Search results for: cardiovascular disease
3574 Cardiovascular Disease Prediction Using Machine Learning Approaches
Abstract:It is estimated that heart disease accounts for one in ten deaths worldwide. United States deaths due to heart disease are among the leading causes of death according to the World Health Organization. Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) account for one in four U.S. deaths, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). According to statistics, women are more likely than men to die from heart disease as a result of strokes. A 50% increase in men's mortality was reported by the World Health Organization in 2009. The consequences of cardiovascular disease are severe. The causes of heart disease include diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, abnormal pulse rates, etc. Machine learning (ML) can be used to make predictions and decisions in the healthcare industry. Thus, scientists have turned to modern technologies like Machine Learning and Data Mining to predict diseases. The disease prediction is based on four algorithms. Compared to other boosts, the Ada boost is much more accurate.
Keywords: heart disease, cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, feature selection, random forest, AdaBoost, SVM, decision treeProcedia PDF Downloads 74
3573 Cardiovascular Disease Is Common among Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Authors: Fathia Ehmouda Zaid, Reim Abudelnbi
Abstract:Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Patients and method: Cross-section study (68) patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who visited the outpatient clinic of rheumatology, these patients were interviewed with a structured questionnaire about their past and current clinically for presence of Cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus and use SLEDAI, specific tests [ECG –ECHO –CXRAY] the data are analyzed statistically by Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated and statistical significance was defined as P< 0.05,during period (2013-2014). Objective: Estimation Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, correlation with disease activity, morbidity, and mortality. Result: (68) Patients diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus' age range from (18-48 years), M=(13±29Y), Sex were female 66/68 (97.1%), male 2/68 (2.9%),duration of disease range[1-15year], M =[7±8y], we found Cardiovascular disease manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus 32/68 (47.1%), correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI,(r= 476** p=0.000),Morbidity,(r= .554**; p=0.000) and mortality (r=.181; p=.139), Cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus are pericarditis 8/68 (11.8%), pericardial effusion 6/68 (8.8%), myocarditis 4/68 (5.9 %), valvular lesions (endocarditis) 1/68 (1.5%), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) 12/68 (17.6%), coronary artery disease 1/68 (1.5%), none of patients have conduction abnormalities involvement. Correlation with disease activity use SLEDAI, pericarditis (r= .210, p=.086), pericardial effusion (r= 0.079, p=.520), myocarditis (r= 272*, p=.027), valvular lesions (endocarditis) (r= .112, p= .362), pulmonary hypertension (PAH) (r= .257*, p=.035) and coronary artery disease (r=.075, p=.544) correlation between cardiovascular disease manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus and specific organ involvement we found Mucocutaneous (r=.091 p= .459), musculoskeletal (MSK) (r=.110 p=.373), Renal disease (r=.278*, p=.022), neurologic disease (r=.085, p=.489) and Hematologic disease (r=-.264*, p=.030). Conclusion: Cardiovascular manifestation is more frequent symptoms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is 47 % correlation with disease activity and morbidity but not with mortality. Recommendations: Focus research to evaluation and an adequate assessment of cardiovascular complications on the morbidity and mortality of the patients with SLE are still required.
Keywords: cardiovascular disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, disease activity, mortalityProcedia PDF Downloads 368
3572 Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases in Dubrovnik- Neretva County 2018-2021
Authors: Tarnai Tena, Strinić Dean
Abstract:Chronic non-communicable diseases are today the leading cause of mortality, morbidity and mortality disability at the world level and in Croatia. Among them are the most represented precisely cardiovascular diseases (CVD), so today we are talking about their global card epidemic. From 2018 to 2021, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death for both women and men in the Dubrovnik- Neretva County. With regard to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has taken over, without forgetting how much these patients are additionally affected, we are still talking about the primary cause of sickness and death in the population of this county and region. In this record, we present collected data processed according to gender and disease classification. We also bring a kind of overview because, for years, we have been following how the population of one of the origins of the Mediterranean diet has been struggling with cardiovascular diseases.
Keywords: cardiovascular disease, burden, COVID-19, epidemiology, ishemic heart disease, cardiovascular medicineProcedia PDF Downloads 15
3571 Comparing the Effect of Exercise Time (Morning and Evening) on Troponin T in Males with Cardiovascular Disease
Authors: Amin Mehrabi, Mohsen Salesi, Pourya Pasavand
Abstract:Context and objective: The purpose of this research is to study the effect of exercise time (morning/evening) on amount of Troponin T in males' plasma suffering from cardiovascular disease. Method: 15 cardiovascular patients selected as the research subjects. At 7 a.m. pretest blood samples taken from the subjects and they did the exercise protocol in presence of a doctor. Immediately after and 3 hours after that blood measurements done. A week later, the subjects did the same steps at 7 p.m. The SPSS v.20 software used to analyze data. Findings: This study proved that circadian rhythm does not have any effect on the response of myocarditis tissue to exercise and cardiovascular patients allowed to exercise in any times of a day.
Keywords: cardiovascular disease, time of exercise, troponin T (cTnT), myocarditisProcedia PDF Downloads 431
3570 The Role of Physical Activity on Some Factors Affecting Cardiovascular Disease
Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, M. E. Bahram, Sh. Khoshemehry
Abstract:Hyperlipidemia or an increase in blood lipids is a condition that has been rising, especially during the last decade, with the advancement of the life-span of the car, as an important disease. In fact, it is one of the complications of industrial life and semi-industrial. Hyperlipidemia alone is not a disease, but it is recognized as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. The methodology of this review article is the use of research to provide the best solution for physical activity and exercise in relation to lowering blood lipids and lowering blood pressure. Also, factors that contribute to improving the health status of humans should be introduced. Research findings in this article show that physical activity with a specific duration and severity can keep a person away from the cardiovascular disease. The result shows that regular physical activity with low intensity and long periods of time is essential for human health. Physical mobility reduces blood pressure, reduces the harmful fats and does not cause cardiovascular disease. More than half of the patients suffering from cardiovascular problems are afflicted with blood lipids. On the other hand, high blood pressure is one of the serious health hazards in the world today, which causes a large number of cardiovascular problems and mortality in the world. Undoubtedly, the second most common risk factor for heart disease is high blood pressure after cigarette smoking.
