Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 83

Search results for: gasoline

83 Catalytic Conversion of Biomass Derived Intermediates into Gasoline

Authors: Sandeep K. Saxena, N. Viswanadham, Ala’a H. Al-Muhtaseb


In an attempt to facilitate effective conversion of biomass derived products into gasoline rich in aromatics and iso-paraffins, various zeolite catalysts with special features such as nano crystallite size and acidity has been synthesized and evaluated. The catalyst (NZ) exhibits highest gasoline yield of about 74wt% with aromatics and iso-paraffins as major components. The product measures Research Octane Number (RON) of about 95, which is desirable for the gasoline specifications. Moreover, considerable amount of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) (15wt%) and light olefins (14wt%) are also formed as bi-product that adds value to the process. The study reveals the effective conversion of bio- ethanol to high-octane gasoline.

Keywords: biomass, ethanol, acetone, gasoline, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
82 An Experimental Comparative Study of SI Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Fuelled with Various Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Abdelgawwad


This experimental investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different types of alcohol and gasoline blends such as ethanol - butanol - propanol on the performance of spark ignition engine. The experimental work studied the effect of various fuel blends such as ethanol – butanol/gasoline and propanol/gasoline with two rates of 15% and 20%, at different operating conditions (engine speed and loads), on engine performance emission characteristics. Laboratory experiments are carried out on a four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine. In this practical study, all considerations and precautions are taken into account to ensure the quality and accuracy of practical experiments and different measurements. The results show that the performance of the engine improved significantly in the case of ethanol/butanol-gasoline blends. The results also indicated that the engine emitted pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbon (HC) for alcohol fuel blends compared to base gasoline NOx emission increased for different fuel blends either ethanol/butanol-gasoline or propanol-gasoline fuel blend.

Keywords: gasoline engine, performance, emission, fuel blends

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
81 About Some Results of the Determination of Alcohol in Moroccan Gasoline-Alcohol Mixtures

Authors: Mahacine Amrani


A simple and rapid method for the determination of alcohol in gasoline-alcohol mixtures using density measurements is described. The method can determine a minimum of 1% of alcohol by volume. The precision of the method is ± 3%.The method is more useful for field test in the quality assessment of alcohol blended fuels.

Keywords: gasoline-alcohol, mixture, alcohol determination, density, measurement, Morocco

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
80 The Analysis of Exhaust Emission from Single Cylinder Non-Mobile Spark Ignition Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blend as Fuel

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Ogbevire Umukoro


In view of the prevailing pollution problems and its consequences on the environment, efforts are being made to lower the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the impact of ethanol-gasoline blend on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder non-mobile spark ignition engine was investigated. Gasoline was blended with 5 – 20% of ethanol sourced from the open market (bought off the shelf) in an interval of 5%. The results of the emission characteristics of the exhaust gas from the combustion of the ethanol-gasoline blends showed that increasing the percentage of ethanol in the blend decreased CO emission by between 2.12% and 52.29% and HC emissions by between12.14% and 53.24%, but increased CO2 and NOx emissions by between 25% to 56% and 59% to 60% respectively. E15 blend is preferred above other blends at no-load and across all the load variations. However its NOx emission was the highest when compared with other samples. This will negatively affect human health and the environment but this drawback can be remedied by adequate treatment with appropriate additives.

Keywords: blends, emission, ethanol, gasoline, spark ignition engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
79 Experimental Investigation on Variable Compression Ratio of Single Cylinder Four Stroke SI Engine Working under Ethanol – Gasoline Blend

Authors: B. V. Lande, Suhas Kongare


Fuel blend of alcohol and conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. The greatest advantage of ethanol as a fuel in SI Engines is its high octane number. The efficiency of an SI engine that is the ability to convert fuel energy to mechanical energy, mainly depends on the compression ratio. It is, therefore, an advantage to increase this as much as possible. The major restraint is the fuel octane number – high octane fuels can be used with high compression ratios, thus yielding higher energy efficiency. This work investigates to suggest suitable ethanol gasoline blend and compression ratio for single cylinder four strokes SI Engine on the basis of performance and exhaust emissions. A single cylinder four stroke SI Engine was tested with different blend of ethanol – gasoline like E5 (5% ethanol +95% gasoline), E10 (10% ethanol + 90% gasoline) E15 (15% ethanol + 85% petrol) and E20 ( 20% + 80% gasoline) with Variable compression ratio. The performance parameter evaluated BSFC, Brake thermal efficiency and also exhaust emission CO2, Co & HC%. The result showed that higher compression ratio improved engine Performance and reduction in exhaust emission.

