Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1038

Search results for: exhaust emissions

1038 Estimation of Exhaust and Non-Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions’ Share from On-Road Vehicles in Addis Ababa City

Authors: Solomon Neway Jida, Jean-Francois Hetet, Pascal Chesse

Abstract:

Vehicular emission is the key source of air pollution in the urban environment. This includes both fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matters (PM10). However, particulate matter emissions from road traffic comprise emissions from exhaust tailpipe and emissions due to wear and tear of the vehicle part such as brake, tire and clutch and re-suspension of dust (non-exhaust emission). This study estimates the share of the two sources of pollutant particle emissions from on-roadside vehicles in the Addis Ababa municipality, Ethiopia. To calculate its share, two methods were applied; the exhaust-tailpipe emissions were calculated using the Europeans emission inventory Tier II method and Tier I for the non-exhaust emissions (like vehicle tire wear, brake, and road surface wear). The results show that of the total traffic-related particulate emissions in the city, 63% emitted from vehicle exhaust and the remaining 37% from non-exhaust sources. The annual roads transport exhaust emission shares around 2394 tons of particles from all vehicle categories. However, from the total yearly non-exhaust particulate matter emissions’ contribution, tire and brake wear shared around 65% and 35% emanated by road-surface wear. Furthermore, vehicle tire and brake wear were responsible for annual 584.8 tons of coarse particles (PM10) and 314.4 tons of fine particle matter (PM2.5) emissions in the city whereas surface wear emissions were responsible for around 313.7 tons of PM10 and 169.9 tons of PM2.5 pollutant emissions in the city. This suggests that non-exhaust sources might be as significant as exhaust sources and have a considerable contribution to the impact on air quality.

Keywords: Addis Ababa, automotive emission, emission estimation, particulate matters

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1037 The Investigation of LPG Injector Control Circuit on a Motorcycle

Authors: Bin-Wen Lan, Ying-Xin Chen, Hsueh-Cheng Yang

Abstract:

Liquefied petroleum gas is a fuel that has high octane number and low carbon number. This paper uses MSC-51 controller to investigate the effect of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on exhaust emissions for different engine speeds in a single cylinder, four-stroke and spark ignition engine. The results indicate that CO, CO2 and NOX exhaust emissions are lower with the use of LPG compared to the use of unleaded gasoline by using the developed controller. The open-loop in the LPG injection system was controlled by MCS-51 single chip. The results show that if a SI engine is operated with LPG fuel rather than gasoline fuel under the same conditions, significant reduction in exhaust emissions can be achieved. In summary, LPG has positive effects on main exhaust emissions such as CO, CO2 and NOX.

Keywords: LPG, control circuit, emission, MCS-51

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
1036 Examination of Internally and Externally Coated Cr3C2 Exhaust Pipe of a Diesel Engine via Plasma Spray Method

Authors: H. Hazar, S. Sap

Abstract:

In this experimental study; internal and external parts of an exhaust pipe were coated with a chromium carbide (Cr3C2) material having a thickness of 100 micron by using the plasma spray method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. Thus, the results of continuing chemical reaction in coated and uncoated exhaust pipes were investigated. Internally and externally coated exhaust pipe was compared with the standard exhaust system. External heat transfer occurring as a result of coating the internal and external parts of the exhaust pipe was reduced and its effects on harmful exhaust emissions were investigated. As a result of the experiments; a remarkable improvement was determined in emission values as a result of delay in cooling of exhaust gases due to the coating.

Keywords: chrome carbide, diesel engine, exhaust emission, thermal barrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
1035 Investigation Effect of External Flow to Exhaust Gas Flow at Heavy Commercial Vehicle with CFD

Authors: F. Kantaş, D. Boyacı, C. Dinç

Abstract:

Exhaust systems plays an important role in thermal heat management. Exhaust manifold picks burned gas from engine and exhaust pipes transmit exhaust gas to muffler, exhaust gas is reacted chemically to avoid noxious gas and sound is reduced in muffler then gas is threw out with tail pipe from muffler. Exhaust gas flows out from tail pipe and this hot gas flows to many parts that available around tail pipe and muffler, like spare tire, transmission, pipes etc. These parts are heated by hot exhaust gas. Also vehicle on ride, external flow effects exhaust gas flow and exhaust gas behavior is changed. It's impossible to understand which parts are heated by hot exhaust gas in tests. To understand this phenomena, exhaust gas flow is solved in CFD also external flow due to vehicle movement must be solved with exhaust gas flow. Because external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior with many parameters. This paper investigates external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior and other critical parameters effect exhaust gas flow behavior, like different tail pipe design, exhaust gas mass flow in critic vehicle driving situations.

