Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1583

Search results for: injector installation angle

1583 Effect of Injector Installation Angle on the Thermal Behaviors of UWS in a Diesel SCR Catalytic Muffler Systems

Authors: Man Young Kim

Abstract:

To reduce the NOx emission in a Diesel vehicle, such various after treatment systems as SCR, LNC, and LNT are frequently visited as promising systems. Among others, urea-based SCR systems are known to be stable, effective technologies that can reduce NOx emissions most efficiently from diesel exhaust systems. In this study, therefore, effect of urea injector installation angle on the evaporation and mixing characteristics is investigated to find optimum operation conditions. It can be found that the injection angle significantly affects the thermal behavior of the urea-water solution in the diesel exhaust gases.

Keywords: selective catalytic reduction (SCR), evaporation, thermolysis, urea-water solution (UWS), injector installation angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
1582 Numerical Investigation of the Electromagnetic Common Rail Injector Characteristics

Authors: Rafal Sochaczewski, Ksenia Siadkowska, Tytus Tulwin

Abstract:

The paper describes the modeling of a fuel injector for common rail systems. A one-dimensional model of a solenoid-valve-controlled injector with Valve Closes Orifice (VCO) spray was modelled in the AVL Hydsim. This model shows the dynamic phenomena that occur in the injector. The accuracy of the calibration, based on a regulation of the parameters of the control valve and the nozzle needle lift, was verified by comparing the numerical results of injector flow rate. Our model is capable of a precise simulation of injector operating parameters in relation to injection time and fuel pressure in a fuel rail. As a result, there were made characteristics of the injector flow rate and backflow.

Keywords: common rail, diesel engine, fuel injector, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
1581 Experimental Investigation of Compressed Natural Gas Injector for Direct Injection System

Authors: Rafal Sochaczewski, Grzegorz Baranski, Adam Majczak

Abstract:

This paper presents the bench research results on a CNG injector at steady state. The quantities measured included voltage and current in a solenoid, pressure of gas behind an injector and injector’s flow rate. Accordingly, injector’s operation parameters were determined according to needle’s lift and injection pressure. The discrepancies between the theoretical (electric) and actual time of injection were defined to specify injector’s opening and closing lag times and the uniqueness of these values in successive cycles of gas injection. It has been demonstrated that needle’s lift has got a stronger impact on injector’s operating parameters than injection pressure. With increasing injection pressure, the force increases and closes an injection valve, which adversely affects uniqueness of injector’s operation. The paper also describes the concept of an injector dedicated to direct CNG injection into a combustion chamber in a dual-fuel engine. The injector’s design enables us to replace 80% of diesel fuel in a dual-fuel engine with a maximum power of 85 kW. Minimum injection pressure is 1,4 MPa then. Simultaneously, injector’s characteristics for varied needle’s lifts and injector’s nonlinear operating points were developed. Acknowledgement: This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, under Grant Agreement No. PBS1/A6/4/2012.

Keywords: CNG injector, diesel engine, direct injection, dual fuel

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1580 Large Eddy Simulations for Flow Blurring Twin-Fluid Atomization Concept Using Volume of Fluid Method

Authors: Raju Murugan, Pankaj S. Kolhe

Abstract:

The present study is mainly focusing on the numerical simulation of Flow Blurring (FB) twin fluid injection concept was proposed by Ganan-Calvo, which involves back flow atomization based on global bifurcation of liquid and gas streams, thus creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The interesting feature of FB injector spray is an insignificant effect of variation in atomizing air to liquid ratio (ALR) on a spray cone angle. Besides, FB injectors produce a nearly uniform spatial distribution of mean droplet diameter and are least susceptible to variation in thermo-physical properties of fuels, making it a perfect candidate for fuel flexible combustor development. The FB injector working principle has been realized through experimental flow visualization techniques only. The present study explores potential of ANSYS Fluent based Large Eddy Simulation(LES) with volume of fluid (VOF) method to investigate two-phase flow just upstream of injector dump plane and spray quality immediate downstream of injector dump plane. Note that, water and air represent liquid and gas phase in all simulations and ALR is varied by changing the air mass flow rate alone. Preliminary results capture two phase flow just upstream of injector dump plane and qualitative agreement is observed with the available experimental literature.

