Search results for: fuel consumption
4142 Investigating of the Fuel Consumption in Construction Machinery and Ways to Reduce Fuel Consumption
Authors: Reza Bahboodian
Abstract:One of the most important factors in the use of construction machinery is the fuel consumption cost of this equipment. The use of diesel engines in off-road vehicles is an important source of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter 10 in off-road vehicles (construction and mining) may be high. Due to the high cost of fuel, it is necessary to minimize fuel consumption. Factors affecting the fuel consumption of these cars are very diverse. Climate changes such as changes in pressure, temperature, humidity, fuel type selection, type of gearbox used in the car are effective in fuel consumption and pollution, and engine efficiency. In this paper, methods for reducing fuel consumption and pollutants by considering valid European and European standards are examined based on new methods such as hybridization, optimal gear change, adding hydrogen to diesel fuel, determining optimal working fluids, and using oxidation catalysts.
Keywords: improve fuel consumption, construction machinery, pollutant reduction, determining the optimal working cycleProcedia PDF Downloads 96
4141 Simulation Research of City Bus Fuel Consumption during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle
Authors: P. Kacejko, M. Wendeker
Abstract:The fuel consumption of city buses depends on a number of factors that characterize the technical properties of the bus and driver, as well as traffic conditions. This parameter related to greenhouse gas emissions is regulated by law in many countries. This applies to both fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Simulation studies are a way to reduce the costs of optimization studies. The paper describes simulation research of fuel consumption city bus driving. Parameters of the developed model are based on experimental results obtained on chassis dynamometer test stand and road tests. The object of the study was a city bus equipped with a compression-ignition engine. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the CUEDC Australian Driving Cycle. The results of the calculations showed a direct influence of driving dynamics on fuel consumption.
Keywords: Australian Driving Cycle, city bus, diesel engine, fuel consumptionProcedia PDF Downloads 63
4140 Speed Optimization Model for Reducing Fuel Consumption Based on Shipping Log Data
Authors: Ayudhia P. Gusti, Semin
Abstract:It is known that total operating cost of a vessel is dominated by the cost of fuel consumption. How to reduce the fuel cost of ship so that the operational costs of fuel can be minimized is the question that arises. As the basis of these kinds of problem, sailing speed determination is an important factor to be considered by a shipping company. Optimal speed determination will give a significant influence on the route and berth schedule of ships, which also affect vessel operating costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues about ship speed optimization. Sailing speed, displacement, sailing time, and specific fuel consumption were obtained from shipping log data to be further analyzed for modeling the speed optimization. The presented speed optimization model is expected to affect the fuel consumption and to reduce the cost of fuel consumption.
Keywords: maritime transportation, reducing fuel, shipping log data, speed optimizationProcedia PDF Downloads 502
4139 Modelling Vehicle Fuel Consumption Utilising Artificial Neural Networks
Authors: Aydin Azizi, Aburrahman Tanira
Abstract:The main source of energy used in this modern age is fossil fuels. There is a myriad of problems that come with the use of fossil fuels, out of which the issues with the greatest impact are its scarcity and the cost it imposes on the planet. Fossil fuels are the only plausible option for many vital functions and processes; the most important of these is transportation. Thus, using this source of energy wisely and as efficiently as possible is a must. The aim of this work was to explore utilising mathematical modelling and artificial intelligence techniques to enhance fuel consumption in passenger cars by focusing on the speed at which cars are driven. An artificial neural network with an error less than 0.05 was developed to be applied practically as to predict the rate of fuel consumption in vehicles.
Keywords: mathematical modeling, neural networks, fuel consumption, fossil fuelProcedia PDF Downloads 337
4138 Developing Model for Fuel Consumption Optimization in Aviation Industry
Authors: Somesh Kumar Sharma, Sunanad Gupta
Abstract:The contribution of aviation to society and economy is undisputedly significant. The aviation industry drives economic and social progress by contributing prominently to tourism, commerce and improved quality of life. Identifying the amount of fuel consumed by an aircraft while moving in both airspace and ground networks is critical to air transport economics. Aviation fuel is a major operating cost parameter of the aviation industry and at the same time it is prone to various constraints. This article aims to develop a model for fuel consumption of aviation product. The paper tailors the information for the fuel consumption optimization in terms of information development, information evaluation and information refinement. The information is evaluated and refined using statistical package R and Factor Analysis which is further validated with neural networking. The study explores three primary dimensions which are finally summarized into 23 influencing variables in contrast to 96 variables available in literature. The 23 variables explored in this study should be considered as highly influencing variables for fuel consumption which will contribute significantly towards fuel optimization.