Keywords: blood pressure, cardiovascular, hyperlipidemia, risk factorProcedia PDF Downloads 179
3569 New to Vancouver: The Effects of Residential Relocation on Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Authors: Rachel Karasenty Saltoun, Charlotte Roddick, Chelsea D. Christie, Frances Chen
Abstract:Moving has become an integral part of many people’s lives. This research explores whether relocating to a new city is associated with an increase in loneliness and cardiovascular disease risk and if this increased risk diminishes with continued residency. To test this, various psychosocial variables and three cardiovascular disease risk markers (C-reactive protein, albumin, blood pressure) were assessed on two groups of individuals: those who have moved to Vancouver, Canada in the previous 6 weeks (‘Movers’) and those who have lived in Vancouver for at least five years (‘Non-Movers’). It was hypothesized that individuals who had recently relocated would have heightened levels of loneliness, blood pressure (BP), albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) compared to those who had not recently relocated. Length of residency was hypothesized to moderate these effects, such that after a few months, loneliness levels and cardiovascular disease risk would decrease among those who had recently relocated. Correlational analysis indicated a trend between the change in CRP and albumin levels and loneliness overtime on an individual level. However, these results must be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size. As Vancouver’s immigration rates continue to grow, this study has important implications regarding the social support resources offered to new immigrants, as well as bringing awareness at the healthcare level of the potential increase in cardiovascular disease risk among those who have recently relocated.
Keywords: cardiovascular disease risk, loneliness, moving, residential mobilityProcedia PDF Downloads 54
3568 The Diet Adherence in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Patients in the North of Iran Based on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence
Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Arsalan Salari, Mahboobeh Gholipour, Moona Naghshbandi
Abstract:Background and objectives: Before any nutritional intervention, it is necessary to have the prospect of eating habits of people with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, we assessed the adherence of healthy diet based on Mediterranean dietary pattern and related factors in adults in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on 550 men and women with cardiovascular risk factors that referred to Heshmat hospital in Rasht, northern Iran. Information was collected by interview and reading medical history and measuring anthropometric indexes. The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener was used for assessing dietary adherence, this screener was modified according to religious beliefs and culture of Iran. Results: The mean age of participants was 58±0.38 years. The mean of body mass index was 27±0.01 kg/m2, and the mean of waist circumference was 98±0.2 cm. The mean of dietary adherence was 5.76±0.07. 45% of participants had low adherence, and just 4% had suitable adherence. The mean of dietary adherence in men was significantly higher than women (p=0. 07). Participants in rural area and high educational participants insignificantly had an unsuitable dietary Adherence. There was no significant association between some cardiovascular disease risk factors and dietary adherence. Conclusion: Education to different group about dietary intake correction and using a Mediterranean dietary pattern that is similar to dietary intake in the north of Iran, for controlling cardiovascular disease is necessary.
Keywords: dietary adherence, Mediterranean dietary pattern, cardiovascular disease, north of IranProcedia PDF Downloads 189
3567 Endothelial Progenitor Cell Biology in Ankylosing Spondylitis
Authors: Ashit Syngle, Inderjit Verma, Pawan Krishan
Abstract:Aim: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are unique populations which have reparative potential in overcoming the endothelial damage and reducing cardiovascular risk. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the endothelial progenitor cell population in AS patients and its potential relationships with disease variables. Methods: Endothelial progenitor cells were measured in peripheral blood samples from 20 AS and 20 healthy controls by flow cytometry on the basis of CD34 and CD133 expression. Disease activity was evaluated by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Functional ability was monitored by using Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Results: EPCs were depleted in AS patients as compared to the healthy controls (CD34+/CD133+: 0.027 ± 0.010 % vs. 0.044 ± 0.011 %, p<0.001). EPCs depletion were significantly associated with disease duration (r=-0.52, p=0.01) and BASDAI (r=-0.45, p=0.04). Conclusion: This is the first study to demonstrate endothelial progenitor cells depletion in AS patients. EPCs depletion inversely correlates with disease duration and disease activity, suggesting the pivotal role of inflammation in depletion of EPCs. EPC would possibly also serve as a therapeutic target for preventing cardiovascular disease in AS.
Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis, endothelial progenitor cells, inflammation, vascular damageProcedia PDF Downloads 373
3566 The Awareness of Cardiovascular Diseases among General Population in Western Regions of Saudi Arabia
Authors: Ali Saeed Alghamdi, Basel Mazen Alsolami, Basel Saeed Alghamdi, Muhanad Saleh Alzahrani Alamri, Salman Anwar Thabet, Abdulhalim J. Kinsara
Abstract:Objectives: This study measures the knowledge of the cardiovascular disease among the general population in western regions of Saudi Arabia, and it aimed to increase the level of awareness about cardiovascular diseases among the general population by providing an awareness lecture that included information about the risk factors, major symptoms, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The lecture has been attached at the end of the questionnaire. Setting: This study was conducted through an online questionnaire that included our aim and main objectives that targeted the general population in the Western regions of Saudi Arabia (Makkah and Madinah regions). Participants: This study participants were 460 collected through an online questionnaire. Methods: All Saudi citizens and residents who live in the western region of Saudi Arabia aged 18 years and above will be invited to participate voluntarily. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart diseases, with cardiac symptoms and risk factors sections. Results: The majority of respondents were females (74.8%) and Saudis. The knowledge about cardiovascular disease risk factors was weak. Only (18.5%) scores an excellent response regarding risk factors awareness. Lack of exercise, stress, and obesity were the most known risk factors. Regarding cardiovascular disease symptoms, chest pain scores the highest symptom (87.6%) among other symptoms like dyspnea, syncope, and excessive sweating. Participants revealed a poor awareness regarding cardiovascular disease symptoms also (0.9%). However, preventable factors for cardiovascular diseases were more knowledgeable than others categories in this study (60% fall into excellent knowledge). Smoking cessation, normal cholesterol level, and normal blood pressure score the highest preventable methods (92.2%), (88.6%), and (78.7%) respectively. 83.7% of the participant have attended the awareness lecture, and 99 of the attendees reported that the lecture increased their knowledge about cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: This study discussed the level of community awareness of cardiovascular disease in terms of symptoms, risk factors, and protective factors. We found a huge lack of the participant's level of knowledge about the disease and how to prevent it. Moreover, we measure the prevalence of the comorbidities among our participants (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia/ hypertriglyceridemia) and their extent of adherence to their medication. In conclusion, this study not only demonstrates awareness of cardiovascular disease risk factors, symptoms, management, and the association between each domain but also provides educational material. Further educational material and campaigns are required to increase awareness and knowledge about cardiovascular diseases.