Keywords: flow blurring twin fluid atomization, large eddy simulation, volume of fluid, air to liquid ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
1579 Effects of Injection Conditions on Flame Structures in Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injector

Authors: Wooseok Song, Sunjung Park, Jongkwon Lee, Jaye Koo

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to observe the effects of injection conditions on flame structures in gas-centered swirl coaxial injector. Gaseous oxygen and liquid kerosene were used as propellants. For different injection conditions, two types of injector, which only differ in the diameter of the tangential inlet, were used in this study. In addition, oxidizer injection pressure was varied to control the combustion chamber pressure in different types of injector. In order to analyze the combustion instability intensity, the dynamic pressure was measured in both the combustion chamber and propellants lines. With the increase in differential pressure between the propellant injection pressure and the combustion chamber pressure, the combustion instability intensity increased. In addition, the flame structure was recorded using a high-speed camera to detect CH* chemiluminescence intensity. With the change in the injection conditions in the gas-centered swirl coaxial injector, the flame structure changed.

Keywords: liquid rocket engine, flame structure, combustion instability, dynamic pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
1578 Wall Heat Flux Mapping in Liquid Rocket Combustion Chamber with Different Jet Impingement Angles

Authors: O. S. Pradeep, S. Vigneshwaran, K. Praveen Kumar, K. Jeyendran, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

The influence of injector attitude on wall heat flux plays an important role in predicting the start-up transient and also determining the combustion chamber wall durability of liquid rockets. In this paper comprehensive numerical studies have been carried out on an idealized liquid rocket combustion chamber to examine the transient wall heat flux during its start-up transient at different injector attitude. Numerical simulations have been carried out with the help of a validated 2d axisymmetric, double precision, pressure-based, transient, species transport, SST k-omega model with laminar finite rate model for governing turbulent-chemistry interaction for four cases with different jet intersection angles, viz., 0o, 30o, 45o, and 60o. We concluded that the jets intersection angle is having a bearing on the time and location of the maximum wall-heat flux zone of the liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient. We also concluded that the wall heat flux mapping in liquid rocket combustion chamber during the start-up transient is a meaningful objective for the chamber wall material selection and the lucrative design optimization of the combustion chamber for improving the payload capability of the rocket.  

Keywords: combustion chamber, injector, liquid rocket, rocket engine wall heat flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
1577 A Research of the Prototype Fuel Injector for the Aircraft Two-Stroke Opposed-Piston Diesel Engine

Authors: Ksenia Siadkowska, Zbigniew Czyz, Lukasz Grabowski

Abstract:

The paper presents the research results of the construction of an injector with a modified injection nozzle. The injector is designed for a prototype aircraft opposed-piston diesel engine with an assumed starting power of 100 kW. The injector has been subjected to optical tests carried out in a constant volume chamber with the use of a camera allowing to record images at the frequency of 5400 fps and at the resolution of 1024x1024. The measurements were based on a Mie scattering technique with global lighting. Seven repetitions were made for a specific measurement point. The measuring point was selected on the basis of the analysis of engine operating conditions. The analysis focused on the average range of the spray and its distribution. As a result of the conducted research, the range of the fuel spray was defined for the determined parameters of injection. The obtained results were used to verify and optimize the combustion process in the designed opposed-piston two-stroke diesel engine. Acknowledgment: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK 'PZL-KALISZ' S.A.' and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: diesel engine, opposed-piston, aircraft, fuel injector

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
1576 Comparison of Fuel Cell Installation Methods at Large Commercial and Industrial Sites

Authors: Masood Sattari

Abstract:

Using fuel cell technology to generate electricity for large commercial and industrial sites is a growing segment in the fuel cell industry. The installation of these systems involves design, permitting, procurement of long-lead electrical equipment, and construction involving multiple utilities. The installation of each fuel cell system requires the same amount of coordination as the construction of a new structure requiring a foundation, gas, water, and electricity. Each of these components provide variables that can delay and possibly eliminate a new project. As the manufacturing process and efficiency of fuel cell systems improves, so must the installation methods to prevent a ‘bottle-neck’ in the installation phase of the deployment. Installation methodologies to install the systems vary among companies and this paper will examine the methodologies, describe the benefits and drawbacks for each, and provide guideline for the industry to improve overall installation efficiency.

