Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1322

Search results for: expansion chamber

1322 Experimental Study of Exhaust Muffler System for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

Authors: Abdallah F. Abd El-Mohsen, Ahmed A. Abdelsamee, Nouby M. Ghazaly


Engine exhaust noise is considered one of the largest sources of vehicle exterior noise. Further reduction of noise from the vehicle exhaust system will be required, as the vehicle exterior noise regulations become stricter. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to illustrate the role of engine operating parameters and exhaust system construction factors on exhaust noise emitted. The measurements carried out using different exhaust systems, which are mainly used in today’s vehicle. The effect of engine speed on the spectra level of exhaust noise is recorded at engine speeds of 900 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2700, rpm 3600 rpm and 4500 rpm. The results indicate that the increase of engine speed causes a significant increase in the spectrum level of exhaust noise. The increase in the number of the outlet of the expansion chamber also reduces the overall level of exhaust noise.

Keywords: exhaust system, expansion chamber, engine speed, spectra

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1321 Fundamental Research Dissension between Hot and Cold Chamber High Pressure Die Casting

Authors: Sahil Kumar, Surinder Pal, Rahul Kapoor


This paper is focused on to define the basic difference between hot and cold chamber high pressure die casting process which is not fully defined in a research before paper which we have studied. The pressure die casting is basically defined into two types (1) Hot chamber Die Casting (2) Cold chamber Die Casting. Cold chamber die casting is used for casting alloys that require high pressure and have a high melting temperature, such as brass, aluminum, magnesium, copper based alloys and other high melting point nonferrous alloys. Hot chamber die casting is suitable for casting zinc, tin, lead, and low melting point alloys. In hot chamber die casting machine, the molten metal is an integral pan of the machine. It mainly consists of hot chamber and gooseneck type metal container made of cast iron. This machine is mainly used for low melting alloys and alloys of metals like zinc, lead etc. Metals and alloys having a high melting point and those which are having an affinity for iron cannot be cast by this machine, which could otherwise attack the shot sleeve and damage the machine.

Keywords: hot chamber die casting, cold chamber die casting, metals and alloys, casting technology

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1320 Durability and Early-Age Behavior of Sprayed Concrete with an Expansion Admixture

Authors: Kyong-Ku Yun, Kyeo-Re Lee, Kyong Namkung, Seung-Yeon Han, Pan-Gil Choi


Sprayed concrete is a way to spray a concrete using a machinery with high air pressure. There are insufficient studies on the durability and early-age behavior of sprayed concrete using high quality expansion agent. A series of an experiment were executed with 5 varying expansion agent replacement rates, while all the other conditions were kept constant, including cement binder content and water-cement ratio. The tests includes early-age shrinkage test, rapid chloride permeability test, and image analysis of air void structure. The early-age expansion test with the variation of expansion agent show that the expansion strain increases as the ratio of expansion agent increases. The rapid chloride permeability test shows that it decrease as the expansion agent increase. Therefore, expansion agent affects into the rapid chloride permeability in a better way. As expansion agent content increased, spacing factor slightly decreased while specific surface kept relatively stable. As a results, the optimum ratio of expansion agent would be selected between 7 % and 11%.

Keywords: sprayed concrete, durability, early-age behavior, expansion admixture

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1319 Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of a Combustion Chamber using ANSYS Computational Fluid Dynamics to Estimate the Thermocouple Positioning in a Chamber Wall

Authors: Muzna Tariq, Ihtzaz Qamar


In most engineering cases, the working temperatures inside a combustion chamber are high enough that they lie beyond the operational range of thermocouples. Furthermore, design and manufacturing limitations restrict the use of internal thermocouples in many applications. Heat transfer inside a combustion chamber is caused due to interaction of the post-combustion hot fluid with the chamber wall. Heat transfer that involves an interaction between the fluid and solid is categorized as Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT). Therefore, to satisfy the needs of CHT, CHT Analysis is performed by using ANSYS CFD tool to estimate theoretically precise thermocouple positions at the combustion chamber wall where excessive temperatures (beyond thermocouple range) can be avoided. In accordance with these Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results, a combustion chamber is designed, and a prototype is manufactured with multiple thermocouple ports positioned at the specified distances so that the temperature of hot gases can be measured on the chamber wall where the temperatures do not exceed the thermocouple working range.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, conduction, conjugate heat transfer, convection, fluid flow, thermocouples

