuristic techniques, we can find the simulated annealing (SA) method, inspired from a process used in metallurgy. This technique is based on the selection of an initial solution and the generation of a near solution randomly, in order to improve the criterion to optimize. In this work, two parameters will be subject to such optimisation and which are the statistical order (k) and the scaling factor (T). Two fusion rules; “AND” and “OR” were considered in the case where the signals are independent from sensor to sensor. The results showed that the application of the proposed method to the problem of optimisation in a distributed system is efficiency to resolve such problems. The advantage of this method is that it allows to browse the entire solutions space and to avoid theoretically the stagnation of the optimization process in an area of local minimum.

Keywords: distributed system, OS-CFAR system, independent sensors, simulating annealing

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4 English and Information and Communication Technology: Zones of Exclusion in Education in Low-Income Countries

Authors: Ram A. Giri, Amna Bedri, Abdou Niane


Exclusion in education on the basis of language in multilingual contexts operates at multiple levels. Learners of diverse ethnolinguistic backgrounds are often expected to learn through English and are pushed further down the learning ladder if they also have to access education through Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The paper explores marginalized children’s lived experiences in accessing technology and English in four low-income countries in Africa and Asia. Based on the findings of the first phase of a multinational qualitative research study, we report on the factors or barriers that affect children’s access, opportunities and motivation for learning through technology and English. ICT and English - the language of ICT and education - can enhance learning and can even be essential. However, these two important keys to education can also function as barriers to accessing quality education, and therefore as zones of exclusion. This paper looks into how marginalized children (aged 13-15) engage in learning through ICT and English and to what extent the restrictive access and opportunities contribute to the widening of the already existing gap in education. By applying the conceptual frameworks of “access and accessibility of learning” and “zones of exclusion,” the paper elucidates how the barriers prevent children’s effective engagement with learning and addresses such questions as to how marginalized children access technology and English for learning; whether the children value English, and what their motivation and opportunity to learn it are. In addition, the paper will point out policy and pedagogic implications.

Keywords: exclusion, inclusion, inclusive education, marginalization

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3 Management of Severe Asthma with Omalizumab in United Arab Emirates

Authors: Shanza Akram, Samir Salah, Imran Saleem, Jassim Abdou, Ashraf Al Zaabi


Estimated prevalence of asthma in UAE is around 10% (900,000 people). Patients with persistent symptoms despite using high dose ICS plus a second controller +/- Oral steroids are considered to have severe asthma. Omalizumab (Xolair) is an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody approved as add-on therapy for severe allergic asthma. The objective of our study was to obtain baseline characteristics of our local cohort, to determine the efficacy of omalizumab based on clinical outcomes pre and post 52 weeks of treatment and to assess safety and tolerability. Medical records of patients receiving omalizumab therapy for asthma at Zayed Military Hospital, Abu Dhabi were retrospectively reviewed. Patients fulfilling the criteria for severe allergic asthma as per GINA guidelines were included. Asthma control over 12 months pre and post omalizumab were analyzed by taking into account the number of exacerbations, hospitalizations, maintenance of medication dosages, the need for reliever therapy and PFT’s. 21 patients (5 females) with mean age 41 years were included. The mean duration of therapy was 22 months. 19 (91%) patients had Allergic Rhinitis/Sinusitis. Mean serum total IgE level was 648 IU/ml (65-1859). 11 (52%) patients were on oral maintenance steroids pre-treatment. 7 patients managed to stop steroids on treatment while 4 were able to decrease the dosage. Mean exacerbation rate decreased from 5 per year pre-treatment to 1.36 while on treatment. The number of hospitalizations decreased from a mean of 2 per year to 0.9 per year. Reliever inhaler usage decreased from mean of 40 to 15 puffs per week.2 patients discontinued therapy, 1 due to lack of benefit (2 doses) and 2nd due to severe persistent side effects. Patient compliance was poor in some cases. Treatment with omalizumab reduced the number of exacerbations, hospitalizations, maintenance and reliever medications, and is generally well tolerated. Our results show that there is room for improved documentation in terms of symptom recording and use of rescue medication at our institution. There is also need for better patient education and counseling in order to improve compliance.