Keywords: fuel consumption, civil aviation industry, neural networking, optimizationProcedia PDF Downloads 263
4137 Apply Commitment Method in Power System to Minimize the Fuel Cost
Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Adel Yahya
Abstract:The goal of this paper study is to schedule the power generation units to minimize fuel consumption cost based on a model that solves unit commitment problems. This can be done by utilizing forward dynamic programming method to determine the most economic scheduling of generating units. The model was applied to a power station, which consists of four generating units. The obtained results show that the applications of forward dynamic programming method offer a substantial reduction in fuel consumption cost. The fuel consumption cost has been reduced from $116,326 to $102,181 within a 24-hour period. This means saving about 12.16 % of fuel consumption cost. The study emphasizes the importance of applying modeling schedule programs to the operation of power generation units. As a consequence less consumption of fuel, less loss of power and less pollution
Keywords: unit commitment, forward dynamic, fuel cost, programming, generation scheduling, operation cost, power system, generating unitsProcedia PDF Downloads 509
4136 Correlation between Fuel Consumption and Voyage Related Ship Operational Energy Efficiency Measures: An Analysis from Noon Data
Authors: E. Bal Beşikçi, O. Arslan
Abstract:Fuel saving has become one of the most important issue for shipping in terms of fuel economy and environmental impact. Lowering fuel consumption is possible for both new ships and existing ships through enhanced energy efficiency measures, technical and operational respectively. The limitations of applying technical measures due to the long payback duration raise the potential of operational changes for energy efficient ship operations. This study identifies operational energy efficiency measures related voyage performance management. We use ‘noon’ data to examine the correlation between fuel consumption and operational parameters- revolutions per minute (RPM), draft, trim, (beaufort number) BN and relative wind direction, which are used as measures of ship energy efficiency. The results of this study reveal that speed optimization is the most efficient method as fuel consumption depends heavily on RPM. In conclusion, this study will provide ship operators with the strategic approach for evaluating the priority of the operational energy efficiency measures against high fuel prices and carbon emissions.
Keywords: ship, voyage related operational energy Efficiency measures, fuel consumption, pearson's correlation coefﬁcientProcedia PDF Downloads 550
4135 Influence of Driving Strategy on Power and Fuel Consumption of Lightweight PEM Fuel Cell Vehicle Powertrain
Authors: Suhadiyana Hanapi, Alhassan Salami Tijani, W. A. N Wan Mohamed
Abstract:In this paper, a prototype PEM fuel cell vehicle integrated with a 1 kW air-blowing proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack as a main power sources has been developed for a lightweight cruising vehicle. The test vehicle is equipped with a PEM fuel cell system that provides electric power to a brushed DC motor. This vehicle was designed to compete with industrial lightweight vehicle with the target of consuming least amount of energy and high performance. Individual variations in driving style have a significant impact on vehicle energy efficiency and it is well established from the literature. The primary aim of this study was to assesses the power and fuel consumption of a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle operating at three difference driving technique (i.e. 25 km/h constant speed, 22-28 km/h speed range, 20-30 km/h speed range). The goal is to develop the best driving strategy to maximize performance and minimize fuel consumption for the vehicle system. The relationship between power demand and hydrogen consumption has also been discussed. All the techniques can be evaluated and compared on broadly similar terms. Automatic intelligent controller for driving prototype fuel cell vehicle on different obstacle while maintaining all systems at maximum efficiency was used. The result showed that 25 km/h constant speed was identified for optimal driving with less fuel consumption.