Keywords: blend, compression ratio, ethanol, performance, blend

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
78 Lubrication Performance of Multi-Level Gear Oil in a Gasoline Engine

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Dong- Syuan Cai, Tsochu-Lin


A vehicle gasoline engine converts gasoline into power so that the car can move, and lubricants are important for engines and also gear boxes. Manufacturers have produced numbers of engine oils, and gear oils for engines and gear boxes to SAE International Standards. Some products not only can improve the lubrication of both the engine and gear box but also can raise power of vehicle this can be easily seen in the advertisement declared by the manufacturers. To observe the lubrication performance, a multi-leveled (heavy duty) gear oil was added to a gasoline engine as the oil in the vehicle. The oil was checked at about every 10,000 kilometers. The engine was detailed disassembled, cleaned, and parts were measured. The wear of components of the engine parts were checked and recorded finally. Based on the experiment results, some gear oil seems possible to be used as engine oil in particular vehicles. Vehicle owners should change oil periodically in about every 6,000 miles (or 10,000 kilometers). Used car owners may change engine oil in even longer distance.

Keywords: multi-level gear oil, engine oil, viscosity, abrasion

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
77 Biofuel Production via Thermal Cracking of Castor Methyl Ester

Authors: Roghaieh Parvizsedghy, Seyed Mojtaba Sadrameli


Diminishing oil reserves, deteriorating health standards because of greenhouse gas emissions and associated environmental impacts have emerged biofuel production. Vegetable oils are proved to be valuable feedstock in these growing industries as they are renewable and potentially inexhaustible sources. Thermal Cracking of vegetable oils (triglycerides) leads to production of biofuels which are similar to fossil fuels in terms of composition but their combustion and physical properties have limits. Acrolein (very poisonous gas) and water production during cracking of triglycerides occurs because of presence of glycerin in their molecular structure. Transesterification of vegetable oil is a method to extract glycerol from triglycerides structure and produce methyl ester. In this study, castor methyl ester was used for thermal cracking in order to survey the efficiency of this method to produce bio-gasoline and bio-diesel. Thus, several experiments were designed by means of central composite method. Statistical studies showed that two reaction parameters, namely cracking temperature and feed flowrate, affect products yield significantly. At the optimized conditions (480 °C and 29 g/h) for maximum bio-gasoline production, 88.6% bio-oil was achieved which was distilled and separated as bio-gasoline (28%) and bio-diesel (48.2%). Bio-gasoline exposed a high octane number and combustion heat. Distillation curve and Reid vapor pressure of bio-gasoline fell in the criteria of standard gasoline (class AA) by ASTM D4814. Bio-diesel was compatible with standard diesel by ASTM D975. Water production was negligible and no evidence of acrolein production was distinguished. Therefore, thermal cracking of castor methyl ester could be used as a method to produce valuable biofuels.

Keywords: bio-diesel, bio-gasoline, castor methyl ester, thermal cracking, transesterification

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
76 Internal Combustion Engine Fuel Composition Detection by Analysing Vibration Signals Using ANFIS Network

Authors: M. N. Khajavi, S. Nasiri, E. Farokhi, M. R. Bavir


Alcohol fuels are renewable, have low pollution and have high octane number; therefore, they are important as fuel in internal combustion engines. Percentage detection of these alcoholic fuels with gasoline is a complicated, time consuming, and expensive process. Nowadays, these processes are done in equipped laboratories, based on international standards. The aim of this research is to determine percentage detection of different fuels based on vibration analysis of engine block signals. By doing, so considerable saving in time and cost can be achieved. Five different fuels consisted of pure gasoline (G) as base fuel and combination of this fuel with different percent of ethanol and methanol are prepared. For example, volumetric combination of pure gasoline with 10 percent ethanol is called E10. By this convention, we made M10 (10% methanol plus 90% pure gasoline), E30 (30% ethanol plus 70% pure gasoline), and M30 (30% Methanol plus 70% pure gasoline) were prepared. To simulate real working condition for this experiment, the vehicle was mounted on a chassis dynamometer and run under 1900 rpm and 30 KW load. To measure the engine block vibration, a three axis accelerometer was mounted between cylinder 2 and 3. After acquisition of vibration signal, eight time feature of these signals were used as inputs to an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). The designed ANFIS was trained for classifying these five different fuels. The results show suitable classification ability of the designed ANFIS network with 96.3 percent of correct classification.

Keywords: internal combustion engine, vibration signal, fuel composition, classification, ANFIS

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
75 By-Product Alcohol: Fusel Oil as an Alternative Fuel in Spark Ignition Engine

Authors: Omar Awad, R. Mamat, F. Yusop, M. M. Noor, I. M. Yusri


Fusel oil is a by-product obtained through the fermentation of some agricultural products. The fusel oil properties are closer to other alternative combustible types and the limited number of studies on the use of fusel oil as an alcohol derivative in SI engines constitutes to the base of this study. This paper experimentally examined the impacts of a by-product of alcohol, which is fusel oil by blending it with gasoline, on engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions in a 4-cylinder SI engine. The test was achieved at different engine speeds and a 60 % throttle valve (load). As results, brake power, BTE, and BSFC of F10 are higher at all engine speeds. Maximum engine BTE was 33.9%, at the lowest BSFC with F10. Moreover, it is worth seeing that the F10 under rich air-fuel ratio has less variation of COVIMEP compared to the F20 and gasoline. F10 represents shorter combustion duration, thereby, the engine power increased. NOx emission for F10 at 4500 rpm was lower than gasoline. The highest value of HC emission is obtained with F10 compared to gasoline and F20 with an average increase of 11% over the engine speed range. CO and CO2 emissions increased when using fusel oil blends.

