Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 249

Search results for: EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation)

249 Design Parameters Optimization of a Gas Turbine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation: An Energy and Exergy Approach

Authors: Joe Hachem, Marianne Cuif-Sjostrand, Thierry Schuhler, Dominique Orhon, Assaad Zoughaib

Abstract:

The exhaust gas recirculation, EGR, implementation on gas turbines is increasingly gaining the attention of many researchers. This emerging technology presents many advantages, such as lowering the NOx emissions and facilitating post-combustion carbon capture as the carbon dioxide concentration in the cycle increases. As interesting as this technology may seem, the gas turbine, or its thermodynamic equivalent, the Brayton cycle, shows an intrinsic efficiency decrease with increasing EGR rate. In this paper, a thermodynamic model is presented to show the cycle efficiency decrease with EGR, alternative values of design parameters of both the pressure ratio (PR) and the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) are then proposed to optimize the cycle efficiency with different EGR rates. Results show that depending on the given EGR rate, both the design PR & TIT should be increased to compensate for the deficit in efficiency.

Keywords: gas turbines, exhaust gas recirculation, design parameters optimization, thermodynamic approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
248 Investigation Effect of External Flow to Exhaust Gas Flow at Heavy Commercial Vehicle with CFD

Authors: F. Kantaş, D. Boyacı, C. Dinç

Abstract:

Exhaust systems plays an important role in thermal heat management. Exhaust manifold picks burned gas from engine and exhaust pipes transmit exhaust gas to muffler, exhaust gas is reacted chemically to avoid noxious gas and sound is reduced in muffler then gas is threw out with tail pipe from muffler. Exhaust gas flows out from tail pipe and this hot gas flows to many parts that available around tail pipe and muffler, like spare tire, transmission, pipes etc. These parts are heated by hot exhaust gas. Also vehicle on ride, external flow effects exhaust gas flow and exhaust gas behavior is changed. It's impossible to understand which parts are heated by hot exhaust gas in tests. To understand this phenomena, exhaust gas flow is solved in CFD also external flow due to vehicle movement must be solved with exhaust gas flow. Because external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior with many parameters. This paper investigates external flow effects exhaust gas flow behavior and other critical parameters effect exhaust gas flow behavior, like different tail pipe design, exhaust gas mass flow in critic vehicle driving situations.

Keywords: exhaust, gas flow, vehicle, external flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
247 Experimental Study of Exhaust Muffler System for Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

Authors: Abdallah F. Abd El-Mohsen, Ahmed A. Abdelsamee, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

Engine exhaust noise is considered one of the largest sources of vehicle exterior noise. Further reduction of noise from the vehicle exhaust system will be required, as the vehicle exterior noise regulations become stricter. Therefore, the present study has been carried out to illustrate the role of engine operating parameters and exhaust system construction factors on exhaust noise emitted. The measurements carried out using different exhaust systems, which are mainly used in today’s vehicle. The effect of engine speed on the spectra level of exhaust noise is recorded at engine speeds of 900 rpm, 1800 rpm, 2700, rpm 3600 rpm and 4500 rpm. The results indicate that the increase of engine speed causes a significant increase in the spectrum level of exhaust noise. The increase in the number of the outlet of the expansion chamber also reduces the overall level of exhaust noise.

Keywords: exhaust system, expansion chamber, engine speed, spectra

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
246 Examination of Internally and Externally Coated Cr3C2 Exhaust Pipe of a Diesel Engine via Plasma Spray Method

Authors: H. Hazar, S. Sap

Abstract:

In this experimental study; internal and external parts of an exhaust pipe were coated with a chromium carbide (Cr3C2) material having a thickness of 100 micron by using the plasma spray method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. Thus, the results of continuing chemical reaction in coated and uncoated exhaust pipes were investigated. Internally and externally coated exhaust pipe was compared with the standard exhaust system. External heat transfer occurring as a result of coating the internal and external parts of the exhaust pipe was reduced and its effects on harmful exhaust emissions were investigated. As a result of the experiments; a remarkable improvement was determined in emission values as a result of delay in cooling of exhaust gases due to the coating.

Keywords: chrome carbide, diesel engine, exhaust emission, thermal barrier

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
245 Heat Transfer Correlations for Exhaust Gas Flow

Authors: Fatih Kantas

Abstract:

Exhaust systems are key contributors to ground vehicles as a heat source. Understanding heat transfer in exhaust systems is related to defining effective parameter on heat transfer in exhaust system. In this journal, over 20 Nusselt numbers are investigated. This study shows advantages and disadvantages of various Nusselt numbers in different range Re, Pr and pulsating flow amplitude and frequency. Also (CAF) Convective Augmentation Factors are defined to correct standard Nusselt number for geometry and location of exhaust system. Finally, optimum Nusselt number and Convective Augmentation Factors are recommended according to Re, Pr and pulsating flow amplitude and frequency, geometry and location effect of exhaust system.

