Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: butanol

52 Volumetric Properties of Binary Mixtures of Glycerol +1-Butanol or +2-Butanol at Several Temperatures

Authors: Y. Chabouni, F. Amireche


Densities of glycerol + 1-butanol or 2-butanol mixtures were measured over the temperature range 293.15 to 303.15 K at atmospheric pressure, over the entire composition range, with a vibrating tube densimeter. Excess molar volumes, apparent and partial molar volumes of glycerol and butanol, thermal isobaric expansivities of the mixture and partial molar expansivities of the components were calculated. The excess molar volumes of the mixtures are negative at all temperatures, and deviations from ideality increase with increasing temperature. Excess molar volumes were fitted to the Redlich–Kister equation. Partial molar volumes of glycerol decrease with increasing butanol concentration.

Keywords: 1-Butanol, 2-Butanol, density, excess molar volume, glycerol, partial molar property, thermal isobaric expansivities

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51 Heterologous Expression of Heat-Shock Protein Improves Butanol Yield in a High-Speedy Growing Clostridium acetobutylicum Mutant

Authors: Min-Shiuan Liou, Yi Shan Yang, Yang-Zhan Huang, Chia-Wen Hsieh


A high speed growing and butanol-tolerant Clostridium acetobutylicum HOL1 mutant was screened throughout continuous adaption culture with C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The HOL1 strain can grow well in 10 g/L butanol contained CGM medium and can produce about 12.8 g /L butanol during 24 hrs. The C. acetobutylicum HOL1 strain was able to produce 166 mM butanol with 21 mM acetone at pH 4.8, resulting in a butanol selectivity (a molar ratio of butanol to total solvents) of 0.79, which is much higher than that (0.6) of the wild-type strain C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The acetate and butyrate accumulation were not observed during fermentation of the HOL1 strain. A hyper-butanol producing C. acetobutylicum HOL1 (pBPHS-3), which was created to overexpress the Bacillus psychrosaccharolyticus originated specific heat-shock protein gene, hspX, from a clostridial phosphotransbutyrylase promoter, was studied for its potential to produce a high titer of butanol. Overexpression of hspX resulted in increased final butanol yield 47% and 30% higher than those of the the ATCC824 and the HOL1 strains, respectively. The remarkable high-speed growth and butanol tolerance of strain HOL1 (pBPHS-3) demonstrates that overexpression of heterogeneous stress protein-encoding gene, hspX, could help C. acetobutylicum to effectively produce a high concentration of butanol.

Keywords: Clostridium acetobutylicum, butanol, heat-shock protein, resistance

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50 Optimization of Multistage Extractor for the Butanol Separation from Aqueous Solution Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Dharamashi Rabari, Anand Patel


n-Butanol can be regarded as a potential biofuel. Being resistive to corrosion and having high calorific value, butanol is a very attractive energy source as opposed to ethanol. By fermentation process called ABE (acetone, butanol, ethanol), bio-butanol can be produced. ABE carried out mostly by bacteria Clostridium acetobutylicum. The major drawback of the process is the butanol concentration higher than 10 g/L, delays the growth of microbes resulting in a low yield. It indicates the simultaneous separation of butanol from the fermentation broth. Two hydrophobic Ionic Liquids (ILs) 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [bmPIP][Tf₂N] and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [hmim][Tf₂N] were chosen. The binary interaction parameters for both ternary systems i.e. [bmPIP][Tf₂N] + water + n-butanol and [hmim][Tf₂N] + water +n-butanol were taken from the literature that was generated by NRTL model. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) with the isothermal sum rate (ISR) method was used to optimize the cost of liquid-liquid extractor. For [hmim][Tf₂N] + water +n-butanol system, PSO shows 84% success rate with the number of stages equal to eight and solvent flow rate equal to 461 kmol/hr. The number of stages was three with 269.95 kmol/hr solvent flow rate for [bmPIP][Tf₂N] + water + n-butanol system. Moreover, both ILs were very efficient as the loss of ILs in raffinate phase was negligible.

Keywords: particle swarm optimization, isothermal sum rate method, success rate, extraction

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49 Biobutanol Production from Date Palm Waste by Clostridium acetobutylicum

Authors: Diya Alsafadi, Fawwaz Khalili, Mohammad W. Amer


Butanol is an important industrial solvent and potentially a better liquid transportation biofuel than ethanol. The cost of feedstock is one key problem associated with the biobutanol production. Date palm is sugar-rich fruit and highly abundant. Thousands of tons of date wastes that generated from date processing industries are thrown away each year and imposing serious environmental problems. To exploit the utilization of renewable biomass feedstock, date palm waste was utilized for butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1731. Fermentation conditions were optimized by investigating several parameters that affect the production of butanol such as temperature, substrate concentration and pH. The highest butanol yield (1.0 g/L) and acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) content (1.3 g/L) were achieved at 20 g/L date waste, pH 5.0 and 37 °C. These results suggest that date palm waste can be used for biobutanol production.

