Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8617

Search results for: brake specific fuel consumption

8617 Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions on Multi-Cylinder Turbo-Charged Diesel Engine Operated with B5 Biodiesel Blend

Authors: Pradip Lingfa, L. M. Das, S. N. Naik

Abstract:

In the last three decades the world has been confronting an energy crisis caused by the decreased of fossil resources, and increased of environmental problems. This situation resulted in a search for an alternative fuel. Non-edible vegetable oils are promising sources for producing liquid fuels. In the present experimental investigation, the engine tests were carried out for performance and exhaust emissions on 2.5 L Turbo-charged diesel engine fuelled with 5% biodiesel blend obtained from non-edible vegetable oils such as Jatropha, Karanja, and Castor Seeds. The engine tests were carried out at full throttle position with various engine speeds of 1500, 1750, 2000, 2250, 2750 and 3000 rpm respectively. After test, it was observed that 5% Jatropha biodiesel blend have highest brake power of 46.65 kW and less brake specific fuel consumptions of 225.8 kg/kW-hr compared to other two biodiesel blends of brake power of 45.99 kW, 45.81 kW and brake specific fuel consumption of 234.34, 236.55 kg/kW-hr respectively. The brake specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blends increase at increasing speeds for all biodiesel blends. NOx emissions for biodiesel blends were observed to be higher compared to diesel fuel during the entire range of engine operations. The emission characteristics like CO, HC and smoke were lowered at all engine speed conditions compared to diesel fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel blend, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, emission, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
8616 Performance and Specific Emissions of an SI Engine Using Anhydrous Ethanol–Gasoline Blends in the City of Bogota

Authors: Alexander García Mariaca, Rodrigo Morillo Castaño, Juan Rolón Ríos

Abstract:

The government of Colombia has promoted the use of biofuels in the last 20 years through laws and resolutions, which regulate their use, with the objective to improve the atmospheric air quality and to promote Colombian agricultural industry. However, despite the use of blends of biofuels with fossil fuels, the air quality in large cities does not get better, this deterioration in the air is mainly caused by mobile sources that working with spark ignition internal combustion engines (SI-ICE), operating with a mixture in volume of 90 % gasoline and 10 % ethanol called E10, that for the case of Bogota represent 84 % of the fleet. Another problem is that Colombia has big cities located above 2200 masl and there are no accurate studies on the impact that the E10 mixture could cause in the emissions and performance of SI-ICE. This study aims to establish the optimal blend between gasoline ethanol in which an SI engine operates more efficiently in urban centres located at 2600 masl. The test was developed on SI engine four-stroke, single cylinder, naturally aspirated and with carburettor for the fuel supply using blends of gasoline and anhydrous ethanol in different ratios E10, E15, E20, E40, E60, E85 and E100. These tests were conducted in the city of Bogota, which is located at 2600 masl, with the engine operating at 3600 rpm and at 25, 50, 75 and 100% of load. The results show that the performance variables as engine brake torque, brake power and brake thermal efficiency decrease, while brake specific fuel consumption increases with the rise in the percentage of ethanol in the mixture. On the other hand, the specific emissions of CO2 and NOx present increases while specific emissions of CO and HC decreases compared to those produced by gasoline. From the tests, it is concluded that the SI-ICE worked more efficiently with the E40 mixture, where was obtained an increases of the brake power of 8.81 % and a reduction on brake specific fuel consumption of 2.5 %, coupled with a reduction in the specific emissions of CO2, HC and CO in 9.72, 52.88 and 76.66 % respectively compared to the results obtained with the E10 blend. This behaviour is because the E40 mixture provides the appropriate amount of the oxygen for the combustion process, which leads to better utilization of available energy in this process, thus generating a comparable power output to the E10 mixing and producing lower emissions CO and HC with the other test blends. Nevertheless, the emission of NOx increases in 106.25 %.