Keywords: fusel oil, spark ignition engine, by-product alcohol, combustion characteristics, engine emissions, alternative fuel

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74 The Using of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) on a Low Heat Loss Si Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar, Hakan Gul


In this study, Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) application is performed in order to reduce the engine emissions. Piston, exhaust, and intake valves of a single-cylinder four-cycle gasoline engine were coated with chromium carbide (Cr3C2) at a thickness of 300 µm by using the Plasma Spray coating method which is a TBC method. Gasoline engine was converted into an LPG system. The study was conducted in 4 stages. In the first stage, the piston, exhaust, and intake valves of the gasoline engine were coated with Cr3C2. In the second stage, gasoline engine was converted into the LPG system and the emission values in this engine were recorded. In the third stage, the experiments were repeated under the same conditions with a standard (uncoated) engine and the results were recorded. In the fourth stage, data obtained from both engines were loaded on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and estimated values were produced for every revolution. Thus, mathematical modeling of coated and uncoated engines was performed by using ANN. While there was a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature (EGT) of LPG engine due to TBC, carbon monoxide (CO) values decreased.

Keywords: LPG fuel, thermal barrier coating, artificial neural network, mathematical modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
73 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani


In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, microemulsions, performance, Spark Ignition (SI) engine

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72 Performance of an Automotive Engine Running on Gasoline-Condensate Blends

Authors: Md. Ehsan, Cyrus Ashok Arupratan Atis


Significantly lower cost, bulk availability, absence of identification color additives and relative ease of mixing with fuels have made gas-field condensates a lucrative option as adulterant for gasoline in Bangladesh. Widespread adulteration of fuels with gas-field condensates being a problem existing mainly in developing countries like Bangladesh, Nigeria etc., research works regarding the effect of such fuel adulteration are very limited. Since the properties of the gas-field condensate vary widely depending on geographical location, studies need to be based on local condensate feeds. This study quantitatively evaluates the effects of blending of gas-field condensates with gasoline(octane) in terms of - fuel properties, engine performance and exhaust emission. Condensate samples collected from Kailashtila gas field were blended with octane, ranging from 30% to 75% by volume. However for blends with above 60% condensate, cold starting of engine became difficult. Investigation revealed that the condensate samples had significantly higher distillation temperatures compared to octane, but were not far different in terms of heating value and carbon residues. Engine tests showed Kailashtila blends performing quite similar to octane in terms of power and thermal efficiency. No noticeable knocking was observed from in-cylinder pressure traces. For all the gasoline-condensate blends the test engine ran with relatively leaner air-fuel mixture delivering slightly lower CO emissions but HC and NOx emissions were similar to octane. Road trials of a test vehicle in real traffic condition and on a standard gradient using 50%(v/v) gasoline-condensate blend were also carried out. The test vehicle did not exhibit any noticeable difference in drivability compared to octane.

Keywords: condensates, engine performance, fuel adulteration, gasoline-condensate blends

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
71 Combustion Characteristics and Pollutant Emissions in Gasoline/Ethanol Mixed Fuels

Authors: Shin Woo Kim, Eui Ju Lee


The recent development of biofuel production technology facilitates the use of bioethanol and biodiesel on automobile. Bioethanol, especially, can be used as a fuel for gasoline vehicles because the addition of ethanol has been known to increase octane number and reduce soot emissions. However, the wide application of biofuel has been still limited because of lack of detailed combustion properties such as auto-ignition temperature and pollutant emissions such as NOx and soot, which has been concerned mainly on the vehicle fire safety and environmental safety. In this study, the combustion characteristics of gasoline/ethanol fuel were investigated both numerically and experimentally. For auto-ignition temperature and NOx emission, the numerical simulation was performed on the well-stirred reactor (WSR) to simulate the homogeneous gasoline engine and to clarify the effect of ethanol addition in the gasoline fuel. Also, the response surface method (RSM) was introduced as a design of experiment (DOE), which enables the various combustion properties to be predicted and optimized systematically with respect to three independent variables, i.e., ethanol mole fraction, equivalence ratio and residence time. The results of stoichiometric gasoline surrogate show that the auto-ignition temperature increases but NOx yields decrease with increasing ethanol mole fraction. This implies that the bioethanol added gasoline is an eco-friendly fuel on engine running condition. However, unburned hydrocarbon is increased dramatically with increasing ethanol content, which results from the incomplete combustion and hence needs to adjust combustion itself rather than an after-treatment system. RSM results analyzed with three independent variables predict the auto-ignition temperature accurately. However, NOx emission had a big difference between the calculated values and the predicted values using conventional RSM because NOx emission varies very steeply and hence the obtained second order polynomial cannot follow the rates. To relax the increasing rate of dependent variable, NOx emission is taken as common logarithms and worked again with RSM. NOx emission predicted through logarithm transformation is in a fairly good agreement with the experimental results. For more tangible understanding of gasoline/ethanol fuel on pollutant emissions, experimental measurements of combustion products were performed in gasoline/ethanol pool fires, which is widely used as a fire source of laboratory scale experiments. Three measurement methods were introduced to clarify the pollutant emissions, i.e., various gas concentrations including NOx, gravimetric soot filter sampling for elements analysis and pyrolysis, thermophoretic soot sampling with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Soot yield by gravimetric sampling was decreased dramatically as ethanol was added, but NOx emission was almost comparable regardless of ethanol mole fraction. The morphology of the soot particle was investigated to address the degree of soot maturing. The incipient soot such as a liquid like PAHs was observed clearly on the soot of higher ethanol containing gasoline, and the soot might be matured under the undiluted gasoline fuel.