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1318 A Hybrid Combustion Chamber Design for Diesel Engines

Authors: R. Gopakumar, G. Nagarajan


Both DI and IDI systems possess inherent advantages as well as disadvantages. The objective of the present work is to obtain maximum advantages of both systems by implementing a hybrid design. A hybrid combustion chamber design consists of two combustion chambers viz., the main combustion chamber and an auxiliary combustion chamber. A fuel injector supplies major quantity of fuel to the auxiliary chamber. Due to the increased swirl motion in auxiliary chamber, mixing becomes more efficient which contributes to reduction in soot/particulate emissions. Also, by increasing the fuel injection pressure, NOx emissions can be reduced. The main objective of the hybrid combustion chamber design is to merge the positive features of both DI and IDI combustion chamber designs, which provides increased swirl motion and improved thermal efficiency. Due to the efficient utilization of fuel, low specific fuel consumption can be ensured. This system also aids in increasing the power output for same compression ratio and injection timing as compared with the conventional combustion chamber designs. The present system also reduces heat transfer and fluid dynamic losses which are encountered in IDI diesel engines. Since the losses are reduced, overall efficiency of the engine increases. It also minimizes the combustion noise and NOx emissions in conventional DI diesel engines.

Keywords: DI, IDI, hybrid combustion, diesel engines

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1317 A Summary of the Research on the Driving Mechanism of Space Expansion in China's National New District

Authors: Qin Xia


’National New District’ as a regional overall promotion of strategic thinking has become increasingly mature, but its spatial expansion is still chaotic and disorderly, so it is urgent to summarize the complex and unique driving mechanism contained in its spatial expansion to formulate sustainable urban expansion plan. Under the understanding of the general laws of the driving mechanism of China's space expansion, it is found that the existing research on the driving mechanism of the space expansion of national new districts is insufficient. The research area focuses on the research of the driving mechanism of the space expansion of a single new area. In terms of research methods, qualitative description is the main focus. In terms of research content, it is limited to the expansion speed, intensity, and area of the new district itself and does not involve the expansion and utilization efficiency of space and the spillover efficiency to surrounding cities. The specific connotations of social, economic, political, and geographical categories are not thoroughly explored. It is often a general explanation that a certain factor has promoted it. The logic is not rigorous and convincing, and the description is relatively static, with different time and space. There is less literature on scale interaction. Through the reflection on the key and difficult points of the drive mechanism of the space expansion of the national new area, it is clear that the existing research on the drive mechanism of the space expansion of the national new area should be continued to drive the sustainable expansion of space.

Keywords: national new district, space expansion, driving mechanism, existing research

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1316 The Influence of the Moving Speeds of DNA Droplet on Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: Jyh Jyh Chen, Fu H. Yang, Chen W. Wang, Yu M. Lin


In this work, a reaction chamber is reciprocated among three temperature regions by using an oscillatory thermal cycling machine. Three cartridge heaters are collocated to heat three aluminum blocks in order to achieve PCR requirements in the reaction chamber. The effects of various chamber moving speeds among different temperature regions on the chamber temperature profiles are presented. To solve the evaporation effect of the sample in the PCR experiment, the mineral oil and the cover lid are used. The influences of various extension times on DNA amplification are also demonstrated. The target fragments of the amplification are 385-bp and 420-bp. The results show when the forward speed is set at 6 mm/s and the backward speed is 2.4 mm/s, the temperature required for the experiment can be achieved. It is successful to perform the amplification of DNA fragments in our device.

