Search results for: environmental pollution
6580 Pollution-Sources, Controls, and Impact Analysis
Authors: Aditi Acharya
Abstract:Environmental pollution is threatening the environmental and human health in the most drastic way. This paper provides insight about the affects of environmental pollution in the perspective of water pollution. Sewage in drinking water, the increasing contamination of water bodies and water resources and the human beings are the major contributors, increasing the harsh activities of pollution. The research presents information about the sources of pollution, its impacts and control activities to be undertaken to make our environment free from water pollution.
Keywords: environmental pollution, water pollution, nanotechnology, nanomaterialsProcedia PDF Downloads 299
6579 ECO ROADS: A Solution to the Vehicular Pollution on Roads
Authors: Harshit Garg, Shakshi Gupta
Abstract:One of the major problems in today’s world is the growing pollution. The cause for all environmental problems is the increasing pollution rate. Looking upon the statistics, one can find out that most of the pollution is caused by the vehicular pollution which is more than 70 % of the total pollution, effecting the environment as well as human health proportionally. One is aware of the fact that vehicles run on roads so why not having the roads which could adsorb that pollution, not only once but a number of times. Every problem has a solution which can be solved by the state of art of technology, that is one can use the innovative ideas and thoughts to make technology as a solution to the problem of vehicular pollution on roads. Solving the problem up to a certain limit/ percentage can be formulated into a new term called ECO ROADS.
Keywords: environment, pollution, roads, sustainibilityProcedia PDF Downloads 481
6578 Environmental Pollution and Health Risks of Residents Living near Ewekoro Cement Factory, Ewekoro, Nigeria
Authors: Michael Ajide Oyinloye
Abstract:The natural environment is made up of air, water and soil. The release of emission of industrial waste into anyone of the components of the environment causes pollution. Industrial pollution significantly threatens the inherent right of people, to the enjoyment of a safe and secure environment. The aim of this paper is to assess the effect of environmental pollution and health risks of residents living near Ewekoro Cement factory. The research made use of IKONOS imagery for Geographical Information System (GIS) to buffer and extract buildings that are less than 1 km to the plant, within 1 km to 5 km and above 5 km to the factory. Also, a questionnaire was used to elicit information on the socio-economic factors, the effect of environmental pollution on residents and measures adopted to control industrial pollution on the residents. Findings show that most buildings that between less than 1 km and 1 km to 5 km to the factory have high health risk in the study area. The study recommended total relocation for the residents of the study area to reduce risk health problems.
Keywords: environmental pollution, health risk, GIS, satellite imagery, ewekoroProcedia PDF Downloads 438
6577 Environmental Issues in Construction Projects in India
Authors: Gurbir Singh Khaira, Anmoldeep Singh Kang
Abstract:Exposures to environmental pollution remain a major source of health risk throughout the world, though risks are generally higher in developing countries, where poverty, lack of investment in modern technology and weak environmental legislation combine to cause high pollution levels. This paper will tell us about the environment is threatened severely by so many problems, some of which are caused by the activities of Construction Projects. The research reveals major environmental impacts of building construction projects to include environmental pollution, resource depletion and habitat destruction causing Destruction of ecosystem, Desertification, Soil Erosion and increasing Material Wastage. Construction is considered as one of the main sources of environmental pollution in the world, the level of knowledge and awareness of project participants, especially project managers, with regards to environmental impacts of construction processes needs to be enhanced. It was found that ‘Transportation Resource’, ‘Noise Pollution’, and ‘Dust Generation with Construction Machinery’ are the greatest environmental impacts in INDIA respectively. The results of this study are useful for construction managers and other participants in construction sites to become aware of construction processes impacts on the environment.
