Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3372

Search results for: inflammatory bowel disease

3372 Detecting Potential Biomarkers for Ulcerative Colitis Using Hybrid Feature Selection

Authors: Mustafa Alshawaqfeh, Bilal Wajidy, Echin Serpedin, Jan Suchodolski

Abstract:

Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is a disease of the colon with characteristic inflammation. Clinically IBD is detected using laboratory tests (blood and stool), radiology tests (imaging using CT, MRI), capsule endoscopy and endoscopy. There are two variants of IBD referred to as Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. This study employs a hybrid feature selection method that combines a correlation-based variable ranking approach with exhaustive search wrapper methods in order to find potential biomarkers for UC. The proposed biomarkers presented accurate discriminatory power thereby identifying themselves to be possible ingredients to UC therapeutics.

Keywords: ulcerative colitis, biomarker detection, feature selection, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
3371 Effects of Oral Resveratrol Supplementation on Inflammation and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: M. Samsami, A. Hekmatdoost, N. Ebrahimi Daryani, P. Rezanejad Asl

Abstract:

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease in which immune and inflammatory factors are thought to be effective in this disease. Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound. This study determined the effects of resveratrol compound on inflammatory factors in patients with ulcerative colitis. This study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted on 50 patients with UC. Subjects received one capsule daily for 6 wk of either resveratrol (500 mg) or a placebo. Inflammatory factors, anthropometric measures, and IBDQ-9 (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire-9) scores were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. STATA12 software was used for data analysis. No significant differences were found in the background variables between the two groups at baseline. The results indicated that resveratrol supplementation for 6 week significantly decreased plasma levels of TNF-a and hs-CRP and the activity of NF-κB over the placebo group (p<0.001). Significant differences remained after adjustment for vitamin C (p<0.0001). The IBDQ-9 scores increased significantly in the resveratrol group over the placebo group (p<0.001). The findings of this study showed that resveratrol supplementation can be useful in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Keywords: IBD, inflammation, resveratrol, ulcerative colitis

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3370 A Rare Presentation of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Small Bowel Stricture

Authors: Shivani Kuttuva, Bridget Fergie, Andrew Mishreki, Shovkat Mir, Fintan Bergin

Abstract:

Diaphragm disease (DD) of the small bowel is a condition wherein the bowel lumen is divided into a series of short compartments by multiple circumferential membranes of mucosa and submucosa, leading to pinhole lumen and subsequent obstruction. It is a rare condition commonly attributed to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) usage. Herein we present a 31-yr-old-female with a history of NSAIDs usage for one year following neurosurgery, who presented with recurrent idiopathic small bowel obstruction, recalcitrant anemia, and impaction of capsule endoscope on investigating for anemia. The capsule endoscopy images had demonstrated multiple circumferential strictures with ulcers at its tip and villous atrophy in the proximal bowel, suggestive of NSAIDs related damage. However, due to the lack of awareness of the detrimental effects of NSAIDs on bowel mucosa distal to the duodenum, the underlying aetiology of this case remained a mystery for a significant duration. The patient had to undergo repeated laparotomies in order to relieve the symptoms of recurring acute small bowel obstruction. Upon examining the resected specimen under microscopy, the histopathological hallmark of expanded, fibrotic, and congested submucosa was picked up, leading to the confirmation of diaphragm disease. Thus, this case report aims to widen the awareness among clinicians and aid surgeons in devising a management plan for young individuals presenting with recurring episodes of obstruction due to diaphragm disease.

Keywords: capsule endoscopy, diaphragm disease, NSAIDs, recurrent small bowel obstruction

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3369 MR Enterography Findings in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Crohn's Disease

Authors: Karolina Siejka, Monika Piekarska, Monika Zbroja, Weronika Cyranka, Maryla Kuczynska, Magdalena Grzegorczyk, Malgorzata Nowakowska, Agnieszka Brodzisz, Magdalena Maria Wozniak

Abstract:

Crohn’s disease is one of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. It is increasing in prevalence worldwide, especially with young people. The disease usually occurs in the second to the fourth decade of life. Traditionally is diagnosed by clinical indicates, endoscopic, and histological findings. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) can demonstrate mural and extramural inflammatory signs and complications, which make it a valuable diagnostic modality. The study included 76 adults and 36 children diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. Each patient underwent MRE with intravenous administration of a contrast agent. All the studies were performed using Siemens Aera 1.5T scanner according to a local study protocol. Whenever applicable, MR Enterography findings were verified with endoscopy. Forty adults and all 36 children had an active phase of Crohn’s disease; five adults had a chronic phase of the disease; one adult had both chronic and active inflammatory features. Thirty adults have no sings of pathology. In both adult and pediatric groups the most commonly observed manifestation of active disease was thickened edematous ileum wall (26 adults and 36 children). Adults had Bauhin’s valve edema in 58% cases (n=23) and mesenteric changes in 34% cases (n=9). To compare, 32 children had Bauhin’s valve edema (89%) and, in 23 cases, was found inflammatory infiltration of the peri-intestinal fat (64%). The involvement of the large intestine was more common among children (100%). Complications of Crohn’s disease were found commonly in adults (40% of adults, 22% of children). There were observed 18 fistulas (14 adults, four children) and six abscesses (2 adults, four children). MRE is a reliable method in the evaluation of Crohn’s disease activity, especially of its complications. The lack of radiations makes MRE well-tolerated modality, which can be often repeated, particularly in young patients. The disease had different medical sings depending on age – children often had a more active inflammatory process, but there were more complications in the adult group.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, diagnostics, inflammatory bowel disease, magnetic resonance enterography, MRE

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3368 Health Promoting Properties of Phytochemicals from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for Cancer and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Authors: Jeremy J. Johnson

Abstract:

Mediterranean herbs including rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) contain a variety of phytochemicals including diterpenes that possess extensive biological activity. Applications of diterpenes, including the more abundant forms carnosol and carnosic acid, have been shown to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferation properties. To confirm these properties, we have evaluated rosemary extract and selected diterpenes for biological activity in cancer and inflammatory models. Our preliminary data have revealed that select diterpenes can disrupt androgen receptor functionality in prostate and breast cancer cells. This property is unique among natural products for hormone-responsive cancers. The second area of interest has been evaluating rosemary extract and selected diterpenes for activation of sestrin-2, an antioxidant protein, in colon cancer cells. A combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches have been utilized to characterize the activity of rosemary diterpenes in rosemary. Taken together, these results suggest that phytochemicals found in rosemary have distinct pharmacological actions for disrupting cell-signaling pathways in cancer and inflammatory bowel disease.