Keywords: biofuel, acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation, date palm waste, Clostridium acetobutylicum

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48 Characterization of an Isopropanol-Butanol Clostridium

Authors: Chen Zhang, Fengxue Xin, Jianzhong He


A unique Clostridium beijerinckii species strain BGS1 was obtained from grass land samples, which is capable of producing 8.43g/L butanol and 3.21 isopropanol from 60g/L glucose while generating 4.68g/L volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from 30g/L xylan. The concentration of isopropanol produced by culture BGS1 is ~15% higher than previously reported wild-type Clostridium beijerinckii under similar conditions. Compared to traditional Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) fermentation species, culture BGS1 only generates negligible amount of ethanol and acetone, but produces butanol and isopropanol as biosolvent end-products which are pure alcohols and more economical than ABE. More importantly, culture BGS1 can consume acetone to produce isopropanol, e.g., 1.84g/L isopropanol from 0.81g/L acetone in 60g/L glucose medium containing 6.15g/L acetone. The analysis of BGS1 draft genome annotated by RAST server demonstrates that no ethanol production is caused by the lack of pyruvate decarboxylase gene – related to ethanol production. In addition, an alcohol dehydrogenase (adhe gene) was found in BGS1 which could be a potential gene responsible for isopropanol-generation. This is the first report on Isopropanol-Butanol (IB) fermentation by wild-type Clostridium strain and its application for isopropanol and butanol production.

Keywords: acetone conversion, butanol, clostridium, isopropanol

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47 An Experimental Comparative Study of SI Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Fuelled with Various Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

Authors: M. Mourad, K. Abdelgawwad


This experimental investigation aimed to determine the influence of using different types of alcohol and gasoline blends such as ethanol - butanol - propanol on the performance of spark ignition engine. The experimental work studied the effect of various fuel blends such as ethanol – butanol/gasoline and propanol/gasoline with two rates of 15% and 20%, at different operating conditions (engine speed and loads), on engine performance emission characteristics. Laboratory experiments are carried out on a four-cylinder spark ignition (SI) engine. In this practical study, all considerations and precautions are taken into account to ensure the quality and accuracy of practical experiments and different measurements. The results show that the performance of the engine improved significantly in the case of ethanol/butanol-gasoline blends. The results also indicated that the engine emitted pollutants such as CO, hydrocarbon (HC) for alcohol fuel blends compared to base gasoline NOx emission increased for different fuel blends either ethanol/butanol-gasoline or propanol-gasoline fuel blend.

Keywords: gasoline engine, performance, emission, fuel blends

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46 Modelling of Pervaporation Separation of Butanol from Aqueous Solutions Using Polydimethylsiloxane Mixed Matrix Membranes

Authors: Arian Ebneyamini, Hoda Azimi, Jules Thibaults, F. Handan Tezel


In this study, a modification of Hennepe model for pervaporation separation of butanol from aqueous solutions using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixed matrix membranes has been introduced and validated by experimental data. The model was compared to the original Hennepe model and few other models which are applicable for membrane gas separation processes such as Maxwell, Lewis Nielson and Pal. Theoretical modifications for non-ideal interface morphology have been offered to predict the permeability in case of interface void, interface rigidification and pore-blockage. The model was in a good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: butanol, PDMS, modeling, pervaporation, mixed matrix membranes

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45 Isolation of Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Sponge Neopetrosia exigua

Authors: Haitham Qaralleh, Syed Z. Idid, Shahbudin Saad, Deny Susanti, Osama Althunibat


This study was carried out to isolate the active antimicrobial compounds from Neopetrosia exigua using bio-guided assay isolation against Staphylococcus aureus. N. exigua was extracted using methanol and subjected to liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with different polarity (n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane, n-butanol and water). Purification of the active components of n-butanol and dichloromethane fractions was done using Sephadex LH-20 and reverse phase chromatography. Based on the biological guided fractionation results, dichloromethane and n-butanol fractions showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Purification of the active components of n-butanol and dichloromethane fractions yielded three compounds. The structure of the isolated compounds were elucidated and found to be 5-hydroxy-1H-indole-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester, cyclo-1`-demethylcystalgerone and avarol derivative. Avarol was showed potent bactericidal effect against S. aureus. N. exigua appears to be rich source of natural antimicrobial agents. Further studies are needed to investigate the mode of action of these compounds.

Keywords: antimicrobial, avarol, Neopetrosia exigua, Staphylococcus aureus

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44 Combustion Improvements by C4/C5 Bio-Alcohol Isomer Blended Fuels Combined with Supercharging and EGR in a Diesel Engine

Authors: Yasufumi Yoshimoto, Enkhjargal Tserenochir, Eiji Kinoshita, Takeshi Otaka


Next generation bio-alcohols produced from non-food based sources like cellulosic biomass are promising renewable energy sources. The present study investigates engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions of a small single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled by four kinds of next generation bio-alcohol isomer and diesel fuel blends with a constant blending ratio of 3:7 (mass). The tested bio-alcohol isomers here are n-butanol and iso-butanol (C4 alcohol), and n-pentanol and iso-pentanol (C5 alcohol). To obtain simultaneous reductions in NOx and smoke emissions, the experiments employed supercharging combined with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). The boost pressures were fixed at two conditions, 100 kPa (naturally aspirated operation) and 120 kPa (supercharged operation) provided with a roots blower type supercharger. The EGR rates were varied from 0 to 25% using a cooled EGR technique. The results showed that both with and without supercharging, all the bio-alcohol blended diesel fuels improved the trade-off relation between NOx and smoke emissions at all EGR rates while maintaining good engine performance, when compared with diesel fuel operation. It was also found that regardless of boost pressure and EGR rate, the ignition delays of the tested bio-alcohol isomer blends are in the order of iso-butanol > n-butanol > iso-pentanol > n-pentanol. Overall, it was concluded that, except for the changes in the ignition delays the influence of bio-alcohol isomer blends on the engine performance, combustion characteristics, and emissions are relatively small.