Keywords: construction projects, environmental impacts, material waste age, awarenessProcedia PDF Downloads 282
6576 Solid Waste Pollution and the Importance of Environmental Planning in Managing and Preserving the Public Environment in Benghazi City and Its Surrounding Areas
Authors: Abdelsalam Omran Gebril
Abstract:Pollution and solid waste are the most important environmental problems plaguing the city of Benghazi as well as other cities and towns in Libya. These problems are caused by the lack of environmental planning and sound environmental management. Environmental planning is very important at present for the development of projects that preserve the environment, therefore, the planning process should be prioritized over the management process. Pollution caused by poor planning and environmental management exists not only in Benghazi but also in all other Libyan cities. This study was conducted through various field visits to several neighborhoods and areas within Benghazi as well as its neighboring regions. Follow-ups in these areas were conducted from March 2013 to October 2013 and documented by photographs. The existing methods of waste collection and means of transportation were investigated. Interviews were conducted with relevant authorities, including the Environment Public Authority in Benghazi and the Public Service Company of Benghazi. The objective of this study is to determine the causes of solid waste pollution in Benghazi City and its surrounding areas. Results show that solid waste pollution in Benghazi and its surrounding areas is the result of poor planning and environmental management, population growth, and the lack of hardware and equipment for the collection and transport of waste from the city to the landfill site. One of the most important recommendations in this study is the development of a complete and comprehensive plan that includes environmental planning and environmental management to reduce solid waste pollution.
Keywords: solid waste, pollution, environmental planning, management, Benghazi, LibyaProcedia PDF Downloads 249
6575 Environmental Pollution Impact on Lung Functions and Cognitive Functions Among School Adolescence
Authors: Sultan Ayoub Meo
Abstract:Environmental pollution is a highly challenging global concern of the 21st century and is a major cause of various communicable and non-communicable diseases. We investigate the impact of air pollution on "lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and cognitive function"in a group of one hundred young students studying in a traffic-polluted school. The students wereselected based on their age, gender, height, weight, and ethnicity. After the clinical history, one hundred students were recruited from the schoolnear and away from the polluted areas. The lung and cognitive functions were recorded. The results revealed that lung and cognitive function parameters were reduced in groups of students studying in a school located in a traffic-polluted area compared to thosestudying in a schoolsituated away from the traffic-polluted area. Environmental pollution impairs students' lung and cognitive functions studying in schools located within traffic-polluted areas. The health officials and policymakers establish strategies to minimize environmental pollution and its allied health hazards. Prof. Sultan Ayoub Meo, MD, Ph.D Professor, Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia Email. [email protected] / [email protected]
Keywords: environmental pOllution, lung physiology, cognitive functions, air pollutionProcedia PDF Downloads 37
6574 Spatial Variability of Environmental Parameters and Its Relationship with an Environmental Injustice on the Bike Paths of Santiago, Chile
Authors: Alicia Muñoz, Pedro Oyola, Cristian Henriquez
Abstract:Pollution in Santiago de Chile has a spatial variability due to different factors, including meteorological parameters and emission sources. Socioenvironmental aspects are also significant for pollution in the canopy layer since it influences the type of edification, vegetal mass proportion and other environmental conditions. This study analyzes spatially urban pollution in Santiago, specifically, from the bike path perspective. Bike paths are located in high traffic zones, as consequence, users are constantly exposed to urban pollution. Measurements were made at the higher polluted hour, three days a week, including three transit regimes, on the most polluted month of the year. The environmental parameters are fine particulate matter (Model 8520, DustTrak Aerosol Monitor, TSI), temperature and relative humidity; it was also considerate urban parameters as sky view factor and vegetal mass. Identification of an environmental injustice will be achieved with a spatial modeling, including all urban factors and environmental mediations with an economic index of population.
Keywords: canopy layer, environmental injustice, spatial modeling, urban pollutionProcedia PDF Downloads 157
6573 A Global Perspective on Urban Environmental Problems in Developing Countries: The Case of Turkey
Authors: Nükhet Konuk, N. Gamze Turan, Yüksel Ardalı
Abstract:Cities play a vital role in the social fabric of countries and in national and regional economic growth worldwide; however, the environmental effects of such growth need to be assessed and managed better. The critical and most immediate problems faced by cities of developing countries are the health impacts of urban pollution that derive from inadequate water, sanitation, drainage and solid waste services, poor urban and industrial waste management, and air pollution. As globalization continues, earth's natural processes transform local problems into international issues. The aim of this study is to provide a broad overview of the pollution from urban wastes and emissions in Turkey which is a developing country. It is aimed to underline the significance of reorganizing the institutional tools in a worldwide perspective in order to generate coherent solutions to urban problems, and to enhance urban quality.
