Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 226

Search results for: gas turbines

226 Development of Low Noise Savonius Wind Turbines

Authors: Sanghyeon Kim, Cheolung Cheong


Savonius wind turbines are a drag-type of vertical-axis wind turbine that has been used most commonly as a small-scale wind generator. However, noise is a main hindrance to wide spreading of Savonius wind turbines, just like other wind turbines. Although noise levels radiating from Savonius wind turbines may be relatively low because of their small size, they induce relatively high annoyance due to their prolonged noise exposure to the near community. Therefore, aerodynamic noise of small vertical-axis wind turbines is one of most important design parameters. In this paper, aerodynamic noise characteristics of Savonius wind turbines are investigated using the hybrid CAA techniques, and their low noise designs are proposed based on understanding of noise generation mechanism. First, flow field around the turbine are analyzed by solving 3-D unsteady incompressible RANS equations. Then, noise radiation is predicted using the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. Two distinct harmonic noise components, the well-know BPF components and the harmonics whose fundamental frequency is much higher than the BPF are identified. On a basis of this finding, S-shaped blades are proposed as low noise designs and it can reduce the noise levels of Savonius wind turbines by up to 2.7 dB.

Keywords: aerodynamic noise, Savonius wind turbine, vertical-axis wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
225 A Study on Method for Identifying Capacity Factor Declination of Wind Turbines

Authors: Dongheon Shin, Kyungnam Ko, Jongchul Huh


The investigation on wind turbine degradation was carried out using the nacelle wind data. The three Vestas V80-2MW wind turbines of Sungsan wind farm in Jeju Island, South Korea were selected for this work. The SCADA data of the wind farm for five years were analyzed to draw power curve of the turbines. It is assumed that the wind distribution is the Rayleigh distribution to calculate the normalized capacity factor based on the drawn power curve of the three wind turbines for each year. The result showed that the reduction of power output from the three wind turbines occurred every year and the normalized capacity factor decreased to 0.12%/year on average.

Keywords: wind energy, power curve, capacity factor, annual energy production

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
224 Stationary Gas Turbines in Power Generation: Past, Present and Future Challenges

Authors: Michel Moliere


In the next decades, the thermal power generation segment will survive only if it achieves deep mutations, including drastical abatements of CO2 emissions and strong efficiency gains. In this challenging perspective, stationary gas turbines appear as serious candidates to lead the energy transition. Indeed, during the past decades, these turbomachines have made brisk technological advances in terms of efficiency, reliability, fuel flex (including the combustion of hydrogen), and the ability to hybridize with regenrables. It is, therefore, timely to summarize the progresses achieved by gas turbines in the recent past and to examine what are their assets to face the challenges of the energy transition.

Keywords: energy transition, gas turbines, decarbonization, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
223 Forecast of the Small Wind Turbines Sales with Replacement Purchases and with or without Account of Price Changes

Authors: V. Churkin, M. Lopatin


The purpose of the paper is to estimate the US small wind turbines market potential and forecast the small wind turbines sales in the US. The forecasting method is based on the application of the Bass model and the generalized Bass model of innovations diffusion under replacement purchases. In the work an exponential distribution is used for modeling of replacement purchases. Only one parameter of such distribution is determined by average lifetime of small wind turbines. The identification of the model parameters is based on nonlinear regression analysis on the basis of the annual sales statistics which has been published by the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) since 2001 up to 2012. The estimation of the US average market potential of small wind turbines (for adoption purchases) without account of price changes is 57080 (confidence interval from 49294 to 64866 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 15 years, and 62402 (confidence interval from 54154 to 70648 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 20 years. In the first case the explained variance is 90,7%, while in the second - 91,8%. The effect of the wind turbines price changes on their sales was estimated using generalized Bass model. This required a price forecast. To do this, the polynomial regression function, which is based on the Berkeley Lab statistics, was used. The estimation of the US average market potential of small wind turbines (for adoption purchases) in that case is 42542 (confidence interval from 32863 to 52221 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 15 years, and 47426 (confidence interval from 36092 to 58760 at P = 0.95) under average lifetime of wind turbines 20 years. In the first case the explained variance is 95,3%, while in the second –95,3%.