Keywords: rosemary, diterpene, cancer, inflammation

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3367 Layer-by-Layer Coated Dexamethasone Microcrystals for Experimental Inflammatory Bowel Disease Therapy

Authors: Murtada Ahmed Oshi, Jin-Wook Yoo

Abstract:

Layer-by-layer (LBL) coating has gained popularity for drug delivery of therapeutic drugs. Herein we described a novel approach for enhancing the therapeutic efficiency of the locally administered dexamethasone (Dex) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We utilized a LBL-coating technique on Dex microcrystals (DexMCs) with multiple layers of polyelectrolytes composed of poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), poly (sodium 4-styrene sulfonate) (PSS) and Eudragit® S100 (ES). The successful deposition of the layers onto DexMCs surfaces were confirmed through zeta potential measurement and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The surface morphology was investigated through scanning electron microscopy. The drug encapsulation efficiency was 95% with a mean particle size of 2 µm and negative surface charge (-40 mV). Moreover, in vitro drug release study showed a minimum release of the drug ( 15%) at an acidic condition during initial first 5 h, followed by sustained-release at an alkaline condition. For in vivo study, LBL-DxMCs were administered orally to ICR mice suffering from dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. LBL-DxMCs substantially enhanced anti-IBD activities as compared to DxMCs. Macroscopic, histological and biochemical (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and myeloperoxidase) examinations revealed marked improvements of colitis signs in the mice treated with LBL-DxMCs compared with those treated with DxMCs. Overall, LBL-DxMCs could be a suitable candidate for the treatment of IBD.

Keywords: dexamethasone, inflammatory bowel disease, LBL-coating, polyelectrolytes

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3366 Psychological Distress and Quality of Life in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients: The Role of Dispositional Mindfulness

Authors: Kelly E. Tow, Peter Caputi, Claudia Rogge, Thomas Lee, Simon R. Knowles

Abstract:

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a serious chronic health condition, characterised by inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Individuals with active IBD experience severe abdominal symptoms, which can adversely impact their physical and mental health, as well as their quality of life (QoL). Given that stress may exacerbate IBD symptoms and is frequently highlighted as a contributing factor for the development of psychological difficulties and poorer QoL, it is vital to investigate stress-management strategies aimed at improving the lives of those with IBD. The present study extends on the limited research in IBD cohorts by exploring the role of dispositional mindfulness and its impact on psychological well-being and QoL. The study examined how disease activity and dispositional mindfulness were related to psychological distress and QoL in a cohort of IBD patients. The potential role of dispositional mindfulness as a moderator between stress and anxiety, depression and QoL in these individuals was also examined. Participants included 47 patients with a clinical diagnosis of IBD. Each patient completed a series of psychological questionnaires and was assessed by a gastroenterologist to determine their disease activity levels. Correlation analyses indicated that disease activity was not significantly related to psychological distress or QoL in the sample of IBD patients. However, dispositional mindfulness was inversely related to psychological distress and positively related to QoL. Furthermore, moderation analyses demonstrated a significant interaction between stress and dispositional mindfulness on anxiety. These findings demonstrate that increased levels of dispositional mindfulness may be beneficial for individuals with IBD. Specifically, the results indicate positive links between dispositional mindfulness, general psychological well-being and QoL, and suggest that dispositional mindfulness may attenuate the negative impacts of stress on levels of anxiety in IBD patients. While further research is required to validate and expand on these findings, the current study highlights the importance of addressing psychological factors in IBD and indicates support for the use of mindfulness-based interventions for patients with the disease.

Keywords: anxiety, depression, dispositional mindfulness, inflammatory bowel disease, quality of life, stress

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3365 Changes in Serum Hepcidin Levels in Children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease during Anti-Inflammatory Treatment

Authors: Eva Karaskova, Jana Volejnikova, Dusan Holub, Maria Velganova-Veghova, Michaela Spenerova, Dagmar Pospisilova

Abstract:

Background: Hepcidin is the central regulator of iron metabolism. Its production is mainly affected by an iron deficiency and the presence of inflammatory activity in the body. The aim of this study was to compare serum hepcidin levels in paediatric patients with newly diagnosed inflammatory bowel disease and hepcidin levels during maintenance therapy, correlate changes of serum hepcidin levels with selected markers of iron metabolism and inflammation and type of provided treatment. Methods: Children with newly diagnosed Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) were included in this prospective study. Blood and stool samples were collected before treatment (baseline). Serum hepcidin, hemoglobin levels, platelet counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL 6), ferritin, iron, soluble transferrin receptors, and fecal calprotectin were assessed. The same parameters were measured and compared with the baseline levels in the follow-up period, during maintenance therapy (average of 39 months after diagnosis). Results: Patients with CD (n=30) had higher serum hepcidin levels (expressed as a median and interquartile range) at diagnosis than subjects with UC (n=13). These levels significantly decreased during the follow-up (from 36.5 (11.5-79.6) ng/ml to 2.1 (0.9-6.7) ng/ml). Contrarily, no significant serum hepcidin level changes were observed in UC (from 5.4 (3.4-16.6) ng/ml to 4.8 (0.9-8.1) ng/ml). While in children with CD hepcidin level dynamics correlated with disease activity and inflammatory markers (ESR, CRP), an only correlation with serum iron levels was observed in patients with UC. Conclusion: Children with CD had higher serum hepcidin levels at diagnosis compared to subjects with UC. Decrease of serum hepcidin in the CD group during anti-inflammatory therapy has been observed, whereas low hepcidin levels in children with UC have remained unchanged. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by grant MH CZ–DRO (FNOl, 00098892).