Keywords: environmental pollution, developing countries, environmental degradation, urban environmental problemsProcedia PDF Downloads 250
6572 Assessment the Capacity of Retention of a Natural Material for the Protection of Ground Water
Authors: Hakim Aguedal, Abdelkader Iddou, Abdalla Aziz, Abdelhadi Bentouami, Ferhat Bensalah, Salah Bensadek
Abstract:The major environmental risk of soil pollution is the contamination of groundwater by infiltration of organic and inorganic pollutants that can cause a serious pollution. To prevent the migration of this pollution through this structure, many studies propose the installation of layers, which play a role of a barrier that inhibiting the contamination of groundwater by limiting or slowing the flow of rainwater carrying pollution through the layers of soil. However, it is practically impossible to build a barrier layer that let through only water, but it is possible to design a structure with low permeability, which reduces the infiltration of dangerous pollutant. In an environmental context of groundwater protection, the main objective of this study was to investigate the environmental and appropriate suitability method to preserve groundwater, by establishment of a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) intermediate in soil. Followed the influence of several parameters allow us to find the most effective materials and the most appropriate way to incorporate this barrier in the soil.
Keywords: Ground water, protection, permeable reactive Barrier, soil pollution.Procedia PDF Downloads 491
6571 Factors Related to Protective Behavior on Indoor Pollution among Pregnant Women in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand
Authors: Yuri Teraoka, Cheerawit Rattanapan, Aroonsri Mongkolchati
Abstract:This cross sectional analytic study was carried out to determine factors related to protective behavior on indoor pollution among pregnant women in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand. A total of 319 pregnant women were enrolled at three antenatal care clinics in community hospital. Data were collected using simple random sampling from April 2015 to May 2015 using a structured self-administration questionnaire by well-trained research assistants. The result showed that around 73% pregnant women showed low level of low protective behavior on indoor pollution. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression were used to examine the factors and protective behavior on indoor pollution. After adjusting for confounding factors, this study found that tobacco smoking before pregnancy (AOR=2.15, 95% CI: 0.78-5.95) and low environmental health hazard (AOR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.09-3.49) were significant factors related to protective behavior on indoor pollution among pregnant women (p-value < 0.05). In conclusion, this study suggested that environmental health education campaign and environmental implementation program among pregnant woman are needed.
Keywords: Thailand, environmental health, protective behavior, pregnant womenProcedia PDF Downloads 295
6570 Measurements of Environmental Pollution in Chemical Fertilizer Industrial Area Using Magnetic Susceptibility Method
Authors: Ramadhani Yasyfi Cysela, Adinda Syifa Azhari, Eleonora Agustine
Abstract:The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about a quarter of the diseases facing mankind today occur due to environmental pollution. The soil is a part of environment that have a widespread problem. The contaminated soil should no longer be used to grow food because the chemicals can leech into the food and harm people who eat it. The chemical fertilizer industry gives specific effect due to soil pollution. To determine ammonia and urea emissions from fertilizer industry, we can use physical characteristic of soil, which is magnetic susceptibility. Rock magnetism is used as a proxy indicator to determine changes in physical properties. Magnetic susceptibilities of samples in low and high frequency have been measured by Bartington MS2B magnetic susceptibility measurement device. The sample was taken from different area which located closer by pollution source and far from the pollution source. The susceptibility values of polluted samples in topsoil were quite low, with range from 187.1- 494.8 [x 10-8 m3 kg-1] when free polluted area’s sample has high values (1188.7- 2237.8 [x 10-8 m3 kg-1 ]). From this studies shows that susceptibility values in areas of the fertilizer industry are lower than the free polluted area.
Keywords: environmental, magnetic susceptibility, rock magnetism, soil pollutionProcedia PDF Downloads 278
6569 A Brief Review of Urban Green Vegetation (Green Wall) in Reduction of Air Pollution
Authors: Masoumeh Pirhadi
Abstract:Air pollution is becoming a major health problem affecting millions. In support of this observation, the world health organization estimates that many people feel unhealthy due to pollution. This is a coupled fact that one of the main global sources of air pollution in cities is greenhouse gas emissions due heavy traffic. Green walls are developed as a sustainable strategy to reduce pollution by increasing vegetation in developed areas without occupying space in the city. This concept an offer advantageous environmental benefits and they can also be proposed for aesthetic purposes, and today they are used to preserve the urban environment. Green walls can also create environments that can promote a healthy lifestyle. Findings of multiple studies also indicate that Green infrastructure in cities is a strategy for improving air quality and increasing the sustainability of cities. Since these green solutions (green walls) act as porous materials that affect the diffusion of air pollution they can also act as a removing air vents that clean the air. Therefore, implementation of this strategy can be considered as a prominent factor in achieving a cleaner environment.