Keywords: exhaust gas flow, heat transfer correlation, Nusselt, Prandtl, pulsating flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
244 Investigating the Effects of Cylinder Disablement on Diesel Engine Fuel Economy and Exhaust Temperature Management

Authors: Hasan Ustun Basaran

Abstract:

Diesel engines are widely used in transportation sector due to their high thermal efficiency. However, they also release high rates of NOₓ and PM (particulate matter) emissions into the environment which have hazardous effects on human health. Therefore, environmental protection agencies have issued strict emission regulations on automotive diesel engines. Recently, these regulations are even increasingly strengthened. Engine producers search novel on-engine methods such as advanced combustion techniques, utilization of renewable fuels, exhaust gas recirculation, advanced fuel injection methods or use exhaust after-treatment (EAT) systems in order to reduce emission rates on diesel engines. Although those aforementioned on-engine methods are effective to curb emission rates, they result in inefficiency or cannot decrease emission rates satisfactorily at all operating conditions. Therefore, engine manufacturers apply both on-engine techniques and EAT systems to meet the stringent emission norms. EAT systems are highly effective to diminish emission rates, however, they perform inefficiently at low loads due to low exhaust gas temperatures (below 250°C). Therefore, the objective of this study is to demonstrate that engine-out temperatures can be elevated above 250°C at low-loaded cases via cylinder disablement. The engine studied and modeled via Lotus Engine Simulation (LES) software is a six-cylinder turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. Exhaust temperatures and mass flow rates are predicted at 1200 rpm engine speed and several low loaded conditions using LES program. It is seen that cylinder deactivation results in a considerable exhaust temperature rise (up to 100°C) at low loads which ensures effective EAT management. The method also improves fuel efficiency through reduced total pumping loss. Decreased total air induction due to inactive cylinders is thought to be responsible for improved engine pumping loss. The technique reduces exhaust gas flow rate as air flow is cut off on disabled cylinders. Still, heat transfer rates to the after-treatment catalyst bed do not decrease that much since exhaust temperatures are increased sufficiently. Simulation results are promising; however, further experimental studies are needed to identify the true potential of the method on fuel consumption and EAT improvement.

Keywords: cylinder disablement, diesel engines, exhaust after-treatment, exhaust temperature, fuel efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
243 Design and Performance Optimization of Isostatic Pressing Working Cylinder Automatic Exhaust Valve

Authors: Wei-Zhao, Yannian-Bao, Xing-Fan, Lei-Cao

Abstract:

An isostatic pressing working cylinder automatic exhaust valve is designed. The finite element models of valve core and valve body under ultra-high pressure work environment are built to study the influence of interact of valve core and valve body to sealing performance. The contact stresses of metal sealing surface with different sizes are calculated and the automatic exhaust valve is optimized. The result of simulation and experiment shows that the sealing of optimized exhaust valve is more reliable and the service life is greatly improved. The optimized exhaust valve has been used in the warm isostatic pressing equipment.

Keywords: exhaust valve, sealing, ultra-high pressure, isostatic pressing

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
242 A Three-Dimensional Investigation of Stabilized Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Different Type of Fuel

Authors: Moataz Medhat, Essam E. Khalil, Hatem Haridy

Abstract:

In the present study, a numerical simulation study is used to 3-D model the steady-state combustion of a staged natural gas flame in a 300 kW swirl-stabilized burner, using ANSYS solver to find the highest combustion efficiency by changing the inlet air swirl number and burner quarl angle in a furnace and showing the effect of flue gas recirculation, type of fuel and staging. The combustion chamber of the gas turbine is a cylinder of diameter 1006.8 mm, and a height of 1651mm ending with a hood until the exhaust cylinder has been reached, where the exit of combustion products which have a diameter of 300 mm, with a height of 751mm. The model was studied by 15 degree of the circumference due to axisymmetric of the geometry and divided into a mesh of about 1.1 million cells. The numerical simulations were performed by solving the governing equations in a three-dimensional model using realizable K-epsilon equations to express the turbulence and non-premixed flamelet combustion model taking into consideration radiation effect. The validation of the results was done by comparing it with other experimental data to ensure the agreement of the results. The study showed two zones of recirculation. The primary one is at the center of the furnace, and the location of the secondary one varies by changing the quarl angle of the burner. It is found that the increase in temperature in the external recirculation zone is a result of increasing the swirl number of the inlet air stream. Also it was found that recirculating part of the combustion products back to the combustion zone decreases pollutants formation especially nitrogen monoxide.