Keywords: exhaust, gas flow, vehicle, external flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1034 Assessment of Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Means of Transport in Agriculture

Authors: Jerzy Merkisz, Piotr Lijewski, Pawel Fuc, Maciej Siedlecki, Andrzej Ziolkowski, Sylwester Weymann

Abstract:

The paper discusses the problem of load transport using farm tractors and road tractor units. This type of carriage of goods is often done with farm vehicles. The tests were performed with the PEMS equipment (Portable Emission Measurement System) under actual traffic conditions. The vehicles carried a load of 20000 kg. This research method is one of the most desired because it provides reliable information on the actual vehicle emissions and fuel consumption (carbon balance method). For the tests, a route was selected that simulated a trip from a small town to a food-processing facility located in a city. The analysis of the obtained results gave a clear answer as to what vehicles need to be used for the carriage of this type of cargo in terms of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption.

Keywords: emission, transport, fuel consumption, PEMS

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1033 Experimental Study of Exhaust Muffler System for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

Authors: Abdallah F. Abd El-Mohsen, Ahmed A. Abdelsamee, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

Engine exhaust noise is considered one of the largest sources of vehicle exterior noise. Further reduction of noise from the vehicle exhaust system will be required, as the vehicle exterior noise regulations become stricter. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to illustrate the role of engine operating parameters and exhaust system construction factors on exhaust noise emitted. The measurements carried out using different exhaust systems, which are mainly used in today’s vehicle. The effect of engine speed on the spectra level of exhaust noise is recorded at engine speeds of 900 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2700, rpm 3600 rpm and 4500 rpm. The results indicate that the increase of engine speed causes a significant increase in the spectrum level of exhaust noise. The increase in the number of the outlet of the expansion chamber also reduces the overall level of exhaust noise.

Keywords: exhaust system, expansion chamber, engine speed, spectra

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1032 Study of Dual Fuel Engine as Environmentally Friendly Engine

Authors: Nilam S. Octaviani, Semin

Abstract:

The diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses compressed air to combust. The diesel engines are widely used in the world because it has the most excellent combustion efficiency than other types of internal combustion engine.  However, the exhaust emissions of it produce pollutants that are harmful to human health and the environment. Therefore, natural gas used as an alternative fuel using on compression ignition engine to respond those environment issues. This paper aims to discuss the comparison of the technical characteristics and exhaust gases emission from conventional diesel engine and dual fuel diesel engine. According to the study, the dual fuel engine applications have a lower compression pressure and has longer ignition delay compared with normal diesel mode. The engine power is decreased at dual fuel mode. However, the exhaust gases emission on dual fuel engine significantly reduce the nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2) and particular metter (PM) emissions.

Keywords: diesel engine, dual fuel diesel engine, emission reduction, technical characteristics

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1031 Modelling of Filters CO2 (Carbondioxide) and CO (Carbonmonoxide) Portable in Motor Vehicle's Exhaust with Absorbent Chitosan

Authors: Yuandanis Wahyu Salam, Irfi Panrepi, Nuraeni

Abstract:

The increased of greenhouse gases, that is CO2 (carbondioxide) in atmosphere induce the rising of earth’s surface average temperature. One of the largest contributors to greenhouse gases is motor vehicles. Smoke which is emitted by motor’s exhaust containing gases such as CO2 (carbondioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). Chemically, chitosan is cellulose like plant fiber that has the ability to bind like absorbant foam. Chitosan is a natural antacid (absorb toxins), when chitosan is spread over the surface of water, chitosan is able to absorb fats, oils, heavy metals, and other toxic substances. Judging from the nature of chitosan is able to absorb various toxic substances, it is expected that chitosan is also able to filter out gas emission from the motor vehicles. This study designing a carbondioxide filter in the exhaust of motor vehicles using chitosan as its absorbant. It aims to filter out gases in the exhaust so that CO2 and CO can be reducted before emitted by exhaust. Form of this reseach is study of literature and applied with experimental research of tool manufacture. Data collected through documentary studies by studying books, magazines, thesis, search on the internet as well as the relevant reference. This study will produce a filters which has main function to filter out CO2 and CO emissions that generated by vehicle’s exhaust and can be used as portable.

