Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1248

Search results for: emission

1248 NOx Emission and Computational Analysis of Jatropha Curcus Fuel and Crude Oil

Authors: Vipan Kumar Sohpal, Rajesh K Sharma


Diminishing of conventional fuels and hysterical vehicles emission leads to deterioration of the environment, which emphasize the research to work on biofuels. Biofuels from different sources attract the attention of research due to low emission and biodegradability. Emission of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and H-C reduced drastically using Biofuels (B-20) combustion. Contrary to the conventional fuel, engine emission results indicated that nitrous oxide emission is higher in Biofuels. So this paper examines and compares the nitrogen oxide emission of Jatropha Curcus (JCO) B-20% blends with the vegetable oil. In addition to that computational analysis of crude non edible oil performed to assess the impact of composition on emission quality. In conclusion, JCO have the potential feedstock for the biodiesel production after the genetic modification in the plant.

Keywords: jatropha curcus, computational analysis, emissions, NOx biofuels

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1247 Determinants of Intensity of Greenhouse Gas Emission in Lithuanian Agriculture

Authors: D. Makuteniene


Agriculture, as one of the human activities, emits a significant amount of greenhouse gas emission and undoubtedly has an impact on climate change. The main gaseous products of agricultural greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, and nitroxadoxide. The sources and emission of these gases depend on land use, soil, crops, manure, livestock, and energy consumption. One of the indicators showing the agricultural impact on climate change is an intensity of GHG emission and its dynamics. This study analyzed the determinants of an intensity of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuanian agriculture using data decomposition. The research revealed that, although greenhouse gas emission increased during the research period, however, agricultural net value added grew more rapidly, which contributed to a reduction of intensity of greenhouse gas emission in Lithuania between 2000 and 2015. It was identified that during the research period intensity of greenhouse gas emission was mostly increased by the change of the use of nitrogen in agriculture, as compared to the change of the area of agricultural land, and by the change of the number of full-time employees, as compared to the change of net value added. Conversely, the change of energy consumption in agriculture, as compared to the change of the use of nitrogen in agriculture, had a bigger impact in decreasing intensity of greenhouse gas emission.

Keywords: agriculture, determinants of intensity, greenhouse gas emission, intensity

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1246 Test Research on Damage Initiation and Development of a Concrete Beam Using Acoustic Emission Technology

Authors: Xiang Wang


In order to validate the efficiency of recognizing the damage initiation and development of a concrete beam using acoustic emission technology, a concrete beam is built and tested in the laboratory. The acoustic emission signals are analyzed based on both parameter and wave information, which is also compared with the beam deflection measured by displacement sensors. The results indicate that using acoustic emission technology can detect damage initiation and development effectively, especially in the early stage of the damage development, which can not be detected by the common monitoring technology. Furthermore, the positioning of the damage based on the acoustic emission signals can be proved to be reasonable. This job can be an important attempt for the future long-time monitoring of the real concrete structure.

Keywords: acoustic emission technology, concrete beam, parameter analysis, wave analysis, positioning

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1245 Electrification Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle as a Solution to Decrease CO2 Emission in Cities

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Mahmoud


Recently hybrid vehicles have become a major concern as one alternative vehicles. This type of hybrid vehicle contributes greatly to reducing pollution. Therefore, this work studies the influence of electrification phase of hybrid electric vehicle on emission of vehicle at different road conditions. To accomplish this investigation, a simulation model was used to evaluate the external characteristics of the hybrid electric vehicle according to variant conditions of road resistances. Therefore, this paper reports a methodology to decrease the vehicle emission especially greenhouse gas emission inside cities. The results show the effect of electrification on vehicle performance characteristics. The results show that CO2 emission of vehicle decreases up to 50.6% according to an urban driving cycle due to applying the electrification strategy for hybrid electric vehicle.