Keywords: burner selection, natural gas, analysis, recirculation

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
241 Numerical Simulation of Air Flow, Exhaust and Their Mixture in a Helicopter Exhaust Injective Cooler

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Konrad Pietrykowski, Krzysztof Skiba

Abstract:

Due to low-altitude and relatively low flight speed, today’s combat assets like missile weapons equipped with infrared guidance systems are one of the most important threats to the helicopters performing combat missions. Especially meaningful in helicopter aviation is infrared emission by exhaust gases, regressed to the surroundings. Due to high temperature, exhaust gases are a major factor in detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. This study presents the results of simulating the flow of the mixture of exhaust and air in the flow duct of an injective exhaust cooler, adapted to cooperate with the PZL 10W turbine engine. The simulation was performed using a numerical model and the ANSYS Fluent software. Simulation computations were conducted for set flight conditions of the PZL W-3 Falcon helicopter. The conclusions resulting from the conducted numerical computations should allow for optimisation of the flow duct geometry in the cooler, in order to achieve the greatest possible temperature reduction of exhaust exiting into the surroundings. It is expected that the obtained results should be useful for further works related to the development of the final version of exhaust cooler for the PZL W-3 Falcon helicopter.

Keywords: exhaust cooler, helicopter, numerical simulation, stealth

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
240 Combustion Improvements by C4/C5 Bio-Alcohol Isomer Blended Fuels Combined with Supercharging and EGR in a Diesel Engine

Authors: Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Enkhjargal Tserenochir, Eiji Kinoshita, Takeshi Otaka

Abstract:

Next generation bio-alcohols produced from non-food based sources like cellulosic biomass are promising renewable energy sources. The present study investigates engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by four kinds of next generation bio-alcohol isomer and diesel fuel blends with a constant blending ratio of 3:7 (mass). The tested bio-alcohol isomers here are n-butanol and iso-butanol (C4 alcohol), and n-pentanol and iso-pentanol (C5 alcohol). To obtain simultaneous reductions in NOx and smoke emissions, the experiments employed supercharging combined with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The boost pressures were fixed at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated operation) and 120 kPa (supercharged operation) provided with a roots blower type supercharger. The EGR rates were varied from 0 to 25% using a cooled EGR technique. The results showed that both with and without supercharging, all the bio-alcohol blended diesel fuels improved the trade-off relation between NOx and smoke emissions at all EGR rates while maintaining good engine performance, when compared with diesel fuel operation. It was also found that regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the ignition delays of the tested bio-alcohol isomer blends are in the order of iso-butanol > n-butanol > iso-pentanol > n-pentanol. Overall, it was concluded that, except for the changes in the ignition delays the influence of bio-alcohol isomer blends on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions are relatively small.

Keywords: alternative fuel, butanol, diesel engine, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), next generation bio-alcohol isomer blended fuel, pentanol, supercharging

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
239 Research on Steam Injection Technology of Extended Range Engine Cylinder for Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Zhiyuan Jia, Xiuxiu Sun, Yong Chen, Liu Hai, Shuangqing Li

Abstract:

The engine cooling water and exhaust gas contain a large amount of available energy. In order to improve energy efficiency, a steam injection technology based on waste heat recovery is proposed. The models of cooling water waste heat utilization, exhaust gas waste heat utilization, and exhaust gas-cooling water waste heat utilization were constructed, and the effects of the three modes on the performance of steam injection were analyzed, and then the feasibility of in-cylinder water injection steam technology based on waste heat recovery was verified. The research results show that when the injection water flow rate is 0.10 kg/s and the temperature is 298 K, at a cooling water temperature of 363 K, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the cooling water can reach 314.5 K; at an exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and an exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, the maximum temperature of the injection water heated by the exhaust gas can reach 430 K; Under the condition of cooling water temperature of 363 K, exhaust gas temperature of 973 K and exhaust gas flow rate of 0.12 kg/s, after cooling water and exhaust gas heating, the maximum temperature of the injection water can reach 463 K. When the engine is 1200 rpm, the water injection volume is 30 mg, and the water injection time is 36°CA, the engine power increases by 2% and the fuel consumption is reduced by 2.6%.