Keywords: awareness, cardiovascular diseases, education, prevention, risk factorsProcedia PDF Downloads 64
3565 Osteoprotegerin and Osteoprotegerin/TRAIL Ratio are Associated with Cardiovascular Dysfunction and Mortality among Patients with Renal Failure
Authors: Marek Kuźniewski, Magdalena B. Kaziuk , Danuta Fedak, Paulina Dumnicka, Ewa Stępień, Beata Kuśnierz-Cabala, Władysław Sułowicz
Abstract:Background: The high prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is observed especially in those undergoing dialysis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and its ligands, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) have been associated with cardiovascular complications. Our aim was to study their role as cardiovascular risk factors in stage 5 CKD patients. Methods: OPG, RANKL and TRAIL concentrations were measured in 69 hemodialyzed CKD patients and 35 healthy volunteers. In CKD patients, cardiovascular dysfunction was assessed with aortic pulse wave velocity (AoPWV), carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), coronary artery calcium score (CaSc) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) serum concentration. Cardiovascular and overall mortality data were collected during a 7-years follow-up. Results: OPG plasma concentrations were higher in CKD patients comparing to controls. Total soluble RANKL was lower and OPG/RANKL ratio higher in patients. Soluble TRAIL concentrations did not differ between the groups and OPG/TRAIL ratio was higher in CKD patients. OPG and OPG/TRAIL positively predicted long-term mortality (all-cause and cardiovascular) in CKD patients. OPG positively correlated with AoPWV, CCA-IMT and NT-proBNP whereas OPG/TRAIL with AoPWV and NT-proBNP. Described relationships were independent of classical and non-classical cardiovascular risk factors, with exception of age. Conclusions: Our study confirmed the role of OPG as a biomarker of cardiovascular dysfunction and a predictor of mortality in stage 5 CKD. OPG/TRAIL ratio can be proposed as a predictor of cardiovascular dysfunction and mortality.
Keywords: osteoprotegerin, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, hemodialysis, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular diseaseProcedia PDF Downloads 275
3564 Quality of Life of Patients on Oral Anticoagulant Therapy in Outpatient Cardiac Department Dr. Hasan Sadikin Central General Hospital Bandung
Authors: Mochammad Indra Permana, Andhiani Sharfina Arnellya, Dika Pramita Destiani, Budhi Prihartanto
Abstract:Cardiovascular disease is the cause of the highest mortality rates in the world. The number of cardiovascular disease patients is increasing every year. Data obtained from World Health Organization (WHO) that 17,5 million people died from this disease. The condition of cardiovascular diseases such as atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolism, and several other conditions need anticoagulant therapy. Results of the anticoagulant therapy are measured not only by the effectiveness of International Normalized Ratio (INR) value but also by the quality of life of the patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life of patients on oral anticoagulant therapy in outpatient cardiac department Dr. Hasan Sadikin central general hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. This is a cross-sectional study with collecting data from the quality of life questionnaire and medical record of the patients. The results of this study showed that 28 patients (46,7%) had a good quality of life, 30 patients (50%) had a moderate quality of life, and 2 patients (3,3%) had a poor quality of life with no significant differences in quality of life based on age, gender, diagnosis, and duration of drug use.
Keywords: anticoagulant, cardiovascular diseases, INR, quality of lifeProcedia PDF Downloads 239
3563 Gender Differences in Walking Capacity and Cardiovascular Regulation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease
Authors: Gabriel Cucato, Marilia Correia, Wagner Domingues, Aline Palmeira, Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Raphael Ritti-Dias
Abstract:Women with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) present lower walking capacity in comparison with men. However, whether cardiovascular regulation is also different between genders is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare walking capacity and cardiovascular regulation between men and women with PAD. A total of 23 women (66±7 yrs) and 31 men (64±9 yrs) were recruited. Patients performed a 6-minute test and the onset claudication distance and total walking distance were measured. Additionally, cardiovascular regulation was assessed by arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) and heart rate variability (frequency domain). Independent T test or Mann-Whitney U test were performed. In comparison with men, women present lower onset claudication distance (108±66m vs. 143±50m; P=0.032) and total walking distance (286±83m vs. 361±91 m, P=0.007). Regarding cardiovascular regulation, there were no differences in heart rate variability SDNN (72±160ms vs. 32±22ms, P=0.587); RMSSD (75±209 vs. 25±22ms, P=0.726); pNN50 (11±17ms vs. 8±14ms, P=0.836) in women and men, respectively. Moreover, there were no difference in augmentation index (39±10% vs. 34±11%, P=0.103); pulse pressure (59±17mmHg vs. 56±19mmHg, P=0.593) and pulse wave velocity (8.6±2.6m\s vs. 9.0±2.7m/s, P=0.580). In conclusion, women have impaired walking capacity compared to men. However, sex differences were not observed on cardiovascular regulation in patients with PAD.
Keywords: exercise, intermittent claudication, cardiovascular load, arterial stiffnessProcedia PDF Downloads 323
3562 Study on Health Status and Health Promotion Models for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Asylum Seekers at Asylum Seekers Center, Kupang-Indonesia
Authors: Era Dorihi Kale, Sabina Gero, Uly Agustine
Abstract:Asylum seekers are people who come to other countries to get asylum. In line with that, they also carry the culture and health behavior of their country, which is very different from the new country they currently live in. This situation raises problems, also in the health sector. The approach taken must also be a culturally sensitive approach, where the culture and habits of the refugee's home area are also valued so that the health services provided can be right on target. Some risk factors that already exist in this group are lack of activity, consumption of fast food, smoking, and stress levels that are quite high. Overall this condition will increase the risk of an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. This research is a descriptive and experimental study. The purpose of this study is to identify health status and develop a culturally sensitive health promotion model, especially related to the risk of cardiovascular disease for asylum seekers in detention homes in the city of Kupang. This research was carried out in 3 stages, stage 1 was conducting a survey of health problems and the risk of asylum seeker cardiovascular disease, Stage 2 developed a health promotion model, and stage 3 conducted a testing model of health promotion carried out. There were 81 respondents involved in this study. The variables measured were: health status, risk of cardiovascular disease and, health promotion models. Method of data collection: Instruments (questionnaires) were distributed to respondents answered for anamnese health status; then, cardiovascular risk measurements were taken. After that, the preparation of information needs and the compilation of booklets on the prevention of cardiovascular disease is carried out. The compiled booklet was then translated into Farsi. After that, the booklet was tested. Respondent characteristics: average lived in Indonesia for 4.38 years, the majority were male (90.1%), and most were aged 15-34 years (90.1%). There are several diseases that are often suffered by asylum seekers, namely: gastritis, headaches, diarrhea, acute respiratory infections, skin allergies, sore throat, cough, and depression. The level of risk for asylum seekers experiencing cardiovascular problems is 4 high risk people, 6 moderate risk people, and 71 low risk people. This condition needs special attention because the number of people at risk is quite high when compared to the age group of refugees. This is very related to the level of stress experienced by the refugees. The health promotion model that can be used is the transactional stress and coping model, using Persian (oral) and English for written information. It is recommended for health practitioners who care for refugees to always pay attention to aspects of culture (especially language) as well as the psychological condition of asylum seekers to make it easier to conduct health care and promotion. As well for further research, it is recommended to conduct research, especially relating to the effect of psychological stress on the risk of cardiovascular disease in asylum seekers.