Keywords: electrification strategy, hybrid electric vehicle, driving cycle, CO2 emission

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1244 Study of Interaction between Ascorbic Acid and Bovine Hemoglobin by Multispectroscopic Methods

Authors: Krishnamoorthy Shanmugaraj, Malaichamy Ilanchelian


Ascorbic acid is an essential component in the diet of humans, and also is a typical long used pharmaceutical agent. In the present contribution, we have carried out a detailed study on the binding interaction of ascorbic acid (AA) with bovine hemoglobin (BHb) using steady state emission, time resolved fluorescence, UV-Vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) and three dimensional emission (3D) spectral studies. The results from the emission spectral studies unveiled that the quenching of BHb emission by AA is attributed to the formation of a complex in the ground state (static in nature) after correcting for inner filter effect. The binding parameters calculated from corrected emission quenching data revealed that BHb exhibited a significant binding affinity towards AA. Moreover, AA induced tertiary and secondary conformational changes of BHb were monitored by UV-Vis absorption, CD, FT-IR and 3D emission spectral studies. The results presented here will help to further understand the credible mechanism of BHb-AA system which is expected to provide insights into conformational and microenvironmental changes of BHb.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, bovine hemoglobin, circular dichroism, three dimensional emission spectral studies

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1243 The Reduction of CO2 Emissions Level in Malaysian Transportation Sector: An Optimization Approach

Authors: Siti Indati Mustapa, Hussain Ali Bekhet


Transportation sector represents more than 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. This sector is a major user of fossils based fuels, and it is increasingly being highlighted as the sector which contributes least to CO2 emission reduction targets. Considering this fact, this paper attempts to investigate the problem of reducing CO2 emission using linear programming approach. An optimization model which is used to investigate the optimal level of CO2 emission reduction in the road transport sector is presented. In this paper, scenarios have been used to demonstrate the emission reduction model: (1) utilising alternative fuel scenario, (2) improving fuel efficiency scenario, (3) removing fuel subsidy scenario, (4) reducing demand travel, (5) optimal scenario. This study finds that fuel balancing can contribute to the reduction of the amount of CO2 emission by up to 3%. Beyond 3% emission reductions, more stringent measures that include fuel switching, fuel efficiency improvement, demand travel reduction and combination of mitigation measures have to be employed. The model revealed that the CO2 emission reduction in the road transportation can be reduced by 38.3% in the optimal scenario.

Keywords: CO2 emission, fuel consumption, optimization, linear programming, transportation sector, Malaysia

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1242 Experimental Investigation of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Using Acetylene Gas in CI Engine

Authors: S. Sivakumar, Ashwin Bala, S. Prithviraj, K. Panthala Rajakumaran, R. Pradeep, J. Udhayakumar


Studies reveal that acetylene gas derived from hydrolysis of calcium carbide has similar properties to that of diesel. However, the self-ignition temperature of acetylene gas is higher than that of diesel. Early investigations reveal that acetylene gas could be used as alternative fuel mode. In the present work, acetylene gas of 31/min were inducted and diesel was injected into the combustion chamber of a single cylinder air cooled diesel engine. It was observed that the higher calorific value of acetylene gas improves the brake thermal efficiency at full load conditions. The CO and HC emissions were higher at part load conditions as compared to conventional diesel. The Nox emission level was higher and smoke emission was lower during dual fuel mode under all operating conditions. It is concluded that dual fuel mode of acetylene gas and diesel improves the brake thermal efficiency and reduces smoke in diesel engine.

Keywords: acetylene gas, diesel engine, Nox emission, CO emission, HC emission

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1241 Study on the Relationship between the Emission Property of Barium-Tungsten Cathode and Micro-Area Activity

Authors: Zhen Qin, Yufei Peng, Jianbei Li, Jidong Long


In order to study the activity of the coated aluminate barium-tungsten cathodes during activation, aging, poisoning and long-term use. Through a set of hot-cathode micro-area emission uniformity study device, we tested the micro-area emission performance of the cathode under different conditions. The change of activity of cathode micro-area was obtained. The influence of micro-area activity on the performance of the cathode was explained by the ageing model of barium-tungsten cathode. This helps to improve the design and process of the cathode and can point the way in finding the factors that affect life in the cathode operation.