Keywords: construction, installation, methodology, procurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
1575 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Injector Research for Dual Fuel Engine

Authors: Adam Majczak, Grzegorz Barański, Marcin Szlachetka

Abstract:

Environmental considerations necessitate the search for new energy sources. One of the available solutions is a partial replacement of diesel fuel by compressed natural gas (CNG) in the compression ignition engines. This type of the engines is used mainly in vans and trucks. These units are also gaining more and more popularity in the passenger car market. In Europe, this part of the market share reaches 50%. Diesel engines are also used in industry in such vehicles as ship or locomotives. Diesel engines have higher emissions of nitrogen oxides in comparison to spark ignition engines. This can be currently limited by optimizing the combustion process and the use of additional systems such as exhaust gas recirculation or AdBlue technology. As a result of the combustion process of diesel fuel also particulate matter (PM) that are harmful to the human health are emitted. Their emission is limited by the use of a particulate filter. One of the method for toxic components emission reduction may be the use of liquid gas fuel such as propane and butane (LPG) or compressed natural gas (CNG). In addition to the environmental aspects, there are also economic reasons for the use of gaseous fuels to power diesel engines. A total or partial replacement of diesel gas is possible. Depending on the used technology and the percentage of diesel fuel replacement, it is possible to reduce the content of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas even by 30%, particulate matter (PM) by 95 % carbon monoxide and by 20%, in relation to original diesel fuel. The research object is prototype gas injector designed for direct injection of compressed natural gas (CNG) in compression ignition engines. The construction of the injector allows for it positioning in the glow plug socket, so that the gas is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The cycle analysis of the four-cylinder Andoria ADCR engine with a capacity of 2.6 dm3 for different crankshaft rotational speeds allowed to determine the necessary time for fuel injection. Because of that, it was possible to determine the required mass flow rate of the injector, for replacing as much of the original fuel by gaseous fuel. To ensure a high value of flow inside the injector, supply pressure equal to 1 MPa was applied. High gas supply pressure requires high value of valve opening forces. For this purpose, an injector with hydraulic control system, using a liquid under pressure for the opening process was designed. On the basis of air pressure measurements in the flow line after the injector, the analysis of opening and closing of the valve was made. Measurements of outflow mass of the injector were also carried out. The results showed that the designed injector meets the requirements necessary to supply ADCR engine by the CNG fuel.

Keywords: CNG, diesel engine, gas flow, gas injector

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
1574 Application of Subversion Analysis in the Search for the Causes of Cracking in a Marine Engine Injector Nozzle

Authors: Leszek Chybowski, Artur Bejger, Katarzyna Gawdzińska

Abstract:

Subversion analysis is a tool used in the TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) methodology. This article introduces the history and describes the process of subversion analysis, as well as function analysis and analysis of the resources, used at the design stage when generating possible undesirable situations. The article charts the course of subversion analysis when applied to a fuel injection nozzle of a marine engine. The work describes the fuel injector nozzle as a technological system and presents principles of analysis for the causes of a cracked tip of the nozzle body. The system is modelled with functional analysis. A search for potential causes of the damage is undertaken and a cause-and-effect analysis for various hypotheses concerning the damage is drawn up. The importance of particular hypotheses is evaluated and the most likely causes of damage identified.

Keywords: complex technical system, fuel injector, function analysis, importance analysis, resource analysis, sabotage analysis, subversion analysis, TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving)

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
1573 Modern Technologies and Equipment for Modular-Aggregate Installation of Shipborne Equipment

Authors: A. O. Mikhailov, N. I. Gerasimov, K. N. Morozov, I. V. Grachev

Abstract:

The most advanced method of onboard equipment installation on the world shipbuilding practice is modular method, or modularization. The main idea of this is assembly of equipment, pipelines and hull structures in so called assembly units yet at the shopfloor. Those assembly units are thereafter loaded and installed inside the ship's hull. This allows to reduce labour intensiveness and significantly improve assembly quality, due to the fact that a good part of installation work is performed in the shops, instead of restricted onboard premises. Also, this method allows performing equipment installation at very early stages of hull erection. This practice is widely spread in naval submarines building. However, in merchant shipbuilding, equipment is installed mostly individually. To implement modular principles of equipment installation in designing and construction of civil ships and marine rigs, some new technologies are being developed in the following areas. The paper contains main principles and already achieved results in the above mentioned areas.