Keywords: cooling water, exhaust gas, extended range engine, steam injection, waste heat recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
238 Application of Exhaust Gas-Air Brake System in Petrol and Diesel Engine

Authors: Gurlal Singh, Rupinder Singh

Abstract:

The possible role of the engine brake is to convert a power-producing engine into a power-absorbing retarding mechanism. In this braking system, exhaust gas (EG) from the internal combustion (IC) engines is used to operate air brake in the automobiles. Airbrake is most used braking system in vehicles. In the proposed model, instead of air brake, EG is used to operate the brake lever and stored in a specially designed tank. This pressure of EG is used to operate the pneumatic cylinder and brake lever. Filters used to remove the impurities from the EG, then it is allowed to store in the tank. Pressure relief valve is used to achieve a specific pressure in the tank and helps to avoid further damage to the tank as well as in an engine. The petrol engine is used in the proposed EG braking system. The petrol engine is chosen initially because it produces less impurity in the exhaust than diesel engines. Moreover, exhaust brake system (EBS) for the Diesel engines is composed of gate valve, pneumatic cylinder and exhaust brake valve with the on-off solenoid. Exhaust brake valve which is core component of EBS should have characteristics such as high reliability and long life. In a diesel engine, there is butterfly valve in exhaust manifold connected with solenoid switch which is used to on and off the butterfly valve. When butterfly valve closed partially, then the pressure starts built up inside the exhaust manifold and cylinder that actually resist the movement of piston leads to crankshaft getting stops resulting stopping of the flywheel. It creates breaking effect in a diesel engine. The exhaust brake is a supplementary breaking system to the service brake. It is noted that exhaust brake increased 2-3 fold the life of service brake may be due to the creation of negative torque which retards the speed of the engine. More study may also be warranted for the best suitable design of exhaust brake in a diesel engine.

Keywords: exhaust gas, automobiles, solenoid, airbrake

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
237 Study on NOₓ Emission Characteristics of Internal Gas Recirculation Technique

Authors: DaeHae Kim, MinJun Kwon, Sewon Kim

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This study is aimed to develop ultra-low NOₓ burner using the internal recirculation of flue gas inside the combustion chamber that utilizes the momentum of intake fuel and air. Detailed experimental investigations are carried out to study these fluid dynamic effects on the emission characteristics of newly developed burner in industrial steam boiler system. Experimental parameters are distance of Venturi tube from burner, Coanda nozzle gap distance, and air sleeve length at various fuel/air ratio and thermal heat load conditions. The results showed that NOₓ concentration decreases as the distance of Venturi tube from burner increases. The CO concentration values at all operating conditions were negligible. In addition, the increase of the Coanda nozzle gap distance decreased the NOₓ concentration. It is experimentally found out that both fuel injection recirculation and air injection recirculation technique was very effective in reducing NOₓ formation.

Keywords: Coanda effect, combustion, burner, low NOₓ

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
236 Estimation of Exhaust and Non-Exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions’ Share from On-Road Vehicles in Addis Ababa City

Authors: Solomon Neway Jida, Jean-Francois Hetet, Pascal Chesse

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Vehicular emission is the key source of air pollution in the urban environment. This includes both fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matters (PM10). However, particulate matter emissions from road traffic comprise emissions from exhaust tailpipe and emissions due to wear and tear of the vehicle part such as brake, tire and clutch and re-suspension of dust (non-exhaust emission). This study estimates the share of the two sources of pollutant particle emissions from on-roadside vehicles in the Addis Ababa municipality, Ethiopia. To calculate its share, two methods were applied; the exhaust-tailpipe emissions were calculated using the Europeans emission inventory Tier II method and Tier I for the non-exhaust emissions (like vehicle tire wear, brake, and road surface wear). The results show that of the total traffic-related particulate emissions in the city, 63% emitted from vehicle exhaust and the remaining 37% from non-exhaust sources. The annual roads transport exhaust emission shares around 2394 tons of particles from all vehicle categories. However, from the total yearly non-exhaust particulate matter emissions’ contribution, tire and brake wear shared around 65% and 35% emanated by road-surface wear. Furthermore, vehicle tire and brake wear were responsible for annual 584.8 tons of coarse particles (PM10) and 314.4 tons of fine particle matter (PM2.5) emissions in the city whereas surface wear emissions were responsible for around 313.7 tons of PM10 and 169.9 tons of PM2.5 pollutant emissions in the city. This suggests that non-exhaust sources might be as significant as exhaust sources and have a considerable contribution to the impact on air quality.

