Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: automobiles

63 Impact Analysis of Transportation Modal Shift on Regional Energy Consumption and Environmental Level: Focused on Electric Automobiles

Authors: Hong Bae Kim, Chang Ho Hur

Abstract:

Many governments have tried to reduce CO2 emissions which are believed to be the main cause for global warming. The deployment of electric automobiles is regarded as an effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. The Korean government has planned to deploy about 200,000 electric automobiles. The policy for the deployment of electric automobiles aims at not only decreasing gasoline consumption but also increasing electricity production. However, if an electricity consuming regions is not consistent with an electricity producing region, the policy generates environmental problems between regions. Hence, this paper has established the energy multi-region input-output model to specifically analyze the impacts of the deployment of electric automobiles on regional energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Finally, the paper suggests policy directions regarding the deployment of electric automobiles.

Keywords: electric automobiles, CO2 emissions, regional imbalances in electricity production and consumption, energy multi-region input-output model

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62 Simulation of Communication and Sensing Device in Automobiles Using VHDL

Authors: Anirudh Bhaikhel

Abstract:

The exclusive objective of this paper is to develop a device which can pass on the interpreted result of the sensed information to the interfaced communicable devices to avoid or minimise accidents. This device may also be used in case of emergencies like kidnapping, robberies, medical emergencies etc. The present era has seen a rapid metamorphosis in the automobile industry with increasing use of technology and speed. The increase in purchasing power of customers and price war of automobile companies has made an easy access to the automobile users. The use of automobiles has increased tremendously in last 4-5 years thus causing traffic congestions and thus making vehicles more prone to accidents. This device can be an effective measure to counteract cases of abduction. Risks of accidents can be decreased tremendously through the notifications received by these alerts. It will help to detect the upcoming emergencies. This paper includes the simulation of the communication and sensing device required in automobiles using VHDL.

Keywords: automobiles, communication, component, cyclic redundancy check (CRC), modulo-2 arithmetic, parity bits, receiver, sensors, transmitter, turns, VHDL (VHSIC hardware descriptive language)

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
61 A Case Study for User Rating Prediction on Automobile Recommendation System Using Mapreduce

Authors: Jiao Sun, Li Pan, Shijun Liu

Abstract:

Recommender systems have been widely used in contemporary industry, and plenty of work has been done in this field to help users to identify items of interest. Collaborative Filtering (CF, for short) algorithm is an important technology in recommender systems. However, less work has been done in automobile recommendation system with the sharp increase of the amount of automobiles. What’s more, the computational speed is a major weakness for collaborative filtering technology. Therefore, using MapReduce framework to optimize the CF algorithm is a vital solution to this performance problem. In this paper, we present a recommendation of the users’ comment on industrial automobiles with various properties based on real world industrial datasets of user-automobile comment data collection, and provide recommendation for automobile providers and help them predict users’ comment on automobiles with new-coming property. Firstly, we solve the sparseness of matrix using previous construction of score matrix. Secondly, we solve the data normalization problem by removing dimensional effects from the raw data of automobiles, where different dimensions of automobile properties bring great error to the calculation of CF. Finally, we use the MapReduce framework to optimize the CF algorithm, and the computational speed has been improved times. UV decomposition used in this paper is an often used matrix factorization technology in CF algorithm, without calculating the interpolation weight of neighbors, which will be more convenient in industry.

Keywords: collaborative filtering, recommendation, data normalization, mapreduce

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60 A Framework for Supply Chain Efficiency Evaluation of Mass Customized Automobiles

Authors: Arshia Khan, Hans-Dietrich Haasis

Abstract:

Different tools of the supply chain should be managed very efficiently in mass customization. In the automobile industry, there are different strategies to manage these tools. We need to investigate which strategies among the different ones are successful and which are not. There is lack in literature regarding such analysis. Keeping this in view, the purpose of this paper is to construct a framework and model which can help to analyze the supply chain of mass customized automobiles quantitatively for future studies. Furthermore, we will also consider that which type of data can be used for the suggested model and where it can be taken from. Such framework can help to bring insight for future analysis.