Keywords: gasoline/ethanol fuel, NOx, pool fire, soot, well-stirred reactor (WSR)

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70 Colombia Fossil Fuel Policies and Their Impact on Urban Air Quality

Authors: Ruth Catacolí, Hector Garcia


Colombia Urban Areas shows a decreasing of their air quality, no matter the actions developed by the Government facing the mitigation of pressure factors related with air pollution. Examples of these actions were the fossil fuel quality improvement policies (FFQI). This study evaluated the impact of three FFQI in the air quality of Bogotá during the period 1990 - 2006: The phase-out of lead in the gasoline; the sulfur reduction in diesel oil consumed in Bogotá and the oxygenation of gasoline through the addition of ethanol. The results indicate that only the policy of phase-out of lead in gasoline has been effective, showing dropping of lead oxides concentration in the air. Some stakeholders believe that the FFQI evaluated in the study are environmental policies, but no one of these policies has been supported by an environmental impact assessment that shows specific benefits in air quality. The research includes some fuel policy elements to achieve positive impact on the air quality in the urban centers of Colombia.

Keywords: policy assessment, fuel quality, urban air quality, air quality management

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
69 Oxyhydrogen Gas (HHO) as Replacement to Gasoline Fuel

Authors: Rishabh Pandey, Umang Kumar Yadav


In today’s era of technological advancement, we come across incalculable innovations, almost every day. No doubt that the society has developed a lot in learning and technology, but we should also take into account the problems and inflictions that are occurring. Focusing on the petroleum sector a trending global concern is toward lowering fuel consumption and emissions. It is well known that gasoline is non-renewable source of energy and its burning produces harmful emissions which are adversely affecting the environment, such issues are motivating us to seek alternative solutions that would not require much modification in engine design and help us come out with an outcome. Keeping in mind the importance of environment and human race, we present a factious idea of use of oxyhydrogen gas or HHO gas in place of gasoline in the vehicles and petroleum industry. This technology is prospering, highly efficient, could be used economically and safe, and it will be responsible for changing the future of oil and gas sector in accordance with protection to the environment. In the coming future, we will check the compatibility of HHO generator with fuel engine for production of oxyhydrogen gas with use of water and effect of introducing HHO gas to the combustion on both thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. We will also work on the comparison of HHO gas and commercially available gasoline fuel in support of their chemical structures; ignition rate; octane rating; knocking properties; storage; transportation and cost effectiveness and it is trusted that use of HHO gas will be ecofriendly as no harmful emissions are produced, rather the only emission is water. Additionally, this paper will include the use of HHO cell in fuel engines and challenges faced in installing it in the current period and provide effective solutions for the same.

Keywords: fuel, gas, generator, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
68 Performance and Specific Emissions of an SI Engine Using Anhydrous Ethanol–Gasoline Blends in the City of Bogota