Keywords: asylum seekers, health status, cardiovascular disease, health promotionProcedia PDF Downloads 42
3561 Comparison of the Anthropometric Obesity Indices in Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Authors: Saeed Pourhassan, Nastaran Maghbouli
Abstract:Statement of the problem: The relationship between obesity and cardiovascular diseases has been studied widely(1). The distribution of fat tissue gained attention in relation to cardiovascular risk factors during lang-time research (2). American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) is widely and the most reliable tool to be used as a cardiovascular risk (CVR) assessment tool(3). This study aimed to determine which anthropometric index is better in discrimination of high CVR patients from low risks using ACC/AHA score in addition to finding the best index as a CVR predictor among both genders in different races and countries. Methodology & theoretical orientation: The literature in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched by two independent investigators using the keywords "anthropometric indices," "cardiovascular risk," and "obesity." The search strategy was limited to studies published prior to Jan 2022 as full-texts in the English language. Studies using ACC/AHA risk assessment tool as CVR and those consisted at least 2 anthropometric indices (ancient ones and novel ones) are included. Study characteristics and data were extracted. The relative risks were pooled with the use of the random-effect model. Analysis was repeated in subgroups. Findings: Pooled relative risk for 7 studies with 16,348 participants were 1.56 (1.35-1.72) for BMI, 1.67(1.36-1.83) for WC [waist circumference], 1.72 (1.54-1.89) for WHR [waist-to-hip ratio], 1.60 (1.44-1.78) for WHtR [waist-to-height ratio], 1.61 (1.37-1.82) for ABSI [A body shape index] and 1.63 (1.32-1.89) for CI [Conicity index]. Considering gender, WC among females and WHR among men gained the highest RR. The heterogeneity of studies was moderate (α²: 56%), which was not decreased by subgroup analysis. Some indices such as VAI and LAP were evaluated just in one study. Conclusion & significance: This meta-analysis showed WHR could predict CVR better in comparison to BMI or WHtR. Some new indices like CI and ABSI are less accurate than WHR and WC. Among women, WC seems to be a better choice to predict cardiovascular disease risk.
Keywords: obesity, cardiovascular disease, risk assessment, anthropometric indicesProcedia PDF Downloads 54
3560 Coronary Artery Calcium Score and Statin Treatment Effect on Myocardial Infarction and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Event of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Authors: Yusra Pintaningrum, Ilma Fahira Basyir, Sony Hilal Wicaksono, Vito A. Damay
Abstract:Background: Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores play an important role in improving prognostic accuracy and can be selectively used to guide the allocation of statin therapy for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease outcomes and potentially associated with the occurrence of MACE (Major Adverse Cardiovascular Event) and MI (Myocardial Infarction). Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to analyze the findings of a study about CAC Score and statin treatment effect on MI and MACE risk. Methods: Search for published scientific articles using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting, Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) method conducted on PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Medline databases published in the last 20 years on “coronary artery calcium” AND “statin” AND “cardiovascular disease” Further systematic review and meta-analysis using RevMan version 5.4 were performed based on the included published scientific articles. Results: Based on 11 studies included with a total of 1055 participants, we performed a meta-analysis and found that individuals with CAC score > 0 increased risk ratio of MI 8.48 (RR = 9.48: 95% CI: 6.22 – 14.45) times and MACE 2.48 (RR = 3.48: 95% CI: 2.98 – 4.05) times higher than CAC score 0 individual. Statin compared against non-statin treatment showed a statistically insignificant overall effect on the risk of MI (P = 0.81) and MACE (P = 0.89) in an individual with elevated CAC score 1 – 100 (P = 0.65) and > 100 (P = 0.11). Conclusions: This study found that an elevated CAC scores individual has a higher risk of MI and MACE than a non-elevated CAC score individual. There is no significant effect of statin compared against non-statin treatment to reduce MI and MACE in elevated CAC score individuals of 1 – 100 or > 100.
Keywords: coronary artery calcium, statin, cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, MACEProcedia PDF Downloads 12
3559 A Review of Type 2 Diabetes and Diabetes-Related Cardiovascular Disease in Zambia
Authors: Mwenya Mubanga, Sula Mazimba
Abstract:Background: In Zambia, much of the focus on nutrition and health has been on reducing micronutrient deficiencies, wasting and underweight malnutrition and not on the rising global projections of trends in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review was to identify and collate studies on the prevalence of obesity, diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular disease conducted in Zambia, to summarize their findings and to identify areas that need further research. Methods: The Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLINE) database was searched for peer-reviewed articles on the prevalence of, and factors associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and diabetes-related cardiovascular disease amongst Zambian residents using a combination of search terms. The period of search was from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016. We expanded the search terms to include all possible synonyms and spellings obtained in the search strategy. Additionally, we performed a manual search for other articles and references of peer-reviewed articles. Results: In Zambia, the current prevalence of Obesity and Type 2 diabetes is estimated at 13%-16% and 2.0 – 3.0% respectively. Risk factors such as the adoption of western dietary habits, the social stigmatization associated with rapid weight loss due to Tuberculosis and/ or the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and rapid urbanization have all been blamed for fueling the increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, unlike traditional Western populations, those with no formal education were less likely to be obese than those who attained secondary or tertiary level education. Approximately 30% of those surveyed were unaware of their diabetes diagnosis and more than 60% were not on treatment despite a known diabetic status. Socio-demographic factors such as older age, female sex, urban dwelling, lack of tobacco use and marital status were associated with an increased risk of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. We were unable to identify studies that specifically looked at diabetes-related cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of Obesity and Type 2 diabetes in Zambia appears low, more representative studies focusing on parts of the country outside of the main industrial zone need to be conducted. There also needs to be research on diabetes-related cardiovascular disease. National surveillance, monitoring and evaluation on all non-communicable diseases need to be prioritized and policies that address underweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes developed.