Keywords: alternative fuel, butanol, diesel engine, EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation), next generation bio-alcohol isomer blended fuel, pentanol, supercharging

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43 In Vitro Hepatoprotective and Anti-Hepatitis B Activitis of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome Fractions

Authors: Mohammad K. Parvez, Ahmed H. Arbab, Mohammed S. Al-Dosari


Cyperus rotendus rhizomes are used as traditional medicine, including Ayurveda in chronic liver diseases and hepatitis B. We investigated the in vitro hepatoprotective and anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) potential of Cyperus rotundus rhizome organic and aqueous fractions. Of these, the n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed the most promising, dose-dependent hepatoprotection in DCFH-injured HepG2 cells at 48 h. DCFH-toxicated cells were recovered to about 88% and 96%, upon treatment with n-butanol and aqueous fractions (200 g/ml), respectively compared to DCFH-only treated cells. Further, C. rotundus fractions were tested for anti-HBV activities by measuring the expression levels of viral antigens (HBsAg and HBeAg) in the HepG2.2.15 culture supernatants. At 48 h post-treatment, the ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions showed dose-dependent inhibition wherein at a higher dose (100 g/ml), HBsAg production was reduced to 60.27%, 46.87 and 42.76%, respectively. In a time-course study, HBsAg production was inhibited up to 50% and 40% by ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions (100 g/ml), respectively on day 5. Three three active fractions were further subjected to time-dependent inhibition of HBeAg expression, an indirect measure of HBV active DNA replication. At day 5 post-treatment, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions downregulated HBV replication by 44.14% and 24.70%, respectively. In conclusion, our results showed very promising hepatoprotective and anti-HBV potential of C. rotendus tubers fractions in vitro. Our data could, therefore, provide the basis for the claimed traditional use of C. rotendus for jaundice and hepatitis.

Keywords: anti-hepatitis B, cyperus rotundus, hepatitis B virus, hepatoprotection

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42 Phytochemical Investigation of Butanol Extract from Launeae Arborescens

Authors: Khaled Sekoum, Nasser Belboukhari, Abelkrim Cheriti


Launeae arborescens (L. arborescens) is a medicinal plant having capacities of important propagation. Following its biotope, associate to different species, it is frequently notably in the whole region of Algerian southwest of Wadi– Namous until the region of Karzaz. According to our ethnopharmacological survey, L. arborescens is used for treatment of the illnesses gastric. Following our phytochemical works achieved on the polyphenols of the methanolic extract of aerial part of L. arborescens, we are also interested to investigate the butanol fraction of the water/acetone extract and isolate of the new flavonoids from this plant.

Keywords: Launeae arborescens, asteraceae, flavanone, isoflavanone, glycosid flavanone

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41 Evaluation of Phytochemical and Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Butanol Fraction of Terminalia avicennioides Leaf in Swiss Albino Rats

Authors: Fatima Mohammed Musa, J. B. Ameh, S. A. Ado, O. S. Olonitola


The study was undertaken to evaluate the phytochemical constituents of extracts of Terminalia avicennioides leaf and the antidiarrhoeal effect of n-butanol fraction of the leaf extract in Swiss albino rats infected with Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Ethanol crude extract of Terminalia avicennioides leaf was dissolved in 1.5 liters of sterile distilled water. The extract solution was partitioned with 250 ml each of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol solvents (1:1v/v) to obtain soluble fractions from the extract. The leaf extract and its fractions were screened for the presence of phytocompounds using standard analytical methods. The antidirrhoeal activity of n-butanol fraction was evaluated in Swiss albino rats using standard methods. The results of phytochemical screening of extract of Terminalia avicennioides leaf and its fractions, revealed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, triterpens, glycosides and phenols. The results of in vivo activity showed that 60 % of each group of rats infected with 2.0 x 108 cfu/ml viable cells of S. Typhimurium and 2.0 x109 cfu/ml viable cells of E. coli manifested the symptoms of diarrhoea, 72 hours after the rats were challenged with bacteria. Other symptoms observed among the infected animals included, loss of appetite, loss of weight, general body weakness and 40 % mortality in S. Typhimurium infected non treated group of rats. Similarly, 60 %, and 20 % mortality was observed among E. coli infected none treated and E. coli infected antibiotic (metronidazole) treated groups of rats respectively. However, there was a reduction in the number of infected rats defecating watery stools over time among all the infected rats that were treated with n-butanol fraction of the leaf extract and mortality was also not observed in the group, indicating high efficacy of n-butanol fraction of T. avicennioides leaf. The results also indicated that n-butanol can be used as alternative source of antidiarrhoeal agent in the treatment of diarrhoea caused by Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. In the light of this, there is a need for further research on the mechanism of action of the candidate fraction of T. avicennioides leaf which could be responsible for the observed in vivo antibacterial activity.

Keywords: antidirrhoeal effect, phytochemical constituents, swiss albino rats, terminalia avicennioides

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40 Extracting the Antioxidant Compounds of Medicinal Plant Limoniastrum guyonianum

Authors: Assia Belfar, Mohamed Hadjadj, Messaouda Dakmouche, Zineb Ghiaba, Mahdi Belguidoum