Authors: Alexander García Mariaca, Rodrigo Morillo Castaño, Juan Rolón Ríos


The government of Colombia has promoted the use of biofuels in the last 20 years through laws and resolutions, which regulate their use, with the objective to improve the atmospheric air quality and to promote Colombian agricultural industry. However, despite the use of blends of biofuels with fossil fuels, the air quality in large cities does not get better, this deterioration in the air is mainly caused by mobile sources that working with spark ignition internal combustion engines (SI-ICE), operating with a mixture in volume of 90 % gasoline and 10 % ethanol called E10, that for the case of Bogota represent 84 % of the fleet. Another problem is that Colombia has big cities located above 2200 masl and there are no accurate studies on the impact that the E10 mixture could cause in the emissions and performance of SI-ICE. This study aims to establish the optimal blend between gasoline ethanol in which an SI engine operates more efficiently in urban centres located at 2600 masl. The test was developed on SI engine four-stroke, single cylinder, naturally aspirated and with carburettor for the fuel supply using blends of gasoline and anhydrous ethanol in different ratios E10, E15, E20, E40, E60, E85 and E100. These tests were conducted in the city of Bogota, which is located at 2600 masl, with the engine operating at 3600 rpm and at 25, 50, 75 and 100% of load. The results show that the performance variables as engine brake torque, brake power and brake thermal efficiency decrease, while brake specific fuel consumption increases with the rise in the percentage of ethanol in the mixture. On the other hand, the specific emissions of CO2 and NOx present increases while specific emissions of CO and HC decreases compared to those produced by gasoline. From the tests, it is concluded that the SI-ICE worked more efficiently with the E40 mixture, where was obtained an increases of the brake power of 8.81 % and a reduction on brake specific fuel consumption of 2.5 %, coupled with a reduction in the specific emissions of CO2, HC and CO in 9.72, 52.88 and 76.66 % respectively compared to the results obtained with the E10 blend. This behaviour is because the E40 mixture provides the appropriate amount of the oxygen for the combustion process, which leads to better utilization of available energy in this process, thus generating a comparable power output to the E10 mixing and producing lower emissions CO and HC with the other test blends. Nevertheless, the emission of NOx increases in 106.25 %.

Keywords: emissions, ethanol, gasoline, engine, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
67 The Investigation of LPG Injector Control Circuit on a Motorcycle

Authors: Bin-Wen Lan, Ying-Xin Chen, Hsueh-Cheng Yang


Liquefied petroleum gas is a fuel that has high octane number and low carbon number. This paper uses MSC-51 controller to investigate the effect of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on exhaust emissions for different engine speeds in a single cylinder, four-stroke and spark ignition engine. The results indicate that CO, CO2 and NOX exhaust emissions are lower with the use of LPG compared to the use of unleaded gasoline by using the developed controller. The open-loop in the LPG injection system was controlled by MCS-51 single chip. The results show that if a SI engine is operated with LPG fuel rather than gasoline fuel under the same conditions, significant reduction in exhaust emissions can be achieved. In summary, LPG has positive effects on main exhaust emissions such as CO, CO2 and NOX.

Keywords: LPG, control circuit, emission, MCS-51

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66 Environmental Catalysts for Refining Technology Application: Reduction of CO Emission and Gasoline Sulphur in Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit

Authors: Loganathan Kumaresan, Velusamy Chidambaram, Arumugam Velayutham Karthikeyani, Alex Cheru Pulikottil, Madhusudan Sau, Gurpreet Singh Kapur, Sankara Sri Venkata Ramakumar


Environmentally driven regulations throughout the world stipulate dramatic improvements in the quality of transportation fuels and refining operations. The exhaust gases like CO, NOx, and SOx from stationary sources (e.g., refinery) and motor vehicles contribute to a large extent for air pollution. The refining industry is under constant environmental pressure to achieve more rigorous standards on sulphur content in the fuel used in the transportation sector and other off-gas emissions. Fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) is a major secondary process in refinery for gasoline and diesel production. CO-combustion promoter additive and gasoline sulphur reduction (GSR) additive are catalytic systems used in FCCU to assist the combustion of CO to CO₂ in the regenerator and regulate sulphur in gasoline faction respectively along with main FCC catalyst. Effectiveness of these catalysts is governed by the active metal used, its dispersion, the type of base material employed, and retention characteristics of additive in FCCU such as attrition resistance and density. The challenge is to have a high-density microsphere catalyst support for its retention and high activity of the active metals as these catalyst additives are used in low concentration compare to the main FCC catalyst. The present paper discusses in the first part development of high dense microsphere of nanocrystalline alumina by hydro-thermal method for CO combustion promoter application. Performance evaluation of additive was conducted under simulated regenerator conditions and shows CO combustion efficiency above 90%. The second part discusses the efficacy of a co-precipitation method for the generation of the active crystalline spinels of Zn, Mg, and Cu with aluminium oxides as an additive. The characterization and micro activity test using heavy combined hydrocarbon feedstock at FCC unit conditions for evaluating gasoline sulphur reduction activity are studied. These additives were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, NH₃-TPD & N₂ sorption analysis, TPR analysis to establish structure-activity relationship. The reaction of sulphur removal mechanisms involving hydrogen transfer reaction, aromatization and alkylation functionalities are established to rank GSR additives for their activity, selectivity, and gasoline sulphur removal efficiency. The sulphur shifting in other liquid products such as heavy naphtha, light cycle oil, and clarified oil were also studied. PIONA analysis of liquid product reveals 20-40% reduction of sulphur in gasoline without compromising research octane number (RON) of gasoline and olefins content.