Keywords: oscillatory, polymerase chain reaction, reaction chamber, thermal cycling machine

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1315 Combustion Chamber Sizing for Energy Recovery from Furnace Process Gas: Waste to Energy

Authors: Balram Panjwani, Bernd Wittgens, Jan Erik Olsen, Stein Tore Johansen


The Norwegian ferroalloy industry is a world leader in sustainable production of ferrosilicon, silicon and manganese alloys with the lowest global specific energy consumption. One of the byproducts during the metal reduction process is energy rich off-gas and usually this energy is not harnessed. A novel concept for sustainable energy recovery from ferroalloy off-gas is discussed. The concept is founded on the idea of introducing a combustion chamber in the off-gas section in which energy rich off-gas mainly consisting of CO will be combusted. This will provide an additional degree of freedom for optimizing energy recovery. A well-controlled and high off-gas temperature will assure a significant increase in energy recovery and reduction of emissions to the atmosphere. Design and operation of the combustion chamber depend on many parameters, including the total power capacity of the combustion chamber, sufficient residence time for combusting the complex Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), NOx, as well as converting other potential pollutants. The design criteria for the combustion chamber have been identified and discussed and sizing of the combustion chamber has been carried out considering these design criteria. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been utilized extensively for sizing the combustion chamber. The results from our CFD simulations of the flow in the combustion chamber and exploring different off-gas fuel composition are presented. In brief, the paper covers all aspect which impacts the sizing of the combustion chamber, including insulation thickness, choice of insulating material, heat transfer through extended surfaces, multi-staging and secondary air injection.

Keywords: CFD, combustion chamber, arc furnace, energy recovery

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1314 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar


The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux

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1313 Effects of Duct Geometry, Thickness and Types of Liners on Transmission Loss for Absorptive Silencers

Authors: M. Kashfi, K. Jahani


Sound attenuation in absorptive silencers has been analyzed in this paper. The structure of such devices is as follows. When the rigid duct of an expansion chamber has been lined by a packed absorptive material under a perforated membrane, incident sound waves will be dissipated by the absorptive liners. This kind of silencer, usually are applicable for medium to high frequency ranges. Several conditions for different absorptive materials, variety in their thicknesses, and different shapes of the expansion chambers have been studied in this paper. Also, graphs of sound attenuation have been compared between empty expansion chamber and duct of silencer with applying liner. Plane waves have been assumed in inlet and outlet regions of the silencer. Presented results that have been achieved by applying finite element method (FEM), have shown the dependence of the sound attenuation spectrum to flow resistivity and the thicknesses of the absorptive materials, and geometries of the cross section (configuration of the silencer). As flow resistivity and thickness of absorptive materials increase, sound attenuation improves. In this paper, diagrams of the transmission loss (TL) for absorptive silencers in five different cross sections (rectangle, circle, ellipse, square, and rounded rectangle as the main geometry) have been presented. Also, TL graphs for silencers using different absorptive material (glass wool, wood fiber, and kind of spongy materials) as liner with three different thicknesses of 5 mm, 15 mm, and 30 mm for glass wool liner have been exhibited. At first, the effect of substances of the absorptive materials with the specific flow resistivity and densities on the TL spectrum, then the effect of the thicknesses of the glass wool, and at last the efficacy of the shape of the cross section of the silencer have been investigated.

Keywords: transmission loss, absorptive material, flow resistivity, thickness, frequency

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1312 The Scattering in Flexible Reactive Silencer Containing Rigid Partitioning

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Junaid Uzair Satti


The noise emanating from the ducting of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is often attenuated by using the dissipative silencers. Such devices work well for the high-frequency noise but are less operative in the low-frequency noise range. The present study analyzes a reactive silencer comprising expansion chamber of the elastic membranes partitioned symmetrically by a rigid plate. The Mode-Matching scheme has been developed to solve the governing boundary value problem. The orthogonal and non-orthogonal duct modes of acoustic pressures and normal velocities are matched at interfaces. It enables to recast the differential system into the infinite system of linear algebraic of equations, which is, then truncated and inverted for the solution. The truncated solution is validated through the conservation of energy and reconstruction of matching conditions. The results for scattering energy flux and transmission loss are shown against frequency and the dimensions of the chamber. It is seen that the stop-band of the silencer can be shifted to the broadband by changing the dimensions of the chamber and the properties of the elastic membranes. The modeled reactive silencer is more efficient in low frequency regime where the passive devices are least effective.