Keywords: asthma, exacerbations, omalizumab, IgE

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2 Omalizumab Therapy Experience for Asthma, at Zayed Military Hospital (ZMH) in United Arab Emirates

Authors: Shanza Akram, Samir Salah, Imran Saleem, Ashraf Alzaabi, Jassim Abdou


Introduction: 300 million people worldwide are affected by asthma .In UAE, prevalence is around 10% (900,000 people).Patients with persistent symptoms despite using high dose ICS plus a second controller +/- OCS are considered to have severe asthma. Omalizumab (Xolaire) an IgE monoclonal antibody is approved as add on therapy for severe allergic asthma. Objective: To determine the efficacy of omalizumab based on clinical outcomes in our cohort of patient pre and post 52 weeks of treatment to assess safety and tolerability of treatment. Methods: Medical records of patients receiving omalizumab therapy for asthma at ZMH ,Abu Dhabi were retrospectively analyzed.Patients fulfilling the criteria of severe allergic asthma as per GINA guidelines were included. Asthma control over 12 months prior to and 12 months after commencement of omalizumab therapy was analysed by taking into account the number of exacerbations and hospitalizations in addition to maintenance of medication dosages, need for rescue reliever therapy and pulmonary function testing. Results: Total cohort of 21 patient (5 females), average age 41 years and av length of therapy 22 months were included. Seven patients (total 11/52%) managed to stop steroids on treatment while four were able to decrease the dosage. Mean exacerbation rate decreased from five/ year pre treatment to 1.36 while on treatment. Number of hospitalizations decreased from mean of two per year to 0.9 per year. Rescue reliever inhaler usage decreased from mean of 40 puffs to 15 puffs per week. 2 patients discontinued therapy, 1 due to lack of benefit (2 doses) and 2nd due to severe persistent side effects including local irritation, severe limb and joint pains after 6 months. Conclusion: Treatment with omalizumab showed effect in terms of reduced number of exacerbations, maintenance therapy and reliever medications. However, no improvement was seen in PFTs.There is room for improved documentation in terms of symptom recording and use of rescue medicationas as well as for better patient education and counselling in order to improve compliance.

Keywords: asthma, omalizumab, severe allergic asthma, UAE

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1 Control of Helminthosporiosis in Oryza sativa Varieties Treated with 24-Epibrassinolide

Authors: Kuate Tueguem William Norbert, Ngoh Dooh Jules Patrice, Kone Sangou Abdou Nourou, Mboussi Serge Bertrand, Chewachang Godwill Mih, Essome Sale Charles, Djuissi Tohoto Doriane, Ambang Zachee


The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the development of rice helminthosporiosis caused by Bipolaris oryzae and its influence on the improvement of growth parameters and induction of the synthesis of defense substances in the rice plants. The experimental asset up involved a multifactorial split-plot with two varieties (NERICA 3 and local variety KAMKOU) and five treatments (T0: control, T1: EBR, T2: BANKO PLUS (fungicide), T3: NPK (chemical fertilizer), T4: mixture: NPK + BANKO PLUS + EBR) with three repetitions. Agro-morphological and epidemiological parameters, as well as substances for plant resistance, were evaluated over two growing seasons. The application of the EBR induced significant growth of the rice plants for the 2015 and 2016 growing seasons on the two varieties tested compared to the T0 treatment. At 74 days after sowing (DAS), NERICA 3 showed plant heights of 58.9 ± 5.4; 83.1 ± 10.4; 86.01 ± 9.4; 69.4 ± 11.1 and 87.12 ± 7.4 cm at T0; T1; T2; T3, and T4, respectively. Plant height for the variety KAMKOU varied from 87,12 ± 8,1; 88.1 ± 8.1 and 92.02 ± 6.3 cm in T1, T2, and T3 to 74.1 ± 8.6 and 74.21 ± 11.4 cm in T0 and T3. In accordance with the low rate of expansion of helminthosporiosis in experimental plots, EBR (T1) significantly reduced the development of the disease with severities of 0.0; 1.29, and 2.04%, respectively at 78; 92, and 111 DAS on the variety NERICA 3 compared with1; 3.15 and 3.79% in the control T0. The reduction of disease development/severity as a result of the application of EBR is due to the induction of acquired resistance of rice varieties through increased phenol (13.73 eqAG/mg/PMF) and total protein (117.89 eqBSA/mg/PMF) in the T1 treatment against 5.37 eqAG/mg/PMF and 104.97 eqBSA/mg/PMF in T0 for the NERICA 3 variety. Similarly, on the KAMKOU variety, 148.53 eqBSA/mg/PMF were protein and 6.10 eqAG/mg/PMF of phenol in T1. In summary, the results show the significant effect of EBR on plant growth, yield, synthesis of secondary metabolites and defense proteins, and disease resistance. The EBR significantly reduced losses of rice grains by causing an average gain of about 1.55 t/ha compared to the control and 1.00 t/ha compared to the NPK-based treatment for the two varieties studied. Further, the enzymatic activities of PPOs, POXs, and PR2s were higher in leaves from treated EBR-based plants. These results show that 24-epibrassinolide can be used in the control of helminthosporiosis of rice to reduce disease and increase yields.

Keywords: Oryza sativa, 24-epibrassinolide, helminthosporiosis, secondary metabolites, PR proteins, acquired resistance

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