Keywords: hydrothermal, nanocrystalline, spinel, sulphur reduction

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65 Production of Alcohol from Sweet Potato

Authors: Abhishek S. Shete


There is nothing new in the use of alcohol made from root crops as a motor fuel. Alcohol is an excellent alternative motor fuel for petrol engines. The reason alcohol fuel has not been fully exploited is that, up until now; gasoline has been cheap, available, and easy to produce. However, nowadays, crude oil is getting scarce, and the historic price difference between alcohol and gasoline is getting narrower. Alcohol fuel can be an important part of the solution for Rwanda because there is tremendous scope to use bulk production of sweet potato into alcohol. The total sweet potato production in both seasons is found to be 1.607.296 tones/year. The average productivity of sweet potato in the country irrespective of seasons is found to be 8.9 tones/ha. If all of the available agricultural surplus were converted to ethanol, alcohol would supply less than 5% of motor fuel needs.

Keywords: root crops, sweet potato, surplus, alcohol

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
64 Liquid Fuel Production via Catalytic Pyrolysis of Waste Oil

Authors: Malee Santikunaporn, Neera Wongtyanuwat, Channarong Asavatesanupap


Pyrolysis of waste oil is an effective process to produce high quality liquid fuels. In this work, pyrolysis experiments of waste oil over Y zeolite were carried out in a semi-batch reactor under a flow of nitrogen at atmospheric pressure and at different reaction temperatures (350-450 oC). The products were gas, liquid fuel, and residue. Only liquid fuel was further characterized for its composition and properties by using gas chromatography, thermogravimetric analyzer, and bomb calorimeter. Experimental results indicated that the pyrolysis reaction temperature significantly affected both yield and composition distribution of pyrolysis oil. An increase in reaction temperature resulted in increased fuel yield, especially gasoline fraction. To obtain high amount of fuel, the optimal reaction temperature should be higher than 350 oC. A presence of Y zeolite in the system enhanced the cracking activity. In addition, the pyrolysis oil yield is proportional to the catalyst quantity.

Keywords: gasoline, diesel, pyrolysis, waste oil, Y zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
63 Studying the Effect of Hydrocarbon Solutions on the Properties of Epoxy Polymer Concrete

Authors: Mustafa Hasan Omar


The destruction effect of hydrocarbon solutions on concrete besides its high permeability have led researchers to try to improve the performance of concrete exposed to these solutions, hence improving the durability and usability of oil concrete structures. Recently, polymer concrete is considered one of the most important types of concrete, and its behavior after exposure to oil products is still unknown. In the present work, an experimental study has been carried out, in which the prepared epoxy polymer concrete immersed in different types of hydrocarbon exposure solutions (gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil) for 120 days and compared with the reference concrete left in the air. The results for outdoor specimens indicate that the mechanical properties are increased after 120 days, but the specimens that were immersed in gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil for the same period show a reduction in compressive strength by -21%, -27% and -23%, whereas in splitting tensile strength by -19%, -24% and -20%, respectively. The reductions in ultrasonic pulse velocity for cubic specimens are -17%, -22% and -19% and in cylindrical specimens are -20%, -25% and -22%, respectively.

Keywords: epoxy resin, hydrocarbon solutions, mechanical properties, polymer concrete, ultrasonic pulse velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
62 On Board Measurement of Real Exhaust Emission of Light-Duty Vehicles in Algeria

Authors: R. Kerbachi, S. Chikhi, M. Boughedaoui


The study presents an analysis of the Algerian vehicle fleet and resultant emissions. The emission measurement of air pollutants emitted by road transportation (CO, THC, NOX and CO2) was conducted on 17 light duty vehicles in real traffic. This sample is representative of the Algerian light vehicles in terms of fuel quality (gasoline, diesel and liquefied petroleum gas) and the technology quality (injection system and emission control). The experimental measurement methodology of unit emission of vehicles in real traffic situation is based on the use of the mini-Constant Volume Sampler for gas sampling and a set of gas analyzers for CO2, CO, NOx and THC, with an instrumentation to measure kinematics, gas temperature and pressure. The apparatus is also equipped with data logging instrument and data transfer. The results were compared with the database of the European light vehicles (Artemis). It was shown that the technological injection liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has significant impact on air pollutants emission. Therefore, with the exception of nitrogen oxide compounds, uncatalyzed LPG vehicles are more effective in reducing emissions unit of air pollutants compared to uncatalyzed gasoline vehicles. LPG performance seems to be lower under real driving conditions than expected on chassis dynamometer. On the other hand, the results show that uncatalyzed gasoline vehicles emit high levels of carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. Overall, and in the absence of standards in Algeria, unit emissions are much higher than Euro 3. The enforcement of pollutant emission standard in developing countries is an important step towards introducing cleaner technology and reducing vehicular emissions.