Keywords: mass customization, supply chain, inventory, distribution, automobile industry

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59 Implementation of ISO 26262: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Won Jung, Azianti Ismail

Abstract:

Functional safety is about electrical, electronics, and programmable electronic safety-related system focuses on the potential risk of malfunction which may have a significant impact on the safety of humans and/or the environment based on IEC 61508. In November 2011, the automotive industry has been introduced to automotive functional safety ISO 26262 which addresses the complete safety installation from sensor to actuator with its technical as well as management issues. Nowadays, most of the modern automobiles are equipped with embedded electronic systems which include many Electronic Controller Units (ECUs), electronic sensors, signals, bus systems and coding. Due to upcoming more sophisticated systems installed in automobiles, the need to carry out detailed safety is very crucial. Assimilation of existing practices with this new standard is a major challenge for the automotive industry in reducing redundancy, time and resources. Therefore, this paper will analyze the research trends on pre and post introduction of ISO 26262 through publications as well as to take a glimpse in the activities for implementing this standard by the automotive manufacturers around the world. It is going to highlight issues and challenges which have been discussed among the experts in this field. Even though it will take some time for this standard to be fully implemented, the benefits from this implementation will raise the competitiveness in the global automotive market.

Keywords: ISO 26262, automotive, functional safety, implementation, standard, challenges

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58 Heat Forging Analysis Method on Blank Consist of Two Metals

Authors: Takashi Ueda, Shinichi Enoki

Abstract:

Forging parts is used to automobiles. Because they have high strength and it is possible to press them into complicated shape. When it is possible to manufacture hollow forging parts, it leads to reduce weight of the automobiles. But, hollow forging parts are confined to axisymmetrical shape. Hollow forging parts that were pressed to complicated shape are expected. Therefore, we forge a blank that aluminum alloy was inserted in stainless steel. After that, we can provide complex forging parts that are reduced weight, if it is possible to be melted the aluminum alloy away by using different of melting points. It is necessary to establish heat forging analysis method on blank consist of stainless steel and aluminum alloy. Because, this forging is different from conventional forging and this technology is not confirmed. In this study, we compared forging experiment with numerical analysis on the view point of forming load and shape after forming and establish how to set the material temperatures of two metals and material property of stainless steel on the analysis method. Consequently, temperature difference of stainless steel and aluminum alloy was obtained by experiment. We got material property of stainless steel on forging experimental by compression tests. We had compared numerical analysis that was used the temperature difference of two metals and the material property of stainless steel on forging experimental with forging experiment. Forging analysis method on blank consist of two metals was established by result of numerical analysis having agreed with result of forging experiment.

Keywords: forging, lightweight, analysis, hollow

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57 Application of Exhaust Gas-Air Brake System in Petrol and Diesel Engine

Authors: Gurlal Singh, Rupinder Singh

Abstract:

The possible role of the engine brake is to convert a power-producing engine into a power-absorbing retarding mechanism. In this braking system, exhaust gas (EG) from the internal combustion (IC) engines is used to operate air brake in the automobiles. Airbrake is most used braking system in vehicles. In the proposed model, instead of air brake, EG is used to operate the brake lever and stored in a specially designed tank. This pressure of EG is used to operate the pneumatic cylinder and brake lever. Filters used to remove the impurities from the EG, then it is allowed to store in the tank. Pressure relief valve is used to achieve a specific pressure in the tank and helps to avoid further damage to the tank as well as in an engine. The petrol engine is used in the proposed EG braking system. The petrol engine is chosen initially because it produces less impurity in the exhaust than diesel engines. Moreover, exhaust brake system (EBS) for the Diesel engines is composed of gate valve, pneumatic cylinder and exhaust brake valve with the on-off solenoid. Exhaust brake valve which is core component of EBS should have characteristics such as high reliability and long life. In a diesel engine, there is butterfly valve in exhaust manifold connected with solenoid switch which is used to on and off the butterfly valve. When butterfly valve closed partially, then the pressure starts built up inside the exhaust manifold and cylinder that actually resist the movement of piston leads to crankshaft getting stops resulting stopping of the flywheel. It creates breaking effect in a diesel engine. The exhaust brake is a supplementary breaking system to the service brake. It is noted that exhaust brake increased 2-3 fold the life of service brake may be due to the creation of negative torque which retards the speed of the engine. More study may also be warranted for the best suitable design of exhaust brake in a diesel engine.