Keywords: bass model, generalized bass model, replacement purchases, sales forecasting of innovations, statistics of sales of small wind turbines in the United States

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
222 Mitigation of Wind Loads on a Building Using Small Wind Turbines

Authors: Arindam Chowdhury, Andres Tremante, Mohammadtaghi Moravej, Bodhisatta Hajra, Ioannis Zisis, Peter Irwin


Extreme wind events, such as hurricanes, have caused significant damage to buildings, resulting in losses worth millions of dollars. The roof of a building is most vulnerable to wind-induced damage due to the high suctions experienced by the roof in extreme wind conditions. Wind turbines fitted to buildings can help generate energy, but to our knowledge, their application to wind load mitigation is not well known. This paper presents results from an experimental study to assess the effect of small wind turbines (developed and patented by the first and second authors) on the wind loads on a low rise building roof. The tests were carried out for an open terrain at the Wall of Wind (WOW) experimental facility at Florida International University (FIU), Miami, Florida, USA, for three cases – bare roof, roof fitted with wind turbines placed closer to the roof edges, and roof with wind turbines placed away from the roof edges. Results clearly indicate that the presence of the wind turbines reduced the mean and peak pressure coefficients (less suction) on the roof when compared to the bare deck case. Furthermore, the peak pressure coefficients were found to be lower (less suction) when the wind turbines were placed closer to the roof, than away from the roof. Flow visualization studies using smoke and gravel clearly showed that the presence of the turbines disrupted the formation of vortices formed by cornering winds, thereby reducing roof suctions and preventing lift off of roof coverings. This study shows that the wind turbines besides generating wind energy, can be used for mitigating wind induced damage to the building roof. Future research must be directed towards understanding the effect of these wind turbines on other roof geometries (e.g. hip/gable) in different terrain conditions.

Keywords: wall of wind, wind loads, wind turbine, building

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
221 Low Voltage Ride through Capability Techniques for DFIG-Based Wind Turbines

Authors: Sherif O. Zain Elabideen, Ahmed A. Helal, Ibrahim F. El-Arabawy


Due to the drastic increase of the wind turbines installed capacity; the grid codes are increasing the restrictions aiming to treat the wind turbines like other conventional sources sooner. In this paper, an intensive review has been presented for different techniques used to add low voltage ride through capability to Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine. A system model with 1.5 MW DFIG wind turbine is constructed and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK to explore the effectiveness of the reviewed techniques.

Keywords: DFIG, grid side converters, low voltage ride through, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
220 Review of Various Designs and Development in Hydropower Turbines

Authors: Fatemeh Behrouzi, Adi Maimun, Mehdi Nakisa


The growth of population, rising fossil fuel prices which the fossil fuels are limited and decreased day by day, pollution problem due to use of fossil fuels and electrical demand are important role to encourage of using the green energy and renewable technologies. Among different renewable energy technologies, hydro power generation (large and small scale) is the prime choice in terms of contribution to the world's electricity generation by using water current turbines. Nowadays, researchers focus on design and development of different kind of turbines to capture hydro-power electricity generation as clean and reliable energy. This article is review about statues of water current turbines carried out to generate electricity from hydro-kinetic energy especially places that they do not have electricity, but they have access to the current water.

Keywords: water current turbine, renewable energy, hydro-power, mechanic

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
219 An Experimental Study of Diffuser-Enhanced Propeller Hydrokinetic Turbines

Authors: Matheus Nunes, Rafael Mendes, Taygoara Felamingo Oliveira, Antonio Brasil Junior


Wind tunnel experiments of horizontal axis propeller hydrokinetic turbines model were carried out, in order to determine the performance behavior for different configurations and operational range. The present experiments introduce the use of two different geometries of rear diffusers to enhance the performance of the free flow machine. The present paper reports an increase of the power coefficient about 50%-80%. It represents an important feature that has to be taken into account in the design of this kind of machine.

Keywords: diffuser-enhanced turbines, hydrokinetic turbine, wind tunnel experiments, micro hydro

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
218 Numerical Simulation of Multiple Arrays Arrangement of Micro Hydro Power Turbines

Authors: M. A. At-Tasneem, N. T. Rao, T. M. Y. S. Tuan Ya, M. S. Idris, M. Ammar


River flow over micro hydro power (MHP) turbines of multiple arrays arrangement is simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software to obtain the flow characteristics. In this paper, CFD software is used to simulate the water flow over MHP turbines as they are placed in a river. Multiple arrays arrangement of MHP turbines lead to generate large amount of power. In this study, a river model is created and simulated in CFD software to obtain the water flow characteristic. The process then continued by simulating different types of arrays arrangement in the river model. A MHP turbine model consists of a turbine outer body and static propeller blade in it. Five types of arrangements are used which are parallel, series, triangular, square and rhombus with different spacing sizes. The velocity profiles on each MHP turbines are identified at the mouth of each turbine bodies. This study is required to obtain the arrangement with increasing spacing sizes that can produce highest power density through the water flow variation.