Keywords: filter, carbon, carbondioxide, exhaust, chitosan

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
1030 Effect of Hydrogen on the Performance of a Methanol SI-Engine at City Driving Conditions

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua

Abstract:

Methanol is one of the most suitable alternative fuels for replacing gasoline in present and future spark-ignited engines. However, for pure methanol engines, cold start problems and misfires are observed under certain operating conditions. Hydrogen provides a solution for such problems. This paper experimentally investigated the effect of hydrogen on the performance of a pure methanol SI-engine at city driving conditions (1500 rpm speed and 1.18 excess air ratio). Hydrogen was used as a part of methanol reformed syngas (67% hydrogen by volume). 4% by mass of the total methanol converted to hydrogen and other constituent gases, was used in each cycle. Port fuel injection was used to inject methanol and hydrogen-rich syngas into the 4-cylinder engine. The results indicated an increase in brake thermal efficiency up to 5% with the addition of hydrogen, a decrease in brake specific fuel consumption up to 200 g/kWh, and a decrease in exhaust gas temperature by 100°C for all mean effective pressures. Hydrogen addition also decreased harmful exhaust emissions significantly. There was a reduction in THC emissions up to 95% and CO emissions up to 50%. NOx emissions were slightly increased (up to 15%), but they can be reduced to zero by lean burn strategy.

Keywords: alternative fuels, hydrogen, methanol, performance, spark ignition engines

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1029 The Analysis of Exhaust Emission from Single Cylinder Non-Mobile Spark Ignition Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blend as Fuel

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Ogbevire Umukoro

Abstract:

In view of the prevailing pollution problems and its consequences on the environment, efforts are being made to lower the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the impact of ethanol-gasoline blend on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder non-mobile spark ignition engine was investigated. Gasoline was blended with 5 – 20% of ethanol sourced from the open market (bought off the shelf) in an interval of 5%. The results of the emission characteristics of the exhaust gas from the combustion of the ethanol-gasoline blends showed that increasing the percentage of ethanol in the blend decreased CO emission by between 2.12% and 52.29% and HC emissions by between12.14% and 53.24%, but increased CO2 and NOx emissions by between 25% to 56% and 59% to 60% respectively. E15 blend is preferred above other blends at no-load and across all the load variations. However its NOx emission was the highest when compared with other samples. This will negatively affect human health and the environment but this drawback can be remedied by adequate treatment with appropriate additives.

Keywords: blends, emission, ethanol, gasoline, spark ignition engine

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1028 The Effect of Hydrogen on Performance and Emissions of a Methanol Si-Engine at Part Load

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua

Abstract:

Methanol and hydrogen are the most suitable alternative fuel resources for the existing and future internal combustion engines. This paper experimentally examined the effects of hydrogen addition on the performance and emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with methanol at part load conditions. The experiments were carried out for various engine speeds and loads. Hydrogen-rich syngas was used to enhance the performance of the test engine. It was formed by catalytic dissociation of methanol itself, and volumetric hydrogen fraction in syngas was about 67%. A certain amount of syngas dissociated from methanol was injected into the intake manifold in each engine cycle, and the low heating value (LHV) of hydrogen-rich syngas used was 4% of methanol in each cycle. Both the fuels were injected separately using port fuel injectors. The results showed that brake thermal efficiency of the engine was enhanced by 3-5% with hydrogen addition, while brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature were reduced. There was a significant reduction (90-95%) in THC and (35-50%) in CO emissions at the exhaust. NOx emissions from hydrogen blended methanol increased slightly (10-15%), but they can be reduced by using lean fuel-air mixture to keep the cylinder temperature low.

Keywords: hydrogen, methanol, alternative fuel, emissions, spark ignition engines

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1027 Experimental Analysis of Electrical Energy Producing Using the Waste Heat of Exhaust Gas by the Help of Thermoelectric Generator

Authors: Dilek Ozlem Esen, Mesut Kaya

Abstract:

The focus of this study is to analyse the results of heat recovery from exhaust gas which is produced by an internal combustion engine (ICE). To obtain a small amount of energy, an exhaust system which is suitable for recovery waste heat has been constructed. Totally 27 TEGs have been used to convert from the heat to electric energy. By producing a small amount of this energy by the help of thermoelectric generators can reduce engine loads thus decreasing pollutant emissions, fuel consumption, and CO2. This case study is conducted in an effort to better understand and improve the performance of thermoelectric heat recovery systems for automotive use. As a result of this study, 0,45 A averaged current rate, 13,02 V averaged voltage rate and 5,8 W averaged electrical energy have been produced in a five hours operation time.