Keywords: exhaust gas, automobiles, solenoid, airbrake

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56 Analysis and Design of Inductive Power Transfer Systems for Automotive Battery Charging Applications

Authors: Wahab Ali Shah, Junjia He

Abstract:

Transferring electrical power without any wiring has been a dream since late 19th century. There were some advances in this area as to know more about microwave systems. However, this subject has recently become very attractive due to their practiScal systems. There are low power applications such as charging the batteries of contactless tooth brushes or implanted devices, and higher power applications such as charging the batteries of electrical automobiles or buses. In the first group of applications operating frequencies are in microwave range while the frequency is lower in high power applications. In the latter, the concept is also called inductive power transfer. The aim of the paper is to have an overview of the inductive power transfer for electrical vehicles with a special concentration on coil design and power converter simulation for static charging. Coil design is very important for an efficient and safe power transfer. Coil design is one of the most critical tasks. Power converters are used in both side of the system. The converter on the primary side is used to generate a high frequency voltage to excite the primary coil. The purpose of the converter in the secondary is to rectify the voltage transferred from the primary to charge the battery. In this paper, an inductive power transfer system is studied. Inductive power transfer is a promising technology with several possible applications. Operation principles of these systems are explained, and components of the system are described. Finally, a single phase 2 kW system was simulated and results were presented. The work presented in this paper is just an introduction to the concept. A reformed compensation network based on traditional inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) topology is proposed to realize robust reaction to large coupling variation that is common in dynamic wireless charging application. In the future, this type compensation should be studied. Also, comparison of different compensation topologies should be done for the same power level.

Keywords: coil design, contactless charging, electrical automobiles, inductive power transfer, operating frequency

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55 Analysis of Brake System for Vehicle Off-Road

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

Abstract:

In elapsing of the years it elaborates automobile it is developing automobiles more and more modern that, every year, the vehicles recently of the assembly lines, practically they push for the past produced models there is very little time. Those innovations didn't also pass unperceived in 0respect the safety of the vehicles. It is in this development apprenticeship the brakes systems equipped more and more with resources sophisticated. In that way, before of that context, this research tried to project a brake system for a vehicle off-road and to analyze your acting as the brakes efficiency: distances traveled and time, concluding with possible improvements in the system.

Keywords: brakes system, off-road, vehicle acting, automotive and mechanical engineering

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54 A Review on the Outlook of the Circular Economy in the Automotive Industry

Authors: A. Buruzs, A. Torma

Abstract:

The relationship of the automotive industry with raw material supply is a major challenge and presents obstacles. Automobiles are ones of the most complex products using a large variety of materials. Safety, eco-friendliness and comfort requirements, physical, chemical and economic limitations set the framework in which this industry continuously optimizes the efficient and responsible use of resources. The concept of circular economy covers the issues of waste generation, resource scarcity and economic advantages. However, circularity is already known for the automobile industry – several efforts are done to foster material reuse, product remanufacturing and recycling. The aim of this study is to give an overview on how the producers comply with the growing demands on one hand, and gain efficiency and increase profitability on the other hand from circular economy.

Keywords: automotive industry, circular economy, international requirements, natural resources

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53 A Proposal of Local Indentation Techniques for Mechanical Property Evaluation

Authors: G. B. Lim, C. H. Jeon, K. H. Jung

Abstract:

General light metal alloys are often developed in the material of transportation equipment such as automobiles and aircraft. Among the light metal alloys, magnesium is the lightest structural material with superior specific strength and many attractive physical and mechanical properties. However, magnesium alloys were difficult to obtain the mechanical properties at warm temperature. The aims of present work were to establish an analytical relation between mechanical properties and plastic flow induced by local indentation. An experimental investigation of the local strain distribution was carried out using a specially designed local indentation equipment in conjunction with ARAMIS based on digital image correlation method.