Introduction: This study aims to phytochemical screening; Extracting the active compounds and estimate the effectiveness of antioxidant in Medicinal plants desert Limoniastrum guyonianum (Zeïta) from South Algeria. Methods: Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the following methods: DPPH (1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and reducing power assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of the plant part reveals the presence of phenols, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. While alkaloids and Terpenoids were absent. The Methanolic extract of L. guyonianum was extracted successively with ethyl acetate and butanol. Extraction of yield varied widely in the L. guyonianum ranging from (1.315 % to 4.218%). butanol fraction had the highest yield. The higher content of phenols was recorded in butanol fraction (311.81 ± 0.02mg GAE/g DW), the higher content of flavonoids was found in butanol fraction (9.58 ± 0.33mg QE/g DW). IC50 of inhibition of radical DPPH in ethyl acetate fraction was (0.05 ± 0.01µg/ml) Equal effectiveness with BHT, All extracts showed good activity of ferric reducing power, the higher power was in butanol fraction (16.16 ± 0.05mM). Conclusions: Demonstrated this study that the Methanolic extract of L. guyonianum contain a considerable quantity of phenolic compounds and possess a good antioxidant activity. It can be used as an easily accessible source of Natural Antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: flavonoid compound, l. guyonianum, medicinal plants, phenolic compounds, phytochemical screening

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39 Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production from Butanol over Ag/TiO2

Authors: Thabelo Nelushi, Michael Scurrell, Tumelo Seadira


Global warming is one of the most important environmental issues which arise from occurrence of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the atmosphere. Exposure to these greenhouse gases results in health risk. Hydrogen is regarded as an alternative energy source which is a clean energy carrier for the future. There are different methods to produce hydrogen such as steam reforming, coal gasification etc., however the challenge with these processes is that they emit CO and CO2 gases and are costly. Photocatalytic reforming is a substitute process which is fascinating due to the combination of solar energy and renewable sources and the use of semiconductor materials such as catalysts. TiO2 is regarded as the most promising catalysts. TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method and Ag/TiO2 are being investigated for photocatalytic production of hydrogen from butanol. The samples were characterized by raman spectroscopy, TEM/SEM, XRD, XPS, EDAX, DRS and BET surface area. 2 wt% Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticle showed enhanced hydrogen production compared to a non-doped TiO2. The results of characterization and photoactivity shows that TiO2 nanoparticles play a very important role in producing high hydrogen by utilizing solar irradiation.

Keywords: butanol, hydrogen production, silver particles, TiO2 nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
38 Salting Effect in Partially Miscible Systems of Water/Acétic Acid/1-Butanol at 298.15k: Experimental Study and Estimation of New Solvent-Solvent and Salt-Solvent Binary Interaction Parameters for NRTL Model

Authors: N. Bourayou, A. -H. Meniai, A. Gouaoura


The presence of salt can either raise or lower the distribution coefficient of a solute acetic acid in liquid- liquid equilibria. The coefficient of solute is defined as the ratio of the composition of solute in solvent rich phase to the composition of solute in diluents (water) rich phase. The phenomena are known as salting–out or salting-in, respectively. The effect of monovalent salt, sodium chloride and the bivalent salt, sodium sulfate on the distribution of acetic acid between 1-butanol and water at 298.15K were experimentally shown to be effective in modifying the liquid-liquid equilibrium of water/acetic acid/1-butanol system in favour of the solvent extraction of acetic acid from an aqueous solution with 1-butanol, particularly at high salt concentrations of both salts. All the two salts studied are found to have to salt out effect for acetic acid in varying degrees. The experimentally measured data were well correlated by Eisen-Joffe equation. NRTL model for solvent mixtures containing salts was able to provide good correlation of the present liquid-liquid equilibrium data. Using the regressed salt concentration coefficients for the salt-solvent interaction parameters and the solvent-solvent interaction parameters obtained from the same system without salt. The calculated phase equilibrium was in a quite good agreement with the experimental data, showing the ability of NRTL model to correlate salt effect on the liquid-liquid equilibrium.

Keywords: activity coefficient, Eisen-Joffe, NRTL model, sodium chloride

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37 Analysis of Caffeic Acid from Myrica nagi Leaves by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Preeti Panthari, Harsha Kharkwal


Myrica nagi belongs to Myricaceae family. It is known for its therapeutic use since ancient times. The leaves were extracted with methanol and further fractioned with different solvents with increasing polarity. The n-butanol fraction of methanol extract was passed through celite, on separation through silica gel column chromatography yielded ten fractions. For the first time we report isolation of Caffeic acid from n-butanol fraction of Myrica nagi leaves in Chloroform: methanol (70:30) fraction. The mobile phase used for analysis in HPLC was Methanol: water (60:40) at the flow rate of 1 ml/min at wavelength of 280 nm. The retention time was 2.66 mins.

Keywords: Myrica nagi, column chromatography, retention time, caffeic acid

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36 Multiphase Coexistence for Aqueous System with Hydrophilic Agent

Authors: G. B. Hong


Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) data are measured for the ternary mixtures of water + 1-butanol + butyl acetate and quaternary mixtures of water + 1-butanol + butyl acetate + glycerol at atmospheric pressure at 313.15 K. In addition, isothermal Vapor–Liquid–Liquid Equilibrium (VLLE) data are determined experimentally at 333.15 K. The region of heterogeneity is found to increase as the hydrophilic agent (glycerol) is introduced into the aqueous mixtures. The experimental data are correlated with the NRTL model. The predicted results from the solution model with the model parameters determined from the constituent binaries are also compared with the experimental values.

Keywords: LLE, VLLE, hydrophilic agent, NRTL

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35 Application of Three Phase Partitioning (TPP) for the Purification of Serratiopeptidase

Authors: Swapnil V. Pakhale, Sunil S. Bhagwat


Three phase partitioning (TPP) an efficient bioseparation technique integrates the concentration and partial purification step of downstream processing of a biomolecule. Three Phase Partitioning is reported here for the first time for purification of Serratiopeptidase from fermentation broths of Serratia marcescens NRRL B-23112. The influence of various salts and solvents, Concentration of ammonium sulphate (20-60% w/v), Crude extract to t-butanol ratio (1:0.5-1:2.5) and system pH on Serratiopeptidase partitioning were investigated and optimum conditions for TPP were obtained in order to enhance the degree of purification and activity recovery of Serratiopeptidase. Under the optimal conditions of TPP, serratiopeptidase has been efficiently separated and concentrated with maximum recovery and degree of purification of 95.70% and 4.95 fold respectively. The present study shows TPP as an attractive downstream process for the purification of serratiopeptidase.