Keywords: assembly and installation technology, onboard equipment installation, large-scale assembly units, modular method

Procedia PDF Downloads 514
1572 Integration of PV Systems in Residential Buildings: A Solution for Supporting Electrical Grid in Kuwait

Authors: Nabil A. Ahmed, Nasser A. N. Mhaisen

Abstract:

The paper presents a solution to enhance the power quality and to reduce the peak load demand in Kuwait electric grid as a solution to the shortage of electricity production. Technical, environmental and economic feasibility study of utilizing integrated grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system in residential buildings for supplying 7.1% of electrical power consumption in Kuwait is carried out using RETScreen software. A 10 KWp on-grid PV power generation system spread on the rooftop of the residential buildings is adopted and investigated and the complete system performance is simulated using PSIM software. Taking into account the international prices of electricity and natural gas, the proposed solution is investigated and tested for four different types of installation systems in terms of power generation and costs which includes horizontal installation, 25º tilted angle, single axis tracking and dual axis tracking. Results shows that the 25º tilted angle fixed mounted system is the most efficient type. The payback period as a tool of benefit analysis of the proposed system is calculated and it found to be 2.55 years.

Keywords: photovoltaics, residential buildings, electrical grid, production capacity, on-grid, power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
1571 Failure Analysis of the Gasoline Engines Injection System

Authors: Jozef Jurcik, Miroslav Gutten, Milan Sebok, Daniel Korenciak, Jerzy Roj

Abstract:

The paper presents the research results of electronic fuel injection system, which can be used for diagnostics of automotive systems. In the paper is described the construction and operation of a typical fuel injection system and analyzed its electronic part. It has also been proposed method for the detection of the injector malfunction, based on the analysis of differential current or voltage characteristics. In order to detect the fault state, it is needed to use self-learning process, by the use of an appropriate self-learning algorithm.

Keywords: electronic fuel injector, diagnostics, measurement, testing device

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
1570 Holistic Approach for Natural Results in Facial Aesthetics

Authors: R. Denkova

Abstract:

Nowadays, aesthetic and psychological researches in some countries show that the aesthetic ideal for women is built by the same pattern of big volumes – lips, cheek, facial disproportions. They all look like made of a matrix. And they lose their unique and emotional aspects of beauty. How to escape this matrix and find the balance? The secret to being a unique injector is good assessment, creating a treatment plan and flawless injection strategy. The newest concepts in this new injection era which meet the requirements of a modern society and deliver balanced and natural looking results are based on the concept of injecting not the consequence, but the reason. Three case studies are presented with full face assessment, treatment plan and before/after pictures. Using different approaches and techniques of the MD codes concept, lights and shadows concept in order to preserve the emotional beauty and identity of the women. In conclusion, the cases demonstrate that beauty exists even beyond the matrix and it is the injector’s mission and responsibility is to preserve and highlight the natural beauty and unique identity of every different patient.

Keywords: beyond the matrix, emotional beauty, face assessment, injector, treatment plan

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
1569 Calibration of the Radical Installation Limit Error of the Accelerometer in the Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokuncai, Hao Qin

Abstract:

Gravity gradient instrument (GGI) is the core of the gravity gradiometer, so the structural error of the sensor has a great impact on the measurement results. In order not to affect the aimed measurement accuracy, limit error is required in the installation of the accelerometer. In this paper, based on the established measuring principle model, the radial installation limit error is calibrated, which is taken as an example to provide a method to calculate the other limit error of the installation under the premise of ensuring the accuracy of the measurement result. This method provides the idea for deriving the limit error of the geometry structure of the sensor, laying the foundation for the mechanical precision design and physical design.