Keywords: green vegetation, air pollution, green wall, urban areaProcedia PDF Downloads 87
6568 Functions and Effects of Green Facades in the Developing Countries: Case Study of Tehran
Authors: S. Jahani, V. Choopankareh
Abstract:Many people lost their life caused by environmental pollution every year. The negative effects of environmental crises appear to be much higher in Asian countries. The most important environmental issue in the developing countries and especially in Tehran, to our best knowledge, is air pollution that has affected many aspects of life in society. Environmental topics related to technology’s development have been salient issues among the main concerns of designers. Green facades are the most considerable solutions which designers and architectures are focused on, all over the world. But there are lots of behavioral and psychological problems about this point. In this line, this excavation has tried to reveal the cultural and psychological influences of green façade in developing countries like Tehran. Green façades in developing countries are so useless, although they are so expensive. As a matter of fact, users consider green facade as a decorative item. This research is an attempt to recognize the reasons which show green façades as worthless element. Also, some solutions are presented to promote green façades in the developing countries as an intrinsic solution. There are so many environmental threats, especially about air pollution, for a city as Tehran, which might be solved by green facades.
Keywords: air pollution, developing countries, effects, green facadesProcedia PDF Downloads 197
6567 Poetry as Valuable Tool for Tackling Climate Change and Environmental Pollution
Authors: Benjamin Anabaraonye
Abstract:Our environment is our entitlement, and it is our duty to guard it for the safety of our society. It is, therefore, in our best interest to explore the necessary tools required to tackle the issues of environmental pollution which are major causes of climate change. Poetry has been discovered through our study as a valuable tool for tackling climate change and environmental pollution. This study explores the science of poetry and how important it is for scientists and engineers to develop their creativity to obtain relevant skills needed to tackle these global challenges. Poetry has been discovered as a great tool for climate change education which in turn brings about climate change adaptation and mitigation. This paper is, therefore, a clarion and urgent call for us to rise to our responsibility for a sustainable future.
Keywords: climate change, education, environment, poetryProcedia PDF Downloads 133
6566 The Relationship between Demographic, Social and Economic Characteristics and the Level of Implementation of Rural Women’s Practices to Preserve the Environment in the Governorates of Sharkia and Beni Suef
Authors: Asmaa Ahmed Nasr El-Din
Abstract:The Egyptian countryside faces many environmental problems in the field of environmental pollution in a wide range due to the current bad behavior patterns towards the environment, where the rural people continued to follow unconscious environmental practices in addition to the lack of environmental awareness among the rural people in terms of legislation, and the damages resulting from those practices. Rural women play an important and vital role that cannot be neglected in the field of reducing environmental pollution and rationalizing environmental resources, and it is their responsibility to maintain the safety of environmental elements such as water, air, food, and soil from pollution, either through limiting their personal practice that leads to the pollution of these elements or from During the upbringing of her children on the right behaviors towards these elements to protect them from pollution and thus avoid the infection of family members with diseases arising from environmental pollution that may affect their health and production capacity. Therefore, the research aimed to identify the level of rural women’s implementation of environmental practices (land, water, air, public health, and food waste), as well as determining the nature of the relationship between the studied independent variables (demographic, social and economic characteristics) and the level of rural women’s implementation of their role in preserving the environment and identifying some women’s information sources rural environment to preserve the environment. The research was conducted in the villages of Tarout and Qam al-Arous in the governorates of Sharkia and BeniSuef, respectively, and a random sample of 333 rural women was selected using the Yamani equation. Statistical ratio analysis, arithmetic mean, Pearson simple correlation coefficient value, and T-test.
Keywords: environment, rural women, EL-sharkia, banuefProcedia PDF Downloads 48
6565 A Study of Sources and Control of Environmental Noise Pollution on Selected Areas of Osogbo, Capital of Osun State, Nigeria
Authors: Abdulrazaq Adepoju
Abstract:Climate change and its negative environmental challenges to humanity has for decades, taken the centre stage globally receiving attention on ways to take care of the menace and keep the damaging effects to manageable and tolerable level. However, noise pollution, another major environmental hazard militating against human habitation particularly in the developing countries of the world, is not receiving enough attention by the concerned authorities at all tiers of governance. A good knowledge of the major sources of environmental noise pollution will go a long way in assisting relevant stakeholders in planning, designing, and management of problems associated with noise pollution. This paper seeks to identify the major sources of noise in the built environment on selected areas of Osogbo, Nigeria. The paper adopted a survey research method of collecting data from surveys carried out on buildings around old Garage-Okefia axis, Old garage-Oja Oba axis, and Okefia-Olaiya junction axis, all within Osogbo metropolis using sound surveying metre. It was discovered that noise from vehicular and pedestrian traffic, commercial activities such as advertising vendors and religious buildings (churches and mosques) constitute major causes of noise in the study area. The paper recommends some measures to the affected stakeholders particularly government agencies on means of reducing noise pollution to a tolerable level in the study areas and places of the same industrial layout.