Keywords: emissions, ethanol, gasoline, engine, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
8615 Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Palm Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Jalpit B. Prajapati, Ketankumar G. Patel

Abstract:

Palm oil may be employed in diesel engine as an alternative fuel. Biofuel has so far been backed by government policies in the quest for low carbon fuel in the near future and promises to ensure energy security through partially replacing fossil fuels. This paper presents an experimental investigation of performance and emission characteristics by using palm oil in diesel engine. The properties of palm oil can be compared favorably with the characteristics required for internal combustion engine fuels especially diesel engine. Experiments will be performed for fixed compression ratio i.e. 18 using biodiesel-diesel blends i.e. B0, B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 with load variation from no load to full load and compared with base cases i.e. engine using diesel as a fuel. The parameters studied in performance characteristics are brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, in emission characteristics are carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. After experimental results B20 (20% palm oil and 80% diesel) is best in performance, but NOx formation is little higher in B20.

Keywords: palm biodiesel, performance, emission, diesel-biodiesel blend

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
8614 Short Term Tests on Performance Evaluation of Water-Washed and Dry-Washed Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil

Authors: Shumani Ramuhaheli, Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto

Abstract:

In this study, biodiesel from used cooking oil was produced as purified by washing with water (water wash) and amberlite (dry wash). The work presents the results of short term tests on performance characteristics of diesel engine using both biodiesel-fuel samples. In this investigation, the water wash biodiesel and dry wash biodiesel and diesel were compared for performance using a four-cylinder diesel engine. The torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were analyzed. The tests showed that in all cases, dry wash biodiesel performed marginally poorer compared to water wash biodiesel. Except for brake thermal efficiency, diesel fuel had better engine performance characteristics compared to the biodiesel-fuel samples. According to these results, dry washing of biodiesel has a marginal effect on engine performance.

Keywords: biodiesel, engine performance, used cooking oil, water wash, dry wash

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
8613 Combustion Characteristics of Bioethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel Fuel Blends Used in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

Authors: Hasan Aydogan

Abstract:

The changes in the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of bioethanol-safflower biodiesel and diesel fuel blends used in a common rail diesel engine were investigated in this experimental study. E20B20D60 (20% bioethanol, 20% biodiesel, 60% diesel fuel by volume), E30B20D50, E50B20D30 and diesel fuel (D) were used as fuel. The tests were performed at full throttle valve opening and variable engine speeds. The results of the tests showed decreases in engine power, engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke density values with the use of bioethanol-biodiesel and diesel fuel blends, whereas, increases were observed in nitrogen oxide (NOx) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) values. When combustion characteristics were examined, it was seen that the values were close to one another.

Keywords: bioethanol, biodiesel, safflower, combustion characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
8612 Effect of Hydrogen-Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Four Stroke-Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Authors: Madhujit Deb, G. R. K. Sastry, R. S. Panua, Rahul Banerjee, P. K. Bose

Abstract:

The present work attempts to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of an existing single-cylinder four-stroke compression-ignition engine operated in dual-fuel mode with hydrogen as an alternative fuel. Environmental concerns and limited amount of petroleum fuels have caused interests in the development of alternative fuels like hydrogen for internal combustion (IC) engines. In this experimental investigation, a diesel engine is made to run using hydrogen in dual fuel mode with diesel, where hydrogen is introduced into the intake manifold using an LPG-CNG injector and pilot diesel is injected using diesel injectors. A Timed Manifold Injection (TMI) system has been developed to vary the injection strategies. The optimized timing for the injection of hydrogen was 100 CA after top dead center (ATDC). From the study it was observed that with increasing hydrogen rate, enhancement in brake thermal efficiency (BTHE) of the engine has been observed with reduction in brake specific energy consumption (BSEC). Furthermore, Soot contents decrease with an increase in indicated specific NOx emissions with the enhancement of hydrogen flow rate.