Keywords: micro hydro power, CFD, arrays arrangement, spacing sizes, velocity profile, power

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
217 Experimental Study of Near Wake of Wind Turbines

Authors: Ramin Rezaei, Terry Ng, Abdollah Afjeh


Near wake development of a wind turbine affects the aerodynamic loads on the tower and the wind turbine. Design considerations of both isolated wind turbines and wind farms must include unsteady wake flow conditions under which the turbines must operate. The consequent aerodynamic loads could lead to over design of wind turbines and adversely affect the cost of wind turbines and, in turn, the cost of energy produced by wind turbines. Reducing the weight of turbine rotors is particularly desirable since larger wind turbine rotors can be utilized without significantly increasing the cost of the supporting structure. Larger rotor diameters produce larger swept areas and consequently greater energy production from the wind thereby reducing the levelized cost of wind energy. To understand the development and structure of the near tower wake of a wind turbine, an experimental study was conducted to describe the flow field of the near wake for both upwind and downwind turbines. The study was conducted under controlled environment of a wind tunnel using a scaled model of a turbine. The NREL 5 MW reference wind turbine was used as a baseline design and was modified as necessary to design and build upwind and downwind scaled wind turbine models. This paper presents the results of the wind tunnel study using turbine models to quantify the near wake of upwind and downwind wind turbine configurations for various lengths of tower-to-turbine spacing. The variations of mean velocity and turbulence are measured using a computer-controlled, traversing hot wire probe. Additionally, smoke flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the wake. The results show a more rapid dissipation of the near wake for an upwind configuration. The results can readily be incorporated into low fidelity system level turbine simulation tools to more accurately account for the wake on the aerodynamic loads of a upwind and downwind turbines.

Keywords: hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine. Hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 577
216 Availability Analysis of a Power Plant by Computer Simulation

Authors: Mehmet Savsar


Reliability and availability of power stations are extremely important in order to achieve a required level of power generation. In particular, in the hot desert climate of Kuwait, reliable power generation is extremely important because of cooling requirements at temperatures exceeding 50-centigrade degrees. In this paper, a particular power plant, named Sabiya Power Plant, which has 8 steam turbines and 13 gas turbine stations, has been studied in detail; extensive data are collected; and availability of station units are determined. Furthermore, a simulation model is developed and used to analyze the effects of different maintenance policies on availability of these stations. The results show that significant improvements can be achieved in power plant availabilities if appropriate maintenance policies are implemented.

Keywords: power plants, steam turbines, gas turbines, maintenance, availability, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 554
215 Comparison of Radiated Emissions in Offshore and Onshore Wind Turbine Towers

Authors: Sajeesh Sulaiman, Gomathisankar A., Aravind Devaraj, Aswin R., Vijay Kumar G., Rachana Raj


Wind turbines are the next big answer to the emerging and ever-growing demand for electricity, and this need is increasing day by day. These high mast structures, whether on land or on the sea, has also become one of the big sources of electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the not so distant past. With the emergence of the AC-AC converter and drawing of large power cables through the wind turbine towers has made this clean and efficient source of renewable energy to become one of the culprits in creating electromagnetic interference. This paper will present the sources of such EMIs, a comparison of radiated emissions (both electric and magnetic field) patterns in wind turbine towers for both onshore and offshore wind turbines and close look into the IEC 61400-40 (new standard for EMC design on wind turbine). At present, offshore wind turbines are tested in onshore facilities. This paper will present the anomaly in results for offshore wind turbines when tested in onshore, which the existing standards and the upcoming standards have failed to address.

