Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 361

Search results for: biodiesel blend

361 Investigation on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel (Animal Oil): Ethanol Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Authors: A. Veeresh Babu, M. Vijay Kumar, P. Ravi Kumar, Katam Ganesh Babu


Biodiesel can be considered as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. These can be obtained from various resources. However, the usage of biodiesel in high percentage in compression ignition may cause some technical problems because of their higher viscosity, high pour point, and low volatility. Ethanol can be used as a fuel extender to enable use of higher percentage of biodiesel in CI engine. Blends of ethanol-animal fat oil biodiesel-diesel have been prepared and experimental study has been carried out. We have found that B40E20 fuel blend (40% biodiesel and 20 % ethanol in diesel) reduces the specific fuel consumption and improves brake thermal efficiency of engine compared to B40 fuel blend. We observed that fuel characteristics improved considerably with addition of ethanol to biodiesel. Emissions of CO, HC and smoke were reduced while CO2 emissions were increased because of more complete combustion of the blend.

Keywords: diesel, biodiesel, ethanol, CI engine, engine performance, exhaust emission

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360 Analysis of Particulate Matter Concentration, EC, OC Emission and Elemental Composition for Biodiesel-Fuelled Diesel Engine

Authors: A. M. Ashraful, H .H. Masjuki, M. A. Kalam


Comparative investigations were performed on the particles matter emitted from a DI diesel engine utilizing palm biodiesel. In this experiment, palm biodiesel PB10 (90% diesel and 10% palm biodiesel), PB20 (80% diesel, 20% palm biodiesel) and diesel fuel samples exhaust were investigated at different working condition (25% and 50% load at 1500 rpm constant speed). Observation of this experiment it clearly seen that at low load condition particle matter concentration of palm biodiesel exhaust were de-creased than that of diesel fuel. At no load and 25% load condition PB10 biodiesel blend exhibited 2.2 times lower PM concentration than that of diesel fuel. On the other hand, elemental carbon (EC) and organic emission for PB10 showed decreases trend as varies 4.2% to 6.6% and 32 to 39% respectively, while elemental carbon percentage increased by 0.85 to 10% respectively. Similarly, metal composition of PB10 biodiesel blend increased by 4.8 to 26.5% respectively. SEM images for B10 and B20 demonstrated granular structure particulates with greater grain sizes compared with diesel fuel. Finally, the experimental outcomes showed that the blend composition and degree of unsaturation of the methyl ester present in biodiesel influence on the particulate matter formation.

Keywords: particulate matter, elemental carbon, organic carbon, biodiesel

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359 1H-NMR Spectra of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends to Evaluate the Quality and Determine the Adulteration of Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil

Authors: Luis F. Bianchessi, Gustavo G. Shimamoto, Matthieu Tubino


The use of biodiesel has been diffused in Brazil and all over the world by the trading of biodiesel (B100). In Brazil, the diesel oil currently being sold is a blend, containing 7% biodiesel (B7). In this context, it is necessary to develop methods capable of identifying this blend composition, especially regarding the biodiesel quality used for making these blends. In this study, hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectra (1H-NMR) are proposed as a form of identifying and confirming the quality of type B10 blends (10% of biodiesel and 90% of diesel). Furthermore, the presence of vegetable oils, which may be from fuel adulteration or as an evidence of low degree of transesterification conversion during the synthesis of B100, may also be identified. Mixtures of diesel, vegetable oils and their respective biodiesel were prepared. Soybean oil and macauba kernel oil were used as raw material. The diesel proportion remained fixed at 90%. The other proportion (10%) was varied in terms of vegetable oil and biodiesel. The 1H-NMR spectra were obtained for each one of the mixtures, in order to find a correlation between the spectra and the amount of biodiesel, as well as the amount of residual vegetable oil. The ratio of the integral of the methylenic hydrogen H-2 of glycerol (exclusive of vegetable oil) with respect to the integral of the olefinic hydrogens (present in vegetable oil and biodiesel) was obtained. These ratios were correlated with the percentage of vegetable oil in each mixture, from 0% to 10%. The obtained correlation could be described by linear relationships with R2 of 0.9929 for soybean biodiesel and 0.9982 for macauba kernel biodiesel. Preliminary results show that the technique can be used to monitor the biodiesel quality in commercial diesel-biodiesel blends, besides indicating possible adulteration.