Keywords: acoustic scattering, elastic membranes mode-matching, reactive silencer

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1311 Bacterio-Algal Microbial Fuel Cells for Sustainable Power Production, Wastewater Treatment, and Desalination

Authors: Ann D. Christy, Beenish Saba


The Microbial fuel Cell (MFC) is a successful integrated technology for power production and wastewater treatment. MFCs are recognized for their dual function, but research in this field is still ongoing to increase efficiency and power output. One such effort is successful integration of phototrophic and autotrophic microorganisms to create bacterio-algal MFCs for sustainable electricity production along with wastewater treatment and algal biomass production. An MFC is typically configured with an anaerobic anodic chamber containing exoelectrogenic microorganisms separated by a cation exchange membrane from an adjacent aerobic cathodic chamber. The two electrodes are connected by an external circuit. This conventional MFC can be converted into a phototrophic MFC by introducing photosynthetic microorganisms into the cathode chamber. This study examines adding a third desalination chamber to a two-chamber bacterio-algal MFC. Successful results have been observed from these three-chamber MFCs demonstrating wastewater treatment in the anodic chamber, phototrophic algal growth in the cathodic chamber, and desalination in the middle chamber. The present article will summarize successful results of the bacterio-algal fuel cells and offer insights about the mechanisms involved. Tables summarizing the input substrate along with optimized operational conditions and output performance in terms of power production and efficiencies of water and wastewater treatment will be presented. The negative impacts and challenges will be discussed, along with possible future research directions. Results suggest that the three chamber bacterio-algal desalination cell has potential as a feasible technology for power production, wastewater treatment and desalination, but it needs further investigation under optimized conditions.

Keywords: bacterio-algal MFC, three chamber, microbial fuel cell, wastewater treatment and desalination

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1310 Performing a Chamber Theatre Adaptation of Nick Joaquin's 'the Summer Solstice'

Authors: Allen B. Baylosis


Chamber Theatre has been one of the least articulated staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies. This creative exploratory-descriptive study responds to this gap by employing the staging technique in a Chamber Theatre production based on Nick Joaquin’s The Summer Solstice. Specifically, this study opts to understand three processes involved in the Chamber Theatre creative thesis production of The Summer Solstice as performance: performance of the theatre-maker, performance of the spect-actors, and performance of the spectators. For this purpose, the theatre-maker describes the creative process of transforming The Summer Solstice text to a Chamber Theatre production—from text to staging. The theatre-maker also analyzes the performers’ experiences and the spectators’ responses as they participate in a Chamber Theatre performance. In doing so, the theatre-maker collects qualitative data from seventeen (17) performers and qualitative feedback from twenty (20) spectators. For the mode of data analysis, this study employed Ranciere’s concept on the Emancipated Spectator (2008) and Schechner’s Performance Theory (1988). The study’s findings examine how the theatre-maker, the performers, and the spectators become distant viewers of their respective restored behavior performances. Through these viewed performances, this study implies that it is possible to ascertain a reasonable definition of purpose for Chamber Theatre. Hence, despite the existence of other modern staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies, this study concludes that Chamber Theatre remains to be a relevant staging technique.

Keywords: adaptation of text, chamber theatre, experimental theater, oral interpretation

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1309 A Measurement Device of Condensing Flow Rate, an Order of MilliGrams per Second

Authors: Hee Joon Lee


There are many difficulties in measuring a small flow rate of an order of milli grams per minute (LPM) or less using a conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a flow meter with minimal loss and based on a new concept was designed as part of this paper. A chamber was manufactured with a level transmitter and an on-off control valve. When the level of the collected condensed water reaches the top of the chamber, the valve opens to allow the collected water to drain back into the tank. To allow the water to continue to drain when the signal is lost, the valve is held open for a few seconds by a time delay switch and then closed. After an examination, the condensing flow rate was successfully measured with the uncertainty of ±5.7% of the full scale for the chamber.