Keywords: indentation, magnesium, mechanical property, lightweight material, ARAMIS

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52 Aerodynamic Analysis of Vehicles in the Wind Tunnel and Water Tunnel

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

The simulation in wind tunnel is used thoroughly to model real situations of drainages of air. Besides the automotive industry, a great number of applications can be numbered: dispersion of pollutant, studies of pedestrians comfort and dispersion of particles. This work had the objective of visualizing the characteristics aerodynamics of two automobiles in different ways. To accomplish that drainage of air a fan that generated a speed exists (measured with anemometer of hot thread) of 4,1m/s and 4,95m/s. To visualize the path of the air through the cars, in the wind tunnel, smoke was used, obtained with it burns of vegetable oil. For “to do smoke” vegetable oil was used, that was burned for a tension of 20 V generated by a thread of 2,5 mm. The cars were placed inside of the wind tunnel with the drainage of “air-smoke” and photographed, registering like this the path lines around them, in the 3 different speeds.

Keywords: aerodynamics, vehicle drag, vegetable oil, wind tunnel

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51 Pedestrian Safe Bumper Design from Commingled Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Reinforced Sandwich Composites

Authors: L. Onal

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to optimize manufacturing process for thermoplastic sandwich composite structures for the pedestrian safety of automobiles subjected to collision condition. In particular, cost-effective manufacturing techniques for sandwich structures with commingled GF/PP skins and low-density foam cores are being investigated. The performance of these structures under bending load is being studied. Samples are manufactured using compression moulding technique. The relationship of this performance to processing parameters such as mould temperature, moulding time, moulding pressure and sequence of the layers during moulding is being investigated. The results of bending tests are discussed in the light of the moulding conditions and conclusions are given regarding optimum set of processing conditions using the compression moulding route

Keywords: twintex, flexural properties, automobile composites, sandwich structures

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50 Highly Sensitive, Low-Cost Oxygen Gas Sensor Based on ZnO Nanoparticles

Authors: Xin Chang, Daping Chu

Abstract:

Oxygen gas sensing technology has progressed since the last century and it has been extensively used in a wide range of applications such as controlling the combustion process by sensing the oxygen level in the exhaust gas of automobiles to ensure the catalytic converter is in a good working condition. Similar sensors are also used in industrial boilers to make the combustion process economic and environmentally friendly. Different gas sensing mechanisms have been developed: ceramic-based potentiometric equilibrium sensors and semiconductor-based sensors by oxygen absorption. In this work, we present a highly sensitive and low-cost oxygen gas sensor based on Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (average particle size of 35nm) dispersion in ethanol. The sensor is able to measure the pressure range from 103 mBar to 10-5 mBar with a sensitivity of more than 102 mA/Bar. The sensor is also erasable with heat.

Keywords: nanoparticles, oxygen, sensor, ZnO

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49 Electronically Controlled Motorized Steering System (E-Mo Steer)

Authors: M. Prasanth, V. Nithin, R. Keerthana, S.Kalyani

Abstract:

In the current scenario, the steering system in automobiles is such that the motion from the steering wheel is transferred to driving wheel by mechanical linkages. In this paper, we propose a method to design a steering mechanism using servomotors to turn the wheels instead of linkages. In this method, a steering angle sensor senses the turn angle of the steering wheel and its output is processed by an electronical control module. Then the ECM compares the angle value to that of a standard value from a look-up database. Then it gives the appropriate input power and the turning duration to the motors. Correspondingly, the motors turn the wheels by means of bevel gears welded to both the motor output shafts and the wheel hubs. Thus, the wheels are turned without the complicated framework of linkages, reducing the driver’s effort and fatigue considerably.