Keywords: biodiesel, diesel, biodiesel quality, adulteration

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358 Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions on Multi-Cylinder Turbo-Charged Diesel Engine Operated with B5 Biodiesel Blend

Authors: Pradip Lingfa, L. M. Das, S. N. Naik


In the last three decades the world has been confronting an energy crisis caused by the decreased of fossil resources, and increased of environmental problems. This situation resulted in a search for an alternative fuel. Non-edible vegetable oils are promising sources for producing liquid fuels. In the present experimental investigation, the engine tests were carried out for performance and exhaust emissions on 2.5 L Turbo-charged diesel engine fuelled with 5% biodiesel blend obtained from non-edible vegetable oils such as Jatropha, Karanja, and Castor Seeds. The engine tests were carried out at full throttle position with various engine speeds of 1500, 1750, 2000, 2250, 2750 and 3000 rpm respectively. After test, it was observed that 5% Jatropha biodiesel blend have highest brake power of 46.65 kW and less brake specific fuel consumptions of 225.8 kg/kW-hr compared to other two biodiesel blends of brake power of 45.99 kW, 45.81 kW and brake specific fuel consumption of 234.34, 236.55 kg/kW-hr respectively. The brake specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blends increase at increasing speeds for all biodiesel blends. NOx emissions for biodiesel blends were observed to be higher compared to diesel fuel during the entire range of engine operations. The emission characteristics like CO, HC and smoke were lowered at all engine speed conditions compared to diesel fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel blend, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, emission, performance

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357 Comparative Performance and Emission Analysis of Diesel Engine Fueled with Diesel and Bitter Apricot Kernal Oil Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Virender Singh Gurau, Akash Deep, Sarbjot S. Sandhu


Vegetable oils are produced from numerous oil seed crops. While all vegetable oils have high energy content, most require some processing to assure safe use in internal combustion engines. Some of these oils already have been evaluated as substitutes for diesel fuels. In the present research work Bitter Apricot kernel oil was employed as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the Bitter Apricot kernel oil methyl ester were investigated as per ASTM D6751. From the series of engine testing, it is concluded that the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) with biodiesel blend was little lower than that of diesel. BSEC is slightly higher for Bitter apricot kernel oil methyl ester blends than neat diesel. For biodiesel blends, CO emission was lower than diesel fuel as B 20 reduced CO emissions by 18.75%. Approximately 11% increase in NOx emission was observed with 20% biodiesel blend. It is observed that HC emissions tend to decrease for biodiesel based fuels and Smoke opacity was found lower for biodiesel blends in comparison to diesel fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, transesterification, bitter apricot kernel oil, performance and emission testing

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356 Investigation of the Effects of Biodiesel Blend on Particulate-Phase Exhaust Emissions from a Light Duty Diesel Vehicle

Authors: B. Wang, W. H. Or, S.C. Lee, Y.C. Leung, B. Organ


This study presents an investigation of diesel vehicle particulate-phase emissions with neat ultralow sulphur diesel (B0, ULSD) and 5% waste cooking oil-based biodiesel blend (B5) in Hong Kong. A Euro VI light duty diesel vehicle was tested under transient (New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)), steady-state and idling on a chassis dynamometer. Chemical analyses including organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), as well as 30 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 10 oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) were conducted. The OC fuel-based emission factors (EFs) for B0 ranged from 2.86 ± 0.33 to 7.19 ± 1.51 mg/kg, and those for B5 ranged from 4.31 ± 0.64 to 15.36 ± 3.77 mg/kg, respectively. The EFs of EC were low for both fuel blends (0.25 mg/kg or below). With B5, the EFs of total PAHs were decreased as compared to B0. Specifically, B5 reduced total PAH emissions by 50.2%, 30.7%, and 15.2% over NEDC, steady-state and idling, respectively. It was found that when B5 was used, PAHs and oxy-PAHs with lower molecular weight (2 to 3 rings) were reduced whereas PAHs/oxy-PAHs with medium or high molecular weight (4 to 7 rings) were increased. Our study suggests the necessity of taking atmospheric and health factors into account for biodiesel application as an alternative motor fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, OC/EC, PAHs, vehicular emission

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355 Small Scale Stationary and Mobile Production of Biodiesel

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf Abduh, Robert Manurung, Hero Jan Heeres


Biodiesel can be produced in small scale mobile units which are designed with local input and demand. Unlike the typical biodiesel production plants, mobile biodiesel unit consiss of a biodiesel production facility placed inside a standard cargo container and mounted on a truck so that it can be transported to a region near the location of raw materials. In this paper, we review the existing concept and unit for the development of community-scale and mobile production of biodiesel. This includes the main reactor technology to produce biodiesel as well as the pre-treatment prior to the reaction unit. The pre-treatment includes the oil-expeller unit to obtain oil from the oilseeds as well as the quality control of the oil before it enters the reaction unit. This paper also discusses the post-treatment after the production of biodiesel. It includes the refining and purification of biodiesel to meet the product specification set by the biodiesel industry.