Keywords: emissions, electric field, magnetic field, wind turbine, tower, standards and regulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
214 Estimation of Wind Characteristics and Energy Yield at Different Towns in Libya

Authors: Farag Ahwide, Souhel Bousheha


A technical assessment has been made of electricity generation, considering wind turbines ranging between Vestas (V80-2.0 MW and V112-3.0 MW) and the air density is equal to 1.225 Kg/m3, at different towns in Libya. Wind speed might have been measured each 3 hours during 10 m stature at a time for 10 quite sometime between 2000 Furthermore 2009, these towns which are spotted on the bank from claiming Mediterranean ocean also how in the desert, which need aid Derna 1, Derna 2, Shahat, Benghazi, Ajdabya, Sirte, Misurata, Tripoli-Airport, Al-Zawya, Al-Kofra, Sabha, Nalut. The work presented long term "wind data analysis in terms of annual, seasonal, monthly and diurnal variations at these sites. Wind power density with different heights has been studied. Excel sheet program was used to calculate the values of wind power density and the values of wind speed frequency for the stations; their seasonally values have been estimated. Limit variable with rated wind pace to 10 different wind turbines need to be been estimated, which is used to focus those required yearly vitality yield of a wind vitality change framework (WECS), acknowledging wind turbines extending between 600 kW and 3000 kW).

Keywords: energy yield, wind turbines, wind speed, wind power density

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
213 Computational Analysis of the Scaling Effects on the Performance of an Axial Compressor

Authors: Junting Xiang, Jörg Uwe Schlüter, Fei Duan


The miniaturization of gas turbines promises many advantages. Miniature gas turbines can be used for local power generation or the propulsion of small aircraft, such as UAV and MAV. However, experience shows that the miniaturization of conventional gas turbines, which are optimized at their current large size, leads to a substantial loss of efficiency and performance at smaller scales. This may be due to a number of factors, such as the Reynolds-number effect, the increased heat transfer, and manufacturing tolerances. In the present work, we focus on computational investigations of the Reynolds number effect and the wall heat transfer on the performance of axial compressor during its size change. The NASA stage 35 compressors are selected as the configuration in this study and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to carry out the miniaturization process and simulations. We perform parameter studies on the effect of Reynolds number and wall thermal conditions. Our results indicate a decrease of efficiency, if the compressor is miniaturized based on its original geometry due to the increase of viscous effects. The increased heat transfer through wall has only a small effect and will actually benefit compressor performance based on our study.

Keywords: axial compressor, CFD, heat transfer, miniature gas turbines, Reynolds number

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
212 Assessment of the Effect of Wind Turbulence on the Aero-Hydrodynamic Behavior of Offshore Wind Turbines

Authors: Reza Dezvareh


The aim of this study is to investigate the amount of wind turbulence on the aero hydrodynamic behavior of offshore wind turbines with a monopile holder platform. Since in the sea, the wind turbine structures are under water and structures interactions, the dynamic analysis has been conducted under combined wind and wave loading. The offshore wind turbines have been investigated undertow models of normal and severe wind turbulence, and the results of this study show that the amplitude of fluctuation of dynamic response of structures including thrust force and base shear force of structures is increased with increasing the amount of wind turbulence, and this increase is not necessarily observed in the mean values of responses. Therefore, conducting the dynamic analysis is inevitable in order to observe the effect of wind turbulence on the structures' response.

Keywords: offshore wind turbine, wind turbulence, structural vibration, aero-hydro dynamic

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
211 Reliability-based Condition Assessment of Offshore Wind Turbines using SHM data

Authors: Caglayan Hizal, Hasan Emre Demirci, Engin Aktas, Alper Sezer


Offshore wind turbines consist of a long slender tower with a heavy fixed mass on the top of the tower (nacelle), together with a heavy rotating mass (blades and hub). They are always subjected to environmental loads including wind and wave loads in their service life. This study presents a three-stage methodology for reliability-based condition assessment of offshore wind-turbines against the seismic, wave and wind induced effects considering the soil-structure interaction. In this context, failure criterions are considered as serviceability limits of a monopile supporting an Offshore Wind Turbine: (a) allowable horizontal displacement at pile head should not exceed 0.2 m, (b) rotations at pile head should not exceed 0.5°. A Bayesian system identification framework is adapted to the classical reliability analysis procedure. Using this framework, a reliability assessment can be directly implemented to the updated finite element model without performing time-consuming methods. For numerical verification, simulation data of the finite model of a real offshore wind-turbine structure is investigated using the three-stage methodology.