Keywords: chamber, condensation, flow meter, milli-grams

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1308 Study of Acoustic Resonance of Model Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber and Its Suppression

Authors: Vimal O. Kumar, C. K. Muthukumaran, P. Rakesh


Liquid rocket engine (LRE) combustion chamber is subjected to pressure oscillation during the combustion process. The combustion noise (acoustic noise) is a broad band, small amplitude, high frequency component pressure oscillation. They constitute only a minor fraction ( < 1%) of the entire combustion process. However, this high frequency oscillation is huge concern during the design phase of LRE combustion chamber as it would cause catastrophic failure of the chamber. Depends on the chamber geometry, certain frequencies form standing wave pattern, and they resonate with high amplitude and are known as Eigen modes. These Eigen modes could cause failures unless it is suppressed to be within safe limits. These modes are categorized into radial, tangential, and azimuthal modes, and their structure inside the combustion chamber is of interest to the researchers. In the present proposal, experimental as well as numerical simulation will be performed to obtain the frequency-amplitude characteristics of the model combustion chamber for different baffle configuration. The main objective of this study is to find effect of baffle configuration that would provide better suppression of acoustic modes. The experimental study aims at measuring the frequency amplitude characteristics at certain points in the chamber wall. The experimental measurement will be also used for scheme used in numerical simulation. In addition to experiments, numerical simulation would provide detailed structure of the Eigenmodes exhibited and their level of suppression with the aid of different baffle configurations.

Keywords: baffle, instability, liquid rocket engine, pressure response of chamber

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1307 Evaluating Urban Land Expansion Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita


With massive population expansion and fast economic development in last decade, urban land has increasingly expanded and formed high informal development territory in Kabul city. This paper investigates integrated urbanization trends in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the present city using GIS and remote sensing. This study explores the spatial and temporal difference of urban land expansion and land use categories among different time intervals, 1964-1978 and 1978-2008 from 1964 to 2008 in Kabul city. Furthermore, the goal of this paper is to understand the extent of urban land expansion and the factors driving urban land expansion in Kabul city. Many factors like population expansion, the return of refugees from neighboring countries and significant economic growth of the city affected urban land expansion. Across all the study area urban land expansion rate, population expansion rate and economic growth rate have been compared to analyze the relationship of driving forces with urban land expansion. Based on urban land change data detected by interpreting land use maps, it was found that in the entire study area the urban territory has been expanded by 14 times between 1964 and 2008.

Keywords: GIS, Kabul city, land use, urban land expansion, urbanization

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1306 Power Generation through Water Vapour: An Approach of Using Sea/River/Lake Water as Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Riad


As present world needs more and more energy in a low cost way, it needs to find out the optimal way of power generation. In the sense of low cost, renewable energy is one of the greatest sources of power generation. Water vapour of sea/river/lake can be used for power generation by using the greenhouse effect in a large flat type water chamber floating on the water surface. The water chamber will always be kept half filled. When water evaporates by sunlight, the high pressured gaseous water will be stored in the chamber. By passing through a pipe and by using aerodynamics it can be used for power generation. The water level of the chamber is controlled by some means. As a large amount of water evaporates, an estimation can be highlighted, approximately 3 to 4 thousand gallons of water evaporates from per acre of surface (this amount will be more by greenhouse effect). This large amount of gaseous water can be utilized for power generation by passing through a pipe. This method can be a source of power generation.

Keywords: renewable energy, greenhouse effect, water chamber, water vapour

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1305 Performance of an Optical Readout Gas Chamber for Charged Particle Track

Authors: Jing Hu, Xiaoping Ouyang


We develop an optical readout gas chamber based on avalanche-induced scintillation for energetic charged particles track. The gas chamber is equipped with a Single Anode Wires (SAW) structure to produce intensive electric field when the measured particles are of low yield or even single. In the presence of an intensive electric field around the single anode, primary electrons, resulting from the incident charged particles when depositing the energy along the track, accelerate to the anode effectively and rapidly. For scintillation gasses, this avalanche of electrons induces multiplying photons comparing with the primary scintillation excited directly from particle energy loss. The electric field distribution for different shape of the SAW structure is analyzed, and finally, an optimal one is used to study the optical readout performance. Using CF4 gas and its mixture with the noble gas, the results indicate that the optical readout characteristics of the chamber are attractive for imaging. Moreover, images of particles track including single particle track from 5.485MeV alpha particles are successfully acquired. The track resolution is quite well for the reason that the electrons undergo less diffusion in the intensive electric field. With the simple and ingenious design, the optical readout gas chamber has a high sensitivity. Since neutrons can be converted to charged particles when scattering, this optical readout gas chamber can be applied to neutron measurement for dark matter, fusion research, and others.