Keywords: biodiesel, community scale, mobile biodiesel unit, reactor technology

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354 Characterization of Biodiesel Produced from Cow-Tallow

Authors: Nwadike Emmanuel Chinagoron, Achebe Chukwunonso, Ezeliora Chukwuemeka Daniel, Azaka Onyemazuwa Andrew


In this research work, the process of biodiesel production in a pilot plant was studied using cow tallow as raw material, methanol as the solvent and potassium hydroxide as catalysts. The biodiesel quality was determined by characterization. The tallow used in the production had a molecular weight of 860g. Its oil had a density value of 0.8g/ml, iodine value of 63.45, viscosity at 300C was 9.83pas, acid value was 1.96, free fatty acid (FFA) of 0.98%, saponification value of 82.75mleq/kg, specific gravity of 0.898, flash point of 1100C, cloud point of 950C and Calorific value also called Higher Heating Value (HHV) of 38.365MJ/Kg. The produced biodiesel had a density of 0.82g/ml, iodine value of 126.9, viscosity of 4.32pas at 300C, acid value of 0.561, FFA of 0.2805%, saponification value of 137.45 mleq/kg.Flash point, cloud point and centane number of the biodiesel produced are 1390C, 980C and 57.5 respectively, with fat content, protein content, ash content, moisture content, fiber content and carbohydrate content values of 10%, 2.8%, 5%, 5%, 20%, and 37.2% respectively. The biodiesel higher heating values (calorific values) when estimated from viscosity, density and flash points were 41.4MJ/Kg, 63.8MJ/Kg, and 34.6MJ/Kg respectively. The biodiesel was blended with conventional diesel. The blend B-10 had values of 1320C and 960C for flash and cloud points, with Calorific value (or HHV) of 34.6 MJ/Kg (when estimated from its Flash point) and fat content, protein content, ash content, moisture content, fiber content and carbohydrate content values of 5%, 2.1%,10%, 5%, 15%, and 62.9% respectively.

Keywords: biodiesel, characterization, cow-tallow, cetane rating

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353 Tribological Behavior of Pongamia Oil Based Biodiesel Blended Lubricant at Different Load

Authors: Yashvir Singh, Amneesh Singla, Swapnil Bhurat


Around the globe, there is demand for the development of bio-based lubricant which will be biodegradable, non toxic, and environmentally-friendly. This paper outlines the friction and wear characteristics of ponagamia biodiesel contaminated bio-lubricant by using pin-on-disc tribometer. To formulate the bio-lubricants, Ponagamia oil based biodiesel were blended in the ratios 5, 10, and 20% by volume with the base lubricant SAE 20 W 40. Tribological characteristics of these blends were carried out at 2.5 m/s sliding velocity and loads applied were 50, 100, 150 N. Experimental results showed that the lubrication regime that occurred during the test was boundary lubrication while the main wear mechanisms was the adhesive wear. During testing, the lowest wear was found with the addition of 5 and 10% Ponagamia oil based biodiesel, and above this contamination, the wear rate was increased considerably. The addition of 5 and 10% Ponagamia oil based biodiesel with the base lubricant acted as a very good lubricant additive which reduced the friction and wear rate during the test. It has been concluded that the PBO 5 and PBO 10 can act as an alternative lubricant to increase the mechanical efficiency at 2.5 m/s sliding velocity and contribute in reduction of dependence on the petroleum based products.

Keywords: friction, load, pongamia oil blend, sliding velocity, wear

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352 Application of Tocopherol as Antioxidant to Reduce Decomposition Process on Palm Oil Biodiesel

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono, Rendy J. Pramono


Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels promising for substituting petrodiesel as energy source which has an advantage as it is sustainable and eco-friendly. Due to the raw material that tends to decompose during storage, biodiesel also has the same characteristic that tends to decompose during storage. Biodiesel decomposition will form higher acid value as the result of oxidation to double bond on a fatty acid compound on biodiesel. Thus, free fatty acid value could be used to evaluate degradation of biodiesel due to the oxidation process. High free fatty acid on biodiesel could impact on the engine performance. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introducing a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. Biodiesel made from high free fatty acid (FFA) crude palm oil (CPO) by using two steps esterification is vulnerable to oxidation process which is resulted in increasing on the FFA value. Tocopherol also known as vitamin E is one of the antioxidant that could improve the stability of biodiesel due to decomposition by the oxidation process. Tocopherol 0.5% concentration on palm oil biodiesel could reduce 13% of increasing FFA under temperature 80 °C and exposing time 180 minute.

Keywords: antioxidant, palm oil biodiesel, decomposition, oxidation, tocopherol

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351 Influence of Synthetic Antioxidant in the Iodine Value and Acid Number of Jatropha Curcas Biodiesel

Authors: Supriyono, Sumardiyono


Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels that promising for substituting petrodiesel as energy source which is have advantage on sustainability and eco-friendly. Due to the raw material that tend to decompose during storage, biodiesel also have the same characteristic that tend to decompose and formed higher acid value which is the result of oxidation to double bond on a chain of ester. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introduce a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. The quality degradation on biodiesel could evaluated by measuring iodine value and acid number of biodiesel. Biodiesel made from High Fatty Acid Jatropha curcas oil equality by using esterification and esterification process will stand on the quality by introduce 90 ppm pyrogallol powder on the biodiesel, which could extend the quality from 2 hours to more than 6 hours in rancimat test evaluation.