Keywords: electronic control unit, linkage-less steering, servomotors, E-Mo Steer

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48 High Thermal Selective Detection of NOₓ Using High Electron Mobility Transistor Based on Gallium Nitride

Authors: Hassane Ouazzani Chahdi, Omar Helli, Bourzgui Nour Eddine, Hassan Maher, Ali Soltani

Abstract:

The real-time knowledge of the NO, NO₂ concentration at high temperature, would allow manufacturers of automobiles to meet the upcoming stringent EURO7 anti-pollution measures for diesel engines. Knowledge of the concentration of each of these species will also enable engines to run leaner (i.e., more fuel efficient) while still meeting the anti-pollution requirements. Our proposed technology is promising in the field of automotive sensors. It consists of nanostructured semiconductors based on gallium nitride and zirconia dioxide. The development of new technologies for selective detection of NO and NO₂ gas species would be a critical enabler of superior depollution. The current response was well correlated to the NO concentration in the range of 0–2000 ppm, 0-2500 ppm NO₂, and 0-300 ppm NH₃ at a temperature of 600.

Keywords: NOₓ sensors, HEMT transistor, anti-pollution, gallium nitride, gas sensor

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47 Failure Analysis of Windshield Glass of Automobiles

Authors: Bhupinder Kaur, O. P. Pandey

Abstract:

An automobile industry is using variety of materials for better comfort and utility. The present work describes the details of failure analysis done for windshield glass of a four-wheeler class. The failure occurred in two different models of the heavy duty class of four wheelers, which analysed separately. The company reported that the failure has occurred only in their rear windshield when vehicles parked under shade for several days. These glasses were characterised by dilatometer, differential thermal analyzer, and X-ray diffraction. The glasses were further investigated under scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray dot mapping. The microstructural analysis of the glasses done at the surface as well as at the fractured area indicates that carbon as an impurity got segregated as banded structure throughout the glass. Since carbon absorbs higher heat, it causes thermal mismatch to the entire glass system, and glass shattered down. In this work, the details of sequential analysis done to predict the cause of failure are present.

Keywords: failure, windshield, thermal mismatch, carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
46 Theoretical Investigation of Thermal Properties of Nanofluids with Application to Solar Collector

Authors: Reema Jain

Abstract:

Nanofluids are emergent fluids that exhibit thermal properties superior than that of the conventional fluid. Nanofluids are suspensions of nanoparticles in fluids that show significant enhancement of their properties at modest nanoparticle concentrations. Solar collectors are commonly used in areas such as industries, heating, and cooling for domestic purpose, thermal power plants, solar cooker, automobiles, etc. Performance and efficiency of solar collectors depend upon various factors like collector & receiver material, solar radiation intensity, nature of working fluid, etc. The properties of working fluid which flow through the collectors greatly affects its performance. In this research work, a theoretical effort has been made to enhance the efficiency and improve the performance of solar collector by using Nano fluids instead of conventional fluid like water as working fluid.

Keywords: nanofluids, nanoparticles, heat transfer, solar collector

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45 A Review of Magnesium Air Battery Systems: From Design Aspects to Performance Characteristics

Authors: R. Sharma, J. K. Bhatnagar, Poonam, R. C. Sharma

Abstract:

Metal–air batteries have been designed and developed as an essential source of electric power to propel automobiles, make electronic equipment functional, and use them as the source of power in remote areas and space. High energy and power density, lightweight, easy recharge capabilities, and low cost are essential features of these batteries. Both primary and rechargeable magnesium air batteries are highly promising. Our focus will be on the basics of electrode reaction kinetics of Mg–air cell in this paper. Design and development of Mg or Mg alloys as anode materials, design and composition of air cathode, and promising electrolytes for Mg–air batteries have been reviewed. A brief note on the possible and proposed improvements in design and functionality is also incorporated. This article may serve as the primary and premier document in the critical research area of Mg-air battery systems.