Keywords: barium-tungsten cathode, ageing model, micro-area emission, emission uniformity

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1240 Effects of China's Urban Form on Urban Carbon Emission

Authors: Lu Lin


Urbanization has reshaped physical environment, energy consumption and carbon emission of the urban area. China is a typical developing country under a rapid urbanization process and is the world largest carbon emission country. This study aims to explore the correlation between urban form and carbon emission caused by urban energy consumption in China. 287 provincial-level and prefecture-level cities are studied in 2000, 2005, and 2010. Compact ratio index, shape index, and fractal dimension index are used to quantify urban form. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) model is employed to explore the relationship between urban form, energy consumption, and related carbon emission. The results show the average compact ratio index decreased from 2000 to 2010 which indicates urban in China sprawled. The average fractal dimension index increases by 3%, indicating the spatial layouts of China's cities were more complicated. The results by the GWR model show that shape index and fractal dimension index had a non-significant relationship with carbon emission by urban energy consumption. However, compact urban form reduced carbon emission. The findings of this study will help policy-makers make sustainable urban planning and reduce urban carbon emission.

Keywords: carbon emission, GWR model, urban energy consumption, urban form

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1239 Research of Intrinsic Emittance of Thermal Cathode with Emission Nonuniformity

Authors: Yufei Peng, Zhen Qin, Jianbe Li, Jidong Long


The thermal cathode is widely used in accelerators, FELs and kinds of vacuum electronics. However, emission nonuniformity exists due to surface profile, material distribution, temperature variation, crystal orientation, etc., which will cause intrinsic emittance growth, brightness decline, envelope size augment, device performance deterioration or even failure. To understand how emittance is manipulated by emission nonuniformity, an intrinsic emittance model consisting of contributions from macro and micro surface nonuniformity is developed analytically based on general thermal emission model at temperature limited regime according to a real 3mm cathode. The model shows relative emittance increased about 50% due to temperature variation, and less than 5% from several kinds of micro surface nonuniformity which is much smaller than other research. Otherwise, we also calculated emittance growth combining with Monte Carlo method and PIC simulation, experiments of emission uniformity and emittance measurement are going to be carried out separately.

Keywords: thermal cathode, electron emission fluctuation, intrinsic emittance, surface nonuniformity, cathode lifetime

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1238 Bearing Condition Monitoring with Acoustic Emission Techniques

Authors: Faisal AlShammari, Abdulmajid Addali


Monitoring the conditions of rotating machinery as bearing is important in order to improve its stability of works. Acoustic emission (AE) and vibration analysis are some of the most accomplished techniques used for this purpose. Acoustic emission has the ability to detect the initial phase of component degradation. Moreover, it has been observed that the success of vibration analysis does not take place below 100 rpm rotational speed. This because the energy generated below 100 rpm rotational speed is not detectable using conventional vibration. From this pint, this paper has presented a focused review of using acoustic emission techniques for monitoring bearings condition.

Keywords: condition monitoring, stress wave analysis, low-speed bearings, bearing defect diagnosis

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1237 The Analysis of Exhaust Emission from Single Cylinder Non-Mobile Spark Ignition Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blend as Fuel

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Ogbevire Umukoro


In view of the prevailing pollution problems and its consequences on the environment, efforts are being made to lower the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the impact of ethanol-gasoline blend on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder non-mobile spark ignition engine was investigated. Gasoline was blended with 5 – 20% of ethanol sourced from the open market (bought off the shelf) in an interval of 5%. The results of the emission characteristics of the exhaust gas from the combustion of the ethanol-gasoline blends showed that increasing the percentage of ethanol in the blend decreased CO emission by between 2.12% and 52.29% and HC emissions by between12.14% and 53.24%, but increased CO2 and NOx emissions by between 25% to 56% and 59% to 60% respectively. E15 blend is preferred above other blends at no-load and across all the load variations. However its NOx emission was the highest when compared with other samples. This will negatively affect human health and the environment but this drawback can be remedied by adequate treatment with appropriate additives.

Keywords: blends, emission, ethanol, gasoline, spark ignition engine

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1236 Highlighting of the Factors and Policies affecting CO2 Emissions level in Malaysian Transportation Sector

Authors: Siti Indati Mustapa, Hussain Ali Bekhet


Global CO2 emission and increasing fuel consumption to meet energy demand requirement has become a threat in recent decades. Effort to reduce the CO2 emission is now a matter of priority in most countries of the world including Malaysia. Transportation has been identified as the most intensive sector of carbon-based fuels and achievement of the voluntary target to meet 40% carbon intensity reduction set at the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) means that the emission from the transport sector must be reduced accordingly. This posed a great challenge to Malaysia and effort has to be made to embrace suitable and appropriate energy policy for sustainable energy and emission reduction of this sector. The focus of this paper is to analyse the trends of Malaysia’s energy consumption and emission of four different transport sub-sectors (road, rail, aviation and maritime). Underlying factors influencing the growth of energy consumption and emission trends are discussed. Besides, technology status towards energy efficiency in transportation sub-sectors is presented. By reviewing the existing policies and trends of energy used, the paper highlights prospective policy options towards achieving emission reduction in the transportation sector.