Keywords: gravity gradient sensor, radial installation limit error, accelerometer, uniaxial rotational modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
1568 Effect of Type of Pile and Its Installation Method on Pile Bearing Capacity by Physical Modelling in Frustum Confining Vessel

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, M. Mortezaee

Abstract:

Various factors such as the method of installation, the pile type, the pile material and the pile shape, can affect the final bearing capacity of a pile executed in the soil; among them, the method of installation is of special importance. The physical modeling is among the best options in the laboratory study of the piles behavior. Therefore, the current paper first presents and reviews the frustum confining vesel (FCV) as a suitable tool for physical modeling of deep foundations. Then, by describing the loading tests of two open-ended and closed-end steel piles, each of which has been performed in two methods, “with displacement" and "without displacement", the effect of end conditions and installation method on the final bearing capacity of the pile is investigated. The soil used in the current paper is silty sand of Firoozkooh. The results of the experiments show that in general the without displacement installation method has a larger bearing capacity in both piles, and in a specific method of installation the closed ended pile shows a slightly higher bearing capacity.

Keywords: physical modeling, frustum confining vessel, pile, bearing capacity, installation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
1567 Radio Based Location Detection

Authors: M. Pallikonda Rajasekaran, J. Joshapath, Abhishek Prasad Shaw

Abstract:

Various techniques has been employed to find location such as GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and Beidou (compass). This paper currently deals with finding location using the existing FM signals that operates between 88-108 MHz. The location can be determined based on the received signal strength of nearby existing FM stations by mapping the signal strength values using trilateration concept. Thus providing security to users data and maintains eco-friendly environment at zero installation cost as this technology already existing FM stations operating in commercial FM band 88-108 MHZ. Along with the signal strength based trilateration it also finds azimuthal angle of the transmitter by employing directional antenna like Yagi-Uda antenna at the receiver side.

Keywords: location, existing FM signals, received signal strength, trilateration, security, eco-friendly, direction, privacy, zero installation cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
1566 Performance Improvement of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angle in Kuwait

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali

Abstract:

In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In this study the PV system is installed facing south, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods and aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1565 Preliminary Performance of a Liquid Oxygen-Liquid Methane Pintle Injector for Thrust Variations

Authors: Brunno Vasques

Abstract:

Due to the non-toxic nature and high performance in terms of vacuum specific impulse and density specific impulse, the combination of liquid oxygen and liquid methane have been identified as a promising option for future space vehicle systems. Applications requiring throttling capability include specific missions such as rendezvous, planetary landing and de-orbit as well as weapon systems. One key challenge in throttling liquid rocket engines is maintaining an adequate pressure drop across the injection elements, which is necessary to provide good propellant atomization and mixing as well as system stability. The potential scalability of pintle injectors, their great suitability to throttling and inherent combustion stability characteristics led to investigations using a variety of propellant combinations, including liquid oxygen and hydrogen and fluorine-oxygen and methane. Presented here are the preliminary performance and heat transfer information obtained during hot-fire testing of a pintle injector running on liquid oxygen and liquid methane propellants. The specific injector design selected for this purpose is a multi-configuration building block version with replaceable injection elements, providing flexibility to accommodate hardware modifications with minimum difficulty. On the basis of single point runs and the use of a copper/nickel segmented calorimetric combustion chamber and associated transient temperature measurement, the characteristic velocity efficiency, injector footprint and heat fluxes could be established for the first proposed pintle configuration as a function of injection velocity- and momentum-ratios. A description of the test-bench is presented as well as a discussion of irregularities encountered during testing, such as excessive heat flux into the pintle tip resulting from certain operating conditions.

Keywords: green propellants, hot-fire performance, rocket engine throttling, pintle injector

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
1564 Aerodynamic Investigation of Rear Vehicle by Geometry Variations on the Backlight Angle

Authors: Saud Hassan

Abstract:

This paper shows simulation for the prediction of the flow around the backlight angle of the passenger vehicle. The CFD simulations are carried out on different car models. The Ahmed model “bluff body” used as the stander model to study aerodynamics of the backlight angle. This paper described the airflow over the different car models with different backlight angles and also on the Ahmed model to determine the trailing vortices with the varying backlight angle of a passenger vehicle body. The CFD simulation is carried out with the Ahmed body which has simplified car model mainly used in automotive industry to investigate the flow over the car body surface. The main goal of the simulation is to study the behavior of trailing vortices of these models. In this paper the air flow over the slant angle of 0,5o, 12.5o, 20o, 30o, 40o are considered. As investigating on the rear backlight angle two dimensional flows occurred at the rear slant, on the other hand when the slant angle is 30o the flow become three dimensional. Above this angle sudden drop occurred in drag.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Ahemd vehicle , backlight angle, finite element method