Keywords: diesel engine, hydrogen, BTHE, BSEC, soot, NOx

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8611 The Effect of Hydrogen on Performance and Emissions of a Methanol Si-Engine at Part Load

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua

Abstract:

Methanol and hydrogen are the most suitable alternative fuel resources for the existing and future internal combustion engines. This paper experimentally examined the effects of hydrogen addition on the performance and emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with methanol at part load conditions. The experiments were carried out for various engine speeds and loads. Hydrogen-rich syngas was used to enhance the performance of the test engine. It was formed by catalytic dissociation of methanol itself, and volumetric hydrogen fraction in syngas was about 67%. A certain amount of syngas dissociated from methanol was injected into the intake manifold in each engine cycle, and the low heating value (LHV) of hydrogen-rich syngas used was 4% of methanol in each cycle. Both the fuels were injected separately using port fuel injectors. The results showed that brake thermal efficiency of the engine was enhanced by 3-5% with hydrogen addition, while brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature were reduced. There was a significant reduction (90-95%) in THC and (35-50%) in CO emissions at the exhaust. NOx emissions from hydrogen blended methanol increased slightly (10-15%), but they can be reduced by using lean fuel-air mixture to keep the cylinder temperature low.

Keywords: hydrogen, methanol, alternative fuel, emissions, spark ignition engines

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8610 Experimental Investigation, Analysis and Optimization of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Composite Oil Methyl Esters at 160 bar, 180 bar and 200 bar Injection Pressures by Multifunctional Criteria Technique

Authors: Yogish Huchaiah, Chandrashekara Krishnappa

Abstract:

This study considers the optimization and validation of experimental results using Multi-Functional Criteria Technique (MFCT). MFCT is concerned with structuring and solving decision and planning problems involving multiple variables. Production of biodiesel from Composite Oil Methyl Esters (COME) of Jatropha and Pongamia oils, mixed in various proportions and Biodiesel thus obtained from two step transesterification process were tested for various Physico-Chemical properties and it has been ascertained that they were within limits proposed by ASTME. They were blended with Petrodiesel in various proportions. These Methyl Esters were blended with Petrodiesel in various proportions and coded. These blends were used as fuels in a computerized CI DI engine to investigate Performance and Emission characteristics. From the analysis of results, it was found that 180MEM4B20 blend had the maximum Performance and minimum Emissions. To validate the experimental results, MFCT was used. Characteristics such as Fuel Consumption (FC), Brake Power (BP), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydro Carbon (HC) and Nitrogen oxide (NOx) were considered as dependent variables. It was found from the application of this method that the optimized combination of Injection Pressure (IP), Mix and Blend is 178MEM4.2B24. Overall corresponding variation between optimization and experimental results was found to be 7.45%.

Keywords: COME, IP, MFCT, optimization, PI, PN, PV

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
8609 Speed Optimization Model for Reducing Fuel Consumption Based on Shipping Log Data

Authors: Ayudhia P. Gusti, Semin

Abstract:

It is known that total operating cost of a vessel is dominated by the cost of fuel consumption. How to reduce the fuel cost of ship so that the operational costs of fuel can be minimized is the question that arises. As the basis of these kinds of problem, sailing speed determination is an important factor to be considered by a shipping company. Optimal speed determination will give a significant influence on the route and berth schedule of ships, which also affect vessel operating costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues about ship speed optimization. Sailing speed, displacement, sailing time, and specific fuel consumption were obtained from shipping log data to be further analyzed for modeling the speed optimization. The presented speed optimization model is expected to affect the fuel consumption and to reduce the cost of fuel consumption.

Keywords: maritime transportation, reducing fuel, shipping log data, speed optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
8608 Optimization of Turbocharged Diesel Engines

Authors: Ebrahim Safarian, Kadir Bilen, Akif Ceviz

Abstract:

The turbocharger and turbocharging have been the inherent component of diesel engines, so that critical parameters of such engines, as BSFC(Brake Specific Fuel Consumption) or thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, BMEP(Brake Mean Effective Pressure), the power density output and emission level have been improved extensively. In general, the turbocharger can be considered as the most complex component of diesel engines, because it has closely interrelated turbomachinery concepts of the turbines and the compressors to thermodynamic fundamentals of internal combustion engines and stress analysis of all components. In this paper, a waste gate for a conventional single stage radial turbine is investigated by consideration of turbochargers operation constrains and engine operation conditions, without any detail designs in the turbine and the compressor. Amount of opening waste gate which extended between the ranges of full opened and closed valve, is demonstrated by limiting compressor boost pressure ratio. Obtaining of an optimum point by regard above mentioned items is surveyed by three linked meanline modeling programs together which consist of Turbomatch®, Compal®, Rital®madules in concepts NREC® respectively.

