Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Ma Fanhua

3 Effect of Hydrogen on the Performance of a Methanol SI-Engine at City Driving Conditions

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua

Abstract:

Methanol is one of the most suitable alternative fuels for replacing gasoline in present and future spark-ignited engines. However, for pure methanol engines, cold start problems and misfires are observed under certain operating conditions. Hydrogen provides a solution for such problems. This paper experimentally investigated the effect of hydrogen on the performance of a pure methanol SI-engine at city driving conditions (1500 rpm speed and 1.18 excess air ratio). Hydrogen was used as a part of methanol reformed syngas (67% hydrogen by volume). 4% by mass of the total methanol converted to hydrogen and other constituent gases, was used in each cycle. Port fuel injection was used to inject methanol and hydrogen-rich syngas into the 4-cylinder engine. The results indicated an increase in brake thermal efficiency up to 5% with the addition of hydrogen, a decrease in brake specific fuel consumption up to 200 g/kWh, and a decrease in exhaust gas temperature by 100°C for all mean effective pressures. Hydrogen addition also decreased harmful exhaust emissions significantly. There was a reduction in THC emissions up to 95% and CO emissions up to 50%. NOx emissions were slightly increased (up to 15%), but they can be reduced to zero by lean burn strategy.

Keywords: alternative fuels, hydrogen, methanol, performance, spark ignition engines

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2 The Effect of Hydrogen on Performance and Emissions of a Methanol Si-Engine at Part Load

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua

Abstract:

Methanol and hydrogen are the most suitable alternative fuel resources for the existing and future internal combustion engines. This paper experimentally examined the effects of hydrogen addition on the performance and emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with methanol at part load conditions. The experiments were carried out for various engine speeds and loads. Hydrogen-rich syngas was used to enhance the performance of the test engine. It was formed by catalytic dissociation of methanol itself, and volumetric hydrogen fraction in syngas was about 67%. A certain amount of syngas dissociated from methanol was injected into the intake manifold in each engine cycle, and the low heating value (LHV) of hydrogen-rich syngas used was 4% of methanol in each cycle. Both the fuels were injected separately using port fuel injectors. The results showed that brake thermal efficiency of the engine was enhanced by 3-5% with hydrogen addition, while brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature were reduced. There was a significant reduction (90-95%) in THC and (35-50%) in CO emissions at the exhaust. NOx emissions from hydrogen blended methanol increased slightly (10-15%), but they can be reduced by using lean fuel-air mixture to keep the cylinder temperature low.

Keywords: hydrogen, methanol, alternative fuel, emissions, spark ignition engines

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1 NOx Prediction by Quasi-Dimensional Combustion Model of Hydrogen Enriched Compressed Natural Gas Engine

Authors: Anas Rao, Hao Duan, Fanhua Ma

Abstract:

The dependency on the fossil fuels can be minimized by using the hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) in the transportation vehicles. However, the NOx emissions of HCNG engines are significantly higher, and this turned to be its major drawback. Therefore, the study of NOx emission of HCNG engines is a very important area of research. In this context, the experiments have been performed at the different hydrogen percentage, ignition timing, air-fuel ratio, manifold-absolute pressure, load and engine speed. Afterwards, the simulation has been accomplished by the quasi-dimensional combustion model of HCNG engine. In order to investigate the NOx emission, the NO mechanism has been coupled to the quasi-dimensional combustion model of HCNG engine. The three NOx mechanism: the thermal NOx, prompt NOx and N2O mechanism have been used to predict NOx emission. For the validation purpose, NO curve has been transformed into NO packets based on the temperature difference of 100 K for the lean-burn and 60 K for stoichiometric condition. While, the width of the packet has been taken as the ratio of crank duration of the packet to the total burnt duration. The combustion chamber of the engine has been divided into three zones, with the zone equal to the product of summation of NO packets and space. In order to check the accuracy of the model, the percentage error of NOx emission has been evaluated, and it lies in the range of ±6% and ±10% for the lean-burn and stoichiometric conditions respectively. Finally, the percentage contribution of each NO formation has been evaluated.

Keywords: quasi-dimensional combustion , thermal NO, prompt NO, NO packet

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