Keywords: Addis Ababa, automotive emission, emission estimation, particulate matters

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235 The Investigation of LPG Injector Control Circuit on a Motorcycle

Authors: Bin-Wen Lan, Ying-Xin Chen, Hsueh-Cheng Yang

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Liquefied petroleum gas is a fuel that has high octane number and low carbon number. This paper uses MSC-51 controller to investigate the effect of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on exhaust emissions for different engine speeds in a single cylinder, four-stroke and spark ignition engine. The results indicate that CO, CO2 and NOX exhaust emissions are lower with the use of LPG compared to the use of unleaded gasoline by using the developed controller. The open-loop in the LPG injection system was controlled by MCS-51 single chip. The results show that if a SI engine is operated with LPG fuel rather than gasoline fuel under the same conditions, significant reduction in exhaust emissions can be achieved. In summary, LPG has positive effects on main exhaust emissions such as CO, CO2 and NOX.

Keywords: LPG, control circuit, emission, MCS-51

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
234 Modelling of Lunar Lander’s Thruster’s Exhaust Plume Impingement in Vacuum

Authors: Mrigank Sahai, R. Sri Raghu

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This paper presents the modelling of rocket exhaust plume flow field and exhaust plume impingement in vacuum for the liquid apogee engine and attitude control thrusters of the lunar lander. Analytic formulations for rarefied gas kinetics has been taken as reference for modelling the plume flow field. The plume has been modelled as high speed, collision-less, axi-symmetric gas jet, expanding into vacuum and impinging at a normally set diffusive circular plate. Specular reflections have not been considered for the present study. Different parameters such as number density, temperature, pressure, flow velocity, heat flux etc., have been calculated and have been plotted against and compared to Direct Simulation Monte Carlo results. These analyses have provided important information for the placement of critical optical instruments and design of optimal thermal insulation for the hardware that may come in contact with the thruster exhaust.

Keywords: collision-less gas, lunar lander, plume impingement, rarefied exhaust plume

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
233 Modelling of Filters CO2 (Carbondioxide) and CO (Carbonmonoxide) Portable in Motor Vehicle's Exhaust with Absorbent Chitosan

Authors: Yuandanis Wahyu Salam, Irfi Panrepi, Nuraeni

Abstract:

The increased of greenhouse gases, that is CO2 (carbondioxide) in atmosphere induce the rising of earth’s surface average temperature. One of the largest contributors to greenhouse gases is motor vehicles. Smoke which is emitted by motor’s exhaust containing gases such as CO2 (carbondioxide) and CO (carbon monoxide). Chemically, chitosan is cellulose like plant fiber that has the ability to bind like absorbant foam. Chitosan is a natural antacid (absorb toxins), when chitosan is spread over the surface of water, chitosan is able to absorb fats, oils, heavy metals, and other toxic substances. Judging from the nature of chitosan is able to absorb various toxic substances, it is expected that chitosan is also able to filter out gas emission from the motor vehicles. This study designing a carbondioxide filter in the exhaust of motor vehicles using chitosan as its absorbant. It aims to filter out gases in the exhaust so that CO2 and CO can be reducted before emitted by exhaust. Form of this reseach is study of literature and applied with experimental research of tool manufacture. Data collected through documentary studies by studying books, magazines, thesis, search on the internet as well as the relevant reference. This study will produce a filters which has main function to filter out CO2 and CO emissions that generated by vehicle’s exhaust and can be used as portable.

Keywords: filter, carbon, carbondioxide, exhaust, chitosan

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
232 In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery of an I. C. Engine Using Water Injection

Authors: Jayakrishnan U.

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A concept of adding two strokes to a four stroke Otto or Diesel engine cycle presented here for the waste heat recovery in a four stroke internal combustion engine. Four stroke Diesel cycle and Otto cycle engines have very low thermal efficiency due to high amount of energy loss in exhaust and also on the cooling of the engine. It is estimated about 35 percent of fuel energy is lost in exhaust of engine and 30 percent in cooling of engine. So by modifying a four-stroke Otto or Diesel engine by adding two-stroke heat recovery steam cycle is presented here. Water injection is used to get an additional power stroke by partial compression of the exhaust gases at the end of third stroke in a four stroke I.C.Engine. It is the conversion of a four-stroke cycle to a six-stroke cycle. By taking a four stroke petrol engine of known dimensions, an ideal thermodynamic model is used to analyse and calculate the events of exhaust gas compression and following two strokes of water injection. By changing the exhaust valve closing timing during exhaust stroke and analysing it on various points, an optimum amount of exhaust gas re-compression and amount of water injection can be found for maximizing efficiency and fuel economy. It is achieved by changing the exhaust valve timing and finding an optimum amount of exhaust re-compression, maximizing the net mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). Specific fuel consumption of the engine also decreases increasing the fuel economy. The valve closing timings for maximum MEPsteam is limited by either 1 bar or dew point temperature of expansion gas or moisture mixture to avoid moisture formation. By modifying the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle by adding two water injection stroke has the potential to significantly increase the engine efficiency and fuel economy.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, engine efficiency, six-stroke cycle, water injection, specific fuel consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
231 Investigation of Stabilized Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Synthesis Fuel with Different Burner Configurations