Keywords: CO2 emissions, transportation sector, fuel consumption, energy policy, Malaysia

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1235 Supply Chain Decarbonisation – A Cost-Based Decision Support Model in Slow Steaming Maritime Operations

Authors: Eugene Y. C. Wong, Henry Y. K. Lau, Mardjuki Raman


CO2 emissions from maritime transport operations represent a substantial part of the total greenhouse gas emission. Vessels are designed with better energy efficiency. Minimizing CO2 emission in maritime operations plays an important role in supply chain decarbonisation. This paper reviews the initiatives on slow steaming operations towards the reduction of carbon emission. It investigates the relationship and impact among slow steaming cost reduction, carbon emission reduction, and shipment delay. A scenario-based cost-driven decision support model is developed to facilitate the selection of the optimal slow steaming options, considering the cost on bunker fuel consumption, available speed, carbon emission, and shipment delay. The incorporation of the social cost of cargo is reviewed and suggested. Additional measures on the effect of vessels sizes, routing, and type of fuels towards decarbonisation are discussed.

Keywords: slow steaming, carbon emission, maritime logistics, sustainability, green supply chain

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1234 Estimation of PM2.5 Emissions and Source Apportionment Using Receptor and Dispersion Models

Authors: Swetha Priya Darshini Thammadi, Sateesh Kumar Pisini, Sanjay Kumar Shukla


Source apportionment using Dispersion model depends primarily on the quality of Emission Inventory. In the present study, a CMB receptor model has been used to identify the sources of PM2.5, while the AERMOD dispersion model has been used to account for missing sources of PM2.5 in the Emission Inventory. A statistical approach has been developed to quantify the missing sources not considered in the Emission Inventory. The inventory of each grid was improved by adjusting emissions based on road lengths and deficit in measured and modelled concentrations. The results showed that in CMB analyses, fugitive sources - soil and road dust - contribute significantly to ambient PM2.5 pollution. As a result, AERMOD significantly underestimated the ambient air concentration at most locations. The revised Emission Inventory showed a significant improvement in AERMOD performance which is evident through statistical tests.

Keywords: CMB, GIS, AERMOD, PM₂.₅, fugitive, emission inventory

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1233 Carbon Footprint Reduction Using Cleaner Production Strategies in a Otoshimi Producing Plant

Authors: Razuana Rahim, Abdul Aziz Abdul Raman


In this work, a study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using Cleaner Production (CP) strategy to reduce carbon dioxide emission (CO2) in a plant that produces Otoshimi. CP strategy is meant to reduce CO2 emission while taking into consideration the economic aspect. For this purpose, a CP audit was conducted and the information obtained were analyzed and major contributors of CO2 emission inside the boundary of the production plant was identified. Electricity, water and fuel consumption and generation of solid waste and wastewater were identified as the main contributors. Total CO2 emission generated was 0.27 kg CO2 per kg of Otoshimi produced, where 68% was contributed by electricity consumption. Subsequently, a total of three CP options were generated and implementations of these options are expected to reduce the CO2 emission from electricity consumption to 0.16 kg CO2 per kg of Otoshimi produced, a reduction of about 14%. The study proves that CP strategy can be implemented even without any investment to reduce CO2 for a plant that produces Otoshimi.