Keywords: optical readout, gas chamber, charged particle track, avalanche-induced scintillation, neutron measurement

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1304 A Generalization of Planar Pascal’s Triangle to Polynomial Expansion and Connection with Sierpinski Patterns

Authors: Wajdi Mohamed Ratemi


The very well-known stacked sets of numbers referred to as Pascal’s triangle present the coefficients of the binomial expansion of the form (x+y)n. This paper presents an approach (the Staircase Horizontal Vertical, SHV-method) to the generalization of planar Pascal’s triangle for polynomial expansion of the form (x+y+z+w+r+⋯)n. The presented generalization of Pascal’s triangle is different from other generalizations of Pascal’s triangles given in the literature. The coefficients of the generalized Pascal’s triangles, presented in this work, are generated by inspection, using embedded Pascal’s triangles. The coefficients of I-variables expansion are generated by horizontally laying out the Pascal’s elements of (I-1) variables expansion, in a staircase manner, and multiplying them with the relevant columns of vertically laid out classical Pascal’s elements, hence avoiding factorial calculations for generating the coefficients of the polynomial expansion. Furthermore, the classical Pascal’s triangle has some pattern built into it regarding its odd and even numbers. Such pattern is known as the Sierpinski’s triangle. In this study, a presentation of Sierpinski-like patterns of the generalized Pascal’s triangles is given. Applications related to those coefficients of the binomial expansion (Pascal’s triangle), or polynomial expansion (generalized Pascal’s triangles) can be in areas of combinatorics, and probabilities.

Keywords: pascal’s triangle, generalized pascal’s triangle, polynomial expansion, sierpinski’s triangle, combinatorics, probabilities

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1303 Characterization of an Extrapolation Chamber for Dosimetry of Low Energy X-Ray Beams

Authors: Fernanda M. Bastos, Teógenes A. da Silva


Extrapolation chambers were designed to be used as primary standard dosimeter for measuring absorbed dose in a medium in beta radiation and low energy x-rays. The International Organization for Standardization established series of reference x-radiation for calibrating and determining the energy dependence of dosimeters that are to be reproduced in metrology laboratories. Standardization of the low energy x-ray beams with tube potential lower than 30 kV may be affected by the instrument used for dosimetry. In this work, parameters of a 23392 model PTW extrapolation chamber were determined aiming its use in low energy x-ray beams as a reference instrument.

Keywords: extrapolation chamber, low energy x-rays, x-ray dosimetry, X-ray metrology

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1302 Grating Scale Thermal Expansion Error Compensation for Large Machine Tools Based on Multiple Temperature Detection

Authors: Wenlong Feng, Zhenchun Du, Jianguo Yang


To decrease the grating scale thermal expansion error, a novel method which based on multiple temperature detections is proposed. Several temperature sensors are installed on the grating scale and the temperatures of these sensors are recorded. The temperatures of every point on the grating scale are calculated by interpolating between adjacent sensors. According to the thermal expansion principle, the grating scale thermal expansion error model can be established by doing the integral for the variations of position and temperature. A novel compensation method is proposed in this paper. By applying the established error model, the grating scale thermal expansion error is decreased by 90% compared with no compensation. The residual positioning error of the grating scale is less than 15um/10m and the accuracy of the machine tool is significant improved.

Keywords: thermal expansion error of grating scale, error compensation, machine tools, integral method

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1301 Effect of Texture of Orthorhombic Martensite on Thermal Expansion of Metastable Titanium Alloy

Authors: E. Stepanova, N. Popov, S. Demakov, S. Stepanov


This paper examines the so-called invar-type behavior of metastable titanium alloy subjected to cold rolling. The effect was shown to occur due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion of titanium orthorhombic martensite. By means of X-ray diffraction analysis and dilatometry analyses, the influence of crystallographic texture of orthorhombic martensite on the coefficient of thermal expansion of sheets of metastable titanium alloy VT23 was examined. Anisotropy of the coefficient of thermal expansion has been revealed. It was lower in the rolling plane and higher along the transverse direction of the cold-rolled sheet comparing to the coefficient of thermal expansion of the unprocessed alloy.