Authors: Moataz Medhat, Essam Khalil, Hatem Haridy

Abstract:

The present study investigates the flame structure of turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel in a 300 KW swirl-stabilized burner. The three-dimensional model adopts a realizable k-ε turbulent scheme interacting with two-dimensional PDF combustion scheme by applying flamelet concept. The study reveals more characteristics on turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel when changing the inlet air swirl number and the burner quarl angle. Moreover, it concerns with studying the effect of flue gas recirculation and staging with taking radiation effect into consideration. The comparison with natural gas was investigated. The study showed two zones of recirculation, the primary one is at the center of the furnace, and the location of the secondary one varies by changing the quarl angle of the burner. The results revealed an increase in temperature in the external recirculation zone as a result of increasing the swirl number of the inlet air stream. Also, it was found that recirculating part of the combustion products decreases pollutants formation especially nitrogen monoxide. The predicted results showed a great agreement when compared with the experiments.

Keywords: gas turbine, syngas, analysis, recirculation

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
230 Numerical Evaluation of the Flow Behavior inside the Scrubber Unit with Engine Exhaust Pipe

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

A wet scrubber is an air pollution control device that removes particulate matter and acid gases from waste gas streams found in marine engine exhaust. If the flue gases in the exhaust is employed for CFD simulation, it makes the problem complicate due to the involvement of emissions. Owing to the fact, the scrubber system in this paper is handled with appropriate approach by designing with the flow properties of hot air and water droplet injections to evaluate the flow behavior inside the system. Since the wet scrubber has the capability of operating over wide range of mixture compositions, the current scrubber model with the designing approach doesn’t deviate from the actual behavior of the system. The scrubber design is constructed with engine exhaust pipe with the purpose of measuring the flow properties inside the scrubber by the influence of exhaust pipe characteristics. The flow properties are computed by the thermodynamic variables such as temperature and pressure with the flow velocity. In this work, numerical analyses have been conducted for the flow of fluid in the scrubber system through CFD technique.

Keywords: wet scrubber, water droplet injections, thermodynamic variables, CFD technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
229 Experimental Analysis of Electrical Energy Producing Using the Waste Heat of Exhaust Gas by the Help of Thermoelectric Generator

Authors: Dilek Ozlem Esen, Mesut Kaya

Abstract:

The focus of this study is to analyse the results of heat recovery from exhaust gas which is produced by an internal combustion engine (ICE). To obtain a small amount of energy, an exhaust system which is suitable for recovery waste heat has been constructed. Totally 27 TEGs have been used to convert from the heat to electric energy. By producing a small amount of this energy by the help of thermoelectric generators can reduce engine loads thus decreasing pollutant emissions, fuel consumption, and CO2. This case study is conducted in an effort to better understand and improve the performance of thermoelectric heat recovery systems for automotive use. As a result of this study, 0,45 A averaged current rate, 13,02 V averaged voltage rate and 5,8 W averaged electrical energy have been produced in a five hours operation time.

Keywords: thermoelectric, peltier, thermoelectric generator (TEG), exhaust, cogeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 496
228 Helicopter Exhaust Gases Cooler in Terms of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Ksenia Siadkowska

Abstract:

Due to the low-altitude and relatively low-speed flight, helicopters are easy targets for actual combat assets e.g. infrared-guided missiles. Current techniques aim to increase the combat effectiveness of the military helicopters. Protection of the helicopter in flight from early detection, tracking and finally destruction can be realized in many ways. One of them is cooling hot exhaust gasses, emitting from the engines to the atmosphere in special heat exchangers. Nowadays, this process is realized in ejective coolers, where strong heat and momentum exchange between hot exhaust gases and cold air ejected from atmosphere takes place. Flow effects of air, exhaust gases; mixture of those two and the heat transfer between cold air and hot exhaust gases are given by differential equations of: Mass transportation–flow continuity, ejection of cold air through expanding exhaust gasses, conservation of momentum, energy and physical relationship equations. Calculation of those processes in ejective cooler by means of classic mathematical analysis is extremely hard or even impossible. Because of this, it is necessary to apply the numeric approach with modern, numeric computer programs. The paper discussed the general usability of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in a process of projecting the ejective exhaust gases cooler cooperating with helicopter turbine engine. In this work, the CFD calculations have been performed for ejective-based cooler cooperating with the PA W3 helicopter’s engines.