Keywords: carbon dioxide emission, cleaner production audit, cleaner production options, otoshimi production

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1232 Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a Can-Type Combustion Chamber

Authors: Selvakuma Kumaresh, Man Young Kim


Combustion phenomenon will be accomplished effectively by the development of low emission combustor. One of the significant factors influencing the entire Combustion process is the mixing between a swirling angular jet (Primary Air) and the non-swirling inner jet (fuel). To study this fundamental flow, the chamber had to be designed in such a manner that the combustion process to sustain itself in a continuous manner and the temperature of the products is sufficiently below the maximum working temperature in the turbine. This study is used to develop the effective combustion with low unburned combustion products by adopting the concept of high swirl flow and motility of holes in the secondary chamber. The proper selection of a swirler is needed to reduce emission which can be concluded from the emission of Nox and CO2. The capture of CO2 is necessary to mitigate CO2 emissions from natural gas. Thus the suppression of unburned gases is a meaningful objective for the development of high performance combustor without affecting turbine blade temperature.

Keywords: combustion, emission, can-type combustion chamber, CFD, motility of holes, swirl flow

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1231 Influence of Sintering Temperatures in Er³⁺/Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ Tri-Doped Y₂O₃ Nanophosphors

Authors: Hyeon Mi Noh, Ju Hyun Oh, Jung Hyun Jeong, Haeyoung Choi, Jung Hwan Kim


The Er³⁺/Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ tri-doped Y₂O₃ nanophosphors were synthesized by solvothermal method and its temperature dependence of the white upconversion emission has been studied by using 975 nm laser diode. The upconversion emission spectra in 1 mol% Er³⁺/5 mol% Yb³⁺/xTm³ tri-doped Y₂O₃ nanophosphors sintered at 1000 °C with x from 0 to 0.5 mol%. The blue emission intensity increase with Tm³⁺ concentration from 0 to 0.5 mol%, it is due to the 2F7/2→2F5/2 transition of Yb³⁺ around 10,000 cm-1 could easily reach the Tm³⁺ sates. The white light is composed with the blue (1G4→3H6 of Tm³⁺), green (2H11/2, 4S3/2→4I15/2 of Er³⁺), and red (4F9/2→4I15/2 of Er³⁺) upconversion radiations. The Y₂O₃: Er³⁺/Yb³⁺/Tm³⁺ nanophosphors show from white to green upconversion emission at power of 600 mW/cm² as sintering temperature increased. The calculated Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) coordinates can be located in the white area with various sintering temperatures, in sintered at 1000 °C, and their color coordinates are very close to the standard white-light emission (0.33, 0.33). Their upconversion processes were explained by measuring the upconversion luminescence spectra and pump power dependence and energy level diagram.

Keywords: white upconversion emission, nanophosphors, energy transfer, solvothermal method

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1230 Analysis of Performance-Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Coconut Oil

Authors: Purna Singh, Vaibhav Tripathi, Vinayak Kalluri, Sumit Roy


The present experimental work was carried out to investigate performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine operating under dual-fuel mode with coconut oil blended with diesel. Coconut oil is one of the edible oil which is abundant in tropical countries and has properties like diesel. To this end, performance and emission parameters of diesel-coconut oil blends were reported in the current study. The results were drawn at different load steps of engine operation with 10% and 20% of coconut oil linearly blended with diesel. From the results, it was evident that coconut oil can be successfully replaced up to 20% of diesel without hampering the performance-emission characteristics of the existing diesel engine.

Keywords: coconut oil, alternative fuel, emissions, dual-fuel

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1229 Low-Temperature Luminescence Spectroscopy of Violet Sr-Al-O:Eu2+ Phosphor Particles

Authors: Keiji Komatsu, Hayato Maruyama, Ariyuki Kato, Atsushi Nakamura, Shigeo Ohshio, Hiroki Akasaka, Hidetoshi Saitoh


Violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles were synthesized from a metal–ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution of Sr, Al, Eu, and particulate alumina via spray drying and sintering in a reducing atmosphere. The crystal structures and emission properties at 85–300 K were investigated. The composition of the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor particles was determined from various Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphors by their emission properties’ dependence on temperature. The highly crystalline SrAl12O19:Eu2+ emission phases were confirmed by their crystallite sizes and the activation energies for the 4f5d–8S7/2 transition of the Eu2+ ion. These results showed that the material identification for the violet Sr–Al–O:Eu2+ phosphor was accomplished by the low-temperature luminescence measurements.