Keywords: biodiesel, antioxidant, iodine number, acid value

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350 Evaluation of the Energy Performance and Emissions of an Aircraft Engine: J69 Using Fuel Blends of Jet A1 and Biodiesel

Authors: Gabriel Fernando Talero Rojas, Vladimir Silva Leal, Camilo Bayona-Roa, Juan Pava, Mauricio Lopez Gomez


The substitution of conventional aviation fuels with biomass-derived alternative fuels is an emerging field of study in the aviation transport, mainly due to its energy consumption, the contribution to the global Greenhouse Gas - GHG emissions and the fossil fuel price fluctuations. Nevertheless, several challenges remain as the biofuel production cost and its degradative effect over the fuel systems that alter the operating safety. Moreover, experimentation on full-scale aeronautic turbines are expensive and complex, leading to most of the research to the testing of small-size turbojets with a major absence of information regarding the effects in the energy performance and the emissions. The main purpose of the current study is to present the results of experimentation in a full-scale military turbojet engine J69-T-25A (presented in Fig. 1) with 640 kW of power rating and using blends of Jet A1 with oil palm biodiesel. The main findings are related to the thrust specific fuel consumption – TSFC, the engine global efficiency – η, the air/fuel ratio – AFR and the volume fractions of O2, CO2, CO, and HC. Two fuels are used in the present study: a commercial Jet A1 and a Colombian palm oil biodiesel. The experimental plan is conducted using the biodiesel volume contents - w_BD from 0 % (B0) to 50 % (B50). The engine operating regimes are set to Idle, Cruise, and Take-off conditions. The turbojet engine J69 is used by the Colombian Air Force and it is installed in a testing bench with the instrumentation that corresponds to the technical manual of the engine. The increment of w_BD from 0 % to 50 % reduces the η near 3,3 % and the thrust force in a 26,6 % at Idle regime. These variations are related to the reduction of the 〖HHV〗_ad of the fuel blend. The evolved CO and HC tend to be reduced in all the operating conditions when increasing w_BD. Furthermore, a reduction of the atomization angle is presented in Fig. 2, indicating a poor atomization in the fuel nozzle injectors when using a higher biodiesel content as the viscosity of fuel blend increases. An evolution of cloudiness is also observed during the shutdown procedure as presented in Fig. 3a, particularly after 20 % of biodiesel content in the fuel blend. This promotes the contamination of some components of the combustion chamber of the J69 engine with soot and unburned matter (Fig. 3). Thus, the substitution of biodiesel content above 20 % is not recommended in order to avoid a significant decrease of η and the thrust force. A more detail examination of the mechanical wearing of the main components of the engine is advised in further studies.

Keywords: aviation, air to fuel ratio, biodiesel, energy performance, fuel atomization, gas turbine

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349 Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fuelled with Palm Biodiesel Blends

Authors: Jalpit B. Prajapati, Ketankumar G. Patel


Palm oil may be employed in diesel engine as an alternative fuel. Biofuel has so far been backed by government policies in the quest for low carbon fuel in the near future and promises to ensure energy security through partially replacing fossil fuels. This paper presents an experimental investigation of performance and emission characteristics by using palm oil in diesel engine. The properties of palm oil can be compared favorably with the characteristics required for internal combustion engine fuels especially diesel engine. Experiments will be performed for fixed compression ratio i.e. 18 using biodiesel-diesel blends i.e. B0, B10, B20, B30, B40, B50 with load variation from no load to full load and compared with base cases i.e. engine using diesel as a fuel. The parameters studied in performance characteristics are brake power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, in emission characteristics are carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. After experimental results B20 (20% palm oil and 80% diesel) is best in performance, but NOx formation is little higher in B20.

Keywords: palm biodiesel, performance, emission, diesel-biodiesel blend

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348 An Experimental Investigation on the Fuel Characteristics of Nano-Aluminium Oxide and Nano-Cobalt Oxide Particles Blended in Diesel Fuel

Authors: S. Singh, P. Patel, D. Kachhadiya, Swapnil Dharaskar


The research objective is to integrate nanoparticles into fuels- i.e. diesel, biodiesel, biodiesel blended with diesel, plastic derived fuels, etc. to increase the fuel efficiency. The metal oxide nanoparticles will reduce the carbon monoxide emissions by donating oxygen atoms from their lattices to catalyze the combustion reactions and to aid complete combustion; due to this, there will be an increase in the calorific value of the blend (fuel + metal nanoparticles). Aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The characterization was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The size of the particles was determined by XRD to be 28.6 nm and 28.06 nm for aluminium oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles respectively. Different concentration blends- 50, 100, 150 ppm were prepared by adding the required weight of metal oxides in 1 liter of diesel and sonicating for 30 minutes at 500W. The blend properties- calorific value, viscosity, and flash point were determined by bomb calorimeter, Brookfield viscometer and pensky-martin apparatus. For the aluminum oxide blended diesel, there was a maximum increase of 5.544% in the calorific value, but at the same time, there was an increase in the flash point from 43°C to 58.5°C and an increase in the viscosity from 2.45 cP to 3.25 cP. On the other hand, for the cobalt oxide blended diesel there was a maximum increase of 2.012% in the calorific value while the flash point increased from 43°C to 51.5°C and the viscosity increased from 2.45 cP to 2.94 cP. There was a linear increase in the calorific value, viscosity and flash point when the concentration of the metal oxide nanoparticles in the blend was increased. For the 50 ppm Al₂O₃ and 50 ppm Co₃O₄ blend the increasing the calorific value was 1.228 %, and the viscosity changed from 2.45 cP to 2.64 cP and the flash point increased from 43°C to 50.5°C. Clearly the aluminium oxide nanoparticles increase the calorific value but at the cost of flash point and viscosity, thus it is better to use the 50 ppm aluminium oxide, and 50 ppm cobalt oxide blended diesel.