Keywords: thermoelectric, peltier, thermoelectric generator (TEG), exhaust, cogeneration

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1026 Numerical Evaluation of the Flow Behavior inside the Scrubber Unit with Engine Exhaust Pipe

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

A wet scrubber is an air pollution control device that removes particulate matter and acid gases from waste gas streams found in marine engine exhaust. If the flue gases in the exhaust is employed for CFD simulation, it makes the problem complicate due to the involvement of emissions. Owing to the fact, the scrubber system in this paper is handled with appropriate approach by designing with the flow properties of hot air and water droplet injections to evaluate the flow behavior inside the system. Since the wet scrubber has the capability of operating over wide range of mixture compositions, the current scrubber model with the designing approach doesn’t deviate from the actual behavior of the system. The scrubber design is constructed with engine exhaust pipe with the purpose of measuring the flow properties inside the scrubber by the influence of exhaust pipe characteristics. The flow properties are computed by the thermodynamic variables such as temperature and pressure with the flow velocity. In this work, numerical analyses have been conducted for the flow of fluid in the scrubber system through CFD technique.

Keywords: wet scrubber, water droplet injections, thermodynamic variables, CFD technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
1025 Heat Transfer Correlations for Exhaust Gas Flow

Authors: Fatih Kantas

Abstract:

Exhaust systems are key contributors to ground vehicles as a heat source. Understanding heat transfer in exhaust systems is related to defining effective parameter on heat transfer in exhaust system. In this journal, over 20 Nusselt numbers are investigated. This study shows advantages and disadvantages of various Nusselt numbers in different range Re, Pr and pulsating flow amplitude and frequency. Also (CAF) Convective Augmentation Factors are defined to correct standard Nusselt number for geometry and location of exhaust system. Finally, optimum Nusselt number and Convective Augmentation Factors are recommended according to Re, Pr and pulsating flow amplitude and frequency, geometry and location effect of exhaust system.

Keywords: exhaust gas flow, heat transfer correlation, Nusselt, Prandtl, pulsating flow

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1024 The Effects of Dimethyl Adipate (DMA) on Coated Diesel Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar

Abstract:

An experimental study is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of diesel fuel with dimethyl adipate (DMA) in proportions of 2%, 6/%, and 12% on a coated engine. In this study, cylinder, piston, exhaust and inlet valves which are combustion chamber components have been coated with a ceramic material. Cylinder, exhaust and inlet valves of the diesel engine used in the tests were coated with ekabor-2 commercial powder, which is a ceramic material, to a thickness of 50 µm, by using the boriding method. The piston of a diesel engine was coated in 300 µm thickness with bor-based powder by using plasma coating method. Due to thermal barrier coating, the diesel engine's hazardous emission values decreased.

Keywords: diesel engine, dimethyl adipate (DMA), exhaust emissions, coating

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1023 Design and Performance Optimization of Isostatic Pressing Working Cylinder Automatic Exhaust Valve

Authors: Wei-Zhao, Yannian-Bao, Xing-Fan, Lei-Cao

Abstract:

An isostatic pressing working cylinder automatic exhaust valve is designed. The finite element models of valve core and valve body under ultra-high pressure work environment are built to study the influence of interact of valve core and valve body to sealing performance. The contact stresses of metal sealing surface with different sizes are calculated and the automatic exhaust valve is optimized. The result of simulation and experiment shows that the sealing of optimized exhaust valve is more reliable and the service life is greatly improved. The optimized exhaust valve has been used in the warm isostatic pressing equipment.

Keywords: exhaust valve, sealing, ultra-high pressure, isostatic pressing

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1022 Cooling of Exhaust Gases Emitted Into the Atmosphere as the Possibility to Reduce the Helicopter Radiation Emission Level

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Mirosław Wendeker, Adam Majczak

Abstract:

Every material body that temperature is higher than 0K (absolute zero) emits infrared radiation to the surroundings. Infrared radiation is highly meaningful in military aviation, especially in military applications of helicopters. Helicopters, in comparison to other aircraft, have much lower flight speeds and maneuverability, which makes them easy targets for actual combat assets like infrared-guided missiles. When designing new helicopter types, especially for combat applications, it is essential to pay enormous attention to infrared emissions of the solid parts composing the helicopter’s structure, as well as to exhaust gases egressing from the engine’s exhaust system. Due to their high temperature, exhaust gases, egressed to the surroundings are a major factor in infrared radiation emission and, in consequence, detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. Protection of the helicopter in flight from early detection, tracking and finally destruction can be realized in many ways. This paper presents the analysis of possibilities to decrease the infrared radiation level that is emitted to the environment by helicopter in flight, by cooling exhaust in special ejection-based coolers. The paper also presents the concept 3D model and results of numeric analysis of ejective-based cooler cooperation with PA-10W turbine engine. Numeric analysis presented promising results in decreasing the infrared emission level by PA W-3 helicopter in flight.