Keywords: aviation, CFD analysis, ejective-cooler, helicopter techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
227 Model Predictive Control of Turbocharged Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Recirculation

Authors: U. Yavas, M. Gokasan

Abstract:

Control of diesel engine’s air path has drawn a lot of attention due to its multi input-multi output, closed coupled, non-linear relation. Today, precise control of amount of air to be combusted is a must in order to meet with tight emission limits and performance targets. In this study, passenger car size diesel engine is modeled by AVL Boost RT, and then simulated with standard, industry level PID controllers. Finally, linear model predictive control is designed and simulated. This study shows the importance of modeling and control of diesel engines with flexible algorithm development in computer based systems.

Keywords: predictive control, engine control, engine modeling, PID control, feedforward compensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
226 Cooling of Exhaust Gases Emitted Into the Atmosphere as the Possibility to Reduce the Helicopter Radiation Emission Level

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Mirosław Wendeker, Adam Majczak

Abstract:

Every material body that temperature is higher than 0K (absolute zero) emits infrared radiation to the surroundings. Infrared radiation is highly meaningful in military aviation, especially in military applications of helicopters. Helicopters, in comparison to other aircraft, have much lower flight speeds and maneuverability, which makes them easy targets for actual combat assets like infrared-guided missiles. When designing new helicopter types, especially for combat applications, it is essential to pay enormous attention to infrared emissions of the solid parts composing the helicopter’s structure, as well as to exhaust gases egressing from the engine’s exhaust system. Due to their high temperature, exhaust gases, egressed to the surroundings are a major factor in infrared radiation emission and, in consequence, detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. Protection of the helicopter in flight from early detection, tracking and finally destruction can be realized in many ways. This paper presents the analysis of possibilities to decrease the infrared radiation level that is emitted to the environment by helicopter in flight, by cooling exhaust in special ejection-based coolers. The paper also presents the concept 3D model and results of numeric analysis of ejective-based cooler cooperation with PA-10W turbine engine. Numeric analysis presented promising results in decreasing the infrared emission level by PA W-3 helicopter in flight.

Keywords: exhaust cooler, helicopter propulsion, infrared radiation, stealth

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
225 Heat Transfer and Turbulent Fluid Flow over Vertical Double Forward-Facing Step

Authors: Tuqa Abdulrazzaq, Hussein Togun, M. K. A. Ariffin, S. N. Kazi, A. Badarudin, N. M. Adam, S. Masuri

Abstract:

Numerical study of heat transfer and fluid flow over vertical double forward facing step were presented. The k-w model with finite volume method was employed to solve continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Different step heights were adopted for range of Reynolds number varied from 10000 to 40000, and range of temperature varied from 310K to 340 K. The straight side of duct is insulated while the side of double forward facing step is heated. The result shows augmentation of heat transfer due to the recirculation region created after and before steps. Effect of step length and Reynolds number observed on increase of local Nusselt number particularly at recirculation regions. Contour of streamline velocity is plotted to show recirculation regions after and before steps. Numerical simulation in this paper done by used ANSYS Fluent 14.

Keywords: turbulent flow, double forward, heat transfer, separation flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
224 Investigation of the NO2 Formation in the Exhaust Duct of a Dual Fuel Test Engine

Authors: Ehsan Arabian, Thomas Sattelmayer

Abstract:

The formation of nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the exhaust duct of a MAN dual fuel test engine has been investigated numerically. The dual fuel engine concept with premixed lean methane combustion ignited through diesel pilot flames reveals high potential for the abatement of the NOx formation. The drawback of this combustion method, however, is the high NO2 formation due to the increasing concentration of unburned hydrocarbons. This promotes the conversion of NO to NO2, which is toxic and characterized through its yellow color. The results presented in this paper cover a wide range of engine operation points from full load to part load for different air to fuel ratios. The effects of temperature, pressure and concentrations of unburned methane and nitric oxide on NO2 formation in the exhaust duct has been investigated on the basis of a zero-dimensional well stirred reactor model implemented in Cantera, which calculates the steady state of a uniform composition for a certain residence time. It can be shown that the simulated conversion of NO to NO2 match the experimental results fairly well. The partial oxidation of methane followed by CO production can be predicted as well. It can also be concluded that the lower temperature limit for which no conversion takes place, depends mainly on the concentration of the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust.