Keywords: turbocharger, wastegate, diesel engine, concept NREC programs

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
8607 Investigating of the Fuel Consumption in Construction Machinery and Ways to Reduce Fuel Consumption

Authors: Reza Bahboodian

Abstract:

One of the most important factors in the use of construction machinery is the fuel consumption cost of this equipment. The use of diesel engines in off-road vehicles is an important source of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter 10 in off-road vehicles (construction and mining) may be high. Due to the high cost of fuel, it is necessary to minimize fuel consumption. Factors affecting the fuel consumption of these cars are very diverse. Climate changes such as changes in pressure, temperature, humidity, fuel type selection, type of gearbox used in the car are effective in fuel consumption and pollution, and engine efficiency. In this paper, methods for reducing fuel consumption and pollutants by considering valid European and European standards are examined based on new methods such as hybridization, optimal gear change, adding hydrogen to diesel fuel, determining optimal working fluids, and using oxidation catalysts.

Keywords: improve fuel consumption, construction machinery, pollutant reduction, determining the optimal working cycle

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8606 Investigation on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel (Animal Oil): Ethanol Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Authors: A. Veeresh Babu, M. Vijay Kumar, P. Ravi Kumar, Katam Ganesh Babu

Abstract:

Biodiesel can be considered as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. These can be obtained from various resources. However, the usage of biodiesel in high percentage in compression ignition may cause some technical problems because of their higher viscosity, high pour point, and low volatility. Ethanol can be used as a fuel extender to enable use of higher percentage of biodiesel in CI engine. Blends of ethanol-animal fat oil biodiesel-diesel have been prepared and experimental study has been carried out. We have found that B40E20 fuel blend (40% biodiesel and 20 % ethanol in diesel) reduces the specific fuel consumption and improves brake thermal efficiency of engine compared to B40 fuel blend. We observed that fuel characteristics improved considerably with addition of ethanol to biodiesel. Emissions of CO, HC and smoke were reduced while CO2 emissions were increased because of more complete combustion of the blend.

Keywords: diesel, biodiesel, ethanol, CI engine, engine performance, exhaust emission

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8605 Bench Tests of Two-Stroke Opposed Piston Aircraft Diesel Engine under Propeller Characteristics Conditions

Authors: A. Majczak, G. Baranski, K. Pietrykowski

Abstract:

Due to the growing popularity of light aircraft, it has become necessary to develop aircraft engines for this type of construction. One of engine system, designed to increase efficiency and reduce weight, is the engine with opposed pistons. In such an engine, the combustion chamber is formed by two pistons moving in one cylinder. Therefore, this type of engines run in a two-stroke cycle, so they have many advantages such as high power and torque, high efficiency, or a favorable power-to-weight ratio. Tests of one of the available aircraft engines with opposing piston system fueled with diesel oil were carried out on an engine dynamometer equipped with an eddy current brake and the necessary measuring and testing equipment. In order to get to know the basic parameters of the engine, the tests were carried out under partial load conditions for the following torque values: 40, 60, 80, 100 Nm. The rotational speed was changed from 1600 to 2500 rpm. Measurements were also taken for designated points of propeller characteristics. During the tests, the engine torque, engine power, fuel consumption, intake manifold pressure, and oil pressure were recorded. On the basis of the measurements carried out for particular loads, the power curve, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves were determined. Characteristics of charge pressure as a function of rotational speed as well as power, torque, hourly and specific fuel consumption curves for propeller characteristics were also prepared. The obtained characteristics make it possible to select the optimal points of engine operation.