Keywords: aluminium oxide nanoparticles, cobalt oxide nanoparticles, fuel additives, fuel characteristics

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347 Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Sunflower Oil Using Central Composite Design

Authors: Pascal Mwenge, Jefrey Pilusa, Tumisang Seodigeng


The current study investigated the effect of catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio on biodiesel production by using central composite design. Biodiesel was produced by transesterification using sodium hydroxide as a homogeneous catalyst, a laboratory scale reactor consisting of flat bottom flask mounts with a reflux condenser and a heating plate was used to produce biodiesel. Key parameters, including, time, temperature and mixing rate were kept constant at 60 minutes, 60 oC and 600 RPM, respectively. From the results obtained, it was observed that the biodiesel yield depends on catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio. The highest yield of 50.65% was obtained at catalyst ratio of 0.5 wt.% and methanol to oil mole ratio 10.5. The analysis of variances of biodiesel yield showed the R Squared value of 0.8387. A quadratic mathematical model was developed to predict the biodiesel yield in the specified parameters ranges.

Keywords: ANOVA, biodiesel, catalyst, CCD, transesterification

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346 Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil Using Trans-Esterification Process with Koh as a Catalyst

Authors: M. Nafis Alfarizi, Dinda A. Utami, Arif Hidayat


Biodiesel is one solution to overcome the use of petroleum fuels. Many alternative feedstocks that can be used among which canola oil. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of canola oil and KOH for the trans-esterification reaction in biodiesel production. Canola oil has a very high purity that can be used as an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production and expected it will be produced biodiesel with excellent quality. In this case of study, we used trans-esterification process wherein the triglyceride is reacted with an alcohol with KOH as a catalyst, and it will produce biodiesel and glycerol as byproduct and we choose trans-esterification process because canola oil has a 0,445% FFA content. The variables studied in this research include the comparison of canola oil and methanol, temperature, time, and the percent of catalyst used. In this study the method of analysis we use GCMS and FTIR to know what the characteristic in canola oil. Development of canola oil seems to be the perfect solution to produce high-quality biodiesel. The reaction conditions resulted in 97.87% -w methyl ester (biodiesel) product by using a 0.5% wt KOH catalyst with canola and methanol ratio 1:8 at 60°C.

Keywords: biodiesel, canola oil, KOH, trans-esterification

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345 Optimization of Biodiesel Production from Sunflower Oil Using Central Composite Design

Authors: Pascal Mwenge, Jefrey Pilusa, Tumisang Seodigeng


The current study investigated the effect of catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio on biodiesel production by using central composite design. Biodiesel was produced by transesterification using sodium hydroxide as a homogeneous catalyst, a laboratory scale reactor consisting of flat bottom flask mounts with a reflux condenser, and a heating plate was used to produce biodiesel. Key parameters, including time, temperature, and mixing rate was kept constant at 60 minutes, 60 oC and 600 RPM, respectively. From the results obtained, it was observed that the biodiesel yield depends on catalyst ratio and methanol to oil ratio. The highest yield of 50.65% was obtained at catalyst ratio of 0.5 wt.% and methanol to oil mole ratio 10.5. The analysis of variances of biodiesel yield showed the R Squared value of 0.8387. A quadratic mathematical model was developed to predict the biodiesel yield in the specified parameters ranges.