Procedia PDF Downloads 480
1563 Effect of Fuel Type on Design Parameters and Atomization Process for Pressure Swirl Atomizer and Dual Orifice Atomizer for High Bypass Turbofan Engine

Authors: Mohamed K. Khalil, Mohamed S. Ragab

Abstract:

Atomizers are used in many engineering applications including diesel engines, petrol engines and spray combustion in furnaces as well as gas turbine engines. These atomizers are used to increase the specific surface area of the fuel, which achieve a high rate of fuel mixing and evaporation. In all combustion systems reduction in mean drop size is a challenge which has many advantages since it leads to rapid and easier ignition, higher volumetric heat release rate, wider burning range and lower exhaust concentrations of the pollutant emissions. Pressure atomizers have a different configuration for design such as swirl atomizer (simplex), dual orifice, spill return, plain orifice, duplex and fan spray. Simplex pressure atomizers are the most common type of all. Among all types of atomizers, pressure swirl types resemble a special category since they differ in quality of atomization, the reliability of operation, simplicity of construction and low expenditure of energy. But, the disadvantages of these atomizers are that they require very high injection pressure and have low discharge coefficient owing to the fact that the air core covers the majority of the atomizer orifice. To overcome these problems, dual orifice atomizer was designed. This paper proposes a detailed mathematical model design procedure for both pressure swirl atomizer (Simplex) and dual orifice atomizer, examines the effects of varying fuel type and makes a clear comparison between the two types. Using five types of fuel (JP-5, JA1, JP-4, Diesel and Bio-Diesel) as a case study, reveal the effect of changing fuel type and its properties on atomizers design and spray characteristics. Which effect on combustion process parameters; Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), spray cone angle and sheet thickness with varying the discharge coefficient from 0.27 to 0.35 during takeoff for high bypass turbofan engines. The spray atomizer performance of the pressure swirl fuel injector was compared to the dual orifice fuel injector at the same differential pressure and discharge coefficient using Excel. The results are analyzed and handled to form the final reliability results for fuel injectors in high bypass turbofan engines. The results show that the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) in dual orifice atomizer is larger than Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) in pressure swirl atomizer, the film thickness (h) in dual orifice atomizer is less than the film thickness (h) in pressure swirl atomizer. The Spray Cone Angle (α) in pressure swirl atomizer is larger than Spray Cone Angle (α) in dual orifice atomizer.

Keywords: gas turbine engines, atomization process, Sauter mean diameter, JP-5

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
1562 Definition of Service Angle of Android’S Robot Hand by Method of Small Movements of Gripper’S Axis Synthesis by Speed Vector

Authors: Valeriy Nebritov

Abstract:

The paper presents a generalized method for determining the service solid angle based on the assigned gripper axis orientation with a stationary grip center. Motion synthesis in this work is carried out in the vector of velocities. As an example, a solid angle of the android robot arm is determined, this angle being formed by the longitudinal axis of a gripper. The nature of the method is based on the study of sets of configuration positions, defining the end point positions of the unit radius sphere sweep, which specifies the service solid angle. From this the spherical curve specifying the shape of the desired solid angle was determined. The results of the research can be used in the development of control systems of autonomous android robots.

Keywords: android robot, control systems, motion synthesis, service angle

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1561 Numerical Investigation of the Needle Opening Process in a High Pressure Gas Injector

Authors: Matthias Banholzer, Hagen Müller, Michael Pfitzner

Abstract:

Gas internal combustion engines are widely used as propulsion systems or in power plants to generate heat and electricity. While there are different types of injection methods including the manifold port fuel injection and the direct injection, the latter has more potential to increase the specific power by avoiding air displacement in the intake and to reduce combustion anomalies such as backfire or pre-ignition. During the opening process of the injector, multiple flow regimes occur: subsonic, transonic and supersonic. To cover the wide range of Mach numbers a compressible pressure-based solver is used. While the standard Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PISO) method is used for the coupling between velocity and pressure, a high-resolution non-oscillatory central scheme established by Kurganov and Tadmor calculates the convective fluxes. A blending function based on the local Mach- and CFL-number switches between the compressible and incompressible regimes of the developed model. As the considered operating points are well above the critical state of the used fluids, the ideal gas assumption is not valid anymore. For the real gas thermodynamics, the models based on the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state were implemented. The caloric properties are corrected using a departure formalism, for the viscosity and the thermal conductivity the empirical correlation of Chung is used. For the injector geometry, the dimensions of a diesel injector were adapted. Simulations were performed using different nozzle and needle geometries and opening curves. It can be clearly seen that there is a significant influence of all three parameters.