Keywords: aircraft, diesel, engine testing, opposed piston

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8604 Effect of Hydrogen on the Performance of a Methanol SI-Engine at City Driving Conditions

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua

Abstract:

Methanol is one of the most suitable alternative fuels for replacing gasoline in present and future spark-ignited engines. However, for pure methanol engines, cold start problems and misfires are observed under certain operating conditions. Hydrogen provides a solution for such problems. This paper experimentally investigated the effect of hydrogen on the performance of a pure methanol SI-engine at city driving conditions (1500 rpm speed and 1.18 excess air ratio). Hydrogen was used as a part of methanol reformed syngas (67% hydrogen by volume). 4% by mass of the total methanol converted to hydrogen and other constituent gases, was used in each cycle. Port fuel injection was used to inject methanol and hydrogen-rich syngas into the 4-cylinder engine. The results indicated an increase in brake thermal efficiency up to 5% with the addition of hydrogen, a decrease in brake specific fuel consumption up to 200 g/kWh, and a decrease in exhaust gas temperature by 100°C for all mean effective pressures. Hydrogen addition also decreased harmful exhaust emissions significantly. There was a reduction in THC emissions up to 95% and CO emissions up to 50%. NOx emissions were slightly increased (up to 15%), but they can be reduced to zero by lean burn strategy.

Keywords: alternative fuels, hydrogen, methanol, performance, spark ignition engines

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
8603 An Experimental Study of Automotive Drum Brake Vibrations

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly

Abstract:

The present paper investigates experimentally the effect coefficient of friction at different operation conditions on the variation of the brake temperature, brake force, and brake vibration with the braking time. All the experimental tests were carried out using brake dynamometer which designed and constructed in Vehicle Dynamic Laboratory. The results indicate that the brake temperature increases with the increase of the normal force and sliding speed especially with the increase of the braking time. The normal force has the effect on increasing the brake force. On the contrary, the vehicle speed has the effect on decreasing the brake force. Both the normal force and sliding speed affect the brake vibration according to the friction behavior.

Keywords: brake dynamometer, coefficient of friction, drum brake vibrations, friction behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
8602 Control Strategy for Two-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle by Using Fuzzy Controller

Authors: Jia-Shiun Chen, Hsiu-Ying Hwang

Abstract:

Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce pollution and improve fuel economy. Power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide two power paths between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and energy storage system (ESS) through the gears of an electrically variable transmission (EVT). EVT allows ICE to operate independently from vehicle speed all the time. Therefore, the ICE can operate in the efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. The two-mode powertrain can operate in input-split or compound-split EVT modes and in four different fixed gear configurations. Power-split architecture is advantageous because it combines conventional series and parallel power paths. This research focuses on input-split and compound-split modes in the two-mode power-split powertrain. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) for an internal combustion engine (ICE) and PI control for electric machines (EMs) are derived for the urban driving cycle simulation. These control algorithms reduce vehicle fuel consumption and improve ICE efficiency while maintaining the state of charge (SOC) of the energy storage system in an efficient range.

Keywords: hybrid electric vehicle, fuel economy, two-mode hybrid, fuzzy control

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
8601 Simulation Research of City Bus Fuel Consumption during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle

Authors: P. Kacejko, M. Wendeker

Abstract:

The fuel consumption of city buses depends on a number of factors that characterize the technical properties of the bus and driver, as well as traffic conditions. This parameter related to greenhouse gas emissions is regulated by law in many countries. This applies to both fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Simulation studies are a way to reduce the costs of optimization studies. The paper describes simulation research of fuel consumption city bus driving. Parameters of the developed model are based on experimental results obtained on chassis dynamometer test stand and road tests. The object of the study was a city bus equipped with a compression-ignition engine. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle. The results of the calculations showed a direct influence of driving dynamics on fuel consumption.

Keywords: Australian Driving Cycle, city bus, diesel engine, fuel consumption

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8600 Effect of Compressibility of Brake Friction Materials on Vibration Occurrence

Authors: Mostafa Makrahy, Nouby Ghazaly, Ahmad Moaaz

Abstract:

Brakes are one of the most important safety and performance components in automobiles and airplanes. Development of brakes has mainly focused on increasing braking power and stability. Nowadays, brake noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) together with brake dust emission and pad life are very important to vehicle drivers. The main objective of this research is to define the relationship between compressibility of friction materials and their tendency to generate vibration. An experimental study of the friction-induced vibration obtained by the disc brake system of a passenger car is conducted. Three commercial brake pad materials from different manufacturers are tested and evaluated under various brake conditions against cast iron disc brake. First of all, compressibility test for the brake friction material are measured for each pad. Then, brake dynamometer is used to simulate and reproduce actual vehicle braking conditions. Finally, a comparison between the three pad specimens is conducted. The results showed that compressibility have a very significant effect on reduction the vibration occurrence.