Keywords: cantera, dual fuel engines, exhaust tract, numerical modeling of NO2 formation, well stirred reactor

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223 Unsteady Characteristics Investigation on the Precessing Vortex Breakdown and Energy Separation in a Vortex Tube

Authors: Xiangji Guo, Bo Zhang

Abstract:

In this paper, the phenomenon of vortex breakdown in a vortex tube was analyzed within the scope of unsteady character in swirl flows. A 3-D Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) closed by the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) was adopted to simulate the large-scale vortex structure in vortex tube, and the numerical model was verified by the steady results. The swirl number was calculated for the vortex tube and the flow field was classed as strong swirl flow. According to the results, a time-dependent spiral flow field gyrates around a central recirculation zone which is precessing around the axis of the tube, and manifests the flow structure is the spiral type (S-type) vortex breakdown. The vortex breakdown is crucial for the formation of the central recirculation zone (CRZ), a further discussion was about the affection on CRZ with the different external conditions of vortex tube, the study on the unsteady characters was expected to hope to design of vortex tube and analyze the energy separation effect.

Keywords: vortex tube, vortex breakdown, central recirculation zone, unsteady, energy separation

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222 The Study on Energy Saving in Clarification Process for Water Treatment Plant

Authors: Wiwat Onnakklum

Abstract:

Clarification is the turbidity removal process of water treatment plant. This paper was to study the factors affecting on energy consumption in order to control energy saving strategy. The factors studied were raw water turbidity in the range of 26-40 NTU and production rate in the range of 3.76-5.20 m³/sec. Clarifiers were sludge blanket and sludge recirculation clarifier. Experimental results found that the raw water turbidity was not affected significantly by energy consumption, while the production rate was affected significantly by energy consumption. Sludge blanket clarifier provided lower energy consumption than sludge recirculation clarifier about 32-37%. Subsequently, the operating pattern in production rate can be arranged to decreased energy consumption. The results showed that it can be reduced about 5.09 % of energy saving of clarification process about 754,655 Baht per year.

Keywords: sludge blanket clarifier, sludge recirculation clarifier, water treatment plant, energy

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221 Multidisciplinary Approach to the Effects of Generator Exhaust Fumes on Air: Case Study of Onitsha

Authors: U. V. Okpala, C. C. Okpala

Abstract:

The effect of generator exhaust fumes on air, a case study of Onitsha was considered in this work. A sample of 400 respondents was randomly chosen in the study area based on the population. Questionnaire was designed and administered to inhabitants of the study area to enable the researchers ascertain information on the effect of generator exhaust fumes on air and possible remedies. The issue of the types of generators owned by residents, quantity of fuel products purchased per day and the number of years of generator ownership were discussed. The Pearson’s product moment analysis correlation and Chi-square test were applied in the hypothesis testing. The result shows that huge amount of effluents are discharged on the environment thereby polluting the air. This leads to radiative forcing, depletion of ozone layer and precipitation of acid rain. This has untold effect on the climate system. To ensure proper recovery, the study recommends that government makes available alternative energy sources in addition to the conventional power to save the environment; with this, waste becomes wealth towards a sustainable economy in Nigeria.

Keywords: Onitsha, generator, fuel products, exhaust fumes and remedies, energy systems

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220 Comparative Study of Sub-Critical and Supercritical ORC Applications for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Buket Boz, Alvaro Diez

Abstract:

Waste heat recovery by means of Organic Rankine Cycle is a promising technology for the recovery of engine exhaust heat. However, it is complex to find out the optimum cycle conditions with appropriate working fluids to match exhaust gas waste heat due to its high temperature. Hence, this paper focuses on comparing sub-critical and supercritical ORC conditions with eight working fluids on a combined diesel engine-ORC system. The model employs two ORC designs, Regenerative-ORC and Pre-Heating-Regenerative-ORC respectively. The thermodynamic calculations rely on the first and second law of thermodynamics, thermal efficiency and exergy destruction factors are the fundamental parameters evaluated. Additionally, in this study, environmental and safety, GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), characteristic of the refrigerants are taken into consideration as evaluation criteria to define the optimal ORC configuration and conditions. Consequently, the studys outcomes reveal that supercritical ORCs with alkane and siloxane are more suitable for high temperature exhaust waste heat recovery in contrast to sub-critical conditions.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, organic Rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, working fluids

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