Keywords: type 2 diabetes, Zambia, obesity, cardiovascular diseaseProcedia PDF Downloads 165
3558 Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases Using Artificial Neural Network
Authors: Jyotismita Talukdar
Abstract:In this paper, a study has been made on the possibility and accuracy of early prediction of several Heart Disease using Artificial Neural Network. (ANN). The study has been made in both noise free environment and noisy environment. The data collected for this analysis are from five Hospitals. Around 1500 heart patient’s data has been collected and studied. The data is analysed and the results have been compared with the Doctor’s diagnosis. It is found that, in noise free environment, the accuracy varies from 74% to 92%and in noisy environment (2dB), the results of accuracy varies from 62% to 82%. In the present study, four basic attributes considered are Blood Pressure (BP), Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Thalach (THAL) and Cholesterol (CHOL.). It has been found that highest accuracy(93%), has been achieved in case of PPI( Post-Permanent-Pacemaker Implementation ), around 79% in case of CAD(Coronary Artery disease), 87% in DCM (Dilated Cardiomyopathy), 89% in case of RHD&MS(Rheumatic heart disease with Mitral Stenosis), 75 % in case of RBBB +LAFB (Right Bundle Branch Block + Left Anterior Fascicular Block), 72% for CHB(Complete Heart Block) etc. The lowest accuracy has been obtained in case of ICMP (Ischemic Cardiomyopathy), about 38% and AF( Atrial Fibrillation), about 60 to 62%.
Keywords: coronary heart disease, chronic stable angina, sick sinus syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cholesterol, ThalachProcedia PDF Downloads 120
3557 Economic Evaluation of Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs for Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases
Authors: Aziz Rezapour, Abdosaleh Jafari, Marziye Hadian, Elaheh Mazaheri
Abstract:Introduction: Cardiac rehabilitation is an accurate educational and sporting program designed to help heart patients to increase their physical activities and reduce the risk factors that make their health worse and help to a healthier lifestyle so that they can return to their families and society with a better spirit. The aim of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of cardiac rehabilitation programs for patients with cardiovascular diseases. Methods: In the present review study, published articles related to cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of cardiac rehabilitation programs for patients with cardiovascular diseases within the time interval between 2004 and 2019 were searched using electronic databases. The methodological quality of the structure of articles was examined by Drummond’s standard checklist. Results: The results of reviewing studies showed that most of the studies related to the economic evaluation of cardiac rehabilitation programs in patients with cardiovascular disease were flawed in Drummond’s criteria, and only one study adhered to Drummond’s criteria. The results of the present study indicated use of cardiac rehabilitation programs in patients with cardiovascular disease was cost-effective. Conclusion: The results of this review study showed that although the results of the studies were different in terms of a number of aspects, such as the study perspective, the time horizons, and the costs of rehabilitation programs, they achieved a similar conclusion, they concluded that the use of cardiac rehabilitation programs in patients with cardiovascular diseases, leading to higher quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and lower costs.
Keywords: economic evaluation, systematic review, cardiac rehabilitation, Drummond’s checklistProcedia PDF Downloads 77
3556 Correlation between Peripheral Arterial Disease and Coronary Artery Disease in Bangladeshi Population: A Five Years Retrospective Study
Authors: Syed Dawood M. Taimur
Abstract:Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is under diagnosed in primary care practices, yet the extent of unrecognized PAD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. Objective: To assess the prevalence of previously unrecognized PAD in patients undergoing coronary angiogram and to determine the relationship between the presence of PAD and severity of CAD. Material & Methods: This five years retrospective study was conducted at an invasive lab of the department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute from January 2010 to December 2014. Total 77 patients were included in this study. Study variables were age, sex, risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, smoking habit and positive family history for ischemic heart disease, coronary artery and peripheral artery profile. Results: Mean age was 56.83±13.64 years, Male mean age was 53.98±15.08 years and female mean age was 54.5±1.73years. Hypertension was detected in 55.8%, diabetes in 87%, dyslipidaemia in 81.8%, smoking habits in 79.2% and 58.4% had a positive family history. After catheterization 88.3% had peripheral arterial disease and 71.4% had coronary artery disease. Out of 77 patients, 52 had both coronary and peripheral arterial disease which was statistically significant (p < .014). Coronary angiogram revealed 28.6% (22) patients had triple vessel disease, 23.3% (18) had single vessel disease, 19.5% (15) had double vessel disease and 28.6% (22) were normal coronary arteries. The peripheral angiogram revealed 54.5% had superficial femoral artery disease, 26% had anterior tibial artery disease, 27.3% had posterior tibial artery disease, 20.8% had common iliac artery disease, 15.6% had common femoral artery disease and 2.6% had renal artery disease. Conclusion: There is a strong and definite correlation between coronary and peripheral arterial disease. We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD.
Keywords: coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease(PVD), risk, factors, correlation, cathetarizationProcedia PDF Downloads 282
3555 Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphism and Its Association with Cardiovascular Heart Disease Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Authors: Amani Ashari, Julia Omar, Arif Hashim, Shahrul Hamid
Abstract:Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism has influence on serum lipids which relates to cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency distribution of APOE alleles among Malaysian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) and their association with serum lipid profiles. A total of 115 patients were recruited in which 78 patients had Type 2 DM without CAD and 37 patients had Type 2 DM with CAD. The APOE polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The APOE ɛ3 allele was the most common one in both groups. There was no significant association between the APOE genotypes and the CAD status in Type 2 DM using Pearson χ2 test. Further analysis indicated there were no significant differences in all lipid parameters between E2, E3 and E4 subgroups in both groups. The study showed that the E4 allele carriers of Type 2 DM with CAD patients had higher LDL-C level and lower HDL-C level compared to the other allele carriers. However, analyses showed these levels were not statistically different. The study also showed that the Type 2 DM with CAD group with E2 allele had higher triglyceride (TG). In conclusion, further study with larger sample size is needed to confirm role of E4 as a marker of CAD among Type 2 DM patients in Malaysian population.