Keywords: automotive brake, friction material, brake dynamometer, compressibility test

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
8599 Modelling Vehicle Fuel Consumption Utilising Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Aydin Azizi, Aburrahman Tanira

Abstract:

The main source of energy used in this modern age is fossil fuels. There is a myriad of problems that come with the use of fossil fuels, out of which the issues with the greatest impact are its scarcity and the cost it imposes on the planet. Fossil fuels are the only plausible option for many vital functions and processes; the most important of these is transportation. Thus, using this source of energy wisely and as efficiently as possible is a must. The aim of this work was to explore utilising mathematical modelling and artificial intelligence techniques to enhance fuel consumption in passenger cars by focusing on the speed at which cars are driven. An artificial neural network with an error less than 0.05 was developed to be applied practically as to predict the rate of fuel consumption in vehicles.

Keywords: mathematical modeling, neural networks, fuel consumption, fossil fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
8598 Developing Model for Fuel Consumption Optimization in Aviation Industry

Authors: Somesh Kumar Sharma, Sunanad Gupta

Abstract:

The contribution of aviation to society and economy is undisputedly significant. The aviation industry drives economic and social progress by contributing prominently to tourism, commerce and improved quality of life. Identifying the amount of fuel consumed by an aircraft while moving in both airspace and ground networks is critical to air transport economics. Aviation fuel is a major operating cost parameter of the aviation industry and at the same time it is prone to various constraints. This article aims to develop a model for fuel consumption of aviation product. The paper tailors the information for the fuel consumption optimization in terms of information development, information evaluation and information refinement. The information is evaluated and refined using statistical package R and Factor Analysis which is further validated with neural networking. The study explores three primary dimensions which are finally summarized into 23 influencing variables in contrast to 96 variables available in literature. The 23 variables explored in this study should be considered as highly influencing variables for fuel consumption which will contribute significantly towards fuel optimization.

Keywords: fuel consumption, civil aviation industry, neural networking, optimization

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8597 A New Car-Following Model with Consideration of the Brake Light

Authors: Zhiyuan Tang, Ju Zhang, Wenyuan Wu

Abstract:

In this research, a car-following model with consideration of the status of the brake light is proposed. The numerical results show that the stability of the traffic flow is improved. The ability of the brake light to reduce car accident is also showed.

Keywords: brake light, car-following model, traffic flow, regional planning, transportation

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
8596 Application of Exhaust Gas-Air Brake System in Petrol and Diesel Engine

Authors: Gurlal Singh, Rupinder Singh

Abstract:

The possible role of the engine brake is to convert a power-producing engine into a power-absorbing retarding mechanism. In this braking system, exhaust gas (EG) from the internal combustion (IC) engines is used to operate air brake in the automobiles. Airbrake is most used braking system in vehicles. In the proposed model, instead of air brake, EG is used to operate the brake lever and stored in a specially designed tank. This pressure of EG is used to operate the pneumatic cylinder and brake lever. Filters used to remove the impurities from the EG, then it is allowed to store in the tank. Pressure relief valve is used to achieve a specific pressure in the tank and helps to avoid further damage to the tank as well as in an engine. The petrol engine is used in the proposed EG braking system. The petrol engine is chosen initially because it produces less impurity in the exhaust than diesel engines. Moreover, exhaust brake system (EBS) for the Diesel engines is composed of gate valve, pneumatic cylinder and exhaust brake valve with the on-off solenoid. Exhaust brake valve which is core component of EBS should have characteristics such as high reliability and long life. In a diesel engine, there is butterfly valve in exhaust manifold connected with solenoid switch which is used to on and off the butterfly valve. When butterfly valve closed partially, then the pressure starts built up inside the exhaust manifold and cylinder that actually resist the movement of piston leads to crankshaft getting stops resulting stopping of the flywheel. It creates breaking effect in a diesel engine. The exhaust brake is a supplementary breaking system to the service brake. It is noted that exhaust brake increased 2-3 fold the life of service brake may be due to the creation of negative torque which retards the speed of the engine. More study may also be warranted for the best suitable design of exhaust brake in a diesel engine.