Keywords: air cathode, battery design, magnesium air battery, magnesium anode, rechargeable magnesium air battery

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
44 Mixed Model Sequencing in Painting Production Line

Authors: Unchalee Inkampa, Tuanjai Somboonwiwat

Abstract:

Painting process of automobiles and automobile parts, which is a continuous process based on EDP (Electrode position paint, EDP). Through EDP, all work pieces will be continuously sent to the painting process. Work process can be divided into 2 groups based on the running time: Painting Room 1 and Painting Room 2. This leads to continuous operation. The problem that arises is waiting for workloads onto Painting Room. The grading process EDP to Painting Room is a major problem. Therefore, this paper aim to develop production sequencing method by applying EDP to painting process. It also applied fixed rate launching for painting room and earliest due date (EDD) for EDP process and swap pairwise interchange for waiting time to a minimum of machine. The result found that the developed method could improve painting reduced waiting time, on time delivery, meeting customers wants and improved productivity of painting unit.

Keywords: sequencing, mixed model lines, painting process, electrode position paint

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43 Design and Simulation of Step Structure RF MEMS Switch for K Band Applications

Authors: G. K. S. Prakash, Rao K. Srinivasa

Abstract:

MEMS plays an important role in wide range of applications like biological, automobiles, military and communication engineering. This paper mainly investigates on capacitive shunt RF MEMS switch with low actuation voltage and low insertion losses. To trim the pull-in voltage, a step structure has introduced to trim air gap between the beam and the dielectric layer with that pull in voltage is trim to 2.9 V. The switching time of the proposed switch is 39.1μs, and capacitance ratio is 67. To get more isolation, we have used aluminum nitride as dielectric material instead of silicon nitride (Si₃N₄) and silicon dioxide (SiO₂) because aluminum nitride has high dielectric constant (εᵣ = 9.5) increases the OFF capacitance and eventually increases the isolation of the switch. The results show that the switch is ON state involves return loss (S₁₁) less than -25 dB up to 40 GHz and insertion loss (S₂₁) is more than -1 dB up to 35 GHz. In OFF state switch shows maximum isolation (S₂₁) of -38 dB occurs at a frequency of 25-27 GHz for K band applications.

Keywords: RF MEMS, actuation voltage, isolation loss, switches

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42 Effect of Compressibility of Brake Friction Materials on Vibration Occurrence

Authors: Mostafa Makrahy, Nouby Ghazaly, Ahmad Moaaz

Abstract:

Brakes are one of the most important safety and performance components in automobiles and airplanes. Development of brakes has mainly focused on increasing braking power and stability. Nowadays, brake noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) together with brake dust emission and pad life are very important to vehicle drivers. The main objective of this research is to define the relationship between compressibility of friction materials and their tendency to generate vibration. An experimental study of the friction-induced vibration obtained by the disc brake system of a passenger car is conducted. Three commercial brake pad materials from different manufacturers are tested and evaluated under various brake conditions against cast iron disc brake. First of all, compressibility test for the brake friction material are measured for each pad. Then, brake dynamometer is used to simulate and reproduce actual vehicle braking conditions. Finally, a comparison between the three pad specimens is conducted. The results showed that compressibility have a very significant effect on reduction the vibration occurrence.

Keywords: automotive brake, friction material, brake dynamometer, compressibility test

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41 A Review on Enhancing Heat Transfer Processes by Open-Cell Metal Foams and Industrial Applications

Authors: S. Cheragh Dar, M. Saljooghi, A. Babrgir

Abstract:

In the last couple of decades researchers' attitudes were focused on developing and enhancing heat transfer processes by using new components or cellular solids that divide into stochastic structures and periodic structures. Open-cell metal foams are part of stochastic structures families that they can be considered as an avant-garde technology and they have unique properties, this porous media can have tremendous achievements in thermal processes. This paper argues and surveys postulating possible in industrial thermal issues which include: compact electronic cooling, heat exchanger, aerospace, fines, turbo machinery, automobiles, crygen tanks, biomechanics, high temperature filters and etc. Recently, by surveying exponential rate of publications in thermal open-cell metal foams, all can be demonstrated in a holistic view which can lead researchers to a new level of understanding in different industrial thermal sections.