Keywords: on-board measurements of unit emissions of CO, HC, NOx and CO2, light vehicles, mini-CVS, LPG-fuel, artemis, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
61 Investigating Data Normalization Techniques in Swarm Intelligence Forecasting for Energy Commodity Spot Price

Authors: Yuhanis Yusof, Zuriani Mustaffa, Siti Sakira Kamaruddin


Data mining is a fundamental technique in identifying patterns from large data sets. The extracted facts and patterns contribute in various domains such as marketing, forecasting, and medical. Prior to that, data are consolidated so that the resulting mining process may be more efficient. This study investigates the effect of different data normalization techniques, which are Min-max, Z-score, and decimal scaling, on Swarm-based forecasting models. Recent swarm intelligence algorithms employed includes the Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC). Forecasting models are later developed to predict the daily spot price of crude oil and gasoline. Results showed that GWO works better with Z-score normalization technique while ABC produces better accuracy with the Min-Max. Nevertheless, the GWO is more superior that ABC as its model generates the highest accuracy for both crude oil and gasoline price. Such a result indicates that GWO is a promising competitor in the family of swarm intelligence algorithms.

Keywords: artificial bee colony, data normalization, forecasting, Grey Wolf optimizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
60 Evaluation of Biosurfactant Production by a New Strain Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica Degrading Gasoline

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen


Pollution caused by petroleum hydrocarbons in terrestrial and aquatic environment is a common phenomenon that causes significant ecological and social problems. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. Currently, the main application is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration (CMC). In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition a GC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: petroleum hydrocarbons, biosurfactant, biodegradability, critical micelle concentration, lagoon Marchika

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
59 An Approach towards Elementary Investigation on HCCI Technology

Authors: Jitendra Sharma


Here a Homogeneous Charge is used as in a spark-ignited engine, but the charge is compressed to auto ignition as in a diesel. The main difference compared with the Spark Ignition (SI) engine is the lack of flame propagation and hence the independence from turbulence. Compared with the diesel engine. HCCI has a homogeneous charge and have no problems associated with soot and Nox but HC and CO were higher than in SI mode. It was not possible to achieve high IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) values with HCCI. The Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is an attractive technology because of its high efficiency and low emissions. However, HCCI lakes a direct combustion trigger making control of combustion timing challenging, especially during transients. To aid in HCCI engine control we present a simple model of the HCCI combustion process valid over a range of intake pressures, intake temperatures, equivalence ratios and engine speeds. HCCI a new combustion technology that may develop as an alternative to diesel engines with high efficiency and low Knox and particulate matter emissions. The homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a promising new engine technology that combines elements of the diesel and gasoline engine operating cycles. HCCI as a way to increase the efficiency of the gasoline engine. The attractive properties are increased fuel efficiency due to reduced throttling losses, increased expansion ratio and higher thermodynamic efficiency. With the advantages there are some mechanical limitations to the operation of the HCCI engine. The implementation of homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) to gasoline engines is constrained by many factors. The main drawback of HCCI is the absence of direct combustion timing control. Therefore all the right conditions for auto ignition have to be set before combustion starts. This paper describes the past and current research done on HCCI engine. Many research got considerable success in doing detailed modeling of HCCI combustion. This paper aims at studying the fundamentals of HCCI combustion, the strategy to control the limitation of HCCI engine.

Keywords: HCCI, diesel engine, combustion, elementary investigation

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58 Development of Swing Valve for Gasoline Turbocharger Using Hybrid Metal Injection Molding

Authors: B. S. So, Y. H. Yoon, J. O. Jung, K. S. Bae


Metal Injection Molding (MIM) is a technology that combines powder metallurgy and injection molding. Particularly, it is widely applied to the manufacture of precision mobile parts and automobile turbocharger parts because compact precision parts with complicated three-dimensional shapes that are difficult to machining are formed into a large number of finished products. The swing valve is a valve that adjusts the boost pressure of the turbocharger. Since the head portion is exposed to the harsh temperature condition of about 900 degrees in the gasoline GDI engine, it is necessary to use Inconel material with excellent heat resistance and abrasion resistance, resulting in high manufacturing cost. In this study, we developed a swing valve using a metal powder injection molding based hybrid material (Inconel 713C material with heat resistance is applied to the head part, and HK30 material with low price is applied to the rest of the body part). For this purpose, the process conditions of the metal injection molding were optimized to minimize the internal defects, and the effectiveness was confirmed by the fracture strength and fatigue test.

Keywords: hybrid metal injection molding, swing valve, turbocharger, double injection

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57 Evaluation of Gasoline Engine Piston with Various Coating Materials Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Nouby Ghazaly, Gamal Fouad, Ali Abd-El-Tawwab, K. A. Abd El-Gwwad


The purpose of this paper is to examine the piston stress distribution using several thicknesses of the coating materials to achieve higher gasoline engine performance. First of all, finite element structure analysis is used to uncoated petrol piston made of aluminum alloy. Then, steel and cast-iron piston materials are conducted and compared with the aluminum piston. After that, investigation of four coating materials namely, yttria-stabilized zirconia, magnesia-stabilized zirconia, alumina, and mullite are studied for each piston materials. Next, influence of various thickness coating layers on the structure stresses of the top surfaces is examined. Comparison between simulated results for aluminum, steel, and cast-iron materials is reported. Moreover, the influences of different coating thickness on the Von Mises stresses of four coating materials are investigated. From the simulation results, it can report that the maximum Von Mises stresses and deformations for the piston materials are decreasing with increasing the coating thickness for magnesia-stabilized zirconia, yttria-stabilized zirconia, mullite and alumina coated materials.