Keywords: prototype fuel cell electric vehicles, energy efficient, control/driving technique, fuel economyProcedia PDF Downloads 371
4134 Assessment of Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Means of Transport in Agriculture
Authors: Jerzy Merkisz, Piotr Lijewski, Pawel Fuc, Maciej Siedlecki, Andrzej Ziolkowski, Sylwester Weymann
Abstract:The paper discusses the problem of load transport using farm tractors and road tractor units. This type of carriage of goods is often done with farm vehicles. The tests were performed with the PEMS equipment (Portable Emission Measurement System) under actual traffic conditions. The vehicles carried a load of 20000 kg. This research method is one of the most desired because it provides reliable information on the actual vehicle emissions and fuel consumption (carbon balance method). For the tests, a route was selected that simulated a trip from a small town to a food-processing facility located in a city. The analysis of the obtained results gave a clear answer as to what vehicles need to be used for the carriage of this type of cargo in terms of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption.
Keywords: emission, transport, fuel consumption, PEMSProcedia PDF Downloads 454
4133 Motorist Driving Strategy-Related Factors Affecting Vehicle Fuel Efficiency
Authors: Aydin Azizi, Abdurrahman Tanira
Abstract:With the onset of climate change and limited fuel resources, improving fuel efficiency has become an important part of the motor industry. To maximize fuel efficiency, development of technologies must come hand-in-hand with awareness of efficient driving strategies. This study aims to explore the various driving habits that can impact fuel efficiency by reviewing available literature. Such habits include sudden and unnecessary acceleration or deceleration, improper hardware maintenance, driving above or below optimum speed and idling. By studying such habits and ultimately applying it to driving techniques, in combination with improved mechanics of the car, will optimize the use of fuel.
Keywords: fuel efficiency, driving techniques, optimum speed, optimizing fuel consumptionProcedia PDF Downloads 380
4132 A Global Fuel Combustion Data Product and Its Application
Authors: Shu Tao, Rong Wang, Huizhong Shen, Ye Huang
Abstract:High-resolution mapping of fuel combustion is essential for reducing uncertainties in assessments of greenhouse gases and air pollutant emissions. Such inventories provide valuable information for inferring carbon sinks, modeling pollutant transport, and developing control strategies. Previous inventories included only a few fuel types and were derived using national population proxies which may distort the geographical variation within countries. In this study, a global 0.1 degree by 0.1 degree geo-referenced inventory of fuel combustion (PKU-FUEL-2007) was developed for 64 fuel sub-types along with uncertainty analysis for the year 2007. Sub-national fuel consumption of large countries and major power-station locations were used. The disaggregation error can be reduced significantly by using the sub-nationally energy data, because the uneven distribution of per-capita fuel consumption within countries is taken into consideration. The PKU-FUEL was used to generate global emission inventories of CO2 (PKU-CO2-2007), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PKU-PAHs-2007), and black carbons (PKU-BC-2007). Atmospheric transport modeling and expsoure assessment were conducted for BC and PAHs based on the inventory.
Keywords: fuel, emission, BC, PAHs, atmospheric transport, exposureProcedia PDF Downloads 262
4131 Analysis of Fuel Efficiency in Heavy Construction Compaction Machine and Factors Affecting Fuel Efficiency
Authors: Amey Kulkarni, Paavan Shetty, Amol Patil, B. Rajiv
Abstract:Fuel Efficiency plays a very important role in overall performance of an automobile. In this paper study of fuel efficiency of heavy construction, compaction machine is done. The fuel Consumption trials are performed in order to obtain the consumption of fuel in performing certain set of actions by the compactor. Usually, Heavy Construction machines are put to work in locations where refilling the fuel tank is not an easy task and also the fuel is consumed at a greater rate than a passenger automobile. So it becomes important to have a fuel efficient machine for long working hours. The fuel efficiency is the most important point in determining the future scope of the product. A heavy construction compaction machine operates in five major roles. These five roles are traveling, Static working, High-frequency Low amplitude compaction, Low-frequency High amplitude compaction, low idle. Fuel consumption readings for 1950 rpm, 2000 rpm & 2350 rpm of the engine are taken by using differential fuel flow meter and are analyzed. And the optimum RPM setting which fulfills the fuel efficiency, as well as engine performance criteria, is considered. Also, other factors such as rear end gears, Intake and exhaust restriction for an engine, vehicle operating techniques, air drag, Tribological aspects, Tires are considered for increasing the fuel efficiency of the compactor. The fuel efficiency of compactor can be precisely calculated by using Differential Fuel Flow Meter. By testing the compactor at different combinations of Engine RPM and also considering other factors such as rear end gears, Intake and exhaust restriction of an engine, vehicle operating techniques, air drag, Tribological aspects, The optimum solution was obtained which lead to significant improvement in fuel efficiency of the compactor.