Keywords: heat transfer, industrial thermal, cellular solids, open cell metal foam

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40 Use of Cobalt Graphene in Place of Platnium in Catalytic Converter

Authors: V. Srinivasan, S. M. Sriram Nandan

Abstract:

Today in the modern world the most important problem faced by the mankind is increasing the pollution in a very high rate. It affects the ecosystem of the environment and also aids to increase the greenhouse effect. The exhaust gases from the automobile is the major cause of a pollution. Automobiles have increased to a large number which has increased the pollution of our world to an alarming rate. There are two methods of controlling the pollution namely, pre-pollution control method and post-pollution control method. This paper is based on controlling the emission by post-pollution control method. The ratio of surface area of nanoparticles to the volume of the nanoparticles is inversely proportional to the radius of the nanoparticles. So decreasing the radius, this ratio is leading resulting in an increased rate of reaction and thus the concentration of the pollution is decreased. To achieve this objective, use of cobalt-graphene element is proposed. The proposed method is mainly to decrease the cost of platinum as it is expensive. This has a longer life than the platinum-based catalysts.

Keywords: automobile emissions, catalytic converter, cobalt-graphene, replacement of platinum

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39 CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility Performance of Indian Automobiles Companies

Authors: Jagbir Singh Kadyan

Abstract:

This research paper critically analyse the performance of those Indian Automobile Companies which are listed and traded on the National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India and which are also included in the NSE nifty auto Index. In India, CSR–Corporate Social Responsibility is mandatory for certain qualifying companies under the Indian Companies Act 2013, which replaces the erstwhile Companies Act 1956. There has been a significant shift in the focus and approaches of the Indian Corporates towards their CSR obligations with the insertion of section 135, revision of section 198 and introduction of schedule VII of the Indian Companies Act 2013. Every such qualifying companies are required to mandatorily spend at least 2% of their annual average net profit of the immediately preceding three financial years on such CSR activities as specified under schedule VII of the Companies act 2013. This research paper analyzes the CSR performance of such Indian companies. This research work is originally based on the secondary data. The annual reports of the selected Indian automobile companies have been extensively used and considered for this research work.

Keywords: board of directors, corporate social responsibility, CSR committees, Indian automobile companies, Indian companies act 2013, national stock exchange

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38 Appearance and Magnitude of Dynamic Pressure in Micro-Scale of Subsonic Airflow around Symmetric Objects

Authors: Shehret Tilvaldyev, Jorge Flores-Garay, Alfredo Villanueva, Erwin Martinez, Lazaro Rico

Abstract:

The efficiency of modern transportation is severely compromised by the prevalence of turbulent drag. The high level of turbulent skin-friction occurring, e.g., on the surface of an aircraft, automobiles or the carriage of a high-speed train, is responsible for excess fuel consumption and increased carbon emissions. The environmental, political, and economic pressure to improve fuel efficiency and reduce carbon emissions associated with transportation means that reducing turbulent skin-friction drag is a pressing engineering problem. The dynamic pressure of subsonic airflow around solid objects creates lift, but also induces drag force. This paper is presenting the results of laboratory experiments, investigating appearance and magnitude of dynamic pressure in micro scale of subsonic air flow around right cylinder and symmetrical airfoil.

Keywords: airflow, dynamic pressure, micro scale, symmetric object

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37 Design and Field Programmable Gate Array Implementation of Radio Frequency Identification for Boosting up Tag Data Processing

Authors: G. Rajeshwari, V. D. M. Jabez Daniel

Abstract:

Radio Frequency Identification systems are used for automated identification in various applications such as automobiles, health care and security. It is also called as the automated data collection technology. RFID readers are placed in any area to scan large number of tags to cover a wide distance. The placement of the RFID elements may result in several types of collisions. A major challenge in RFID system is collision avoidance. In the previous works the collision was avoided by using algorithms such as ALOHA and tree algorithm. This work proposes collision reduction and increased throughput through reading enhancement method with tree algorithm. The reading enhancement is done by improving interrogation procedure and increasing the data handling capacity of RFID reader with parallel processing. The work is simulated using Xilinx ISE 14.5 verilog language. By implementing this in the RFID system, we can able to achieve high throughput and avoid collision in the reader at a same instant of time. The overall system efficiency will be increased by implementing this.