Keywords: structure analysis, aluminum piston, MgZrO₃, YTZ, mullite and alumina

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56 Characterization of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Degrading Gasoline

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen


Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biological compounds consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by a variety of yeast, bacteria and filamentous fungi. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity, and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. Currently, the main application is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration (CMC). The use of biosurfactants has also been proposed for various industrial applications, such as in food additives, cosmetics, detergent formulations and in combinations with enzymes for wastewater treatment. In this study, we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains: Mannheimia haemolytica, Burkholderia cepacia and Serratia ficaria were collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a GC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: biosurfactants, Mannheimia haemolytica, biodegradability, Burkholderia cepacia, Serratia ficaria

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
55 Association between a Forward Lag of Historical Total Accumulated Gasoline Lead Emissions and Contemporary Autism Prevalence Trends in California, USA

Authors: Mark A. S. Laidlaw, Howard W. Mielke


In California between the late 1920’s and 1986 the lead concentrations in urban soils and dust climbed rapidly following the deposition of greater than 387,000 tonnes of lead emitted from gasoline. Previous research indicates that when children are lead exposed around 90% of the lead is retained in their bones and teeth due to the substitution of lead for calcium. Lead in children’s bones has been shown to accumulate over time and is highest in inner-city urban areas, lower in suburban areas and lowest in rural areas. It is also known that women’s bones demineralize during pregnancy due to the foetus's high demand for calcium. Lead accumulates in women’s bones during childhood and the accumulated lead is subsequently released during pregnancy – a lagged response. This results in calcium plus lead to enter the blood stream and cross the placenta to expose the foetus with lead. In 1970 in the United States, the average age of a first‐time mother was about 21. In 2008, the average age was 25.1. In this study, it is demonstrated that in California there is a forward lagged relationship between the accumulated emissions of lead from vehicle fuel additives and later autism prevalence trends between the 1990’s and current time period. Regression analysis between a 24 year forward lag of accumulated lead emissions and autism prevalence trends in California are associated strongly (R2=0.95, p=0.00000000127). It is hypothesized that autism in genetically susceptible children may stem from vehicle fuel lead emission exposures of their mothers during childhood and that the release of stored lead during subsequent pregnancy resulted in lead exposure of foetuses during a critical developmental period. It is furthermore hypothesized that the 24 years forward lag between lead exposures has occurred because that is time period is the average length for women to enter childbearing age. To test the hypothesis that lead in mothers bones is associated with autism, it is hypothesized that retrospective case-control studies would show an association between the lead in mother’s bones and autism. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that the forward lagged relationship between accumulated historical vehicle fuel lead emissions (or air lead concentrations) and autism prevalence trends will be similar in cities at the national and international scale. If further epidemiological studies indicate a strong relationship between accumulated vehicle fuel lead emissions (or accumulated air lead concentrations) and lead in mother’s bones and autism rates, then urban areas may require extensive soil intervention to prevent the development of autism in children.

Keywords: autism, bones, lead, gasoline, petrol, prevalence

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54 The Role of Fluid Catalytic Cracking in Process Optimisation for Petroleum Refineries

Authors: Chinwendu R. Nnabalu, Gioia Falcone, Imma Bortone


Petroleum refining is a chemical process in which the raw material (crude oil) is converted to finished commercial products for end users. The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit is a key asset in refineries, requiring optimised processes in the context of engineering design. Following the first stage of separation of crude oil in a distillation tower, an additional 40 per cent quantity is attainable in the gasoline pool with further conversion of the downgraded product of crude oil (residue from the distillation tower) using a catalyst in the FCC process. Effective removal of sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon and heavy metals from FCC gasoline requires greater separation efficiency and involves an enormous environmental significance. The FCC unit is primarily a reactor and regeneration system which employs cyclone systems for separation.  Catalyst losses in FCC cyclones lead to high particulate matter emission on the regenerator side and fines carryover into the product on the reactor side. This paper aims at demonstrating the importance of FCC unit design criteria in terms of technical performance and compliance with environmental legislation. A systematic review of state-of-the-art FCC technology was carried out, identifying its key technical challenges and sources of emissions.  Case studies of petroleum refineries in Nigeria were assessed against selected global case studies. The review highlights the need for further modelling investigations to help improve FCC design to more effectively meet product specification requirements while complying with stricter environmental legislation.

Keywords: design, emission, fluid catalytic cracking, petroleum refineries

Procedia PDF Downloads 36