Keywords: children, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, anaemia, hepcidin

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3364 In silico Analysis towards Identification of Host-Microbe Interactions for Inflammatory Bowel Disease Linked to Reactive Arthritis

Authors: Anukriti Verma, Bhawna Rathi, Shivani Sharda

Abstract:

Reactive Arthritis (ReA) is a disorder that causes inflammation in joints due to certain infections at distant sites in the body. ReA begins with stiffness, pain, and inflammation in these areas especially the ankles, knees, and hips. It gradually causes several complications such as conjunctivitis in the eyes, skin lesions in hand, feet and nails and ulcers in the mouth. Nowadays the diagnosis of ReA is based upon a differential diagnosis pattern. The parameters for differentiating ReA from other similar disorders include physical examination, history of the patient and a high index of suspicion. There are no standard lab tests or markers available for ReA hence the early diagnosis of ReA becomes difficult and the chronicity of disease increases with time. It is reported that enteric disorders such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) that is inflammation in gastrointestinal tract namely Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC) are reported to be linked with ReA. Several microorganisms are found such as Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella and Yersinia causing IBD leading to ReA. The aim of our study was to perform the in-silico analysis in order to find interactions between microorganisms and human host causing IBD leading to ReA. A systems biology approach for metabolic network reconstruction and simulation was used to find the essential genes of the reported microorganisms. Interactomics study was used to find the interactions between the pathogen genes and human host. Genes such as nhaA (pathogen), dpyD (human), nagK (human) and kynU (human) were obtained that were analysed further using the functional, pathway and network analysis. These genes can be used as putative drug targets and biomarkers in future for early diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of IBD leading to ReA.

Keywords: drug targets, inflammatory bowel disease, reactive arthritis, systems biology

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3363 The Importance of Clinicopathological Features for Differentiation Between Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: Ghada E. Esheba, Ghadeer F. Alharthi, Duaa A. Alhejaili, Rawan E. Hudairy, Wafaa A. Altaezi, Raghad M. Alhejaili

Abstract:

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consists of two specific gastrointestinal disorders: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Despite their distinct natures, these two diseases share many similar etiologic, clinical and pathological features, as a result, their accurate differential diagnosis may sometimes be difficult. Correct diagnosis is important because surgical treatment and long-term prognosis differ from UC and CD. Aim: This study aims to study the characteristic clinicopathological features which help in the differential diagnosis between UC and CD, and assess the disease activity in ulcerative colitis. Materials and methods: This study was carried out on 50 selected cases. The cases included 27 cases of UC and 23 cases of CD. All the cases were examined using H& E and immunohistochemically for bcl-2 expression. Results: Characteristic features of UC include: decrease in mucous content, irregular or villous surface, crypt distortion, and cryptitis, whereas the main cardinal histopathological features seen in CD were: epitheloid granuloma, transmural chronic inflammation, absence of mucin depletion, irregular surface, or crypt distortion. 3 cases of UC were found to be associated with dysplasia. UC mucosa contains fewer Bcl-2+ cells compared with CD mucosa. Conclusion: This study using multiple parameters such clinicopathological features and Bcl-2 expression as studied by immunohistochemical stain, helped to gain an accurate differentiation between UC and CD. Furthermore, this work spotted the light on the activity and different grades of UC which could be important for the prediction of relapse.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, dysplasia, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis

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3362 Giant Filiform Polyposis in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis Mimicking Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Godwin Dennison, Edwin Cooper, George Theobald, Richard Dalton

Abstract:

We report an unusual case of giant filiform polyposis in a patient with ulcerative colitis, causing a large stricture in the colon. A 62-year-old man was referred to the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme with a positive Faecal Immunochemical Test (FIT). He was known to have UC for 30 years. A CT scan showed a 9 cm stricture in the transverse colon suspicious of malignancy. A colonoscopy was attempted three times, and biopsies confirmed features of ulcerative colitis. A laparoscopic assisted transverse colectomy (Left hemicolectomy) was performed, and the histology revealed giant filiform polyposis. This should be considered in a UC patient presenting with signs of obstruction mimicking a carcinoma. Whilst it is a benign condition, because of the size of the lesion, it often causes obstruction, and surgery is indicated to relieve symptoms.

Keywords: giant inflammatory polyposis, filiform polyposis, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease

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3361 Trehalose-Based Nanocarriers for Alleviation of Inflammation in Colitis

Authors: Wessam H. Abd-Elsalam, Mona M. Saber, Samar M. Abouelatta

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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered a double edged sword in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Some studies reported their advantageous effect in decreasing inflammation, and other studies reported that their use is associated with colitis aggravation. This study aimed to use specifically formulated trehalose-based nano-carriers that targets the colon in an attempt to alleviate inflammation caused by NSAIDs. L-α-phosphatidylcholine (PL), trehalose, and transcutol were used to prepare the trehalosomes (THs), which were also loaded with Tenoxicam(TXM) as a model NSAID. To optimize the formulation variables, a full 23 factorial design, using Design-Expert® software, was performed. The optimized formulation composed of trehalose: PL at a weight ratio of 1:1, 377.72 mg transcutol, and sonicated for 4 min, possessed a spherical shape with a size of 268.61 nm and EE% of 97.83% and released 70.22% of its drug content over 24 h. The superior protective action of TXM loaded THs compared to TXM suspension and drug-free THs was shown by the inhibition of the inflammatory biomarkers, namely; IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-alpha levels, as well as oxidative stress markers, measured as GSH and MDA. Improved histopathology of the colonic tissue in male New Zealand rabbits also confirmed the superiority of the TXM loaded THs compared to the unformulated drug or the drug free nano-carriers. Our findings highlight the prosperous role of THs in colon targeting and its anti-inflammatory characteristics in guarding against possible NSAIDs-driven exacerbation of colitis.

Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, trehalose, trehalosomes, colon targeting

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3360 Outcome of Bowel Management Program in Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Roongtiwa Chobchuen, Angkana Srikhan, Pattra Wattanapan

Abstract:

Background: Neurogenic bowel is common condition after spinal cord injury. Most of spinal cord injured patients have motor weakness, mobility impairment which leads to constipation. Moreover, the neural pathway involving bowel function is interrupted. Therefore, the bowel management program should be implemented in nursing care in the earliest time after the onset of the disease to prevent the morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the outcome of bowel management program of the patients with spinal cord injury who admitted for rehabilitation program. Study design: Descriptive study. Setting: Rehabilitation ward in Srinagarind Hospital. Populations: patients with subacute to chronic spinal cord injury who admitted at rehabilitation ward, Srinagarind hospital, aged over 18 years old. Instrument: The neurogenic bowel dysfunction score (NBDS) was used to determine the severity of neurogenic bowel. Procedure and statistical analysis: All participants were asked to complete the demographic data; age gender, duration of disease, diagnosis. The individual bowel function was assessed using NBDS at admission. The patients and caregivers were trained by nurses about the bowel management program which consisted of diet modification, abdominal massage, digital stimulation, stool evacuation including medication and physical activity. The outcome of the bowel management program was assessed by NBDS at discharge. The chi-square test was used to detect the difference in severity of neurogenic bowel at admission and discharge. Results: Sixteen spinal cord injured patients were enrolled in the study (age 45 ± 17 years old, 69% were male). Most of them (50%) were tetraplegia. On the admission, 12.5%, 12.5%, 43.75% and 31.25% were categorized as very minor (NBDS 0-6), minor (NBDS 7-9), moderate (NBDS 10-13) and severe (NBDS 14+) respectively. The severity of neurogenic bowel was decreased significantly at discharge (56.25%, 18.755%, 18.75% and 6.25% for very minor, minor, moderate and severe group respectively; p < 0.001) compared with NBDS at admission. Conclusions: Implementation of the effective bowel program decrease the severity of the neurogenic bowel in patient with spinal cord injury.

Keywords: neurogenic bowel, NBDS, spinal cord injury, bowel program

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3359 Level of Reactive Oxygen Species and Inflammatory Cytokines in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Correlation with Disease Severity

Authors: Somaiya Mateen, Shagufta Moin, Mohammad Owais, Abdul Khan, Atif Zafar

Abstract:

In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), impaired oxidative metabolism and imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines are responsible for causing inflammation and the degradation of cartilage and bone. The present study was done to evaluate the level and hence the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of RA. The present study was performed in the blood of 80 RA patients and 55 age and sex-matched healthy controls. The level of ROS (in 5% hematocrit) and the plasma level of pro-inflammatory cytokines [TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-22] and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) were monitored in healthy subjects and RA patients. For evaluating the role of rheumatoid factor (RF) in the pathogenesis of RA, patients were sub-divided on the basis of presence or absence of RF. Reactive species and inflammatory cytokines were correlated with disease activity measure-Disease Activity Score for 28 joints (DAS28). The level of ROS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-22 were found to be significantly higher in RA patients as compared to the healthy controls, with the increase being more significant in patients positive for rheumatoid factor and those having high disease severity. On the other hand, a significant decrease in the level of IL-4 and IL-10 were observed in RA patients compared with healthy controls, with the decrease being more prominent in severe cases of RA. Higher ROS (indicative of impaired anti-oxidant defence system) and pro-inflammatory cytokines level in RA patients may lead to the damage of biomolecules which in turn contributes to tissue damage and hence to the development of more severe RA. The imbalance between pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines may lead to the development of multi-system immune complications. ROS and inflammatory cytokines may also serve as a potential biomarker for assessing the disease severity.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, reactive oxygen species, pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines

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3358 Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiota: A Signature in Fecal Samples from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Authors: Mina Hojat Ansari, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani, Mohammad Reza Fattahi, Ali Reza Safarpour

Abstract:

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common bowel disorder which is usually diagnosed through the abdominal pain, fecal irregularities and bloating. Alteration in the intestinal microbial composition is implicating to inflammatory and functional bowel disorders which is recently also noted as an IBS feature. Owing to the potential importance of microbiota implication in both efficiencies of the treatment and prevention of the diseases, we examined the association between the intestinal microbiota and different bowel patterns in a cohort of subjects with IBS and healthy controls. Fresh fecal samples were collected from a total of 50 subjects, 30 of whom met the Rome IV criteria for IBS and 20 Healthy control. Total DNA was extracted and library preparation was conducted following the standard protocol for small whole genome sequencing. The pooled libraries sequenced on an Illumina Nextseq platform with a 2 × 150 paired-end read length and obtained sequences were analyzed using several bioinformatics programs. The majority of sequences obtained in the current study assigned to bacteria. However, our finding highlighted the significant microbial taxa variation among the studied groups. The result, therefore, suggests a significant association of the microbiota with symptoms and bowel characteristics in patients with IBS. These alterations in fecal microbiota could be exploited as a biomarker for IBS or its subtypes and suggest the modification of the microbiota might be integrated into prevention and treatment strategies for IBS.

Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal microbiota, small whole genome sequencing, fecal samples, Illumina

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3357 A Rare Case of Taenia solium Induced Ileo-Cecal Intussusception in an Adult

Authors: Naraporn Taemaitree, Pruet Areesawangvong, Satchachon Changthom, Tanin Titipungul

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Adult intussusception, unlike childhood intussusception, is rare. Approximately 5-15% of cases are idiopathic without a lead point lesion. Secondary intussusception is caused by pathological conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, postoperative adhesions, Meckel’s diverticulum, benign and malignant lesions, metastatic neoplasms, or even iatrogenically due to the presence of intestinal tubes, jejunostomy feeding tubes or after gastric surgery. Diagnosis can be delayed because of its longstanding, intermittent, and non-specific symptoms. Computed tomography is the most sensitive diagnostic modality and can help distinguish between intussusceptions with and without a lead point and lesion localization. This report presents the case of a 49-year-old man presented with increasing abdominal pain over the past three days, loss of appetite, constipation, and frequent vomiting. Computed tomography revealed distal small bowel obstruction at the right lower quadrant with thickened outer wall and internal non-dilated small bowel loop. Emergency exploratory laparotomy was performed to clear the obstruction, which upon inspection was caused by extremely long Taenia solium parasites.