Keywords: differential fuel flow meter, engine RPM, fuel efficiency, heavy construction compaction machineProcedia PDF Downloads 223
4130 The Modeling of City Bus Fuel Economy during the JE05 Emission Test Cycle
Authors: Miroslaw Wendeker, Piotr Kacejko, Marcin Szlachetka, Mariusz Duk
Abstract:This paper discusses a model of fuel economy in a city bus driving in a dynamic urban environment. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the bench test results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The fuel consumption was calculated for three separate research stages, i.e. urban, downtown and motorway. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass and electrical load applied to on-board devices. The research results show fuel consumption is impacted by driving dynamics.
Keywords: city bus, heavy duty vehicle, Japanese JE05 test cycle, kinetic energyProcedia PDF Downloads 222
4129 Statistical Analysis and Impact Forecasting of Connected and Autonomous Vehicles on the Environment: Case Study in the State of Maryland
Authors: Alireza Ansariyar, Safieh Laaly
Abstract:Over the last decades, the vehicle industry has shown increased interest in integrating autonomous, connected, and electrical technologies in vehicle design with the primary hope of improving mobility and road safety while reducing transportation’s environmental impact. Using the State of Maryland (M.D.) in the United States as a pilot study, this research investigates CAVs’ fuel consumption and air pollutants (C.O., PM, and NOx) and utilizes meaningful linear regression models to predict CAV’s environmental effects. Maryland transportation network was simulated in VISUM software, and data on a set of variables were collected through a comprehensive survey. The number of pollutants and fuel consumption were obtained for the time interval 2010 to 2021 from the macro simulation. Eventually, four linear regression models were proposed to predict the amount of C.O., NOx, PM pollutants, and fuel consumption in the future. The results highlighted that CAVs’ pollutants and fuel consumption have a significant correlation with the income, age, and race of the CAV customers. Furthermore, the reliability of four statistical models was compared with the reliability of macro simulation model outputs in the year 2030. The error of three pollutants and fuel consumption was obtained at less than 9% by statistical models in SPSS. This study is expected to assist researchers and policymakers with planning decisions to reduce CAV environmental impacts in M.D.
Keywords: connected and autonomous vehicles, statistical model, environmental effects, pollutants and fuel consumption, VISUM, linear regression modelsProcedia PDF Downloads 372
4128 Fuel Economy of Electrical Energy in the City Bus during Japanese Test Procedure
Authors: Piotr Kacejko, Lukasz Grabowski, Zdzislaw Kaminski
Abstract:This paper discusses a model of fuel consumption and on-board electricity generation. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the on-board electricity generation during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass and electrical load applied to on-board devices. The research results show that driving dynamics has an impact on a consumption of fuel to drive alternators.
Keywords: city bus, heavy duty vehicle, Japanese JE05 test cycle, power generationProcedia PDF Downloads 145
4127 Increasing Efficiency, Performance and Safety of Aircraft during Takeoff and Landing by Interpreting Electromagnetism
Authors: Sambit Supriya Dash
Abstract:Aerospace Industry has evolved over the last century and is growing by approaching towards, more fuel efficient, cheaper, simpler, convenient and safer ways of flight stages. In this paper, the accident records of aircrafts are studied and found about 71% of accidents caused on runways during Takeoff and Landing. By introducing the concept of interpreting electromagnetism, the cause of bounced touchdown and flare failure such as landing impact loads and instability could be eliminated. During Takeoff, the rate of fuel consumption is observed to be maximum. By applying concept of interpreting electromagnetism, a remarkable rate of fuel consumption is reduced, which can be used in case of emergency due to lack of fuel or in case of extended flight. A complete setup of the concept, its effects and characteristics are studied and provided with references of few popular aircrafts. By embedding series of strong and controlled electromagnets below the runway along and aside the centre line and fixed in the line of acting force through wing-fuselage aerodynamic centre. By the essence of its strength controllable nature, it can contribute to performance and fuel efficiency for aircraft. This ensures a perfect Takeoff with less fuel consumption followed by safe cruise stage, which in turn ensures a short and safe landing, eliminating the till known failures, due to bounced touchdowns and flare failure.