Keywords: invar-type, cold rolling, metastable titanium alloy, texture

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1300 Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Can-Type Combustion Chamber

Authors: Selvakuma Kumaresh, Man Young Kim


Combustion phenomenon will be accomplished effectively by the development of low emission combustor. One of the significant factors influencing the entire Combustion process is the mixing between a swirling angular jet (Primary Air) and the non-swirling inner jet (fuel). To study this fundamental flow, the chamber had to be designed in such a manner that the combustion process to sustain itself in a continuous manner and the temperature of the products is sufficiently below the maximum working temperature in the turbine. This study is used to develop the effective combustion with low unburned combustion products by adopting the concept of high swirl flow and motility of holes in the secondary chamber. The proper selection of a swirler is needed to reduce emission which can be concluded from the emission of Nox and CO2. The capture of CO2 is necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from natural gas. Thus the suppression of unburned gases is a meaningful objective for the development of high performance combustor without affecting turbine blade temperature.

Keywords: combustion, emission, can-type combustion chamber, CFD, motility of holes, swirl flow

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1299 A Study on Explicitation Strategies Employed in Persian Subtitling of English Crime Movies

Authors: Hossein Heidari Tabrizi, Azizeh Chalak, Hossein Enayat


The present study seeks to investigate the application of expansion strategy in Persian subtitles of English crime movies. More precisely, this study aims at classifying the different types of expansion used in subtitles as well as investigating the appropriateness or inappropriateness of the application of each type. To achieve this end, three English movies; namely, The Net (1995), Contact (1997) and Mission Impossible 2 (2000), available with Persian subtitles, were selected for the study. To collect the data, the above mentioned movies were watched and those parts of the Persian subtitles in which expansion had been used were identified and extracted along with their English dialogs. Then, the extracted Persian subtitles were classified based on the reason that led to expansion in each case. Next, the appropriateness or inappropriateness of using expansion in the extracted Persian subtitles was descriptively investigated. Finally, an equivalent not containing any expansion was proposed for those cases in which the meaning could be fully transferred without this strategy. The findings of the study indicated that the reasons range from explicitation (explicitation of visual, co-textual and contextual information), mistranslation and paraphrasing to the preferences of subtitlers. Furthermore, it was found that the employment of expansion strategy was inappropriate in all cases except for those caused by explicitation of contextual information since correct and shorter equivalents which were equally capable of conveying the intended meaning could be posited for the original dialogs.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, English crime movies, expansion strategies, Persian subtitles

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1298 Hybrid Finite Element Analysis of Expansion Joints for Piping Systems in Aircraft Engine External Configurations and Nuclear Power Plants

Authors: Dong Wook Lee


This paper presents a method to analyze the stiffness of the expansion joint with structural support using a hybrid method combining computational and analytical methods. Many expansion joints found in tubes and ducts of mechanical structures are designed to absorb thermal expansion mismatch between their structural members and deal with misalignments introduced from the assembly/manufacturing processes. One of the important design perspectives is the system’s vibrational characteristics. We calculate the stiffness as a characterization parameter for structural joint systems using a combined Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and an analytical method. We apply the methods to two sample applications: external configurations of aircraft engines and nuclear power plant structures.

Keywords: expansion joint, expansion joint stiffness, finite element analysis, nuclear power plants, aircraft engine external configurations

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1297 Urban Land Expansion Impact Assessment on Agriculture Land in Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Ahmad Sharif Ahmadi, Yoshitaka Kajita


Kabul city is experiencing urban land expansion in an unprecedented scale, especially since the last decade. With massive population expansion and fast economic development, urban land has increasingly expanded and encroached upon agriculture land during the urbanization history of the city. This paper evaluates the integrated urban land expansion impact on agriculture land in Kabul city since the formation of the basic structure of the city between 1962-1964. The paper studies the temporal and spatial characteristic of agriculture land and agriculture land loss in Kabul city using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing till 2008. Many temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imageries were interpreted to detect the temporal and spatial characteristics of agriculture land loss. Different interval study periods, however, had vast difference in the agriculture land loss which is due to the urban land expansion trends in the city. the high number of Agriculture land adjacent to the city center and urban fringe have been converted into urban land during the study period in the city, as the agriculture land is highly correlated with the urban land.