Keywords: built environment, climate change, environmental pollution, noiseProcedia PDF Downloads 296
6564 Soy Candle vs Paraffin Candle
Authors: Otana A. Jakpor
Abstract:Air pollution is without a doubt one of the gravest environmental threats the world is facing today in terms of its sheer toll on human lives. Each year an estimated 70,000 Americans lose their lives to air pollution -- a number equal to deaths from both breast and prostate cancer combined. Since Americans spend nearly 90% of their time indoors, more research is needed on indoor air pollution and common exposures such as candles. Paraffin wax is a by-product of petroleum, and similarities have been observed between fine particulate emissions from paraffin candles and diesel exhaust. The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not paraffin candles are a major potential source of indoor air pollution. Furthermore, this study aims to determine whether or not soy candles are a safer, cleaner alternative to paraffin candles.
Keywords: soy candle, soy, paraffin candle, paraffinProcedia PDF Downloads 180
6563 Finding Viable Pollution Routes in an Urban Network under a Predefined Cost
Authors: Dimitra Alexiou, Stefanos Katsavounis, Ria Kalfakakou
Abstract:In an urban area the determination of transportation routes should be planned so as to minimize the provoked pollution taking into account the cost of such routes. In the sequel these routes are cited as pollution routes. The transportation network is expressed by a weighted graph G= (V, E, D, P) where every vertex represents a location to be served and E contains unordered pairs (edges) of elements in V that indicate a simple road. The distances/cost and a weight that depict the provoked air pollution by a vehicle transition at every road are assigned to each road as well. These are the items of set D and P respectively. Furthermore the investigated pollution routes must not exceed predefined corresponding values concerning the route cost and the route pollution level during the vehicle transition. In this paper we present an algorithm that generates such routes in order that the decision maker selects the most appropriate one.
Keywords: bi-criteria, pollution, shortest paths, computationProcedia PDF Downloads 315
6562 Environmental Pollution and Treatment Technology
Authors: R. Berrached, H. Ait Mahamed, A. Iddou
Abstract:Water pollution is nowadays a serious problem, due to the increasing scarcity of water and thus to the impact induced by such pollution on the human health. Various techniques are made use of to deal with water pollution. Among the most used ones, some can be enumerated: the bacterian bed, the activated mud, the Lagunage as biological processes and coagulation-floculation as a physic-chemical process. These processes are very expensive and an treatment efficiency which decreases along with the increase of the initial pollutants’ concentration. This is the reason why research has been reoriented towards the use of a process by adsorption as an alternative solution instead of the other traditional processes. In our study, we have tempted to exploit the characteristics of two metallic hydroxides Al and Fe to purify contaminated water by two industrial dyes SBL blue and SRL-150 orange. Results have shown the efficiency of the two materials on the blue SBL dye.
Keywords: metallic hydroxydes, industrial dyes, purificatıon,Procedia PDF Downloads 191
6561 The Impact Of The Covid-19 Lockdown On Solid Waste Pollution And Environmental Hazard. A Blessing In Disguise? A Case Of Liberia
Authors: Eric Berry White
Abstract:The paper examines the causality between solid waste pollution and lockdown. Particularly in 2020, the world experiences the takeover of the Corona virus pandemic, and most countries decided to adopt lockdown measure as the best solution to curtail the spread of the virus. On March 20, 2020, the Government of Liberia implemented a curfew that starts from 3:00PM to 6:00AM. This means that no unauthorized person is allowed to be in the streets during this time. In most developing countries, the issue of public waste and environmental hazard pollution tend to have a high effect among the slum communities where there are markets. This research covers 6 slums communities around the two biggest market hubs within Monrovia, and the result shows that the lockdown measure significantly reduced public waste pollution by reducing the movement of marketers in slum communities , where limited educational and sensitization for young people is reflected on their job market exclusion, jobless circle, and youth workforce concentration in informal work market. The study discovered that with public awareness and sensitization with females, solid waste could be reduced by 13 percentage point. But there is no evidence that awareness among male conduce pollution. within affected communities, Despite the impact of the lockdown on food consumption, these results emphasized that with the right monitoring of waste and aware, pollution could be reduce. By understanding these results and implementing the best policy, the paper recommends that dump sites be close at certain hours.