Keywords: ANOVA, biodiesel, catalyst, transesterification, central composite design

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344 Refinement of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly (Lactic Acid)/Poly (Ethylene-Co-Glycidyle Methacrylate)/ Hexagonal Boron Nitride Blend-Composites through Electron-Beam Irradiation

Authors: Ashish Kumar, T. Venkatappa Rao, Subhendu Ray Chowdhury, S. V. S. Ramana Reddy


The main objective of this work is to determine the influence of electron beam irradiation on thermal and mechanical properties of Poly (lactic acid) (PLA)/Poly (ethylene-co-glycidyle methacrylate) (PEGM)/Hexagonal boron nitride (HBN) blend-composites. To reduce the brittleness and improve the toughness of PLA, the PLA/PEGM blend is prepared by using twin-screw Micro compounder. However, the heat deflection temperature (HDT) and other tensile properties were reduced. The HBN has been incorporated into the PLA/PEGM blend as part per hundred i.e. 5 phr and 10phr to improve the HDT. The prepared specimens of blend and blend-composites were irradiated to high energy (4.5 MeV) electron beam (E-beam) at different radiation doses to introduce the cross linking among the polymer chains and uniform dispersion of HBN particles in the PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The further improvement in the notched impact strength and HDT have been achieved in the case of PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites. The irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN 5phr blend composite shows high notched impact strength and HDT as compared to other unirradiated and E-beam irradiated blend and blend-composites. The improvements in the yield strength and tensile modulus have also been noticed in the case of E-beam irradiated PLA/PEGM/HBN blend-composites as compared to unirradiated blend-composites.

Keywords: blend-composite, e-beam, HDT, PEGM, PLA

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343 Short Term Tests on Performance Evaluation of Water-Washed and Dry-Washed Biodiesel from Used Cooking Oil

Authors: Shumani Ramuhaheli, Christopher C. Enweremadu, Hilary L. Rutto


In this study, biodiesel from used cooking oil was produced as purified by washing with water (water wash) and amberlite (dry wash). The work presents the results of short term tests on performance characteristics of diesel engine using both biodiesel-fuel samples. In this investigation, the water wash biodiesel and dry wash biodiesel and diesel were compared for performance using a four-cylinder diesel engine. The torque, brake power, specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were analyzed. The tests showed that in all cases, dry wash biodiesel performed marginally poorer compared to water wash biodiesel. Except for brake thermal efficiency, diesel fuel had better engine performance characteristics compared to the biodiesel-fuel samples. According to these results, dry washing of biodiesel has a marginal effect on engine performance.

Keywords: biodiesel, engine performance, used cooking oil, water wash, dry wash

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342 Fabrication of Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile Blend and SEMI-IPN Hydrogel with Epichlorohydrin

Authors: Muhammad Omer Aijaz, Sajjad Haider, Fahad S. Al Mubddal, Yousef Al-Zeghayer, Waheed A. Al Masry


The present study is focused on the preparation of chitosan-based blend and Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (SEMI-IPN) with polyacrylonitrile (PAN). Blend Chitosan/Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hydrogel films were prepared by solution blending and casting technique. Chitosan in the blend was cross-linked with epichlorohydrin (ECH) to prepare SEMI-IPN. The developed Chitosan/PAN blend and SEMI-IPN hydrogels were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA, and DSC. The result showed good miscibility between chitosan and PAN, crosslinking of chitosan in the blend, and improved thermal properties for SEMI-IPN. The swelling of the different blended and SEMI-IPN hydrogels samples were examined at room temperature. Blend (C80/P20) sample showed highest swelling (2400%) and fair degree of stability (28%) whereas SEMI-IPN hydrogel exhibited relatively low degree of swelling (244%) and high degree of aqueous stability (85.5%).

Keywords: polymer hydrogels, chitosan, SEMI-IPN, polyacrylonitrile, epichlorohydrin

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341 Organic Waste Valorization for Biodiesel Production: Chemical and Biological Approach

Authors: Meha Alouini, Wissem Mnif, Yasmine Souissi


This work will be conducted within the framework of the environmental sustainable development. It involves waste recovering into biodiesel fuel. Low cost feedstocks such as waste of frying oil and animal fats have been utilized to replace refined vegetable oil for biodiesel production. Biodiesel which refers to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was carried out by both chemical and enzymatic reaction of transesterification. In order to compare the two studied reactions the obtained biodiesel was characterized by determining its esters content and its fuel properties according to the European standard EN 14214. It was noted that the chemical method gave the product with the best physical property. But the biological one was found more effective for obtaining important ester content. Thus it would be interesting to optimize the enzymatic pathway of production of biodiesel to obtain a better property of biodiesel.

Keywords: biodiesel, fatty acid methyl esters, transesterification, waste frying oil, waste beef fat

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340 Performance and Combustion Characteristics of a DI Diesel Engine Fueled with Jatropha Methyl Esters and its Blends

Authors: Ajay V. Kolhe, R. E. Shelke, S. S. Khandare


This study discusses the performance and combustion characteristics of a direct injection diesel engine fueled with Jatropha methyl ester (JME). In order to determine the performance and combustion characteristics, the experiments were conducted at the constant speed mode (1500rpm) under the full load condition of the engine on single cylinder 4-stroke CI engine. The result indicated that when the test engine was fuelled with JME, the engine performance slightly weakened, the combustion characteristics slightly changed when compared to petroleum based diesel fuel. The biodiesel caused reduction in carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, but they caused to increases in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. The useful brake power obtained is similar to diesel fuel for all loads. Oxygen content in the exhaust is more with JME blend due to the reason that fuel itself contains oxygen. JME as a new Biodiesel and its blends can be used in diesel engines without any engine modification.