Keywords: Offshore wind turbines, SHM, reliability assessment, soil-structure interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
210 Intelligent Decision Support for Wind Park Operation: Machine-Learning Based Detection and Diagnosis of Anomalous Operating States

Authors: Angela Meyer


The operation and maintenance cost for wind parks make up a major fraction of the park’s overall lifetime cost. To minimize the cost and risk involved, an optimal operation and maintenance strategy requires continuous monitoring and analysis. In order to facilitate this, we present a decision support system that automatically scans the stream of telemetry sensor data generated from the turbines. By learning decision boundaries and normal reference operating states using machine learning algorithms, the decision support system can detect anomalous operating behavior in individual wind turbines and diagnose the involved turbine sub-systems. Operating personal can be alerted if a normal operating state boundary is exceeded. The presented decision support system and method are applicable for any turbine type and manufacturer providing telemetry data of the turbine operating state. We demonstrate the successful detection and diagnosis of anomalous operating states in a case study at a German onshore wind park comprised of Vestas V112 turbines.

Keywords: anomaly detection, decision support, machine learning, monitoring, performance optimization, wind turbines

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
209 Assessment of Pier Foundations for Onshore Wind Turbines in Non-cohesive Soil

Authors: Mauricio Terceros, Jann-Eike Saathoff, Martin Achmus


In non-cohesive soil, onshore wind turbines are often found on shallow foundations with a circular or octagonal shape. For the current generation of wind turbines, shallow foundations with very large breadths are required. The foundation support costs thus represent a considerable portion of the total construction costs. Therefore, an economic optimization of the type of foundation is highly desirable. A conceivable alternative foundation type would be a pier foundation, which combines the load transfer over the foundation area at the pier base with the transfer of horizontal loads over the shaft surface of the pier. The present study aims to evaluate the load-bearing behavior of a pier foundation based on comprehensive parametric studies. Thereby, three-dimensional numerical simulations of both pier and shallow foundations are developed. The evaluation of the results focuses on the rotational stiffnesses of the proposed soil-foundation systems. In the design, the initial rotational stiffness is decisive for consideration of natural frequencies, whereas the rotational secant stiffness for a maximum load is decisive for serviceability considerations. A systematic analysis of the results at different load levels shows that the application of the typical pier foundation is presumably limited to relatively small onshore wind turbines.

Keywords: onshore wind foundation, pier foundation, rotational stiffness of soil-foundation system, shallow foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
208 Numerical Investigation of Supertall Buildings and Using Aerodynamic Characteristics to Create New Wind Power Sources

Authors: Mohammad A. Masoumi, Mohammad Zare, Soroush Sabouki


This study investigates the aerodynamic characteristics of supertall buildings to evaluate wind turbine installation at high altitudes. Most recent studies have investigated supertall buildings at a horizontal plane, while a vertical plan could be as important, especially to install wind turbines. A typical square-plan building with a height of 500 m is investigated numerically at horizontal and vertical plans to evaluate wind power generation potentials. The results show good agreement with experimental data and past studies. Then four new geometries are proposed to improvise regions at high altitudes to install wind turbines. Evaluating the simulations shows two regions with high power density, which have the possibility to install wind turbines. Results show that improvised regions to install wind turbines at high altitudes contain significant power density while higher power density is found behind buildings in a far distance. In addition, power density fluctuations behind buildings are investigated, which show decreasing fluctuations by reaching 50 m altitude while altitudes lower than 20 m have the most fluctuations.

Keywords: wind power, supertall building, power density, aerodynamic characteristics, wind turbine mobile, quality assurance, testing, applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
207 Fault Detection and Isolation in Sensors and Actuators of Wind Turbines

Authors: Shahrokh Barati, Reza Ramezani


Due to the countries growing attention to the renewable energy producing, the demand for energy from renewable energy has gone up among the renewable energy sources; wind energy is the fastest growth in recent years. In this regard, in order to increase the availability of wind turbines, using of Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system is necessary. Wind turbines include of various faults such as sensors fault, actuator faults, network connection fault, mechanical faults and faults in the generator subsystem. Although, sensors and actuators have a large number of faults in wind turbine but have discussed fewer in the literature. Therefore, in this work, we focus our attention to design a sensor and actuator fault detection and isolation algorithm and Fault-tolerant control systems (FTCS) for Wind Turbine. The aim of this research is to propose a comprehensive fault detection and isolation system for sensors and actuators of wind turbine based on data-driven approaches. To achieve this goal, the features of measurable signals in real wind turbine extract in any condition. The next step is the feature selection among the extract in any condition. The next step is the feature selection among the extracted features. Features are selected that led to maximum separation networks that implemented in parallel and results of classifiers fused together. In order to maximize the reliability of decision on fault, the property of fault repeatability is used.