Keywords: low temperature luminescence spectroscopy, material identification, strontium aluminates phosphor, emission properties

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1228 A Review on Benzo(a)pyrene Emission Factors from Biomass Combustion

Authors: Franziska Klauser, Manuel Schwabl, Alexander Weissinger, Christoph Schmidl, Walter Haslinger, Anne Kasper-Giebl


Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is the most widely investigated representative of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) as well as one of the most toxic compounds in this group. Since 2013 in the European Union a limit value for BaP concentration in the ambient air is applied, which was set to a yearly average value of 1 ng m-3. Several reports show that in some regions, even where industry and traffic are of minor impact this threshold is regularly exceeded. This is taken as proof that biomass combustion for heating purposes contributes significantly to BaP pollution. Several investigations have been already carried out on the BaP emission behavior of biomass combustion furnaces, mostly focusing on a certain aspect like the influences from wood type, of operation type or of technology type. However, a superior view on emission patterns of BaP from biomass combustion and the aggregation of determined values also from recent studies is not presented so far. The combination of determined values allows a better understanding of the BaP emission behavior from biomass combustion. In this work the review conclusions are driven from the combination of outcomes from different publication. In two examples it was shown that technical progress leads to 10 to 100 fold lower BaP emission from modern furnaces compared to old technologies of equivalent type. It was also indicated that the operation with pellets or wood chips exhibits clearly lower BaP emission factors compared to operation with log wood. Although, the BaP emission level from automatic furnaces is strongly impacted by the kind of operation. This work delivers an overview on BaP emission factors from different biomass combustion appliances, from different operation modes and from the combustion of different fuel and wood types. The main impact factors are depicted, and suggestions for low BaP emission biomass combustion are derived. As one result possible investigation fields concerning BaP emissions from biomass combustion that seem to be most important to be clarified are suggested.

Keywords: benzo(a)pyrene, biomass, combustion, emission, pollution

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1227 Innovative Acoustic Emission Techniques for Concrete Health Monitoring

Authors: Rahmat Ali, Beenish Khan, Aftabullah, Abid A. Shah


This research is an attempt to investigate the wide range of events using acoustic emission (AE) sensors of the concrete cubes subjected to different stress condition loading and unloading of concrete cubes. A total of 27 specimens were prepared and tested including 18 cubic (6”x6”x6”) and nine cylindrical (4”x8”) specimens were molded from three batches of concrete using w/c of 0.40, 0.50, and 0.60. The compressive strength of concrete was determined from concrete cylinder specimens. The deterioration of concrete was evaluated using the occurrence of felicity and Kaiser effects at each stress condition. It was found that acoustic emission hits usually exceeded when damage increases. Additionally, the correlation between AE techniques and the load applied were determined by plotting the normalized values. The influence of w/c on sensitivity of the AE technique in detecting concrete damages was also investigated.

Keywords: acoustic emission, concrete, felicity ratio, sensors

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1226 Transport Emission Inventories and Medical Exposure Modeling: A Missing Link for Urban Health

Authors: Frederik Schulte, Stefan Voß


The adverse effects of air pollution on public health are an increasingly vital problem in planning for urban regions in many parts of the world. The issue is addressed from various angles and by distinct disciplines in research. Epidemiological studies model the relative increase of numerous diseases in response to an increment of different forms of air pollution. A significant share of air pollution in urban regions is related to transport emissions that are often measured and stored in emission inventories. Though, most approaches in transport planning, engineering, and operational design of transport activities are restricted to general emission limits for specific air pollutants and do not consider more nuanced exposure models. We conduct an extensive literature review on exposure models and emission inventories used to study the health impact of transport emissions. Furthermore, we review methods applied in both domains and use emission inventory data of transportation hubs such as ports, airports, and urban traffic for an in-depth analysis of public health impacts deploying medical exposure models. The results reveal specific urban health risks related to transport emissions that may improve urban planning for environmental health by providing insights in actual health effects instead of only referring to general emission limits.

Keywords: emission inventories, exposure models, transport emissions, urban health

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1225 Green, Yellow, Orange and Red Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength

Authors: M. R. S. Nasuha, K. Azman, H. Azhan, S. A. Senawi, A . Mardhiah


Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The result of physical properties is found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultraviolet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm, and 706 nm, respectively.