Keywords: lockdown, environmental, pollution, wasteProcedia PDF Downloads 1
6560 Evaluation the Effects of Air Pollution on Elderly People of the City of Tehran
Authors: Farideh Gheitasi, Amir Hossain Jaberansari, Payam Abedini
Abstract:The World Health Organization (WHO) Manifesto for Safe Communities states that "All human beings have an equal right to health and safety". The purpose of a safe Community is to minimize the damages threatening people. It seems that not sufficient attention has been given to relate environment and objectives of the safe Community. The reason for that can be assigned to the lack of enough information about environmental parameters and their relation with indices of the safe community like type and effect time of damages resulting from air pollution. Air pollution can be characterized as one of main environmental problems of Tehran. This problem is mostly due to the special geographic and climate situation, high population density and irregular growth in the number of vehicles. This paper is aimed at investigating the necessity of considering environmental factors to obtain a safe community through determining the effects of environmental pollution, particularly air pollution, on 490000 elders (+65) of Tehran. The methodology used in this study was on the basis of Random sampling and social surveying. The number of questionnaires was determined to be 321 through using Cochran method and the questionnaires were filled out by elders during personal interviews. The analysis of obtained results indicated that elders believe the major effects of air pollution include heart and respiratory diseases, obligation to stay at home on polluted days and its associated mental problems. Moreover, it was found that there is direct link between the number of polluted days and mortality frequency of elders. Having an environmental view may have an appreciable influence on the qualitative and quantitative development of activities and also facilitate obtaining the goals of the Safe Communities. In addition to reduce damages caused by pollutions, this view will encourage friends of the environment to cooperate with authorities of the safe community.
Keywords: air pollution, elderly people, environment, waste managementProcedia PDF Downloads 393
6559 The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on Mental Health in Metropolitans
Authors: Farrin Nayebzadeh, Mohammadreza Eslami Amirabadi
Abstract:According to technological progress and urban development, the cities of the world are growing to become metropolitans, living in which can be enthusiastic, entertaining and accessibility to the facilities like education, economic factors, hygiene and welfare is high. On the other hand, there are some problems that have been ignored in planning for such high quality of life, most important of which, is human health. Two aspects of human health are physical health and mental health, that are closely associated. Human mental health depends on two important factors: Biological factor and environmental factor. Air pollution is one of the most important environmental risk factors that affects mental health. Psychological and toxic effects of air pollution can lead to psychiatric symptoms, including anxiety and changes in mood, cognition, and behavior, depression and also children's mental disorders like hyperactivity, aggression and agitation. Increased levels of some air pollutants are accompanied by an increase in psychiatric admissions and emergency calls and, in some studies, by changes in behavior and a reduction in psychological well-being. Numerous toxic pollutants interfere with the development and adult functioning of the nervous system. Psychosocial stress can cause symptoms similar to those of organic mental disorders. These factors can cause resonance of psychiatric disorders. So, in cities of developing countries, people challenge with mental health problems due to environmental factors especially air pollution that have not been forecasted in urban planning.
Keywords: air pollution, environmental factors, mental health, psychiatric disorderProcedia PDF Downloads 426
6558 Power Plants between Environmental Pollution and Eco-Sustainable Recycling of Industrial Wastes
Authors: Liliana Crăc, Nicolae Giorgi, Gheorghe Fometescu, Mihai Cruceru
Abstract:Power plants represent the main source of air pollution, through combustion processes, both by releasing large amounts of dust, greenhouse gases and acidifying, and large quantities of waste, slag and ash disposed in landfills covering significant areas. SC Turceni S.A. is one of the largest power generating unit from Romania. Their policy is focused on the production and delivery of electricity in order to increase energy efficiency and to reduce the environmental impact. The paper presents environmental impact produced by slag and ash storage, while pointing out that the recovery of this waste significant improves the air quality in the area. An important aspect is the proprieties of the ash and slag evacuated by Turceni power plant in order to use them for building materials manufacturing.