Keywords: biodiesel, combustion, CI engine, jatropha curcas oil, performance and emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
339 A Comparison of the Environmental Impacts of Edible and Non-Edible Oil Crops in Biodiesel Production

Authors: Halit Tutar, Omer Eren, Oguz Parlakay


The demand for food and energy of mankind has been increasing every passing day. Renewable energy sources have been pushed to forefront since fossil fuels will be run out in the near future and their negative effects to the environment. As in every sector, the transport sector benefits from biofuel (biogas, bioethanol and biodiesel) one of the renewable energy sources as well. The edible oil crops are used in production of biodiesel. Utilizing edible oil crops as renewable energy source may raise a debate in the view of that there is a shortage in raw material of edible oil crops in Turkey. Researches related to utilization of non-edible oil crops as biodiesel raw materials have been recently increased, and especially studies related to their vegetative production and adaptation have been accelerated in Europe. In this review edible oil crops are compared to non-edible oil crops for biodiesel production in the sense of biodiesel production, some features of non-edible oil crops and their harmful emissions to environment are introduced. The data used in this study, obtained from articles, thesis, reports relevant to edible and non edible oil crops in biodiesel.

Keywords: biodiesel, edible oil crops, environmental impacts, renewable energy

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338 Release of PVA from PVA/PA Compounds into Water Solutions

Authors: J. Klofac, P. Bazant, I. Kuritka


This work is focused on the preparation of polymeric blend composed of polyamide (PA) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with the intention to explore its basic characteristics important for potential use in medicine, especially for drug delivery systems. PA brings brilliant mechanical properties to the blend while PVA is inevitable due to its water solubility. Blend with different PA/PVA ratios were prepared and the release study of PVA into the water was carried out in a time interval 0-48 hours via the gravimetric method. The weight decrease is caused by the leaching of PVA domains what can be also followed by the optical and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the thermal properties and the miscibility of blend components were evaluated by the differential scanning calorimeter. On the bases of performed experiments, it was found that the kinetics, continuity development and micro structure features of PA/PVA blends is strongly dependent on the blend composition and miscibility of its components.

Keywords: releas study, polyvinyl alcohol, polyamide morphology, polymeric blend

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337 Biodiesel Is an Alternative Fuel for CI Engines

Authors: Sanat Kumar, Rahul Kumar Tiwari


At this time when society is becoming increasingly aware of the declining reserves of fossil, it has become apparent that biodiesel is destined to make a substantial contribution to the future energy demands of the domestic and industrial economies. In this regard, the significance of biodiesel is technically and commercially viable alternative to fossil-diesel. There are different potential feed stocks for biodiesel production. This paper analyses the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel from different feed stocks. Biodiesel fuel is considered as offering many benefits like reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and many harmful pollutants (PM, HC, CO etc.). This paper critically reviews the effect of injection timing on combustion and emission characteristics. An attempt has been carried out to discuss the effect of biodiesel in terms of combustion, emission and performance based up on composition and properties. The results of the study show that different chemical composition leads to variation in its combustion, performance and emission characteristics. Biodiesel produced from different aspired feed stocks reduces the pollutant emission and resistive to oxidation but exhibit poor atomization. As a conclusion many research needs to be carried out to understand the relationship between the types of biodiesel feed stock, performance conclusion and emission.

Keywords: atomization, biodiesel, greenhouse gas, oxidation

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336 Analysis of Economics and Value Addition of Optimized Blend with Petrodiesel of Nanocomposite Oil Methyl Esters

Authors: Chandrashekara Krishnappa, Yogish Huchaiah


The present work considers the importance of economic feasibility and financial viability of biodiesel production, and its use in the present context of prevailing Indian scenario. For this, costs involved in production of one litre of biodiesel from non-edible Jatropha and Pongamia oils Nano mix are considered. Biodiesel derived from the mix is blended with petrodiesel in various proportions and used in Compression Ignition (CI) Direct Injection (DI) engine. Performance and Emission characteristics were investigated. Optimization of the blends considering experimental results was carried out. To validate the experimental results and optimization, Multi-Functional Criteria Technique (MFCT) is used. Further, value additions in terms of INR due to increase in performance and reduction in emissions are investigated. Cost component of subsidy on petrodiesel is taken into consideration in the calculation of cost of one litre of it. Comparison of costs is with respect to the unit of power generated per litre of COME and petrodiesel. By the analysis it has been concluded that the amount saved with subsidy is INR 1.45 Lakh Crores per year and it is INR1.60 Lakh Crores per year without subsidy for petrodiesel.