Keywords: exhaust cooler, helicopter propulsion, infrared radiation, stealth

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1021 Numerical Simulation of Air Flow, Exhaust and Their Mixture in a Helicopter Exhaust Injective Cooler

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Konrad Pietrykowski, Krzysztof Skiba

Abstract:

Due to low-altitude and relatively low flight speed, today’s combat assets like missile weapons equipped with infrared guidance systems are one of the most important threats to the helicopters performing combat missions. Especially meaningful in helicopter aviation is infrared emission by exhaust gases, regressed to the surroundings. Due to high temperature, exhaust gases are a major factor in detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. This study presents the results of simulating the flow of the mixture of exhaust and air in the flow duct of an injective exhaust cooler, adapted to cooperate with the PZL 10W turbine engine. The simulation was performed using a numerical model and the ANSYS Fluent software. Simulation computations were conducted for set flight conditions of the PZL W-3 Falcon helicopter. The conclusions resulting from the conducted numerical computations should allow for optimisation of the flow duct geometry in the cooler, in order to achieve the greatest possible temperature reduction of exhaust exiting into the surroundings. It is expected that the obtained results should be useful for further works related to the development of the final version of exhaust cooler for the PZL W-3 Falcon helicopter.

Keywords: exhaust cooler, helicopter, numerical simulation, stealth

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1020 Design Parameters Optimization of a Gas Turbine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation: An Energy and Exergy Approach

Authors: Joe Hachem, Marianne Cuif-Sjostrand, Thierry Schuhler, Dominique Orhon, Assaad Zoughaib

Abstract:

The exhaust gas recirculation, EGR, implementation on gas turbines is increasingly gaining the attention of many researchers. This emerging technology presents many advantages, such as lowering the NOx emissions and facilitating post-combustion carbon capture as the carbon dioxide concentration in the cycle increases. As interesting as this technology may seem, the gas turbine, or its thermodynamic equivalent, the Brayton cycle, shows an intrinsic efficiency decrease with increasing EGR rate. In this paper, a thermodynamic model is presented to show the cycle efficiency decrease with EGR, alternative values of design parameters of both the pressure ratio (PR) and the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) are then proposed to optimize the cycle efficiency with different EGR rates. Results show that depending on the given EGR rate, both the design PR & TIT should be increased to compensate for the deficit in efficiency.

Keywords: gas turbines, exhaust gas recirculation, design parameters optimization, thermodynamic approach

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1019 Combustion Improvements by C4/C5 Bio-Alcohol Isomer Blended Fuels Combined with Supercharging and EGR in a Diesel Engine

Authors: Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Enkhjargal Tserenochir, Eiji Kinoshita, Takeshi Otaka

Abstract:

Next generation bio-alcohols produced from non-food based sources like cellulosic biomass are promising renewable energy sources. The present study investigates engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by four kinds of next generation bio-alcohol isomer and diesel fuel blends with a constant blending ratio of 3:7 (mass). The tested bio-alcohol isomers here are n-butanol and iso-butanol (C4 alcohol), and n-pentanol and iso-pentanol (C5 alcohol). To obtain simultaneous reductions in NOx and smoke emissions, the experiments employed supercharging combined with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The boost pressures were fixed at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated operation) and 120 kPa (supercharged operation) provided with a roots blower type supercharger. The EGR rates were varied from 0 to 25% using a cooled EGR technique. The results showed that both with and without supercharging, all the bio-alcohol blended diesel fuels improved the trade-off relation between NOx and smoke emissions at all EGR rates while maintaining good engine performance, when compared with diesel fuel operation. It was also found that regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the ignition delays of the tested bio-alcohol isomer blends are in the order of iso-butanol > n-butanol > iso-pentanol > n-pentanol. Overall, it was concluded that, except for the changes in the ignition delays the influence of bio-alcohol isomer blends on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions are relatively small.