Keywords: three phase partitioning, serratiopeptidase, serratia marcescens NRRL B-23112, t-butanol, bioseparation

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34 Gas Chromatography-Analysis, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anticancer Activities of Some Extracts and Fractions of Linum usitatissimum

Authors: Eman Abdullah Morsi, Hend Okasha, Heba Abdel Hady, Mortada El-Sayed, Mohamed Abbas Shemis


Context: Linum usitatissimum (Linn), known as Flaxseed, is one of the most important medicinal plants traditionally used for various health as nutritional purposes. Objective: Estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluate the antioxidant using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2-2'azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay and investigation of anti-inflammatory by Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anticancer activities of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF7) have been applied on hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts and also, fractions of methonal extract (hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol). Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected using spectrophotometric and colorimetric assays. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were estimated in-vitro. Anticancer activity of extracts and fractions of methanolic extract were tested on (HepG2) and (MCF7). Results: Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction contain higher contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In addition, methanolic extract had higher antioxidant activity. Butanolic and ethyl acetate fractions yielded higher percent of inhibition of protein denaturation. Meanwhile, ethyl acetate fraction and methanolic extract had anticancer activity against HepG2 and MCF7 (IC50=60 ± 0.24 and 29.4 ± 0.12µg.mL⁻¹) and (IC50=94.7 ± 0.21 and 227 ± 0.48µg.mL⁻¹), respectively. In Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, methanolic extract has 32 compounds, whereas; ethyl acetate and butanol fractions contain 40 and 36 compounds, respectively. Conclusion: Flaxseed contains totally different biologically active compounds that have been found to possess good variable activities, which can protect human body against several diseases.

Keywords: phenolic content, flavonoid content, HepG2, MCF7, hemolysis-assay, flaxseed

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33 In vivo Antidiabetic and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Myrica salicifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich. (Myricaceae) Root Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

Authors: Yohannes Kelifa, Gomathi Periasamy, Aman Karim


Introduction: Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health and economical problem across the globe. Modern antidiabetic drugs have a number of limitations, and scientific investigation of traditional herbal remedies used for diabetes may provide novel leads for the development of new antidiabetic drugs that can be used as alternative or complementary to available antidiabetic allopathic medications. Though Myrica salicifolia Hochst. ex A. Rich. is used for the management of diabetes in Ethiopian traditional medicine, there was no previous scientific evidence about its antidiabetic effect to the authors’ knowledge. This study was undertaken to evaluate the antidiabetic activity the root extracts of Myrica salicifolia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (150 mg/kg) in male mice. Diabetic mice were treated with oral doses of M. salicifolia root extracts at 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg, and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) at a dose of 400 mg/kg daily for 15 days. Fasting blood glucose level (BGL) was measured at 0, 5th,10th, and 15th day. The free radical scavenging activity of the crude extract was determined using in vitro by DPPH assay. The statistical significance was assessed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. Results were considered significant when p < 0.05. Results: Daily administration of the M. salicifolia 80% methanol root extracts (at three different doses (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) reduced fasting BGL compared with diabetic control. The aqueous and butanol fractions at a dose of 400 mg/kg resulted in maximum reduction of fasting BGL by 42.39%, and 52.13%, respectively at the 15th day in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Free radical scavenging activity of the 80% methanol extract of M. salicifolia was comparable to ascorbic acid. The IC50 values of the crude extract and ascorbic acid (a reference compound) were found to be 4.54 μg/ml and 4.39 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated that the methanolic extracts of M. salicifolia root and its fractions (n-butanol and aqueous) exhibit a significant antihyperglycemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Furthermore, the result of the present study indicates that M. salicifolia root extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants.

Keywords: antidiabetic, diabetes mellitus, DPPH, mice, Myrica salicifolia, streptozotocin

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32 Evaluation of Antioxidants in Medicinal plant Limoniastrum guyonianum

Authors: Assia Belfar, Mohamed Hadjadj, Messaouda Dakmouche, Zineb Ghiaba


Introduction: This study aims to phytochemical screening; Extracting the active compounds and estimate the effectiveness of antioxidant in Medicinal plants desert Limoniastrum guyonianum (Zeïta) from South Algeria. Methods: Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The total antioxidant capacity was estimated by the following methods: DPPH (1.1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and reducing power assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of the plant part reveals the presence of phenols, saponins, flavonoids and tannins. While alkaloids and Terpenoids were absent. The acetonic extract of L. guyonianum was extracted successively with ethyl acetate and butanol. Extraction of yield varied widely in the L. guyonianum ranging from (0.9425 %to 11.131%). The total phenolic content ranged from 53.33 mg GAE/g DW to 672.79 mg GAE/g DW. The total flavonoid concentrations varied from 5.45 to 21.71 mg/100g. IC50 values ranged from 0.02 ± 0.0004 to 0.13 ± 0.002 mg/ml. All extracts showed very good activity of ferric reducing power, the higher power was in butanol fraction (23.91 mM) more effective than BHA, BHT and VC. Conclusions: Demonstrated this study that the acetonic extract of L. guyonianum contain a considerable quantity of phenolic compounds and possess a good antioxidant activity. Can be used as an easily accessible source of Natural Antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and in the pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: limoniastrum guyonianum, phenolics compounds, flavonoid compound, antioxidant activity