Keywords: exhaust gas, automobiles, solenoid, airbrake

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
8595 Apply Commitment Method in Power System to Minimize the Fuel Cost

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Adel Yahya

Abstract:

The goal of this paper study is to schedule the power generation units to minimize fuel consumption cost based on a model that solves unit commitment problems. This can be done by utilizing forward dynamic programming method to determine the most economic scheduling of generating units. The model was applied to a power station, which consists of four generating units. The obtained results show that the applications of forward dynamic programming method offer a substantial reduction in fuel consumption cost. The fuel consumption cost has been reduced from $116,326 to $102,181 within a 24-hour period. This means saving about 12.16 % of fuel consumption cost. The study emphasizes the importance of applying modeling schedule programs to the operation of power generation units. As a consequence less consumption of fuel, less loss of power and less pollution

Keywords: unit commitment, forward dynamic, fuel cost, programming, generation scheduling, operation cost, power system, generating units

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8594 Correlation between Fuel Consumption and Voyage Related Ship Operational Energy Efficiency Measures: An Analysis from Noon Data

Authors: E. Bal Beşikçi, O. Arslan

Abstract:

Fuel saving has become one of the most important issue for shipping in terms of fuel economy and environmental impact. Lowering fuel consumption is possible for both new ships and existing ships through enhanced energy efficiency measures, technical and operational respectively. The limitations of applying technical measures due to the long payback duration raise the potential of operational changes for energy efficient ship operations. This study identifies operational energy efficiency measures related voyage performance management. We use ‘noon’ data to examine the correlation between fuel consumption and operational parameters- revolutions per minute (RPM), draft, trim, (beaufort number) BN and relative wind direction, which are used as measures of ship energy efficiency. The results of this study reveal that speed optimization is the most efficient method as fuel consumption depends heavily on RPM. In conclusion, this study will provide ship operators with the strategic approach for evaluating the priority of the operational energy efficiency measures against high fuel prices and carbon emissions.

Keywords: ship, voyage related operational energy Efficiency measures, fuel consumption, pearson's correlation coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 494
8593 Comparative Analysis of VTEC Bank of Rollers Brake Testers versus Maha, Ryme and Dynamometric Platform Testers Used at Ministry of Transport Facilities

Authors: Carolina Senabre, Sergio Valero, Emilio Velasco

Abstract:

This research objective is to compare the differences of brake measurements obtained with the same vehicle when braking on VTEQ Ministry of Transport (MOT) brake testers versus others such as Maha, Ryme and a dynamometric platform. These different types of brake testers have been used and analyzed by the mechanical engineering staffs at the mechanical laboratory at the Miguel Hernández University. Parameters of the vehicle have been controlled to be the same in all tests. Therefore, brake measurements variability will be due to the tester used. Advances and disadvantages of each brake tester have been analyzed.

Keywords: brake tester, Ministry of transport, longitudinal braking, Bank of Rollers

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
8592 Influence of Driving Strategy on Power and Fuel Consumption of Lightweight PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain

Authors: Suhadiyana Hanapi, Alhassan Salami Tijani, W. A. N Wan Mohamed

Abstract:

In this paper, a prototype PEM fuel cell vehicle integrated with a 1 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack as a main power sources has been developed for a lightweight cruising vehicle. The test vehicle is equipped with a PEM fuel cell system that provides electric power to a brushed DC motor. This vehicle was designed to compete with industrial lightweight vehicle with the target of consuming least amount of energy and high performance. Individual variations in driving style have a significant impact on vehicle energy efficiency and it is well established from the literature. The primary aim of this study was to assesses the power and fuel consumption of a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle operating at three difference driving technique (i.e. 25 km/h constant speed, 22-28 km/h speed range, 20-30 km/h speed range). The goal is to develop the best driving strategy to maximize performance and minimize fuel consumption for the vehicle system. The relationship between power demand and hydrogen consumption has also been discussed. All the techniques can be evaluated and compared on broadly similar terms. Automatic intelligent controller for driving prototype fuel cell vehicle on different obstacle while maintaining all systems at maximum efficiency was used. The result showed that 25 km/h constant speed was identified for optimal driving with less fuel consumption.