Keywords: alternative fuel, butanol, diesel engine, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), next generation bio-alcohol isomer blended fuel, pentanol, supercharging

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1018 Research on Steam Injection Technology of Extended Range Engine Cylinder for Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Zhiyuan Jia, Xiuxiu Sun, Yong Chen, Liu Hai, Shuangqing Li

Abstract:

The engine cooling water and exhaust gas contain a large amount of available energy. In order to improve energy efficiency, a steam injection technology based on waste heat recovery is proposed. The models of cooling water waste heat utilization, exhaust gas waste heat utilization, and exhaust gas-cooling water waste heat utilization were constructed, and the effects of the three modes on the performance of steam injection were analyzed, and then the feasibility of in-cylinder water injection steam technology based on waste heat recovery was verified. The research results show that when the injection water flow rate is 0.10 kg/s and the temperature is 298 K, at a cooling water temperature of 363 K, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the cooling water can reach 314.5 K; at an exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and an exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the exhaust gas can reach 430 K; Under the condition of cooling water temperature of 363 K, exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, after cooling water and exhaust gas heating, the maximum temperature of the injection water can reach 463 K. When the engine is 1200 rpm, the water injection volume is 30 mg, and the water injection time is 36°CA, the engine power increases by 2% and the fuel consumption is reduced by 2.6%.

Keywords: cooling water, exhaust gas, extended range engine, steam injection, waste heat recovery

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1017 Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions on Multi-Cylinder Turbo-Charged Diesel Engine Operated with B5 Biodiesel Blend

Authors: Pradip Lingfa, L. M. Das, S. N. Naik

Abstract:

In the last three decades the world has been confronting an energy crisis caused by the decreased of fossil resources, and increased of environmental problems. This situation resulted in a search for an alternative fuel. Non-edible vegetable oils are promising sources for producing liquid fuels. In the present experimental investigation, the engine tests were carried out for performance and exhaust emissions on 2.5 L Turbo-charged diesel engine fuelled with 5% biodiesel blend obtained from non-edible vegetable oils such as Jatropha, Karanja, and Castor Seeds. The engine tests were carried out at full throttle position with various engine speeds of 1500, 1750, 2000, 2250, 2750 and 3000 rpm respectively. After test, it was observed that 5% Jatropha biodiesel blend have highest brake power of 46.65 kW and less brake specific fuel consumptions of 225.8 kg/kW-hr compared to other two biodiesel blends of brake power of 45.99 kW, 45.81 kW and brake specific fuel consumption of 234.34, 236.55 kg/kW-hr respectively. The brake specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blends increase at increasing speeds for all biodiesel blends. NOx emissions for biodiesel blends were observed to be higher compared to diesel fuel during the entire range of engine operations. The emission characteristics like CO, HC and smoke were lowered at all engine speed conditions compared to diesel fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel blend, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, emission, performance

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1016 Investigating the Effects of Cylinder Disablement on Diesel Engine Fuel Economy and Exhaust Temperature Management

Authors: Hasan Ustun Basaran

Abstract:

Diesel engines are widely used in transportation sector due to their high thermal efficiency. However, they also release high rates of NOₓ and PM (particulate matter) emissions into the environment which have hazardous effects on human health. Therefore, environmental protection agencies have issued strict emission regulations on automotive diesel engines. Recently, these regulations are even increasingly strengthened. Engine producers search novel on-engine methods such as advanced combustion techniques, utilization of renewable fuels, exhaust gas recirculation, advanced fuel injection methods or use exhaust after-treatment (EAT) systems in order to reduce emission rates on diesel engines. Although those aforementioned on-engine methods are effective to curb emission rates, they result in inefficiency or cannot decrease emission rates satisfactorily at all operating conditions. Therefore, engine manufacturers apply both on-engine techniques and EAT systems to meet the stringent emission norms. EAT systems are highly effective to diminish emission rates, however, they perform inefficiently at low loads due to low exhaust gas temperatures (below 250°C). Therefore, the objective of this study is to demonstrate that engine-out temperatures can be elevated above 250°C at low-loaded cases via cylinder disablement. The engine studied and modeled via Lotus Engine Simulation (LES) software is a six-cylinder turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. Exhaust temperatures and mass flow rates are predicted at 1200 rpm engine speed and several low loaded conditions using LES program. It is seen that cylinder deactivation results in a considerable exhaust temperature rise (up to 100°C) at low loads which ensures effective EAT management. The method also improves fuel efficiency through reduced total pumping loss. Decreased total air induction due to inactive cylinders is thought to be responsible for improved engine pumping loss. The technique reduces exhaust gas flow rate as air flow is cut off on disabled cylinders. Still, heat transfer rates to the after-treatment catalyst bed do not decrease that much since exhaust temperatures are increased sufficiently. Simulation results are promising; however, further experimental studies are needed to identify the true potential of the method on fuel consumption and EAT improvement.