Keywords: intussusception, tape worm, Taenia solium, abdominal pain

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3356 Intraoperative ICG-NIR Fluorescence Angiography Visualization of Intestinal Perfusion in Primary Pull-Through for Hirschsprung Disease

Authors: Mohammad Emran, Colton Wayne, Shannon M Koehler, P. Stephen Almond, Haroon Patel

Abstract:

Purpose: Assessment of anastomotic perfusion in Hirschsprung disease using Indocyanine Green (ICG)-near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence angiography. Introduction: Anastomotic stricture and leak are well-known complications of Hirschsprung pull-through procedures. Complications are due to tension, infection, and/or poor perfusion. While a surgeon can visually determine and control the amount of tension and contamination, assessment of perfusion is subject to surgeon determination. Intraoperative use of ICG-NIR enhances this decision-making process by illustrating perfusion intensity and adequacy in the pulled-through bowel segment. This technique, proven to reduce anastomotic stricture and leak in adults, has not been studied in children to our knowledge. ICG, an FDA approved, nontoxic, non-immunogenic, intravascular (IV) dye, has been used in adults and children for over 60 years, with few side effects. ICG-NIR was used in this report to demonstrate the adequacy of perfusion during transanal pullthrough for Hirschsprung’s disease. Method: 8 patients with Hirschsprung disease were evaluated with ICG-NIR technology. Levels of affected area ranged from sigmoid to total colonic Hirschsprung disease. After leveling, but prior to anastomosis, ICG was administered at 1.25 mg (< 2 mg/kg) and perfusion visualized using an NIR camera, before and during anastomosis. Video and photo imaging was performed and perfusion of the bowel was compared to surrounding tissues. This showed the degree of perfusion and demarcation of perfused and non-perfused bowel. The anastomosis was completed uneventfully and the patients all did well. Results: There were no complications of stricture or leak. 5 of 8 patients (62.5%) had modification of the plan based on ICG-NIR imaging. Conclusion: Technologies that enhance surgeons’ ability to visualize bowel perfusion prior to anastomosis in Hirschsprung’s patients may help reduce post-operative complications. Further studies are needed to assess the potential benefits.

Keywords: colonic anastomosis, fluorescence angiography, Hirschsprung disease, pediatric surgery, SPY

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3355 A Fortunate Presentation of Intestinal Obstruction Secondary to a Sarcomatoid Tumour of the Small Bowel

Authors: Thampi Rawther, Sean O’Brien, Kamala Kanta Das

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Background: Intussusception in the adult is rarely from a benign cause and is almost always pathological. Causes include carcinomas, polyps, Meckel's diverticulum, or colonic diverticulum. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, intestinal obstruction, palpable abdominal mass, GI bleeding, and anemia. Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare type of small intestinal malignancy exhibiting carcinomatous and sarcomatous features. It primarily affects older patients, mean age 57, and is 1.5 times more prevalent in men. Method: This is an interesting case report of a patient presenting with intussusception secondary to a sarcomatoid tumor of the small bowel. Conclusion: Surgery is the treatment of choice in adults with intussusception due to the high malignancy potential. Furthermore, surgical resection of the affected bowel is the definitive form of therapy as small bowel sarcomatoid tumors are not responsive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Early surgical intervention helps reduce mortality as it allows for early staging, treatment, and monitoring of the tumor. The patient was fortunate to have presented with intussusception, facilitating early surgical intervention, and was found to have a low disease stage.

Keywords: general surgery, small bowel tumour, imaging, unique

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3354 A Rare Case of Endometriosis Lesion in Caecum Causing Acute Small Bowel Obstruction

Authors: Freda Halim

Abstract:

Endometriosis in bowel is rare condition, about 3-37% of endometriosis cases. Most of bowel endometriosis rising in the rectosigmoid (90% of bowel endometriosis). The incidence of caecal endometriosis is very low ( < 5% of bowel endometriosis) and almost never causing acute small bowel obstruction. The aim of this paper is to show that although bowel obstruction caused by caecal endometriosis is difficult to diagnose as it is rare, and may require laparotomy to make definite diagnosis, but it should be considered in infertile female patient. The case is 37 years old woman infertile woman with intestinal obstruction with pre-operative diagnosis total acute small bowel obstruction caused by right colonic mass, with sepsis as the complication. Before the acute small bowel obstruction, she complained of chronic right lower quadrant pain with chronic constipation alternate with chronic diarrhea, symptoms that happened both in bowel endometriosis and colorectal malignancy. She also complained of chronic pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea. She was married for 10 years with no child. The patient was never diagnosed with endometriosis and never seek medical attention for infertility and the chronic pelvic pain. The patient underwent Abdominal CT Scan, with results: massive small bowel obstruction, and caecal mass that causing acute small bowel obstruction. Diagnosis of acute small bowel obstruction due to right colonic mass was made, and exploratory laparotomy was performed in the patient. During the laparotomy, mass at caecum and ileocaecal that causing massive small bowel obstruction was found and standard right hemicolectomy and temporary ileostomy were performed. The pathology examination showed ectopic endometriosis lesions in caecum and ileocaecal valve. The histopathology also confirmed with the immunohistochemistry, in which positive ER, PR, CD 10 and CD7 was found the ileocaecal and caecal mass. In the second operation, reanastomosis of the ileum was done 3 months after the first operation. The chronic pelvic pain is decreasing dramatically after the first and second operation. In conclusion, although bowel obstruction caused by caecal endometriosis is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, but it can be considered as a cause in infertile female patient