Keywords: efficiency, elctromagnetism, performance, reduced fuel consumption, safetyProcedia PDF Downloads 169
4126 Energy Management of Hybrid Energy Source Composed of a Fuel Cell and Supercapacitor for an Electric Vehicle
Authors: Mejri Achref
Abstract:This paper proposes an energy management strategy for an electrical hybrid vehicle which is composed of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell and a supercapacitor storage device. In this paper, the mathematical model for the proposed power train, comprising the PEM Fuel Cell, supercapacitor, boost converter, inverter, and vehicular structure, was modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The proposed algorithm is evaluated for the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) driving cycle. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy in reduction of hydrogen consumption.
Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cell, hybrid vehicle, hydrogen consumption, energy management strategyProcedia PDF Downloads 78
4125 Impact of Wheel-Housing on Aerodynamic Drag and Effect on Energy Consumption on an Bus
Authors: Amitabh Das, Yash Jain, Mohammad Rafiq B. Agrewale, K. C. Vora
Abstract:Role of wheel and underbody aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing geometry and pattern. Based on benchmarking a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption on an electric bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption.
Keywords: wheel-housing, CFD simulation, drag coefficient, energy consumptionProcedia PDF Downloads 121
4124 Cessna Citation X Performances Improvement by an Adaptive Winglet during the Cruise Flight
Authors: Marine Segui, Simon Bezin, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez
Abstract:As part of a ‘Morphing-Wing’ idea, this study consists of measuring how a winglet, which is able to change its shape during the flight, is efficient. Conventionally, winglets are fixed-vertical platforms at the wingtips, optimized for a cruise condition that the airplane should use most of the time. However, during a cruise, an airplane flies through a lot of cruise conditions corresponding to altitudes variations from 30,000 to 45,000 ft. The fixed winglets are not optimized for these variations, and consequently, they are supposed to generate some drag, and thus to deteriorate aircraft fuel consumption. This research assumes that it exists a winglet position that reduces the fuel consumption for each cruise condition. In this way, the methodology aims to find these optimal winglet positions, and to further simulate, and thus estimate the fuel consumption of an aircraft wearing this type of adaptive winglet during several cruise conditions. The adaptive winglet is assumed to have degrees of freedom given by the various changes of following surfaces: the tip chord, the sweep and the dihedral angles. Finally, results obtained during cruise simulations are presented in this paper. These results show that an adaptive winglet can reduce, thus improve up to 2.12% the fuel consumption of an aircraft during a cruise.
Keywords: aerodynamic, Cessna, Citation X, optimization, wingletProcedia PDF Downloads 161
4123 Numerical Investigation of Oxy-Fuel Combustion in Gasoline Engine for Carbon Capture and Storage
Authors: Zhijun Peng, Xiang Li, Dayou Li, Raouf Mobasheri, Abdel Aitouche
Abstract:To implement carbon capture and storage (CCS) for eliminating carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions, this paper describes a study on oxy-fuel combustion (OFC) with an ethanol-gasoline dual-fuel spark ignition (DFSI) engine under economical oxygen consumption at low and mid-high loads which was performed by 1D simulation. It is demonstrated that under OFC mode without other optimisation, brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) can meet the requirement at mid-high load, but it has a considerable decline at low load compared to conventional air combustion (CAC) mode. Moreover, there is a considerable deterioration in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) compared to that of CAC mode. A practical method is proposed to optimise the DFSI engine performance under OFC mode by changing intake charge components and utilising appropriate water injection (WI) strategies.
Keywords: oxy-fuel combustion, dual-fuel spark ignition engine, ethanol, gasoline, computer simulationProcedia PDF Downloads 32
4122 Diesel Engine Performance Optimization to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Emissions Issues
Authors: hadi kargar, bahador shabani
Abstract:In this article, 16 cylinder motor combustion CFD modeling with a diameter of 165 mm and 195 mm along the way to help the FIRE software to optimize its function to work. A three-dimensional model of the processes that formed inside the cylinder made that involves mixing the fuel and air, ignition and spraying. In this three-dimensional model, all chemical species, density of air fuel spraying and spray with full profile intended to detailed results from mixing the fuel and air, igniting the ignition advance, spray, and mixed media in different times and get fit by moving the piston. Optimal selection of the model for the shape of the piston and spraying fuel specifications (including the management of spraying, the number of azhneh hole, start time of spraying and spraying angle) to achieve the best fuel consumption and minimal pollution. The spray hole 6 and 7 in three different configurations with five spraying and gives the best geometry and various performances in the simulation. 6 hole spray angle, finally spraying 72.5 degrees and two forms of spraying a better performance in comparison with other items of their own.