Keywords: absorption, borotellurite, emission, optical, physical

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1224 Biodiesel Is an Alternative Fuel for CI Engines

Authors: Sanat Kumar, Rahul Kumar Tiwari


At this time when society is becoming increasingly aware of the declining reserves of fossil, it has become apparent that biodiesel is destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. In this regard, the significance of biodiesel is technically and commercially viable alternative to fossil-diesel. There are different potential feed stocks for biodiesel production. This paper analyses the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel from different feed stocks. Biodiesel fuel is considered as offering many benefits like reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and many harmful pollutants (PM, HC, CO etc.). This paper critically reviews the effect of injection timing on combustion and emission characteristics. An attempt has been carried out to discuss the effect of biodiesel in terms of combustion, emission and performance based up on composition and properties. The results of the study show that different chemical composition leads to variation in its combustion, performance and emission characteristics. Biodiesel produced from different aspired feed stocks reduces the pollutant emission and resistive to oxidation but exhibit poor atomization. As a conclusion many research needs to be carried out to understand the relationship between the types of biodiesel feed stock, performance conclusion and emission.

Keywords: atomization, biodiesel, greenhouse gas, oxidation

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1223 Regularities of Changes in the Fractal Dimension of Acoustic Emission Signals in the Stages Close to the Destruction of Structural Materials When Exposed to Low-Cycle Loaded

Authors: Phyo Wai Aung, Sysoev Oleg Evgenevich, Boris Necolavet Maryin


The article deals with theoretical problems of correlation of processes of microstructure changes of structural materials under cyclic loading and acoustic emission. The ways of the evolution of a microstructure under the influence of cyclic loading are shown depending on the structure of the initial crystal structure of the material. The spectra of the frequency characteristics of acoustic emission signals are experimentally obtained when testing titanium samples for cyclic loads. Changes in the fractal dimension of the acoustic emission signals in the selected frequency bands during the evolution of the microstructure of structural materials from the action of cyclic loads, as well as in the destruction of samples, are studied. The experimental samples were made of VT-20 structural material widely used in aircraft and rocket engineering. The article shows the striving of structural materials for synergistic stability and reduction of the fractal dimension of acoustic emission signals, in accordance with the degradation of the microstructure, which occurs as a result of fatigue processes from the action of low cycle loads. As a result of the research, the frequency range of acoustic emission signals of 100-270 kHz is determined, in which the fractal dimension of the signals, it is possible to most reliably predict the durability of structural materials.

Keywords: cyclic loadings, material structure changing, acoustic emission, fractal dimension

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1222 Reducing CO2 Emission Using EDA and Weighted Sum Model in Smart Parking System

Authors: Rahman Ali, Muhammad Sajjad, Farkhund Iqbal, Muhammad Sadiq Hassan Zada, Mohammed Hussain


Emission of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) has adversely affected the environment. One of the major sources of CO2 emission is transportation. In the last few decades, the increase in mobility of people using vehicles has enormously increased the emission of CO2 in the environment. To reduce CO2 emission, sustainable transportation system is required in which smart parking is one of the important measures that need to be established. To contribute to the issue of reducing the amount of CO2 emission, this research proposes a smart parking system. A cloud-based solution is provided to the drivers which automatically searches and recommends the most preferred parking slots. To determine preferences of the parking areas, this methodology exploits a number of unique parking features which ultimately results in the selection of a parking that leads to minimum level of CO2 emission from the current position of the vehicle. To realize the methodology, a scenario-based implementation is considered. During the implementation, a mobile application with GPS signals, vehicles with a number of vehicle features and a list of parking areas with parking features are used by sorting, multi-level filtering, exploratory data analysis (EDA, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)) and weighted sum model (WSM) to rank the parking areas and recommend the drivers with top-k most preferred parking areas. In the EDA process, “2020testcar-2020-03-03”, a freely available dataset is used to estimate CO2 emission of a particular vehicle. To evaluate the system, results of the proposed system are compared with the conventional approach, which reveal that the proposed methodology supersedes the conventional one in reducing the emission of CO2 into the atmosphere.