Keywords: ash and slag properties, air pollution, building materials industry, power plantsProcedia PDF Downloads 265
6557 Analysis of the Air Pollution Behavior Registered at MACAM Net Using DOAS, Associated with High Pollution Episodes
Authors: Francisca Rojas Martínez, T. Pedro Oyola
Abstract:The combination of the geographical and meteorological conditions of the Santiago basin are unfavorable for the circulation of atmospheric pollution, especially in the autumn and winter months. The problem of environmental pollution in the Metropolitan Region has been studied since the 1960s because the city has presented high pollution levels for most of the year, levels that have even been compared with those in cities in developed countries, This implies serious consequences for the health of the population. Two of the most important gasses present in the contamination are NO2, and O3, the highest concentrations of nitrogen dioxide are measured during the winter, in addition, it is considered as a great contribution to the fine fraction of particulate matter and as a precursor of tropospheric ozone. On the other hand, tropospheric ozone is a pollutant of photochemical origin and is strongly enhanced by solar radiation, which is why its presence in the atmosphere is more significant in the spring and summer. The measurements were made at 3 different places in Santiago, and were used different equipment; a DOAS for gasses measures, SIMCA for Black Carbon Measure and the MACAM net for particulate matter and meteorological condition. The results shows an important relation between height and presence of pollution gasses, and additionally, pollution episodes are in common low temperature (< 10 °C) and high relative humidity (> 80%), which are factors that allows the air suspension of particulate matter and focus NH4+ and NO3-.
Keywords: black carbon, DOAS, episodes, high pollution, simcaProcedia PDF Downloads 213
6556 The Role of Phytoremediation in Reclamation of Soil Pollution and Suitability of Certain Ornamental Plants to Phytoremediation
Authors: Bahriye Gülgün, Gökhan Balik, Şükrü Dursun, Kübra Yazici
Abstract:The main reasons such as economic growth of society increase of the world population and rapid changes of industrialization cause the amount and the types of pollutants to increase over time. Soil pollution is the typical side effect of industrial activities. As a result of industrial activities, there are large amounts of heavy metal emission every year. Heavy metals are one of the highest pollution sources according to the soil pollution aspect. The usage of hyperaccumulator plants to clean heavy metal polluted soils and the selection of plants for phytoremediation gain importance recently. There are limited numbers of researches on the ornamental plant types of phytoremediation thus; researches on this subject are important. This research is prepared based on the ornamental plant types with phytoremediation abilities.
Keywords: phytoremediation, ornamental plants, landscape reclamation, soil reclamation, environmental pollutionProcedia PDF Downloads 351
6555 LogiSun: An Interactive Robot to Reduce Pollution on the Beach
Authors: Ruth Manzanares, Victor Honores, Hugo Zapata, Javier Cansaya, Deivid Yavar, Junior Meza
Abstract:LogiSum is a robot focused on education like a solution to the ecological crisis. This robot allows reducing the pollution on the beaches by stimulating environmental awareness of not contaminating through the collection of waste. Through the use of the methodology of design thinking, it is intended to reinforce values in adults and with a greater focus on children, so as not to contaminate the beaches. The goal is to encourage the use of the container of the robot LogiSum to put the garbage, with visual interaction and simulation of dialogue with the function of the robot. The results obtained of the testings of the interaction of children with the robot showed an encouraging behavior. With the robot, children left the waste in the right places and not bury it in the sand or in the floor.
Keywords: interaction human-robot, pollution reduction, social robot, robot container, beach pollutionProcedia PDF Downloads 197
6554 The Security Challenges of Urbanization and Environmental Degradation in the Niger-Delta Area of Nigeria
Authors: Gloria Ogungbade, Ogaba Oche, Moses Duruji, Chris Ehiobuche, Lady Ajayi
Abstract:Human’s continued sustenance on earth and the quality of living are heavily dependent on the environment. The major components of the environment being air, water and land are the supporting pillars of the human existence, which they depend on directly or indirectly for survival and well-being. Unfortunately, due to some of the human activities on the environment, there seems to be a war between humans and the environment, which is evident in his over-exploitation and inadequate management of the basic components of the environment. Since the discovery of crude oil in the Niger Delta, the region has experienced various forms of degradation caused by pollution from oil spillage, gas flaring and other forms of environmental pollution, as a result of reckless way and manner with which oil is being exploited by the International Oil Corporations (IOCs) operating within the region. The Nigerian government on the other, not having strong regulations guiding the activities of the operations of these IOCs, has done almost nothing to curtail the activities of these IOCs because of the revenue generated the IOCs, as such the region is deprived of the basic social amenities and infrastructures. The degree of environmental pollution suffered within the region affects their major sources of livelihood – being fishing and farming, and has also left the region in poverty, which has led to a large number of people migrating to the urban areas to escape poverty. This paper investigates how environment degradation impact urbanization and security in the region.