Keywords: acute, bowel obstruction, caecum, endometriosis

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3353 Elevated Celiac Antibodies and Abnormal Duodenal Biopsies Associated with IBD Markers: Possible Role of Altered Gut Permeability and Inflammation in Gluten Related Disorders

Authors: Manav Sabharwal, Ruda Rai Md, Candace Parker, James Ridley

Abstract:

Wheat is one of the most commonly consumed grains worldwide, which contains gluten. Nowadays, gluten intake is considered to be a trigger for GRDs, including Celiac disease (CD), a common genetic disease affecting 1% of the US population, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) and wheat allergy. NCGS is being recognized as an acquired gluten-sensitive enteropathy that is prevalent across age, ethnic and geographic groups. The cause of this entity is not fully understood, and recent studies suggest that it is more common in participants with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with iron deficiency anemia, symptoms of fatigue, and has considerable overlap in symptoms with IBS and Crohn’s disease. However, these studies were lacking in availability of complete serologies, imaging tests and/or pan-endoscopy. We performed a prospective study of 745 adult patients who presented to an outpatient clinic for evaluation of chronic upper gastro-intestinal symptoms and subsequently underwent an upper endoscopic (EGD) examination as standard of care. Evaluation comprised of comprehensive celiac antibody panel, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) serologic markers, duodenal biopsies and Small Bowel Video Capsule Endoscopy (VCE), when available. At least 6 biopsy specimens were obtained from the duodenum and proximal jejunum during EGD, and CD3+ Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and villous architecture were evaluated by a single experienced pathologist, and VCE was performed by a single experienced gastroenterologist. Of the 745 patients undergoing EGD, 12% (93/745) patients showed elevated CD3+ IELs in the duodenal biopsies. 52% (387/745) completed a comprehensive CD panel and 7.2% (28/387) were positive for at least 1 CD antibody (Tissue transglutaminase (tTG), being the most common antibody in 65% (18/28)). Of these patients, 18% (5/28) showed increased duodenal CD3+ IELs, but 0% showed villous blunting or distortion to meet criteria for CD. Surprisingly, 43% (12/28) were positive for at 1 IBD serology (ASCA, ANCA or expanded IBD panel (LabCorp)). Of these 28 patients, 29% (8/28) underwent a SB VCE, of which 100 % (8/8) showed significant jejuno-ileal mucosal lesions diagnostic for IBD. Findings of abnormal CD antibodies (7.2%, 28/387) and increased CD3+ IELs on duodenal biopsy (12%, 93/745) were observed frequently in patients with UGI symptoms undergoing EGD in an outpatient clinic. None met criteria for CD, and a high proportion (43%, 12/28) showed evidence of overlap with IBD. This suggests a potential causal link of acquired GRDs to underlying inflammation and gut mucosal barrier disruption. Further studies to investigate a role for abnormal antigen presentation of dietary gluten to gut associated lymphoid tissue as a cause are justified. This may explain a high prevalence of GRDs in the population and correlation with IBS, IBD and other gut inflammatory disorders.

Keywords: celiac, gluten sensitive enteropathy, lymphocitic enteritis, IBS, IBD

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3352 Cutaneous Crohn’s Disease in a Child: Atypical Axillary Involvement

Authors: A. Al Yousef, A. Toulon, L. Petit, S. Fraitag, F. Ruemmele, S. Hadj-Rabia, C. Bodemer

Abstract:

Cutaneous Crohn’s disease (CCD) refers to an extremely rare granulomatous inflammation of the skin that is non-contiguous to the bowel tract. These cutaneous lesions can occur prior to, concurrent with, or after the gastrointestinal manifestations. In adults, CCD most frequently occurs in the setting of well-documented intestinal disease. Only 20% of cases occur prior to its development. Review of CCD in children, reveals that 86% of cases (24 of 28) occurring in patients without a known diagnosis of intestinal Crohn’s disease. Overall, the genitalia was the most commonly involved location, representing 21 of the 28 cases with 16 vulvar and 5 penile/scrotal lesions.

Keywords: Crohn’s disease, cutaneous manifestations, children, atypical axillary involvement

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3351 Spironolactone in Psoriatic Arthritis: Safety, Efficacy and Effect on Disease Activity

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Inderjit Verma, Pawan Krishan

Abstract:

Therapeutic approaches used previously relied on disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that had only partial clinical benefit and were associated with significant toxicity. Spironolactone, an oral aldosterone antagonist, suppresses inflammatory mediators. Clinical efficacy of spironolactone compared with placebo in patients with active psoriatic arthritis despite treatment with prior traditional DMARDs. In the 24-week, placebo-controlled study patients (n=31) were randomized to placebo and spironolactone (2 m/kg/day). Patients on background concurrent DMARDs continued stable doses (methotrexate, leflunomide, and/or sulfasalazine). Primary outcome measures were the assessment of disease activity measures i.e. 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28) and diseases activity in psoriatic arthritis (DAPSA) at week 24. The key secondary endpoint was change from baseline in Health Assessment Questionnaire–Disability Index (HAQ-DI) at week 24. Additional efficacy outcome measures at week 24 included improvements in the markers of inflammation (ESR and CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1. At week 24, spironolactone significantly reduced disease activity measure DAS-28 (p<0.001) and DAPSA (p=0.001) compared with placebo. Significant improvements in key secondary measures HAQ-DI (disability index) were evident with spironolactone (p=0.02) versus placebo. After week 24, there was significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokines level TNF-α, IL-6 (p<0.01) as compared with placebo group. However, there was no significant improvement in IL-1 in both treatment and placebo groups. There were minor side effects which did not mandate stopping of spironolactone. No change in any biochemical profile was noted after spironolactone treatment. Spironolactone was effective in the treatment of PsA, improving disease activity, physical function and suppressing the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Spironolactone demonstrated an acceptable safety profile and was well tolerated.