Keywords: spray, FIRE, CFD, optimize, diesel engineProcedia PDF Downloads 347
4121 Comparing Machine Learning Estimation of Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Vehicles
Authors: Victor Bodell, Lukas Ekstrom, Somayeh Aghanavesi
Abstract:Fuel consumption (FC) is one of the key factors in determining expenses of operating a heavy-duty vehicle. A customer may therefore request an estimate of the FC of a desired vehicle. The modular design of heavy-duty vehicles allows their construction by specifying the building blocks, such as gear box, engine and chassis type. If the combination of building blocks is unprecedented, it is unfeasible to measure the FC, since this would first r equire the construction of the vehicle. This paper proposes a machine learning approach to predict FC. This study uses around 40,000 vehicles specific and o perational e nvironmental c onditions i nformation, such as road slopes and driver profiles. A ll v ehicles h ave d iesel engines and a mileage of more than 20,000 km. The data is used to investigate the accuracy of machine learning algorithms Linear regression (LR), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and Artificial n eural n etworks (ANN) in predicting fuel consumption for heavy-duty vehicles. Performance of the algorithms is evaluated by reporting the prediction error on both simulated data and operational measurements. The performance of the algorithms is compared using nested cross-validation and statistical hypothesis testing. The statistical evaluation procedure finds that ANNs have the lowest prediction error compared to LR and KNN in estimating fuel consumption on both simulated and operational data. The models have a mean relative prediction error of 0.3% on simulated data, and 4.2% on operational data.
Keywords: artificial neural networks, fuel consumption, friedman test, machine learning, statistical hypothesis testingProcedia PDF Downloads 101
4120 The Influence of Variable Geometrical Modifications of the Trailing Edge of Supercritical Airfoil on the Characteristics of Aerodynamics
Authors: P. Lauk, K. E. Seegel, T. Tähemaa
Abstract:The fuel consumption of modern, high wing loading, commercial aircraft in the first stage of flight is high because the usable flight level is lower and the weather conditions (jet stream) have great impact on aircraft performance. To reduce the fuel consumption, it is necessary to raise during first stage of flight the L/D ratio value within Cl 0.55-0.65. Different variable geometrical wing trailing edge modifications of SC(2)-410 airfoil were compared at M 0.78 using the CFD software STAR-CCM+ simulation based Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The numerical results obtained show that by increasing the width of the airfoil by 4% and by modifying the trailing edge airfoil, it is possible to decrease airfoil drag at Cl 0.70 for up to 26.6% and at the same time to increase commercial aircraft L/D ratio for up to 5.0%. Fuel consumption can be reduced in proportion to the increase in L/D ratio.
Keywords: L/D ratio, miniflaps, mini-TED, supercritical airfoilProcedia PDF Downloads 142
4119 Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions on Multi-Cylinder Turbo-Charged Diesel Engine Operated with B5 Biodiesel Blend
Authors: Pradip Lingfa, L. M. Das, S. N. Naik
Abstract:In the last three decades the world has been confronting an energy crisis caused by the decreased of fossil resources, and increased of environmental problems. This situation resulted in a search for an alternative fuel. Non-edible vegetable oils are promising sources for producing liquid fuels. In the present experimental investigation, the engine tests were carried out for performance and exhaust emissions on 2.5 L Turbo-charged diesel engine fuelled with 5% biodiesel blend obtained from non-edible vegetable oils such as Jatropha, Karanja, and Castor Seeds. The engine tests were carried out at full throttle position with various engine speeds of 1500, 1750, 2000, 2250, 2750 and 3000 rpm respectively. After test, it was observed that 5% Jatropha biodiesel blend have highest brake power of 46.65 kW and less brake specific fuel consumptions of 225.8 kg/kW-hr compared to other two biodiesel blends of brake power of 45.99 kW, 45.81 kW and brake specific fuel consumption of 234.34, 236.55 kg/kW-hr respectively. The brake specific fuel consumption of biodiesel blends increase at increasing speeds for all biodiesel blends. NOx emissions for biodiesel blends were observed to be higher compared to diesel fuel during the entire range of engine operations. The emission characteristics like CO, HC and smoke were lowered at all engine speed conditions compared to diesel fuel.