Keywords: FDI, wind turbines, sensors and actuators faults, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
206 Wake Effects of Wind Turbines and Its Impacts on Power Curve Measurements

Authors: Sajan Antony Mathew, Bhukya Ramdas


Abstract—The impetus of wind energy deployment over the last few decades has seen potential sites being harvested very actively for wind farm development. Due to the scarce availability of highly potential sites, the turbines are getting more optimized in its location wherein minimum spacing between the turbines are resorted without comprising on the optimization of its energy yield. The optimization of the energy yield from a wind turbine is achieved by effective micrositing techniques. These time-tested techniques which are applied from site to site on terrain conditions that meet the requirements of the International standard for power performance measurements of wind turbines result in the positioning of wind turbines for optimized energy yields. The international standard for Power Curve Measurements has rules of procedure and methodology to evaluate the terrain, obstacles and sector for measurements. There are many challenges at the sites for complying with the requirements for terrain, obstacles and sector for measurements. Studies are being attempted to carry out these measurements within the scope of the international standard as various other procedures specified in alternate standards or the integration of LIDAR for Power Curve Measurements are in the nascent stage. The paper strives to assist in the understanding of the fact that if positioning of a wind turbine at a site is based on an optimized output, then there are no wake effects seen on the power curve of an adjacent wind turbine. The paper also demonstrates that an invalid sector for measurements could be used in the analysis in alteration to the requirement as per the international standard for power performance measurements. Therefore the paper strives firstly to demonstrate that if a wind turbine is optimally positioned, no wake effects are seen and secondly the sector for measurements in such a case could include sectors which otherwise would have to be excluded as per the requirements of International standard for power performance measurements.

Keywords: micrositing, optimization, power performance, wake effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
205 Feasibility Study of Utilization and Development of Wind Energy for Electricity Generation in Panjang Island, Serang, Banten, West Java

Authors: Aryo Bayu Tejokusumo, Ivan Hidayat, C. Steffany Yoland


Wind velocity in Panjang Island, Serang, Banten, West Java, measured 10 m above sea level, is about 8 m/s. This wind velocity is potential for electricity generation using wind power. Using ten of Alstom-Haliade 150-6 W turbines, the placement of wind turbines has 7D for vertical distance and 4D for horizontal distance. Installation of the turbines is 100 m above sea level which is produces 98.64 MW per hour. This wind power generation has ecology impacts (the deaths of birds and bats and land exemption) and human impacts (aesthetics, human’s health, and potential disruption of electromagnetics interference), but it could be neglected totally, because of the position of the wind farm. The investment spent 73,819,710.00 IDR. Payback period is 2.23 years, and rate of return is 45.24%. This electricity generation using wind power in Panjang Island is suitable to install despite the high cost of investment since the profit is also high.

Keywords: wind turbine, Panjang island, renewable energy, Indonesia, offshore, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 583
204 Windstorm Risk Assessment for Offshore Wind Farms in the North Sea

Authors: Paul Buchana, Patrick E. Mc Sharry


In 2017 there will be about 38 wind farms in the North Sea belonging to 5 different countries. The North Sea is ideal for offshore wind power generation and is thus attractive to offshore wind energy developers and investors. With concerns about the potential for offshore wind turbines to sustain substantial damage as a result of extreme weather conditions, particularly windstorms, this poses a unique challenge to insurers and reinsurers as to adequately quantify the risk and offer appropriate insurance cover for these assets. The need to manage this risk also concerns regulators, who provide the oversight needed to ensure that if a windstorm or a series of storms occur in this area over a one-year time frame, the insurers of these assets in the EU remain solvent even after meeting consequent damage costs. In this paper, using available European windstorm data for the past 33 years and actual wind farm locations together with information pertaining to each of the wind farms (number of turbines, total capacity and financial value), we present a Monte Carlo simulation approach to assess the number of turbines that would be buckled in each of the wind farms using maximum wind speeds reaching each of them. These wind speeds are drawn from historical windstorm data. From the number of turbines buckled, associated financial loss and output capacity can be deduced. The results presented in this paper are targeted towards offshore wind energy developers, insurance and reinsurance companies and regulators.