Keywords: cap value addition, economic analysis, MFCT, NACOME, subsidy

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335 Biodiesel Production From Waste Cooking Oil Using g-C3N4 Photocatalyst

Authors: A. Elgendi, H. Farag, M. E. Ossman, M. Abd-Elfatah


This paper explores the using of waste cooking oil (WCO) as an attractive option to reduce the raw material cost for the biodiesel production. This can be achieved through two steps; esterification using g-C3N4photocatalyst and then alkali transesterification. Several parameters have been studied to determine the yield of the biodiesel produced such as: Reaction time (2-6 hrs), catalyst concentration (0.3-1.5 wt.%), number of UV lamps (1or 3 lamps) and methanol: oil ratio (6:1-12:1). From the obtained results, the highest percentage yield was obtained using methanol: Oil molar ratio of 12:1, catalyst dosage 0.3%, time of 4 hrs and using 1 lamp. From the results it was clear that the produced biodiesel from waste cooking oil can be used as fuel.

Keywords: biodiesel, heterogeneous catalyst, photocatalytic esterification, waste cooking oil

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334 Experimental Investigation, Analysis and Optimization of Performance and Emission Characteristics of Composite Oil Methyl Esters at 160 bar, 180 bar and 200 bar Injection Pressures by Multifunctional Criteria Technique

Authors: Yogish Huchaiah, Chandrashekara Krishnappa


This study considers the optimization and validation of experimental results using Multi-Functional Criteria Technique (MFCT). MFCT is concerned with structuring and solving decision and planning problems involving multiple variables. Production of biodiesel from Composite Oil Methyl Esters (COME) of Jatropha and Pongamia oils, mixed in various proportions and Biodiesel thus obtained from two step transesterification process were tested for various Physico-Chemical properties and it has been ascertained that they were within limits proposed by ASTME. They were blended with Petrodiesel in various proportions. These Methyl Esters were blended with Petrodiesel in various proportions and coded. These blends were used as fuels in a computerized CI DI engine to investigate Performance and Emission characteristics. From the analysis of results, it was found that 180MEM4B20 blend had the maximum Performance and minimum Emissions. To validate the experimental results, MFCT was used. Characteristics such as Fuel Consumption (FC), Brake Power (BP), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydro Carbon (HC) and Nitrogen oxide (NOx) were considered as dependent variables. It was found from the application of this method that the optimized combination of Injection Pressure (IP), Mix and Blend is 178MEM4.2B24. Overall corresponding variation between optimization and experimental results was found to be 7.45%.

Keywords: COME, IP, MFCT, optimization, PI, PN, PV

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333 Evaluation of tribological performance of aged and unaged biodiesel

Authors: Yuan-Ching Lin, Tian-Yi Huang, Ming-Jhe Hsieh


In this work, soybean biodiesel was blended with petroleum diesel as testing oils (B2). The tribiological performance of the B2 biodiesel before and after aging was evaluated using a reciprocating cylinder-on-flat wear test rig (Cameron-Plint TE-77) at various temperatures. The worn surface of each tested specimen was observed using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The compositions of the chemical films on each worn surface were determined using an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The experimental results demonstrate that the tribiological behavior of the B2 was superior to that of other testing oils. Furthermore, the aging of biodiesel caused acidification, which resulted in poorer wear performance in the same experimental condition compared with others. The worn morphology of the specimen that was tested in the aged soybean biodiesel exhibited corrosion wear, reflecting low wear resistance.

Keywords: biodiesel, soybean, tribological performance

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332 Development of Catalyst from Waste Egg Shell for Biodiesel Production by Using Waste Vegetable Oil

Authors: Victor Chinecherem Ejeke, Raphael Eze Nnam


The main objective of this research is to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oil using activated eggshell waste as solid catalysts. A transesterification reaction was performed for the conversion to biodiesel. Waste eggshells were calcined at 700°C, 800°C and 900°C for a time period of 3hrs for the preparation of the renewable catalyst. The calcined waste eggshell catalyst was characterized using X-Ray Florescence (XRF) Spectroscopy, which revealed CaO as the major constituent (90.86%); this was further confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analyses. The prepared catalyst was used for transesterification reaction and the effects of calcination temperature (700 to 900°C), Deep Eutectic Solvent DES loading (3 to 18 wt. %), Waste Egg Shell (WES) catalyst loading (6 to 14 wt. %) on the conversion to biodiesel were studied. The yield of biodiesel using a waste eggshell catalyst (91%) is comparable to conventional catalyst like sodium hydroxide with a yield of 80-90%. The maximum biodiesel production yield was obtained at a specific oil-to methanol molar ratio of 1:10, a temperature of 65°C and a catalyst loading of 14g-wt%. The biodiesel produced was characterized as being composed of methyl Tetradecanoate (C₁₄H₂₈O₂) 30.92% using the Gas Chromatographic (GC-MS) analysis. The fuel properties of the biodiesel (Flashpoint 138ᵒC) were comparable to commercial diesel, and hence it can be used in compression-ignition engines. The results indicated that the catalysts derived from waste eggshell had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of waste vegetable oil with the advantage of reusability and also not requiring water washing steps.

Keywords: waste vegetable oil, catalyst , biodiesel , waste egg shell

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