Keywords: prototype fuel cell electric vehicles, energy efficient, control/driving technique, fuel economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
8591 Wheel Diameter and Width Influence in Variability of Brake Data Measurement at Ministry of Transport Facilities

Authors: Carolina Senabre, Sergio Valero, Emilio Velasco

Abstract:

The brake systems of vehicles are tested periodically by a “brake tester” at Ministry of Transport (MOT) stations. This tester measures the effectiveness of vehicle. This parameter is established by the International Committee of Vehicle Inspection (CITA). In this paper, we present an investigation of the influence of the tire size on the measurements of brake force on three MOT brake testers. We performed an analysis of the vehicle braking capacity test at MOT stations. The influence of varying wheel diameter and width on the measurement of braking at MOT stations has been analyzed. Thereby, the MOT brake tester as a verification system for a vehicle has been evaluated.

Keywords: brake tester, ministry of transport facilities, wheel diameter, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
8590 Research on Aerodynamic Brake Device for High-Speed Train

Authors: S. Yun, M. Kwak

Abstract:

This study is about an aerodynamic brake device for a high-speed train. In order to apply an aerodynamic brake device, an influence of the aerodynamic brake device on a high-speed train was studied aerodynamically, acoustically and dynamically. Wind tunnel test was conducted to predict an effect of braking distance reduction with a scale model of 1/30. Aerodynamic drag increases by 244% with a brake panel of a 90 degree angle. Braking distance for an emergency state was predicted to decrease by 13%.

Keywords: aerodynamic brake, braking distance, drag coefficient, high-speed train, wind-tunnel test

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
8589 Comparing Machine Learning Estimation of Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Authors: Victor Bodell, Lukas Ekstrom, Somayeh Aghanavesi

Abstract:

Fuel consumption (FC) is one of the key factors in determining expenses of operating a heavy-duty vehicle. A customer may therefore request an estimate of the FC of a desired vehicle. The modular design of heavy-duty vehicles allows their construction by specifying the building blocks, such as gear box, engine and chassis type. If the combination of building blocks is unprecedented, it is unfeasible to measure the FC, since this would first r equire the construction of the vehicle. This paper proposes a machine learning approach to predict FC. This study uses around 40,000 vehicles specific and o perational e nvironmental c onditions i nformation, such as road slopes and driver profiles. A ll v ehicles h ave d iesel engines and a mileage of more than 20,000 km. The data is used to investigate the accuracy of machine learning algorithms Linear regression (LR), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and Artificial n eural n etworks (ANN) in predicting fuel consumption for heavy-duty vehicles. Performance of the algorithms is evaluated by reporting the prediction error on both simulated data and operational measurements. The performance of the algorithms is compared using nested cross-validation and statistical hypothesis testing. The statistical evaluation procedure finds that ANNs have the lowest prediction error compared to LR and KNN in estimating fuel consumption on both simulated and operational data. The models have a mean relative prediction error of 0.3% on simulated data, and 4.2% on operational data.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, fuel consumption, friedman test, machine learning, statistical hypothesis testing

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8588 Development of Detachable Brake System for Moving Apparatus

Authors: Bong-Keun Jung, Jung-Yeon Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate usability of detachable brake system for moving apparatus such as baby strollers, manual wheelchairs or walkers. The current brake system was proposed to prevent that moving apparatus slip on sloping roadways when unattended as current built-in manual brake for the moving apparatus is not able to react for the matter. The developed detachable brake system enacted by force sensor on the hand grip showed the possibilities to prevent unexpected accident due to uncontrolled stroller or wheelchair use. To investigate the quality and acceptance of this new technology, standard stroller testbed was built and the use of moving apparatus which attached to the proposed brake system was analyzed through video recording. Additional usability questionnaires were given to test users for measuring usability issues.

Keywords: brake system, stroller, wheelchair, usability test

Procedia PDF Downloads 234