Keywords: environmental degradation, environmental pollution, gas flaring, oil spillage, urbanizationProcedia PDF Downloads 222
6553 Investigation on Natural Pollution Sources to Arsenic in around of Hashtrood City, East Azerbayjan Province
Authors: Azita Behbahaninia
Abstract:Soil and surface and ground waters pollution to arsenic (As) due to its high potential for food cycle entrance, has high risk for human safety. Also, this pollution can cause quality and quantity decreasing of agricultural products or some lesions in farm animals that due to low knowledge, its reason is unknown, but can relate to As pollution. This study was conducted to investigate level of soil and water pollution by As in Hashtrood city. Based on the region’s information, the surface and ground waters, soil, river sediments, and rock were sampled and analyzed for physico-chemical and As in lab. There are significant differences for mean contents between As in the samples and crust. The maximum levels of As were observed in fly ash sample. Consequently, As pollution was related to geogenic and volcanic eruptions in this region. These mechanisms are diagnosed as As pollution in the region: As release for the rock units, As sorption by oxide minerals in aerobic and acidic to neutral conditions, desorption from oxide surfaces with pH increasing, increasing of As concentration in solution, and consequently pollution.
Keywords: arsenic, flyash, groundwater, soilProcedia PDF Downloads 261
6552 Economic Expansion and Land Use Change in Thailand: An Environmental Impact Analysis Using Computable General Equilibrium Model
Authors: Supakij Saisopon
Abstract:The process of economic development incurs spatial transformation. This spatial alternation also causes environmental impacts, leading to higher pollution. In the case of Thailand, there is still a lack of price-endogenous quantitative analysis incorporating relationships among economic growth, land-use change, and environmental impact. Therefore, this paper aimed at developing the Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model with the capability of stimulating such mutual effects. The developed CGE model has also incorporated the nested constant elasticity of transformation (CET) structure that describes the spatial redistribution mechanism between agricultural land and urban area. The simulation results showed that the 1% decrease in the availability of agricultural land lowers the value-added of agricultural by 0.036%. Similarly, the 1% reduction of availability of urban areas can decrease the value-added of manufacturing and service sectors by 0.05% and 0.047%, respectively. Moreover, the outcomes indicate that the increasing farming and urban areas induce higher volumes of solid waste, wastewater, and air pollution. Specifically, the 1% increase in the urban area can increase pollution as follows: (1) the solid waste increase by 0.049%, (2) water pollution ̶ indicated by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) value ̶ increase by 0.051% and (3) air pollution ̶ indicated by the volumes of CO₂, N₂O, NOₓ, CH₄, and SO₂ ̶ increase within the range of 0.045%–0.051%. With the simulation for exploring the sustainable development path, a 1% increase in agricultural land use efficiency leads to the shrinking demand for agricultural land. But this is not happening in urban, a 1% scale increase in urban utilization results in still increasing demand for land. Therefore, advanced clean production technology is necessary to align the increasing land-use efficiency with the lowered pollution density.
Keywords: CGE model, CET structure, environmental impact, land useProcedia PDF Downloads 153
6551 Heavy Metal Pollution in Soils of Yelagirihills,Tamilnadu by EDXRF Technique
Authors: Chandrasekaran, Ravisankar N. Harikrishnan, Rajalakshmi, K. K. Satapathy M. V. R. Prasad, K. V. Kanagasabapathy
Abstract:Heavy metals were considered as highly toxic environmental pollutants to soil ecosystem and human health. In present study the 12 heavy metals (Mg, Al, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co,Ni and Zn.) are determined in soils of Yelagiri hills, Tamilnadu by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence technique. Metal concentrations were used to quantify pollution contamination factors such as enrichment factor (EF), geo-accumulation index (Igeo) and contamination factor (CF) are calculated and reported.
Keywords: soil, heavy metals, EDXRF, pollution contamination factorsProcedia PDF Downloads 261