Keywords: agriculture land, agriculture land loss, Kabul city, urban land expansion, urbanization

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1296 Mechanical Properties and Shrinkage and Expansion Assessment of Rice Husk Ash Concrete and Its Comparison with the Control Concrete

Authors: Hamed Ahmadi Moghadam, Omolbanin Arasteh Khoshbin


The possibility of using of rice husk ash (RHA) of Guilan (a province located in the north of Iran) (RHA) in concrete was studied by performing experiments. Mechanical properties and shrinkage and expansion of concrete containing different percentage of RHA and the control concrete consisting of cement type II were investigated. For studying, a number of cube and prism concrete specimens containing of 5 to 30% of RHA with constant water to binder ratio of 0.4 were casted and the compressive strength, tensile strength, shrinkage and expansion for water curing conditions up to 360 days were measured. The tests results show that the cement replacement of rice husk ash (RHA) caused both the quality and mechanical properties alterations. It is shown that the compressive strength, tensile strength increase also shrinkage and expansion of specimens were increased that should be controlled in mass concrete structures.

Keywords: rice husk ash, mechanical properties, shrinkage and expansion, Pozzolan

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1295 Evaluation of Spatial Correlation Length and Karhunen-Loeve Expansion Terms for Predicting Reliability Level of Long-Term Settlement in Soft Soils

Authors: Mehrnaz Alibeikloo, Hadi Khabbaz, Behzad Fatahi


The spectral random field method is one of the widely used methods to obtain more reliable and accurate results in geotechnical problems involving material variability. Karhunen-Loeve (K-L) expansion method was applied to perform random field discretization of cross-correlated creep parameters. Karhunen-Loeve expansion method is based on eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of covariance function adopting Kernel integral solution. In this paper, the accuracy of Karhunen-Loeve expansion was investigated to predict long-term settlement of soft soils adopting elastic visco-plastic creep model. For this purpose, a parametric study was carried to evaluate the effect of K-L expansion terms and spatial correlation length on the reliability of results. The results indicate that small values of spatial correlation length require more K-L expansion terms. Moreover, by increasing spatial correlation length, the coefficient of variation (COV) of creep settlement increases, confirming more conservative and safer prediction.

Keywords: Karhunen-Loeve expansion, long-term settlement, reliability analysis, spatial correlation length

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1294 Transmission Network Expansion Planning in Deregulated Power Systems to Facilitate Competition under Uncertainties

Authors: Hooshang Mohammad Alikhani, Javad Nikoukar


Restructuring and deregulation of power industry have changed the objectives of transmission expansion planning and increased the uncertainties. Due to these changes, new approaches and criteria are needed for transmission planning in deregulated power systems. The objective of this research work is to present a new approach for transmission expansion planning with considering new objectives and uncertainties in deregulated power systems. The approach must take into account the desires of all stakeholders in transmission expansion planning. Market based criteria must be defined to achieve the new objectives. Combination of market based criteria, technical criteria and economical criteria must be used for measuring the goodness of expansion plans to achieve market requirements, technical requirements, and economical requirements altogether.

Keywords: deregulated power systems, transmission network, stakeholder, energy systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 539
1293 Experimental Approach for Determining Hemi-Anechoic Characteristics of Engineering Acoustical Test Chambers

Authors: Santiago Montoya-Ospina, Raúl E. Jiménez-Mejía, Rosa Elvira Correa Gutiérrez


An experimental methodology is proposed for determining hemi-anechoic characteristics of an engineering acoustic room built at the facilities of Universidad Nacional de Colombia to evaluate the free-field conditions inside the chamber. Experimental results were compared with theoretical ones in both, the source and the sound propagation inside the chamber. Acoustic source was modeled by using monopole radiation pattern from punctual sources and the image method was considered for dealing with the reflective plane of the room, that means, the floor without insulation. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method was implemented to calculate the sound pressure value at every spatial point of the chamber. Comparison between theoretical and experimental data yields to minimum error, giving satisfactory results for the hemi-anechoic characterization of the chamber.

Keywords: acoustic impedance, finite-difference time-domain, hemi-anechoic characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 88