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31 Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Matricaria pubscens Extracts: A Wild Space of North African Pharmacopeia

Authors: Abdelouahab Dehimati, Fatiha Bedjou


This study focused on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of four extracts from the plant Matricaria pubscens (Asteraceae) harvest in the region of Ghardaia, the northern Sahara of Algeria. The different extracts were analyzed for their content of phenolic compounds and their biological activities. The ethanol extract expresses a better extraction yield (44.22%). We have first performed the quantitative colorimetric methods for total polyphenols. Wherein the aqueous extract shows the highest total polyphenol content and total flavonoid (216.66±2.58 mg Eq GA/g and 111.04±0.49 mg Eq Q/g E, respectively) and ethanol extract 50% total tannins content (68.88±2.72 mg Eq AT/g E). The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of extracts of Matricaria pubscens by the arbitrary value IC50. The ethanol 50% extract is expressed strong activity with an IC50 14.19±1.25 mg/m against the DPPH radical and 11.66±0.53 mg/ml against the ABTS radical). In addition, the aqueous extract showed strong reducing power with an IC50 (48.61±1.14 mg/ml). However, the results obtained by the reducing power of phosphomolybdat the test are calculated by the iron maximum absorbance where ethanol extract 50% gives an absorbance of about 1.641 ± 0.01nm. Otherwise, methanol 70% and butanol 80% extracts gave a very large chelating effect of iron with an IC50 (38.38±0.01 μg/ml and 38.58±0.04 μg/ml respectively). By the method of disc Diffuson, the results of the antimicrobial activity are achieved butanolic extract 80% shows high activity towards MRSA (MIC: 3.51mg/ml; BMC>100 mg/ml). Their shares, the extracts were the most active for the antifungal test, the butanol 80% extract was the most active against A. niger (MIC: 12.5 mg/ml; FMC>100 mg/ml). These preliminary results could be used to justify the traditional use of this plant and their phenolic compounds could be exploited for therapeutic purposes, such as antioxidants and antimicrobial effects.

Keywords: Matricaria pubscens, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, IC50, MIC

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30 Hypotensive effect of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. in Anesthetized Rats

Authors: Huma Shareef, Ghazala H. Rizwani, Ahsana Dar


In traditional medicine Cardiospermum halicacabum L. (Sapindeaceae) is used against various ailments. In current investigation searching a new remedy that will available easily, non expensive, able to lower hypertension and standardize blood pressure, made us to develop an herbal medicine. Crude ethanol extract of C. halicacabum and its various fractions ethyl acetate and butanol showed a dose-dependent hypotensive effect in anaesthetized rats. The trachea was exposed and freed from connective tissue and incubated by cannula to facilitate spontaneous respiration. The right carotid artery and left jugular vein were cannulated with polyethylene tubing PE-50 for monitoring blood pressure changes via pressure transducer (Gould P23 ID) connected to a Grass model 79D polygraph and for i.v. injection, respectively. Drugs or the plant extracts were administered at a constant volume of 0.5 ml/kg, followed by injection of 0.2 ml of saline that flushed the cannula. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was measured in mm Hg and heart rate in beats/min. Ethanol extract of C. halicacabum showed a significant activity at 50 mg/kg dose. Ethyl acetate fraction (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg) induced dose dependent fall in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate of rats. At 10-30 mg/kg the hypotensive effect was non significantly reduced by 10 -15%. However, the extract at 40 mg/kg induced significant hypotensive effect calculated as 30.95±3.2% MABP and this effect persists till 50 mg/kg. The higher polar fraction (butanol) of the whole plant failed to produce any significant response against MABP at all the tested doses (10-50 mg/kg). C. halicacabum lowers blood pressure, exerts a dose-dependent hypotensive effect, can be used as hypotensor.

Keywords: cardiospermum halicacabum, calcium channel blocker, hypotensive, various extracts

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29 Ultrasound-Mediated Separation of Ethanol, Methanol, and Butanol from Their Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Ozan Kahraman, Hao Feng


Ultrasonic atomization (UA) is a useful technique for producing a liquid spray for various processes, such as spray drying. Ultrasound generates small droplets (a few microns in diameter) by disintegration of the liquid via cavitation and/or capillary waves, with low range velocity and narrow droplet size distribution. In recent years, UA has been investigated as an alternative for enabling or enhancing ultrasound-mediated unit operations, such as evaporation, separation, and purification. The previous studies on the UA separation of a solvent from a bulk solution were limited to ethanol-water systems. More investigations into ultrasound-mediated separation for other liquid systems are needed to elucidate the separation mechanism. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the operational parameters on the ultrasound-mediated separation of three miscible liquid pairs: ethanol-, methanol-, and butanol-water. A 2.4 MHz ultrasonic mister with a diameter of 18 mm and rating power of 24 W was installed on the bottom of a custom-designed cylindrical separation unit. Air was supplied to the unit (3 to 4 L/min.) as a carrier gas to collect the mist. The effects of the initial alcohol concentration, viscosity, and temperature (10, 30 and 50°C) on the atomization rates were evaluated. The alcohol concentration in the collected mist was measured with high performance liquid chromatography and a refractometer. The viscosity of the solutions was determined using a Brookfield digital viscometer. The alcohol concentration of the atomized mist was dependent on the feed concentration, feed rate, viscosity, and temperature. Increasing the temperature of the alcohol-water mixtures from 10 to 50°C increased the vapor pressure of both the alcohols and water, resulting in an increase in the atomization rates but a decrease in the separation efficiency. The alcohol concentration in the mist was higher than that of the alcohol-water equilibrium at all three temperatures. More importantly, for ethanol, the ethanol concentration in the mist went beyond the azeotropic point, which cannot be achieved by conventional distillation. Ultrasound-mediated separation is a promising non-equilibrium method for separating and purifying alcohols, which may result in significant energy reductions and process intensification.