Keywords: cylinder disablement, diesel engines, exhaust after-treatment, exhaust temperature, fuel efficiency

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1015 Characterization and Effect of Using Pumpkin Seeds Oil Methyl Ester (PSME) as Fuel in a LHR Diesel Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar, Hakan Gul, Ugur Ozturk

Abstract:

In order to decrease the hazardous emissions of the internal combustion engines and to improve the combustion and thermal efficiency, thermal barrier coatings are applied. In this experimental study, cylinder, piston, exhaust, and inlet valves which are combustion chamber components have been coated with a ceramic material, and this earned the engine LHR feature. Cylinder, exhaust and inlet valves of the diesel engine used in the tests were coated with ekabor-2 commercial powder, which is a ceramic material, to a thickness of 50 µm, by using the boriding method. The piston of a diesel engine was coated in 300 µm thickness with bor-based powder by using plasma coating method. Pumpkin seeds oil methyl ester (PSME) was produced by the transesterification method. In addition, dimethoxymethane additive materials were used to improve the properties of diesel fuel, pumpkin seeds oil methyl ester (PSME) and its mixture. Dimethoxymethane was blended with test fuels, which was used as a pilot fuel, at the volumetric ratios of 4% and 8%. Due to thermal barrier coating, the diesel engine's CO, HC, and smoke density values decreased; but, NOx and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) increased.

Keywords: boriding, diesel engine, exhaust emission, thermal barrier coating

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1014 Effect of Injector Installation Angle on the Thermal Behaviors of UWS in a Diesel SCR Catalytic Muffler Systems

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

To reduce the NOx emission in a Diesel vehicle, such various after treatment systems as SCR, LNC, and LNT are frequently visited as promising systems. Among others, urea-based SCR systems are known to be stable, effective technologies that can reduce NOx emissions most efficiently from diesel exhaust systems. In this study, therefore, effect of urea injector installation angle on the evaporation and mixing characteristics is investigated to find optimum operation conditions. It can be found that the injection angle significantly affects the thermal behavior of the urea-water solution in the diesel exhaust gases.

Keywords: selective catalytic reduction (SCR), evaporation, thermolysis, urea-water solution (UWS), injector installation angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
1013 Application of Exhaust Gas-Air Brake System in Petrol and Diesel Engine

Authors: Gurlal Singh, Rupinder Singh

Abstract:

The possible role of the engine brake is to convert a power-producing engine into a power-absorbing retarding mechanism. In this braking system, exhaust gas (EG) from the internal combustion (IC) engines is used to operate air brake in the automobiles. Airbrake is most used braking system in vehicles. In the proposed model, instead of air brake, EG is used to operate the brake lever and stored in a specially designed tank. This pressure of EG is used to operate the pneumatic cylinder and brake lever. Filters used to remove the impurities from the EG, then it is allowed to store in the tank. Pressure relief valve is used to achieve a specific pressure in the tank and helps to avoid further damage to the tank as well as in an engine. The petrol engine is used in the proposed EG braking system. The petrol engine is chosen initially because it produces less impurity in the exhaust than diesel engines. Moreover, exhaust brake system (EBS) for the Diesel engines is composed of gate valve, pneumatic cylinder and exhaust brake valve with the on-off solenoid. Exhaust brake valve which is core component of EBS should have characteristics such as high reliability and long life. In a diesel engine, there is butterfly valve in exhaust manifold connected with solenoid switch which is used to on and off the butterfly valve. When butterfly valve closed partially, then the pressure starts built up inside the exhaust manifold and cylinder that actually resist the movement of piston leads to crankshaft getting stops resulting stopping of the flywheel. It creates breaking effect in a diesel engine. The exhaust brake is a supplementary breaking system to the service brake. It is noted that exhaust brake increased 2-3 fold the life of service brake may be due to the creation of negative torque which retards the speed of the engine. More study may also be warranted for the best suitable design of exhaust brake in a diesel engine.