Keywords: spironolactone, inflammation, inflammatory cytokine, psoriatic arthritis

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3350 Dietary N-6/N-3 PUFA Ratios Affect the Homeostasis of CD4+ T Cells in Mice with Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis

Authors: Cyoung-Huei Huang, Chiu-Li Yeh, Man-Hui Pai, Sung-Ling Yeh

Abstract:

This study evaluated the effect of different dietary n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratios on modulating helper T (Th) and regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. There were 3 control and 3 colitis groups in this study. Mice were fed for 24 d with an AIN-93G diet either with soybean oil (S), a mixture of soybean oil and low fish oil content (LF) or high fish oil content (HF). The ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA in the LF diet was 4:1, and that in the HF diet was 2:1. The control groups drank distilled water while colitis groups provided 2% DSS in drinking water during day 15-19. All mice drank distilled water from day 20-24 for recovery and sacrificed on day 25. The results showed that colitis resulted in higher Th1, Th2, and Th17 and lower Treg percentages in the blood. Also, plasma haptoglobin and proinflammatory chemokines were elevated in colon lavage fluid. Colitic groups with fish oil had lower inflammatory mediators in the plasma and colon lavage fluid. Further, the percentages of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells in the blood were lower, whereas Treg cell percentages were higher than those in the soybean oil group. The colitis group with n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio 2:1 had more pronounce effects than ratio 4:1. These results suggest that diets with an n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of 2:1 or 4:1 regulate the Th/Treg balance and attenuate inflammatory mediator production in colitis. Compared to the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio 4:1, the ratio of 2:1 was more effective in reducing inflammatory reactions in DSS-induced colitis.

Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, helper T lymphocyte, regulatory T lymphocyte

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3349 The Influence of α-Defensin and Cytokine IL-1β, Molecular Factors of Innate Immune System, on Regulation of Inflammatory Periodontal Diseases in Orthodontic Patients

Authors: G. R. Khaliullina, S. L. Blashkova, I. G. Mustafin

Abstract:

The article presents the results of a study involving 97 patients with different types of orthodontic pathology. Immunological examination of patients included determination of the level of α-defensin and cytokine IL-1β in mixed saliva. The study showed that the level of α-defensin serves as a diagnostic marker for determining the therapeutic measures in the treatment of inflammatory processes in periodontal tissues. Α-defensins exhibit immunomodulating and antimicrobial activity during inflammatory processes and play an important role in the regulation of the pathology of periodontal disease. The obtained data allowed the development of an algorithm for diagnosis and the implementation of immunomodulating therapy in the treatment of periodontal diseases in orthodontic patients.

Keywords: α-difensin, cytokine, orthodontic treatment, periodontal disease, periodontal pathogens

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
3348 Components of Arterial Pressure and Its Association with Dietary Inflammatory Potential of Older Individuals: The Multinational Medis Study

Authors: Demosthenes Panagiotakos

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was to evaluate dietary habits’ inflammatory potential with various components of arterial blood pressure (hypertension, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP)) in a sample of older Mediterranean people without known cardiovascular disease. During 2005-2011, 2,813 older (aged 65-100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) were voluntarily enrolled. Standard procedures were used to determine arterial blood pressure, as well as PP and MAP, and for the evaluation of dietary habits, lifestyle, anthropometric and clinical characteristics of the participants. A dietary inflammatory index (DII) was assessed based on the participants specific dietary habits, and its calculation was based on a standard procedure. It was reported that the higher the DII level of a diet (adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet) the greater was the likelihood of having an older adult hypertension [OR=3.82 (95% CI): 1.24 to 11.71]. Moreover, the higher the level of DII (more pro-inflammatory dietary habits) the greater were the levels of MAP [b-coefficient (95% CI): 7.23 (+1.86 to +12.59)] and PP, [b-coefficient (95% CI): 10.86 (+2.70 to +19.01)]. Diet’s inflammatory potential is related with various components of arterial pressure. Adherence to a more pro-inflammatory diet seems to be associated with increased arterial peripheral resistance and arterial stiffness.

Keywords: dietary inflammatory index, hypertension, mean arterial pressure, elderly

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3347 Communication and Management of Incidental Pathology in a Cohort of 1,214 Consecutive Appendicectomies

Authors: Matheesha Herath, Ned Kinnear, Bridget Heijkoop, Eliza Bramwell, Alannah Frazetto, Amy Noll, Prajay Patel, Derek Hennessey, Greg Otto, Christopher Dobbins, Tarik Sammour, James Moore

Abstract:

Background: Important incidental pathology requiring further action is commonly found during appendicectomy, macro- and microscopically. It is unknown whether the acute surgical unit (ASU) model affects the management and disclosure of these findings. Methods: An ASU model was introduced at our institution on 01/08/2012. In this retrospective cohort study, all patients undergoing appendicectomy 2.5 years before (traditional group) or after (ASU group) this date were compared. The primary outcomes were rates of appropriate management of the incidental findings and communication of the findings to the patient and to their general practitioner (GP). Results: 1,214 patients underwent emergency appendicectomy; 465 in the traditional group and 749 in the ASU group. 80 (6.6%) patients (25 and 55 in each respective period) had important incidental findings. There were 24 patients with benign polyps, 15 with neuro-endocrine tumour, 11 with endometriosis, 8 with pelvic inflammatory disease, 8 Enterobius vermicularis infection, 7 with low grade mucinous cystadenoma, 3 with inflammatory bowel disease, 2 with diverticulitis, 2 with tubo-ovarian mass, 1 with secondary appendiceal malignancy and none with primary appendiceal adenocarcinoma. One patient had dual pathologies. There was no difference between the traditional and ASU group with regards to communication of the findings to the patient (p=0.44) and their GP (p=0.27), and there was no difference in the rates of appropriate management (p=0.21). Conclusions: The introduction of an ASU model did not change rates of surgeon-to-patient and surgeon-to-GP communication nor affect rates of appropriate management of important incidental pathology during an appendectomy.