Keywords: Apolipoprotein E, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, lipidsProcedia PDF Downloads 230
3554 Increasing Prevalence of CVD and Its Risk Factors in India: A Review
Authors: Deepa Shokeen, Bani Tamber Aeri
Abstract:Non-communicable diseases in general and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in particular are a big cause of concern worldwide especially in fast growing economy like India. CVD is one of the leading causes of deaths in India. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease are now significant in all populations. At least one-third of all CVD is attributable to five risk factors: tobacco use, alcohol use, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and obesity. Methods: This article aspires to collate data gathered by relevant studies conducted after year 2000 and provide an overview of the prevalence of CVD in India and worldwide. Results: Studies show an increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in India as compared to other developing and developed countries with recent trends showing incidence in younger age group. It is seen to affect almost all sections of the society from young to old and most affluent to least affluent. High blood pressure, high cholesterol, tobacco and alcohol use, as well as low vegetable and fruit intake, already figure among the top risk factors. Conclusion: The prevalence of risk factors associated with CVD has increased and will keep on increasing in India as indicated by studies in the last decade and as predicted by the projections for future estimates. Some major risks are modifiable in that they can be prevented, treated, and controlled. There are considerable health benefits at all ages, for both men and women, in stopping smoking, reducing cholesterol and blood pressure, eating a healthy diet and increasing physical activity.
Keywords: prevalence, cardiovascular disease, India, risk factorsProcedia PDF Downloads 442
3553 Effects of Handgrip Isometric Training in Blood Pressure of Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease
Authors: Raphael M. Ritti-Dias, Marilia A. Correia, Wagner J. R. Domingues, Aline C. Palmeira, Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Lauro C. Vianna, Gabriel G. Cucato
Abstract:Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have a high prevalence of hypertension, which contributes to a high risk of acute cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality. Strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk of these patients are needed. Meta-analysis studies have shown that isometric handgrip training promotes reductions in clinical blood pressure in normotensive, pre-hypertensive and hypertensive individuals. However, the effect of this exercise training on other cardiovascular function indicators in PAD patients remains unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of isometric handgrip training on blood pressure in patients with PAD. In this clinical trial, 28 patients were randomly allocated into two groups: isometric handgrip training (HG) and control (CG). The HG conducted the unilateral handgrip training three days per week (four sets of two minutes, with 30% of maximum voluntary contraction with an interval of four minutes between sets). CG was encouraged to increase their physical activity levels. At baseline and after eight weeks blood pressure and heart rate were obtained. ANOVA two-way for repeated measures with the group (GH and GC) and time (pre- and post-intervention) as factors was performed. After 8 weeks of training there were no significant changes in systolic blood pressure (HG pre 141 ± 24.0 mmHg vs. HG post 142 ± 22.0 mmHg; CG pre 140 ± 22.1 mmHg vs. CG post 146 ± 16.2 mmHg; P=0.18), diastolic blood pressure (HG pre 74 ± 10.4 mmHg vs. HG post 74 ± 11.9 mmHg; CG pre 72 ± 6.9 mmHg vs. CG post 74 ± 8.0 mmHg; P=0.22) and heart rate (HG pre 61 ± 10.5 bpm vs. HG post 62 ± 8.0 bpm; CG pre 64 ± 11.8 bpm vs. CG post 65 ± 13.6 bpm; P=0.81). In conclusion, our preliminary data indicate that isometric handgrip training did not modify blood pressure and heart rate in patients with PAD.
Keywords: blood pressure, exercise, isometric, peripheral artery diseaseProcedia PDF Downloads 265
3552 Validating Chronic Kidney Disease-Specific Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Events Using National Data: A Retrospective Cohort Study of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample
Authors: Fidelis E. Uwumiro, Chimaobi O. Nwevo, Favour O. Osemwota, Victory O. Okpujie, Emeka S. Obi, Omamuyovbi F. Nwoagbe, Ejiroghene Tejere, Joycelyn Adjei-Mensah, Christopher N. Ekeh, Charles T. Ogbodo
Abstract:Several risk factors associated with cardiovascular events have been identified as specific to Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). This study endeavors to validate these CKD-specific risk factors using up-to-date national-level data, thereby highlighting the crucial significance of confirming the validity and generalizability of findings obtained from previous studies conducted on smaller patient populations. The study utilized the nationwide inpatient sample database to identify adult hospitalizations for CKD from 2016 to 2020, employing validated ICD-10-CM/PCS codes. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify both traditional and CKD-specific risk factors associated with cardiovascular events. Risk factors and cardiovascular events were defined using a combination of ICD-10-CM/PCS codes and statistical commands. Only risk factors with specific ICD-10 codes and hospitalizations with complete data were included in the study. Cardiovascular events of interest included cardiac arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, acute heart failure, and acute coronary syndromes. Univariate and multivariate regression models were employed to evaluate the association between chronic kidney disease-specific risk factors and cardiovascular events while adjusting for the impact of traditional CV risk factors such as old age, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, inactivity, and smoking. A total of 690,375 hospitalizations for CKD were included in the analysis. The study population was predominantly male (375,564, 54.4%) and primarily received care at urban teaching hospitals (512,258, 74.2%). The mean age of the study population was 61 years (SD 0.1), and 86.7% (598,555) had a CCI of 3 or more. At least one traditional risk factor for CV events was present in 84.1% of all hospitalizations (580,605), while 65.4% (451,505) included at least one CKD-specific risk factor for CV events. The incidence of CV events in the study was as follows: acute coronary syndromes (41,422; 6%), sudden cardiac death (13,807; 2%), heart failure (404,560; 58.6%), and cardiac arrhythmias (124,267; 18%). 91.7% (113,912) of all cardiac arrhythmias were atrial fibrillations. Significant odds of cardiovascular events on multivariate analyses included: malnutrition (aOR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.06–1.13; p<0.001), post-dialytic hypotension (aOR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.26–1.42; p<0.001), thrombophilia (aOR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.29–1.65; p<0.001), sleep disorder (aOR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.09–1.25; p<0.001), and post-renal transplant immunosuppressive therapy (aOR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.26–1.53; p<0.001). The study validated malnutrition, post-dialytic hypotension, thrombophilia, sleep disorders, and post-renal transplant immunosuppressive therapy, highlighting their association with increased risk for cardiovascular events in CKD patients. No significant association was observed between uremic syndrome, hyperhomocysteinemia, hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, leptin levels, carnitine deficiency, anemia, and the odds of experiencing cardiovascular events.