Keywords: catastrophe modeling, North Sea wind farms, offshore wind power, risk analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
203 Modeling and Optimization of Micro-Grid Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Mehrdad Rezaei, Reza Haghmaram, Nima Amjadi


This paper proposes an operating and cost optimization model for micro-grid (MG). This model takes into account emission costs of NOx, SO2, and CO2, together with the operation and maintenance costs. Wind turbines (WT), photovoltaic (PV) arrays, micro turbines (MT), fuel cells (FC), diesel engine generators (DEG) with different capacities are considered in this model. The aim of the optimization is minimizing operation cost according to constraints, supply demand and safety of the system. The proposed genetic algorithm (GA), with the ability to fine-tune its own settings, is used to optimize the micro-grid operation.

Keywords: micro-grid, optimization, genetic algorithm, MG

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
202 Considerations upon Structural Health Monitoring of Small to Medium Wind Turbines

Authors: Nicolae Constantin, Ştefan Sorohan


The small and medium wind turbines are running in quite different conditions as compared to the big ones. Consequently, they need also a different approach concerning the structural health monitoring (SHM) issues. There are four main differences between the above mentioned categories: (i) significantly smaller dimensions, (ii) considerably higher rotation speed, (iii) generally small distance between the turbine and the energy consumer and (iv) monitoring assumed in many situations by the owner. In such conditions, nondestructive inspections (NDI) have to be made as much as possible with affordable, yet effective techniques, requiring portable and accessible equipment. Additionally, the turbines and accessories should be easy to mount, dispose and repair. As the materials used for such unit can be metals, composites and combined, the technologies should be adapted accordingly. An example in which the two materials co-exist is the situation in which the damaged metallic skin of a blade is repaired with a composite patch. The paper presents the inspection of the bonding state of the patch, using portable ultrasonic equipment, able to put in place the Lamb wave method, which proves efficient in global and local inspections as well. The equipment is relatively easy to handle and can be borrowed from specialized laboratories or used by a community of small wind turbine users, upon the case. This evaluation is the first in a row, aimed to evaluate efficiency of NDI performed with rather accessible, less sophisticated equipment and related inspection techniques, having field inspection capabilities. The main goal is to extend such inspection procedures to other components of the wind power unit, such as the support tower, water storage tanks, etc.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, small wind turbines, non-destructive inspection, field inspection capabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
201 Large Eddy Simulation with Energy-Conserving Schemes: Understanding Wind Farm Aerodynamics

Authors: Dhruv Mehta, Alexander van Zuijlen, Hester Bijl


Large Eddy Simulation (LES) numerically resolves the large energy-containing eddies of a turbulent flow, while modelling the small dissipative eddies. On a wind farm, these large scales carry the energy wind turbines extracts and are also responsible for transporting the turbines’ wakes, which may interact with downstream turbines and certainly with the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). In this situation, it is important to conserve the energy that these wake’s carry and which could be altered artificially through numerical dissipation brought about by the schemes used for the spatial discretisation and temporal integration. Numerical dissipation has been reported to cause the premature recovery of turbine wakes, leading to an over prediction in the power produced by wind farms.An energy-conserving scheme is free from numerical dissipation and ensures that the energy of the wakes is increased or decreased only by the action of molecular viscosity or the action of wind turbines (body forces). The aim is to create an LES package with energy-conserving schemes to simulate wind turbine wakes correctly to gain insight into power-production, wake meandering etc. Such knowledge will be useful in designing more efficient wind farms with minimal wake interaction, which if unchecked could lead to major losses in energy production per unit area of the wind farm. For their research, the authors intend to use the Energy-Conserving Navier-Stokes code developed by the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands.

Keywords: energy-conserving schemes, modelling turbulence, Large Eddy Simulation, atmospheric boundary layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
200 Multi-Criterial Analysis: Potential Regions and Height of Wind Turbines, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Authors: Claudio L. M. Souza, Milton Erthal, Aldo Shimoya, Elias R. Goncalves, Igor C. Rangel, Allysson R. T. Tavares, Elias G. Figueira