Keywords: azeotropic mixtures, distillation, evaporation, purification, seperation, ultrasonic atomization

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28 [Keynote Talk]: Ultrasound Assisted Synthesis of ZnO of Different Morphologies by Solvent Variation

Authors: Durata Haciu, Berti Manisa, Ozgur Birer


ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by ultrasonic irradiation from simple linear alcohols and water/ethanolic mixtures, at 50 oC. By changing the composition of the solvent, the shape could be altered. While no product was obtained from methanolic solutions, in ethanol, sheet like lamellar structures prevail.n-propanol and n-butanol resulted in needle like structures. The morphology of ZnO could be thus tailored in a simple way, by varying the solvent, under ultrasonic irradiation, in a relatively less time consuming method. Variation of the morphology and size of Zn also provides a means for modulating the band-gap. Although the chemical effects of ultrasound do not come from direct interaction with molecular species, the high energy derived from acoustic cavitation creates a unique interaction of energy and matter with great potential for synthesis.

Keywords: ultrasound, ZnO, linear alcohols, morphology

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27 Effects of Drying and Extraction Techniques on the Profile of Volatile Compounds in Banana Pseudostem

Authors: Pantea Salehizadeh, Martin P. Bucknall, Robert Driscoll, Jayashree Arcot, George Srzednicki


Banana is one of the most important crops produced in large quantities in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Of the total plant material grown, approximately 40% is considered waste and left in the field to decay. This practice allows fungal diseases such as Sigatoka Leaf Spot to develop, limiting plant growth and spreading spores in the air that can cause respiratory problems in the surrounding population. The pseudostem is considered a waste residue of production (60 to 80 tonnes/ha/year), although it is a good source of dietary fiber and volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). Strategies to process banana pseudostem into palatable, nutritious and marketable food materials could provide significant social and economic benefits. Extraction of VOC’s with desirable odor from dried and fresh pseudostem could improve the smell of products from the confectionary and bakery industries. Incorporation of banana pseudostem flour into bakery products could provide cost savings and improve nutritional value. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of drying methods and different banana species on the profile of volatile aroma compounds in dried banana pseudostem. The banana species analyzed were Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Fresh banana pseudostem samples were processed by either freeze-drying (FD) or heat pump drying (HPD). The extraction of VOC’s was performed at ambient temperature using vacuum distillation and the resulting, mostly aqueous, distillates were analyzed using headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Optimal SPME adsorption conditions were 50 °C for 60 min using a Supelco 65 μm PDMS/DVB Stableflex fiber1. Compounds were identified by comparison of their electron impact mass spectra with those from the Wiley 9 / NIST 2011 combined mass spectral library. The results showed that the two species have notably different VOC profiles. Both species contained VOC’s that have been established in literature to have pleasant appetizing aromas. These included l-Menthone, D-Limonene, trans-linlool oxide, 1-Nonanol, CIS 6 Nonen-1ol, 2,6 Nonadien-1-ol, Benzenemethanol, 4-methyl, 1-Butanol, 3-methyl, hexanal, 1-Propanol, 2-methyl- acid، 2-Methyl-2-butanol. Results show banana pseudostem VOC’s are better preserved by FD than by HPD. This study is still in progress and should lead to the optimization of processing techniques that would promote the utilization of banana pseudostem in the food industry.

Keywords: heat pump drying, freeze drying, SPME, vacuum distillation, VOC analysis

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26 Geoclimatic Influences on the Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from the Fruit of Arbutus unedo L.

Authors: Khadidja Bouzid, Fouzia Benali Toumi, Mohamed Bouzouina


We made a comparison between the total phenolic content, concentrations of flavonoids and antioxidant activity of four different extracts (butanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, water) of Arbutus unedo L. fruit (Ericacea) of El Marsa and Terni area. The total phenolic content in the extracts was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and it ranged between 26.57 and 48.23 gallic acid equivalents mg/g of dry weight of extract. The concentrations of flavonoids in plant extracts varied from 17.98 to 56.84 catechin equivalents mg/g. The antioxidant activity was analyzed in vitro using the DPPH reagent; among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction from El Marsa area showed the highest antioxidant activity.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Arbutus unedo L., fruit flavonoids, phenols, Western Algeria

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25 Evaluation of Esters Production by Oleic Acid Epoxidation Reaction

Authors: Flavio A. F. Da Ponte, Jackson Q. Malveira, Monica C. G. Albuquerque


In recent years a worldwide interest in renewable resources from the biomass has spurred the industry. In this work the chemical structure of oleic acid chains was modified by homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis in order to produce esters. The homogeneous epoxidation was carried out at H2O2 to oleic acid unsaturation molar ratio of 20:1. The reaction temperature was 338 K and reaction time 16 h. Formic acid was used as catalyst. For heterogeneous catalysis reaction temperature was 343 K and reaction time 24 h. The esters production was carried out by heterogeneous catalysis of the epoxidized oleic acid and butanol using Mg/SBA-15 as catalyst. The resulting products were confirmed by NMR (1H and 13C) and FTIR spectroscopy. The products were characterized before and after each reaction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and BET surface areas. The results were satisfactory for the bioproducts formed.