Keywords: cardiovascular events, cardiovascular risk factors in CKD, chronic kidney disease, nationwide inpatient sampleProcedia PDF Downloads 1
3551 Clustering of Natural and Nature Derived Compounds for Cardiovascular Disease: Pharmacophore Modeling
Authors: S. Roy, R. Rekha, K. Sriram, G. Subhadra, R. Johana
Abstract:Cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of death in most industrialized countries. Many chemical drugs are available in the market which targets different receptor proteins related to cardiovascular diseases. Of late the traditional herbal drugs are safer when compared to chemical drugs because of its side effects. However, many herbal remedies used in treating cardiovascular diseases have not undergone scientific assessment to prove its pharmacological activities. There are many natural compounds, nature derived and Natural product mimic compounds are available which are in the market as approved drug. In the most of the cases drug activity at the molecular level are not known. Here we have categorized those compounds with our experimental compounds in different classes based on the structural similarity and physicochemical properties, using a tool, Chemmine and has attempted to understand the mechanism of the action of a experimental compound, which are clustered with Simvastatin, Lovastatin, Mevastatin and Pravastatin. Target protein molecule for Simvastatin, Lovastatin, Mevastatin and Pravastatin is HMG-CoA reductase, so we concluded that the experimental compound may be able to bind to the same target. Molecular docking and atomic interaction studies with simvastatin and our experimental compound were compared. A pharmacophore modeling was done based on the experimental compound and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor.
Keywords: molecular docking, physicochemical properties, pharmacophore modeling structural similarity, pravastatinProcedia PDF Downloads 259
3550 Long-Term Results of Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: One Center Experience
Authors: Emil Sakharov, Alex Zotov, Ilkin Osmanov, Oleg Shelest, Aleksander Troitskiy, Robert Khabazov
Abstract:Objective: Since 2015, our center has been actively implementing methods of surgical correction of atrial fibrillation, in particular, in patients with coronary heart disease. The study presents a comparative analysis of the late postoperative period in patients with coronary artery bypass grafting and atrial fibrillation. Methods: The study included 150 patients with ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation for the period from 2015 to 2021. Patients were divided into 2 groups. The first group is represented by patients with ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation who underwent coronary bypass surgery and surgical correction of atrial fibrillation (N=50). The second group is represented by patients with ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation who underwent only myocardial revascularization (N=100). Patients were comparable in age, gender, and initial severity of the condition. Among the patients in group 1 there were 82% were men, while in the second group, their number was 75%. Among the patients of the first group, there were 36% with persistent atrial fibrillation, 20% with long-term persistent atrial fibrillation. In the second group, 10% with persistent atrial fibrillation and 17% with long-term persistent atrial fibrillation. Results: Average follow-up for groups 1 and 2 amounted to 47 months. There were no complications in group 1, such as bleeding and stroke. There was only 1 patient in group 1, who had died from cardiovascular disease. Freedom of atrial fibrillation was in 82% without AADs therapy. In group 2 there were 8 patients who had died from cardiovascular diseases and total freedom of atrial fibrillation was in 35% of patients, among which 42.8% had additional AADs therapy. Follow-up data are presented in Table 2. Progression of heart failure was observed in 3% in group 1 and 7% in group 2. Combined endpoints (recurrence of AF, stroke, progression of heart failure, myocardial infarction) were achieved in 16% in group 1 and 34% in group 2, respectively. Freedom from atrial fibrillation without antiarrhythmic therapy was 82% for group 1 and 35% for group 2. In the first group, there is a more pronounced decrease in heart failure rates. Deaths from cardiovascular causes were recorded in 2% for group 1 and 7% for group 2. Conclusion: Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation helps to reduce adverse complications in the late postoperative period and contributes to the regression of heart failure.
Keywords: atrial fibrillation, coronary artery bypass grafting, ischaemic heart disease, heart failureProcedia PDF Downloads 46
3549 Medicinal Plants Used by Moroccan People in the Management of Diabetes and Hypertension
Authors: Alami Ilyass, Kharchoufa Loubna, Alachouri Mostafa
Abstract:Cardiovascular disease (CDV) remains the major cause of morbidity; mortality and disability throughout the world. The ethnopharmcological and ethnobotanical studies are the paramount importance to set a high value on phytogenetic resources and to address health problems of some communities; especially poor peoples. Our work presents an analysis of published data from studies, that have been undertaken, in Morocco, by different seeker teams in separately areas during the last decades. Objectives: Evaluate and identify medicinal plants used for cardiovascular treatment by Moroccan people. Methodology: All these studies have the same approaches ; they were conducted by interviewing people suffering from diabetes. We use Factorial Analysis (FA) and principal Components analysis (PCA) to analyse the aggregated data from the different studies. Results: globally; 95 plants species were listed; all these plant were used empirically by Moroccan society for treating cardiovascular problems. These plants were divided in to 42 families and 87 genus. The lamiaceae; asteraceae; Apiaceae and poaceae are the botanical families with high number of plant species. Coclusion: Traditional medecine has been widely used for treatment of cardiovascular problems and it has been recognized as an interesting alternative to conventional medicine.