The process of choosing a region for the implementation of wind farms involves factors such as the wind regime, economic viability, land value, topography, and accessibility. This work presents results obtained by multi-criteria decision analysis, and it establishes a hierarchy, regarding the installation of wind farms, among geopolicy regions in the state of ‘Rio de Janeiro’, Brazil: ‘Regiao Norte-RN’, ‘Regiao dos Lagos-RL’ and ‘Regiao Serrana-RS’. The wind regime map indicates only these three possible regions with an average annual wind speed of above of 6.0 m/s. The method applied was the Analytical Hierarchy Process-AHP, designed to prioritize and rank the three regions based on four criteria as follows: 1) potential of the site and average wind speeds of above 6.0 ms-¹, 2) average land value, 3) distribution and interconnection to electric network with the highest number of electricity stations, and 4) accessibility with proximity and quality of highways and flat topography. The values of energy generation were calculated for wind turbines 50, 75, and 100 meters high, considering the production of site (GWh/Km²) and annual production (GWh). The weight of each criterion was attributed by six engineers and by analysis of Road Map, the Map of the Electric System, the Map of Wind Regime and the Annual Land Value Report. The results indicated that in 'RS', the demand was estimated at 2,000 GWh, so a wind farm can operate efficiently in 50 m turbines. This region is mainly mountainous with difficult access and lower land value. With respect to ‘RL’, the wind turbines have to be installed at a height of 75 m high to reach a demand of 6,300 GWh. This region is very flat, with easy access, and low land value. Finally, the ‘NR’ was evaluated as very flat and with expensive lands. In this case, wind turbines with 100 m can reach an annual production of 19,000 GWh. In this Region, the coast area was classified as of greater logistic, productivity and economic potential.

Keywords: AHP, renewable energy, wind energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
199 Optimization of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: C. Andreu Sabater, D. Drago, C. Key-aberg, W. Moukrim, B. Naccache


Present study concerns the optimization of a new vertical axis wind turbine system associated to a dynamoelectric motor. The system is composed by three Savonius wind turbines, arranged in an equilateral triangle. The idea is to propose a new concept of wind turbines through a technical approach allowing find a specific power never obtained before and therefore, a significant reduction of installation costs. In this work different wind flows across the system have been simulated, as well as precise definition of parameters and relations established between them. It will allow define the optimal rotor specific power for a given volume. Calculations have been developed with classical Savonius dimensions.

Keywords: VAWT, savonius, specific power, optimization, weibull

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
198 Aerodynamic Analysis of the Airfoil of a VAWT by Using 2D CFD Modelling

Authors: Luis F. Garcia, Julian E. Jaramillo, Jorge L. Chacón


Colombia is a country where the benefits of wind power industry are barely used because of the geography in some areas does not allow the implementation of onshore horizontal axis wind turbines. Furthermore, exist rural areas without access to the electrical grid. Therefore, there is currently a deficit of energy supply in some towns. This research took place in one of those areas (i.e. Chicamocha Canyon-Santander) where the answer to the energy supply problems could be the use of vertical axis wind turbines, which can be used for turbulent flows. Hence, one task of this research is the analysis of the wind resources in the Chicamocha Canyon in order to implement the wind energy. The wind turbines must be designed in such a way that the blades take good advantage of the wind resources in the area of interest. Consequently, in the current research the analysis of two different airfoils (i.e. NACA0018 and DU 06-W-200) through a 2D CFD simulation is carried out by means of a free-software (OpenFOAM). Predicted results using the “Spalart-Allmaras” turbulence model are similar to the wind tunnel data published in the literature. Moreover, global parameters such as dimensionless lift and drag coefficients were calculated. Finally, this research encourages VAWT studies under wind turbulent flows in order to achieve the best use of natural resources in Colombia.

Keywords: airfoil, wind turbine, turbulence modelling, Chicamocha, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
197 Adaptive Envelope Protection Control for the below and above Rated Regions of Wind Turbines

Authors: Mustafa Sahin, İlkay Yavrucuk


This paper presents a wind turbine envelope protection control algorithm that protects Variable Speed Variable Pitch (VSVP) wind turbines from damage during operation throughout their below and above rated regions, i.e. from cut-in to cut-out wind speed. The proposed approach uses a neural network that can adapt to turbines and their operating points. An algorithm monitors instantaneous wind and turbine states, predicts a wind speed that would push the turbine to a pre-defined envelope limit and, when necessary, realizes an avoidance action. Simulations are realized using the MS Bladed Wind Turbine Simulation Model for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine equipped with baseline controllers. In all simulations, through the proposed algorithm, it is observed that the turbine operates safely within the allowable limit throughout the below and above rated regions. Two example cases, adaptations to turbine operating points for the below and above rated regions and protections are investigated in simulations to show the capability of the proposed envelope protection system (EPS) algorithm, which reduces excessive wind turbine loads and expectedly increases the turbine service life.

Keywords: adaptive envelope protection control, limit detection and avoidance, neural networks, ultimate load reduction, wind turbine power control

Procedia PDF Downloads 55