Keywords: acid oleic, bioproduct, esters, epoxidation

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24 MTT Assay-Guided Isolation of a Cytotoxic Lead from Hedyotis umbellata and Its Mechanism of Action against Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells

Authors: Kirti Hira, A. Sajeli Begum, S. Mahibalan, Poorna Chandra Rao


Introduction: Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Although existing therapy effectively kills cancer cells, they do affect normal growing cells leading to many undesirable side effects. Hence there is need to develop effective as well as safe drug molecules to combat cancer, which is possible through phyto-research. The currently available plant-derived blockbuster drugs are the example for this. In view of this, an investigation was done to identify cytotoxic lead molecules from Hedyotis umbellata (Family Rubiaceae), a widely distributed weed in India. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extract of the whole plant of H. umbellata (MHU), prepared through Soxhlet extraction method was further fractionated with diethyl ether and n-butanol, successively. MHU, ether fraction (EMHU) and butanol fraction (BMHU) were lyophilized and were tested for the cytotoxic effect using 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell lines. The potentially active EMHU was subjected to chromatographic purification using normal-phase silica columns, in order to isolate the responsible bioactive compounds. The isolated pure compounds were tested for their cytotoxic effect by MTT assay against A549 cells. Compound-3, which was found to be most active, was characterized using IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR and MS analysis. The study was further extended to decipher the mechanism of action of cytotoxicity of compound-3 against A549 cells through various in vitro cellular models. Cell cycle analysis was done using flow cytometry following PI (Propidium Iodide) staining. Protein analysis was done using Western blot technique. Results: Among MHU, EMHU, and BMHU, the non-polar fraction EMHU demonstrated a significant dose-dependent cytotoxic effect with IC50 of 67.7μg/ml. Chromatography of EMHU yielded seven compounds. MTT assay of isolated compounds explored compound-3 as potentially active one, which inhibited the growth of A549 cells with IC50value of 14.2μM. Further, compound-3 was identified as cedrelopsin, a coumarin derivative having molecular weight of 260. Results of in vitro mechanistic studies explained that cedrelopsin induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and down-regulated the expression of G2/M regulatory proteins such as cyclin B1, cdc2, and cdc25C, dose dependently. This is the first report that explores the cytotoxic mechanism of cedrelopsin. Conclusion: Thus a potential small lead molecule, cedrelopsin isolated from H. umbellata, showing antiproliferative effect mediated by G2/M arrest in A549 cells was discovered. The effect of cedrelopsin against other cancer cell lines followed by in vivo studies can be performed in future to develop a new drug candidate.

Keywords: A549, cedrelopsin, G2/M phase, Hedyotis umbellata

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23 Techno-Economic Assessments of Promising Chemicals from a Sugar Mill Based Biorefinery

Authors: Kathleen Frances Haigh, Mieke Nieder-Heitmann, Somayeh Farzad, Mohsen Ali Mandegari, Johann Ferdinand Gorgens


Lignocellulose can be converted to a range of biochemicals and biofuels. Where this is derived from agricultural waste, issues of competition with food are virtually eliminated. One such source of lignocellulose is the South African sugar industry. Lignocellulose could be accessed by changes to the current farming practices and investments in more efficient boilers. The South African sugar industry is struggling due to falling sugar prices and increasing costs and it is proposed that annexing a biorefinery to a sugar mill will broaden the product range and improve viability. Process simulations of the selected chemicals were generated using Aspen Plus®. It was envisaged that a biorefinery would be annexed to a typical South African sugar mill. Bagasse would be diverted from the existing boilers to the biorefinery and mixed with harvest residues. This biomass would provide the feedstock for the biorefinery and the process energy for the biorefinery and sugar mill. Thus, in all scenarios a portion of the biomass was diverted to a new efficient combined heat and power plant (CHP). The Aspen Plus® simulations provided the mass and energy balance data to carry out an economic assessment of each scenarios. The net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and minimum selling price (MSP) was calculated for each scenario. As a starting point scenarios were generated to investigate the production of ethanol, ethanol and lactic acid, ethanol and furfural, butanol, methanol, and Fischer-Tropsch syncrude. The bypass to the CHP plant is a useful indicator of the energy demands of the chemical processes. An iterative approach was used to identify a suitable bypass because increasing this value had the combined effect of increasing the amount of energy available and reducing the capacity of the chemical plant. Bypass values ranged from 30% for syncrude production to 50% for combined ethanol and furfural production. A hurdle rate of 15.7% was selected for the IRR. The butanol, combined ethanol and furfural, or the Fischer-Tropsch syncrude scenarios are unsuitable for investment with IRRs of 4.8%, 7.5% and 11.5% respectively. This provides valuable insights into research opportunities. For example furfural from sugarcane bagasse is an established process although the integration of furfural production with ethanol is less well understood. The IRR for the ethanol scenario was 14.7%, which is below the investment criteria, but given the technological maturity it may still be considered for investment. The scenarios which met the investment criteria were the combined ethanol and lactic acid, and the methanol scenarios with IRRs of 20.5% and 16.7%, respectively. These assessments show that the production of biochemicals from lignocellulose can be commercially viable. In addition, this assessment have provided valuable insights for research to improve the commercial viability of additional chemicals and scenarios. This has led to further assessments of the production of itaconic acid, succinic acid, citric acid, xylitol, polyhydroxybutyrate, polyethylene, glucaric acid and glutamic acid.

Keywords: biorefineries, sugar mill, methanol, ethanol

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