Keywords: cardiovascular, ethnobotanical, medicinal plants, MoroccoProcedia PDF Downloads 180
3548 Total Plaque Area in Chronic Renal Failure
Authors: Hernán A. Perez, Luis J. Armando, Néstor H. García
Abstract:Background and aims Cardiovascular disease rates are very high in patients with renal failure (CRF), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not explain the increased risk, and observational studies have observed paradoxical or absent associations between classical risk factors and mortality in dialysis patients. A large randomized controlled trial, the 4D Study, the AURORA and the ALERT study found that statin therapy in CRF do not reduce cardiovascular events. These results may be the results of ‘accelerated atherosclerosis’ observed on these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate if carotid total plaque area (TPA), a measure of carotid plaque burden growth is increased at progressively lower creatinine clearance in patients with CRF. We studied a cohort of patients with CRF not on dialysis, reasoning that risk factor associations might be more easily discerned before end stage renal disease. Methods: The Blossom DMO Argentina ethics committee approved the study and informed consent from each participant was obtained. We performed a cohort study in 412 patients with Stage 1, 2 and 3 CRF. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained. TPA was determined using bilateral carotid ultrasonography. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimation formula was used to determine renal function. ANOVA was used when appropriate. Results: Stage 1 CRF group (n= 16, 43±2yo) had a blood pressure of 123±2/78±2 mmHg, BMI 30±1, LDL col 145±10 mg/dl, HbA1c 5.8±0.4% and had the lowest TPA 25.8±6.9 mm2. Stage 2 CRF (n=231, 50±1 yo) had a blood pressure of 132±1/81±1 mmHg, LDL col 125±2 mg/dl, HbA1c 6±0.1% and TPA 48±10mm2 ( p< 0.05 vs CRF stage 1) while Stage 3 CRF (n=165, 59±1 yo) had a blood pressure of 134±1/81±1, LDL col 125±3 mg/dl, HbA1c 6±0.1% and TPA 71±6mm2 (p < 0.05 vs CRF stage 1 and 2). Conclusion: Our data indicate that TPA increases along the renal function deterioration, and it is not related with the LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels. We suggest that mechanisms other than the classics are responsible for the observed excess of cardiovascular disease in CKD patients and finally, determination of total plaque area should be used to measure effects of antiatherosclerotic therapy.
Keywords: hypertension, chronic renal failure, atherosclerosis, cholesterolProcedia PDF Downloads 210
3547 Montelukast Doesn’t Decrease the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Asthma Patients in Taiwan
Authors: Sheng Yu Chen, Shi-Heng Wang
Abstract:Aim: Based on human, animal experiments, and genetic studies, cysteinyl leukotrienes, LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4, are inflammatory substances that are metabolized by 5-lipooxygenase from arachidonic acid, and these substances trigger asthma. In addition, the synthetic pathway of cysteinyl leukotriene is relevant to the increase in cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial ischemia and stroke. Given the situation, we aim to investigate whether cysteinyl leukotrienes receptor antagonist (LTRA), montelukast which cures those who have asthma has potential protective effects on cardiovascular diseases. Method: We conducted a cohort study, and enrolled participants which are newly diagnosed with asthma (ICD-9 CM code 493. X) between 2002 to 2011. The data source is from Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database Patients with a previous history of myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke were excluded. Among the remaining participants, every montelukast user was matched with two randomly non-users by sex, and age. The incident cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, were regarded as outcomes. We followed the participants until outcomes come first or the end of the following period. To explore the protective effect of montelukast on the risk of cardiovascular disease, we use multivariable Cox regression to estimate the hazard ratio with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Result: There are 55876 newly diagnosed asthma patients who had at least one claim of inpatient admission or at least three claims of outpatient records. We enrolled 5350 montelukast users and 10700 non-users in this cohort study. The following mean (±SD) time of the Montelukast group is 5 (±2.19 )years, and the non-users group is 6.2 5.47 (± 2.641) years. By using multivariable Cox regression, our analysis indicated that the risk of incident cardiovascular diseases between montelukast users (n=43, 0.8%) and non-users (n=111, 1.04%) is approximately equal. [adjusted hazard ratio 0.992; P-value:0.9643] Conclusion: In this population-based study, we found that the use of montelukast is not associated with a decrease in incident MI or IS.
Keywords: asthma, inflammation, montelukast, insurance research database, cardiovascular diseasesProcedia PDF Downloads 28
3546 Behavioral and Cultural Risk Factor of Cardiovascular Disease in India: Evidence from SAGE-Study
Authors: Sunita Patel
Abstract:Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity as well as mortality in India. Objective of this study is to examine CVDs prevalence and identify their behavioral and cultural risk factors with the help of SAGE-2007 data conducted on 6th states in India. Findings reveal that 18.3% of people diagnosed with CVDs in India. Higher disease occurs in an increasing rate between ages of 30-39 having OR 2.45 (CI: 1.66-3.63) and 70+ age OR 7.45 (CI: 4.82-11.49) times higher compare to 18-29 age group respectively. Wealth quintile higher CVD occurs as 3rd in 60% (CI: 1.16-2.21) and in richest 5th quintile 58% (CI: 1.13-2.21) contrast to lowest quintile. Relative risk depicted that 22.4% in moderate and 44% in vigorous activity have less chance of diseases compare to who performed no work and those who consumed alcohol. Results reveal that policy prospect should be recommended and that it would be beneficial for awareness of people and their future.
Keywords: behavioral risk, cultural risk, cardio-vascular diseases, wealth quintileProcedia PDF Downloads 337
3545 Awareness on Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease among Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Attending Diabetic Clinic of B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences
Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta, Dina Khanal, Pushpa Parajuli, Gayanand Mandal, Bijaya Bartuala
Abstract:Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Adequate awareness of risk factors of CVD is the first step towards effective preventive strategies to combat the CVD burden in diabetes patients.This study aims to assess the awareness on risk factors of CVD among patients with diabetes mellitus attending diabetic clinic of BPKIHS and to find the association between awareness with their selected socio demographic variables. Methods and Material: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 112 patients with diabetes in diabetic clinic of BPKIHS. Convenient sampling technique was used for data collection over duration of one month using interview schedule by HDFQ II tool. Data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. (Chi square). Results: The mean age of respondents was 55.4±12.13 years. That mean HDFQ score was 14.31± 5.08. Only 33% of the respondents had adequate level of awareness whereas majority of the respondents (67%) had inadequate level of awareness. Majority of the respondent (83.9%) were aware about smoking, (78.6%) physical activity, (75%) increasing age, (75.9%) high blood pressure, (71.4%) overweight respectively. Whereas most of the respondents were not aware of high cholesterol, fatty diet, preventive strategies and association of diabetes with CVD. Awareness was statistically significant with (p=0.043) educational status, (p=0.025) monthly income, (p=0.05) residence, (p=0.006) CVD information received and (p=0.022) co morbid condition as a heart disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study concluded most of the respondents had an inadequate level of awareness on risk factors of CVD. So Effective education and appropriate preventive strategies of CVD are indeed important to reduce CVD burden in diabetes patients.
Keywords: cardiovascular disease, awareness, diabetes patients, riskProcedia PDF Downloads 68