Keywords: high pressure gas injection, hybrid solver, hydrogen injection, needle opening process, real-gas thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
1560 A Sectional Control Method to Decrease the Accumulated Survey Error of Tunnel Installation Control Network

Authors: Yinggang Guo, Zongchun Li

Abstract:

In order to decrease the accumulated survey error of tunnel installation control network of particle accelerator, a sectional control method is proposed. Firstly, the accumulation rule of positional error with the length of the control network is obtained by simulation calculation according to the shape of the tunnel installation-control-network. Then, the RMS of horizontal positional precision of tunnel backbone control network is taken as the threshold. When the accumulated error is bigger than the threshold, the tunnel installation control network should be divided into subsections reasonably. On each segment, the middle survey station is taken as the datum for independent adjustment calculation. Finally, by taking the backbone control points as faint datums, the weighted partial parameters adjustment is performed with the adjustment results of each segment and the coordinates of backbone control points. The subsections are jointed and unified into the global coordinate system in the adjustment process. An installation control network of the linac with a length of 1.6 km is simulated. The RMS of positional deviation of the proposed method is 2.583 mm, and the RMS of the difference of positional deviation between adjacent points reaches 0.035 mm. Experimental results show that the proposed sectional control method can not only effectively decrease the accumulated survey error but also guarantee the relative positional precision of the installation control network. So it can be applied in the data processing of tunnel installation control networks, especially for large particle accelerators.

Keywords: alignment, tunnel installation control network, accumulated survey error, sectional control method, datum

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
1559 Performance of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angles

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali

Abstract:

In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In the study the PV system is installed facing South, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods, aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
1558 Optimization of Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors: A Case Study for Bursa, Turkey

Authors: N. Arslanoglu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimum tilt angle for the solar collector in order to collect the maximum solar radiation. The optimum angle for tilted surfaces varying from 0 to 90 in steps of 1was computed. In present study, a theoretical model is used to predict the global solar radiation on a tilted surface and to obtain the optimum tilt angle for a solar collector in Bursa, Turkey. Global solar energy radiation on the solar collector surface with an optimum tilt angle is calculated for specific periods. It is determined that the optimum slope angle varies between 0 (June) and 59 (December) throughout the year. In winter (December, January, and February) the tilt should be 55, in spring (March, April, and May) 19.6, in summer (June, July, and August) 5.6, and in autumn (September, October, and November) 44.3. The yearly average of this value was obtained to be 31.1 and this would be the optimum fixed slope throughout the year.

Keywords: Bursa, global solar radiation, optimum tilt angle, tilted surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
1557 Alternative Epinephrine Injector to Combat Allergy Induced Anaphylaxis

Authors: Jeremy Bost, Matthew Brett, Jacob Flynn, Weihui Li

Abstract:

One response during anaphylaxis is reduced blood pressure due to blood vessels relaxing and dilating. Epinephrine causes the blood vessels to constrict, which raises blood pressure to counteract the symptoms. When going through an allergic reaction, an Epinephrine injector is used to administer a shot of epinephrine intramuscularly. Epinephrine injectors have become an integral part of day-to-day life for people with allergies. Current Epinephrine injectors (EpiPen) are completely mechanical and have no sensors to monitor the vital signs of patients or give suggestions the optimal time for the shot. The EpiPens are also large and inconvenient to carry daily. The current price of an EpiPen is roughly 600$ for a pack of two. This makes carrying an EpiPen very expensive, especially when they need to be switched out when the epinephrine expires. This new design is in the form of a bracelet, which has the ability to inject epinephrine. The bracelet will be equipped with vital signs monitors that can aid the patient to sense the allergic reaction. The vital signs that would be of interest are blood pressure, heart rate and Electrodermal activity (EDA). The heart rate of the patient will be tracked by a photoplethysmograph (PPG) that is incorporated into the sensors. The heart rate is expected to increase during anaphylaxis. Blood pressure will be monitored through a radar sensor, which monitors the phase changes in electromagnetic waves as they reflect off of the blood vessel. EDA is under autonomic control. Allergen-induced anaphylaxis is caused by a release of chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils, thus changes the autonomic activity of the patient. So by measuring EDA, it will give the wearer an alert on how their autonomic nervous system is reacting. After the vital signs are collected, they will be sent to an application on a smartphone to be analyzed, which can then alert an emergency contact if the epinephrine injector on the bracelet is activated. Overall, this design creates a safer system by aiding the user in keeping track of their epinephrine injector, while making it easier to track their vital signs. Also, our design will be more affordable and more convenient to replace. Rather than replacing the entire product, only the needle and drug will be switched out and not the entire design.