Keywords: antenna, anti-collision protocols, data management system, reader, reading enhancement, tag

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
36 Construction of Wind Tunnel for Aerodynamic

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, José Ubiragi de Lima Mendes

Abstract:

The study of the aerodynamics is related to the improvement in the acting of airplanes and automobiles with the objective of being reduced the effect of the attrition of the air on structures, providing larger speeds and smaller consumption of fuel. The application of the knowledge of the aerodynamics not more limits to the aeronautical and automobile industries. In that way, being tried the new demands with relationship to the aerodynamic study in the most several areas of the engineering, this work presents the stages of the project and construction of a wind tunnel for application in aerodynamic rehearsals. Among the several configurations of existent wind tunnels, opted to build open circuit, due to smaller construction complexity and installation; operational simplicity and cost reduced. Belonging to the type blower, to take advantage of a larger efficiency of the motor; and with diffusion so that flowed him of air it wins speed before reaching the section of rehearsals. The guidelines for project were: didactic practices: study of the layer it limits and analyze of the drainages on proof bodies with different geometries. For the pressure variation in the test section a connected manometer used a pitot tube. Quantitative and qualitative results showed to be satisfactory.

Keywords: wind tunnel, aerodynamics, air, airplane

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35 Influence of Particulate Fractions on Air Quality for Four Major Congested Cities of India over a Period of Four Years from 2006-2009

Authors: I. Mukherjee, J. Ghose, T. Chakraborty, S. Chaudhury, R. Majumder

Abstract:

India is the second most populated nation in the world. With the Indian population hitting the 1.26 billion mark in the year 2014, there has been an unprecedented rise in power and energy requirements throughout the nation. This mammoth demand for energy, both at the industrial as well as at the domestic household level, as well as the increase in the usage of automobiles has led to a corresponding increase in the total tonnage of fuels being burnt every year. This, in turn, has led to an increase in the concentration of atmospheric pollutants over the years with enhanced particulate concentrations being reported for different parts of the country. Considering the adverseness of the particulates, the paper analyses the role of the particulates on the air quality of four major congested cities of the country namely, Kolkata (22034’ N, 88024’ E), Delhi (28038’N , 77012’ E), Bangalore (12058’ N , 77038’E) and Mumbai (18.9750° N, 72.8258° E) over a period of four years from 2006-2009. The fractional contribution of the finer fractions to the coarser one has been considered in the study in addition to the relative occurrences of the particulate fractions with respect to the other gaseous pollutants such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOX).

Keywords: air quality, particulates, yearly variation, relative occurrence, SO2, NOX

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34 An Investigation on Hybrid Composite Drive Shaft for Automotive Industry

Authors: Gizem Arslan Özgen, Kutay Yücetürk, Metin Tanoğlu, Engin Aktaş

Abstract:

Power transmitted from the engine to the final drive where useful work is applied through a system consisting of a gearbox, clutch, drive shaft and a differential in the rear-wheel-drive automobiles. It is well-known that the steel drive shaft is usually manufactured in two pieces to increase the fundamental bending natural frequency to ensure safe operation conditions. In this work, hybrid one-piece propeller shafts composed of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composites have been designed for a rear wheel drive automobile satisfying three design specifications, such as static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling and the fundamental natural bending frequency. Hybridization of carbon and glass fibers is being studied to optimize the cost/performance requirements. Composites shaft materials with various fiber orientation angles and stacking sequences are being fabricated and analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA).

Keywords: composite propeller shaft, hybridization, epoxy matrix, static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling strength, fundamental natural bending frequency.

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