Keywords: exhaust gas, automobiles, solenoid, airbrake

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
1012 The Using of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) on a Low Heat Loss Si Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar, Hakan Gul

Abstract:

In this study, Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) application is performed in order to reduce the engine emissions. Piston, exhaust, and intake valves of a single-cylinder four-cycle gasoline engine were coated with chromium carbide (Cr3C2) at a thickness of 300 µm by using the Plasma Spray coating method which is a TBC method. Gasoline engine was converted into an LPG system. The study was conducted in 4 stages. In the first stage, the piston, exhaust, and intake valves of the gasoline engine were coated with Cr3C2. In the second stage, gasoline engine was converted into the LPG system and the emission values in this engine were recorded. In the third stage, the experiments were repeated under the same conditions with a standard (uncoated) engine and the results were recorded. In the fourth stage, data obtained from both engines were loaded on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and estimated values were produced for every revolution. Thus, mathematical modeling of coated and uncoated engines was performed by using ANN. While there was a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature (EGT) of LPG engine due to TBC, carbon monoxide (CO) values decreased.

Keywords: LPG fuel, thermal barrier coating, artificial neural network, mathematical modelling

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1011 Modelling of Lunar Lander’s Thruster’s Exhaust Plume Impingement in Vacuum

Authors: Mrigank Sahai, R. Sri Raghu

Abstract:

This paper presents the modelling of rocket exhaust plume flow field and exhaust plume impingement in vacuum for the liquid apogee engine and attitude control thrusters of the lunar lander. Analytic formulations for rarefied gas kinetics has been taken as reference for modelling the plume flow field. The plume has been modelled as high speed, collision-less, axi-symmetric gas jet, expanding into vacuum and impinging at a normally set diffusive circular plate. Specular reflections have not been considered for the present study. Different parameters such as number density, temperature, pressure, flow velocity, heat flux etc., have been calculated and have been plotted against and compared to Direct Simulation Monte Carlo results. These analyses have provided important information for the placement of critical optical instruments and design of optimal thermal insulation for the hardware that may come in contact with the thruster exhaust.

Keywords: collision-less gas, lunar lander, plume impingement, rarefied exhaust plume

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1010 Environmental and Economic Analysis of Absorption Air Conditioning Unit Onboard Marine Vehicles: Case Study of Passenger Vessel

Authors: Ibrahim S. Seddiek, Nader R. Ammar

Abstract:

One of the most important equipment that affects the performance of passenger ships is the air conditioning system, which in turn consumes considerable electric loads. In this paper, the waste heat energies of exhaust gases and jacket cooling water of marine diesel engines for these ships are analyzed to be used as heat sources for absorption refrigeration unit (ARU). Economic and environmental analysis of the absorption refrigeration cycle operated with the two heat sources that use lithium bromide as absorbent is carried out. In addition, environmental and economic analysis for the absorption cycle is performed. As a case study, high-speed passenger vessel operating in the Red Sea area has been investigated. The results show that a considerable specific economic benefit could be achieved in case of applying absorption air condition that operates by water cooling system over that operates by main engine exhaust gases. Environmentally, applying ARU machine during cruise will reduce total ship’s fuel consumption by about 104 ton per year. This will result in reducing NOₓ, SOₓ, and CO₂ emissions with cost-effectiveness of 6.99 $/kg, 18.44 $/kg, and 0.117 $/kg, respectively.

Keywords: ship emissions, IMO, lithium bromide-water ARU, analysis, thermodynamic, economic and environmental analysis

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1009 Real-World PM, PN and NOx Emission Differences among DOC+CDPF Retrofit Diesel-, Diesel- And Natural Gas-Fueled Bus

Authors: Zhiwen Yang, Jingyuan Li, Zhenkai Xie, Jian Ling, Jiguang Wang, Mengliang Li

Abstract:

To reflect the effects of different emission control strategies, such as retrofitting after-treatment system and replacing with natural gas-fueled vehicles, on particle number (PN), particle mass (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions emitted by urban bus, a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was employed herein to conduct real-world driving emission measurements on a diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC) and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) retrofitting China IV diesel bus, a China IV diesel bus, and a China V natural gas bus. The results show that both tested diesel buses possess markedly advantages in NOx emission control when compared to the lean-burn natural gas bus equipped without any NOx after-treatment system. As to PN and PM, only the DOC+CDPF retrofitting diesel bus exhibits enormous benefits on emission control relate to the natural gas bus, especially the normal diesel bus. Meanwhile, the differences in PM and PN emissions between retrofitted and normal diesel buses generally increase with the increase in vehicle-specific power (VSP). Furthermore, the differences in PM emissions, especially those in the higher VSP ranges, are more significant than those in PN. In addition, the maximum peak PN particle size (32 nm) of the retrofitted diesel bus was significantly lower than that of the normal diesel bus (100 nm). These phenomena indicate that the CDPF retrofitting can effectively reduce diesel bus exhaust particle emissions, especially those with large particle sizes.

Keywords: CDPF, diesel, natural gas, real-world emissions

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