Keywords: car parking, Co2, Co2 reduction, IoT, merge sort, number plate recognition, smart car parking

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1221 Composition Dependent Spectroscopic Studies of Sm3+-Doped Alkali Fluoro Tungsten Tellurite Glasses

Authors: K. Swapna, Sk. Mahamuda, Ch, Annapurna, A. Srinivasa Rao, G. Vijaya Prakash


Samarium ions doped Alkali Fluoro Tungsten Tellurite (AFTT) Glasses have been prepared by using the melt quenching technique and characterized through various spectroscopic techniques such as optical absorption, excitation, emission and decay spectral studies. From the measured absorption spectra of Sm3+ ions in AFTT glasses, the optical band gap and Urbach energies have been evaluated. The spectroscopic parameters such as oscillator strengths (f), Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters (Ωλ), spontaneous emission probability (AR), branching ratios (βR) and radiative lifetimes (τR) of various excited levels have been determined from the absorption spectrum by using J-O analysis. A strong luminescence in the reddish-orange spectral region has been observed for all the Sm3+ ions doped AFTT glasses. It consisting four emission transitions occurring from the 4G5/2metastable state to the lower lying states 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2 and 6H11/2 upon exciting the sample with a 478 nm line of an argon ion laser. The stimulated emission cross-sections (σe) and branching ratios (βmeas) were estimated from the emission spectra for all emission transitions. Correlation of the radiative lifetime with the experimental lifetime measured from the day curves allows us to measure the quantum efficiency of the prepared glasses. In order to know the colour emission of the prepared glasses under near UV excitation, the emission intensities were analyzed using CIE 1931 colour chromaticity diagram. The aforementioned spectral studies carried out on Sm3+ ions doped AFTT glasses allowed us to conclude that, these glasses are best suited for orange-red visible lasers.

Keywords: fluoro tungsten tellurite glasses, judd-ofelt intensity parameters, lifetime, stimulated emission cross-section

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1220 Study of Buried Interfaces in Fe/Si Multilayer by Hard X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: Hina Verma, Karine Le Guen, Renaud Dalaunay, Iyas Ismail, Vita Ilakovac, Jean Pascal Rueff, Yunlin Jacques Zheng, Philippe Jonnard


To the extent of our knowledge, X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been applied in the soft x-ray region (photon energy ≤ 2 keV) to study the buried layers and interfaces of stacks of nanometer-thin films. Now we extend the methodology to study the buried interfaces in the hard X-ray region (i.e., ≥ five keV). The emission spectra allow us to study the interactions between elements in the buried layers from the analysis of their valence states, thereby providing sensitive information about the physical-chemical environment of the emitting element in multilayers. We exploit the chemical sensitivity of XES to study the interfaces between Fe and Si layers in the Fe/Si multilayer from the Fe Kβ₂,₅ emission spectra (7108 eV). The Fe Kβ₅ emission line results from the electronic transition from occupied 3d to 1s levels (i.e., valence to core transition) and is hence sensitive to the chemical state of emitting Fe atoms. The comparison of emission spectra recorded for Fe/Si multilayer with Fe and FeSi₂ references reveal the formation of FeSi₂ at the Fe-Si interfaces inside the multilayer stack. The interfacial thickness was calculated to be 1.4 ± 0.2 nm by taking into consideration the intensity of Fe atoms emitted from the interface and the Fe layer. The formation of FeSi₂ at the interface was further confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy done on the Fe/Si multilayer. Hence, we can conclude that the XES in the hard X-ray range could be used to study multilayers and their interfaces and obtain information both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: buried interfaces, hard X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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1219 Slope Effect in Emission Evaluation to Assess Real Pollutant Factors

Authors: G. Meccariello, L. Della Ragione


The exposure to outdoor air pollution causes lung cancer and increases the risk of bladder cancer. Because air pollution in urban areas is mainly caused by transportation, it is necessary to evaluate pollutant exhaust emissions from vehicles during their real-world use. Nevertheless their evaluation and reduction is a key problem, especially in the cities, that account for more than 50% of world population. A particular attention was given to the slope variability along the streets during each journey performed by the instrumented vehicle. In this paper we dealt with the problem of describing a quantitatively approach for the reconstruction of GPS coordinates and altitude, in the context of correlation study between driving cycles / emission / geographical location, during an experimental campaign realized with some instrumented cars. Finally the slope analysis can be correlated to the emission and consumption values in a specific road position, and it could be evaluated its influence on their behaviour.

Keywords: air pollution, driving cycles, GPS signal, slope, emission factor, fuel consumption

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