Keywords: acute care surgery, appendicitis, appendicectomy, incidental

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3346 Adalimumab Therapy for Inflammatory Discitis Associated with Spondyloarthropathy

Authors: Liu Yuhong, Hussen Mansai, Mei Chunli

Abstract:

Inflammatory discitis is a sterile inflammatary disease that typically presents with abnormalities in two adjacent vertebral bodies and the intervening disk. Diagnosis this disorder is usually difficult and ideal management remains controversial. In this report,we examine a case of inflammatory discitis in a 56 year old female in which treatment with adalimumab ameliorated symptoms. The 56-year-old female patient developed repeatedly inflammatory discitis in the past three years, presenting with severe back pain, an elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, radiological erosive changes in vertebral and intervertebral disk of the spine. Surgical treatment, antibiotics and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs(NSAIDs) were used, but the patient still suffered from recurrent onset of unbearable backache. Three years later from the patient’s first admission,adalimumab was prescribed due to the third occurrence of Anderson lesions, which she had been suffering from for years. Soon after the same day of adalimumab therapy, her symptoms had a dramatic improvement. On the following day she could stand and walk slowly, her CRP and ESR were decreased to nearly normal levels in 4 weeks. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typing analysis revealed a positive result for HLA-B27, the patient’s inflammatory discitis was considered to be associated with spondyloarthropathy.

Keywords: adalimumab, inflammatory discitis, spondyloarthropathy, patient

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3345 Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) Has Protective Effect on Colonic Inflammation: An in Vitro Study in Raw 264.7 and Caco-2 Cells

Authors: Aysegul Alyamac, Sukru Gulec

Abstract:

Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) is a plant extract used to stop bleeding caused by injuries and surgical interventions. ABS also involved in wound healing of intestinal mucosal damage due to oxidative stress and inflammation. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a common chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that causes abdominal pain, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal bleeding, and increases the risk of colon cancer. Inflammation is an essential factor in the development of IBD. The various studies have been performed about the physiological effects of ABS; however, ABS dependent mechanism on colonic inflammation has not been elucidated. Thus, the protective effect of ABS on colonic inflammation was investigated in this study. The Caco-2 and RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were used as a model of in vitro colonic inflammation. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 12 hours to induce the inflammation, and a conditional medium was obtained. Caco-2 cells were treated with 15 µl/ml ABS for 4 hours, then incubated with conditional medium and the cells also were incubated with 15 µl/ml ABS and conditional medium together for 4 hours. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein levels were targeted in testing inflammatory condition and its level was significantly increased (25 fold, p<0.001) compared to the control group by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The COX-2 mRNA level was used as a marker gene to show the possible anti-inflammatory effect of ABS in Caco-2 cells. RAW cells-derived conditional medium significantly (3.3 fold, p<0.001) induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA levels in Caco-2 cells. The pretreatment of Caco-2 cells caused a significant decrease (3.3 fold, p<0.001) in COX-2 mRNA levels relative to conditional medium given group. Furthermore, COX-2 mRNA level was significantly reduced (4,7 fold, p<0.001) in ABS and conditional medium treated group. These results suggest that ABS might have an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro.

Keywords: Ankaferd blood stopper, CaCo-2, colonic inflammation, RAW 264.7

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3344 Closed Loop Large Bowel Obstruction Due to Appendiceal Signet Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Joshua Teo, Leo Phan

Abstract:

Signet cell carcinoma of the appendix is the rarest and the most aggressive subtype of appendiceal malignancy, typically with non-specific presentations. We describe a case of a 62-year-old male with large bowel obstruction and CT demonstrating dilated large bowels from caecum to proximal sigmoid colon with pneumoperitoneum. Intra-operatively, closed-loop obstruction caused by dense adherence of sigmoid colon to caecum was noted, which had resulted in caecal perforation. Histopathology study indicated primary appendiceal malignancy of signet cell morphology with intra-peritoneal spread to the sigmoid colon. Large bowel obstruction from appendiceal malignancy has rarely been reported, and a similar presentation has not been described in the existing literature. When left-sided large bowel obstruction is suspected to be caused by a malignant stricture, it is essential to consider transperitoneal spread of appendiceal malignancy as potential aetiology, particularly in the elderly.

Keywords: appendiceal carcinoma, large bowel obstruction, signet ring cell cancer, caecal perforation

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3343 Comparison of Efficacy between Low-Residue Diet and Clear-Liquid Diet in Colonoscopic Bowel Preparation at a Surgical Clinic: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Sopana Wongtawee

Abstract:

Purpose: Adequate bowel cleansing is essential for a high quality, effective and safe colonoscopy. The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy of bowel preparation based on a low-residue diet before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet, and a low-residue diet until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy using sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®), the side effects of the two protocols and the patient satisfaction with them. Method: This was an endoscopist-blinded, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 224 patients (112 in each group) scheduled for outpatient colonoscopy met the criteria.They were randomized to either a low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with either fish, chicken or eggs before 8:00 followed by a clear-liquid diet (Group 1) or a low-residue diet consisting of the same food and drink, until 16:00 the day before colonoscopy(Group 2). All of them received 45 ml of sodium phosphate solution (Xubil ®) and three glasses of water (300 ml/glass) the evening before and the morning of the procedure. The cleansing efficacy of bowel preparation was rated according to the modified Rajawithi hospital bowel preparation score scale, patient satisfaction with bowel preparation was rated using Likert scale, and side effects of the 2 protocols was assessed using a patient questionnaire. Results: The cleansing efficacy between the two groups was significantly different (p=0.02). Satisfaction with bowel preparation and side effects were not different, except for the feeling of hunger in the first group (p=0.001). Conclusion: The low-residue diet consisting of white rice porridge with fish, chicken or eggs until 16:00 one day before colonoscopy achieved a better bowel-cleansing efficacy than the protocol consisting of clear liquid all day and rice porridge only before 8:00 one day before colonoscopy.

Keywords: bowel preparation, colonoscopy, sodium phosphate solution, nursing management

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