Keywords: allergy, anaphylaxis, epinephrine, injector, vital signs monitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
1556 Effects of Injector Nozzle Geometry on Spray Atomization Characteristics

Authors: Arya Pirooz

Abstract:

Air and fuel must be mixed correctly so that there is perfect combustion, which calls for fuel atomization by injection. In this study, the effects of different parameters such as number of orifices, length and diameter of orifices, diameter of nozzle sac and the angle of needle seat in injectors were investigated with the use of rate of injection and sac pressure. The unit pump of the OM-457 diesel engine was modelled on Avl-Hydsim. The results illustrate that the sac pressure decreased by 46% when the number of holes were doubled, although the rate of injection had an immense change. Also, the sac pressure increased up to 60% when the diameter of orifices decreased by 40% in spite of the semi-constant injection rate.

Keywords: injection, OM-457 engine, nozzle geometry, atomization

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
1555 Measurement of the Quadriceps Angle with Respect to Various Body Parameters in Arab Countries

Authors: Ramada R. Khasawneh, Mohammed Z. Allouh, Ejlal Abu-El Rub

Abstract:

The quadriceps angle (Q angle), formed between the quadriceps muscles and the patella tendon, is considered clinically as a very important parameter which displays the biomechanical effect of the quadriceps muscle on the knee, and it is also regarded as a crucial factor for the proper posture and movement of the knee patella. This study had been conducted to measure the normal Q angle values range in the Arab nationalities and determine the correlation between Q angle values and several body parameters, including gender, height, weight, dominant side, and the condylar distance of the femur. The study includes 500 healthy Arab students from Yarmouk University and Jordan University of Science and Technology. The Q angle of those volunteers was measured using a universal manual Goniometer with the subjects in the upright weight-bearing position. It was found that the Q angle was greater in women than in men. The analysis of the data revealed an insignificant increase in the dominant side of the Q angle. In addition, the Q was significantly higher in the taller people of both sexes. However, the Q angle did not present any considerable correlation with weight in the study population; conversely, it was observed that there was a link with the condylar distance of the femur in both sexes. It was also noticed that the Q angle increased remarkably when there was an increase in the condylar distance. Consequently, it turned out that the gender, height, and the condylar distance were momentous factors that had an impact on the Q angle in our study samples. However, weight and dominance factors did not show to have any influence on the values in our study.

Keywords: Q angle, Jordanian, anatomy, condylar distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
1554 Hybrid GA-PSO Based Pitch Controller Design for Aircraft Control System

Authors: Vaibhav Singh Rajput, Ravi Kumar Jatoth, Nagu Bhookya, Bhasker Boda

Abstract:

In this paper proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller is used to control the pitch angle of the aircraft when the elevation angle is changed or modified. The pitch angle is dependent on elevation angle; a change in one corresponds to a change in the other. The PID controller helps in restricted change of pitch rate in response to the elevation angle. The PID controller is dependent on different parameters like Kp, Ki, Kd which change the pitch rate as they change. Various methodologies are used for changing those parameters for getting a perfect time response pitch angle, as desired or wished by a concerned person. While reckoning the values of those parameters, trial and guessing may prove to be futile in order to provide comfort to passengers. So, using some metaheuristic techniques can be useful in handling these errors. Hybrid GA-PSO is one such powerful algorithm which can improve transient and steady state response and can give us more reliable results for PID gain scheduling problem.

Keywords: pitch rate, elevation angle, PID controller, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, phugoid

Procedia PDF Downloads 192