Keywords: biodiesel blend, brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, emission, performanceProcedia PDF Downloads 114
4118 The Reduction of CO2 Emissions Level in Malaysian Transportation Sector: An Optimization Approach
Authors: Siti Indati Mustapa, Hussain Ali Bekhet
Abstract:Transportation sector represents more than 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. This sector is a major user of fossils based fuels, and it is increasingly being highlighted as the sector which contributes least to CO2 emission reduction targets. Considering this fact, this paper attempts to investigate the problem of reducing CO2 emission using linear programming approach. An optimization model which is used to investigate the optimal level of CO2 emission reduction in the road transport sector is presented. In this paper, scenarios have been used to demonstrate the emission reduction model: (1) utilising alternative fuel scenario, (2) improving fuel efficiency scenario, (3) removing fuel subsidy scenario, (4) reducing demand travel, (5) optimal scenario. This study finds that fuel balancing can contribute to the reduction of the amount of CO2 emission by up to 3%. Beyond 3% emission reductions, more stringent measures that include fuel switching, fuel efficiency improvement, demand travel reduction and combination of mitigation measures have to be employed. The model revealed that the CO2 emission reduction in the road transportation can be reduced by 38.3% in the optimal scenario.
Keywords: CO2 emission, fuel consumption, optimization, linear programming, transportation sector, MalaysiaProcedia PDF Downloads 350
4117 A Mini-Review on Effect of Magnetic Field and Material on Combustion Engines
Authors: A. N. Santhosh, Vinay Hegde, S. Vinod Kumar, R. Giria, D. L. Rakesh, M. S. Raghu
Abstract:At present, research on automobile engineering is in high demand, particularly in the field of fuel combustion. A large number of fossil fuels are being used in combustion, which may get exhausted in the near future and are not economical. To this end, research on the use of magnetic material in combustion engines is in progress to enhance the efficiency of fuel. The present review describes the chemical, physical and mathematical theory behind the magnetic materials along with the working principle of the internal combustion engine. The effect of different magnets like ferrite magnet, Neodymium magnet, and electromagnets was discussed. The effect of magnetic field on the consumption of the fuel, brake thermal efficiency, carbon monoxide, Oxides of Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbon emission, along with smoke density, have been discussed in detail. Detailed mathematical modelling that shows the effect of magnetic field on fuel combustion is elaborated. Required pictorial representations are included wherever necessary. This review article could serve as a base for studying the effect of magnetic materials on IC engines.
Keywords: magnetic field, energizer, fuel conditioner, fuel consumption, emission reductionProcedia PDF Downloads 37
4116 Combustion Characteristics of Bioethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel Fuel Blends Used in a Common Rail Diesel Engine
Authors: Hasan Aydogan
Abstract:The changes in the performance, emission and combustion characteristics of bioethanol-safflower biodiesel and diesel fuel blends used in a common rail diesel engine were investigated in this experimental study. E20B20D60 (20% bioethanol, 20% biodiesel, 60% diesel fuel by volume), E30B20D50, E50B20D30 and diesel fuel (D) were used as fuel. The tests were performed at full throttle valve opening and variable engine speeds. The results of the tests showed decreases in engine power, engine torque, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke density values with the use of bioethanol-biodiesel and diesel fuel blends, whereas, increases were observed in nitrogen oxide (NOx) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) values. When combustion characteristics were examined, it was seen that the values were close to one another.
Keywords: bioethanol, biodiesel, safflower, combustion characteristicsProcedia PDF Downloads 451
4115 Aerodynamic Analysis of a Frontal Deflector for Vehicles
Authors: C. Malça, N. Alves, A. Mateus
Abstract:This work was one of the tasks of the Manufacturing2Client project, whose objective was to develop a frontal deflector to be commercialized in the automotive industry, using new project and manufacturing methods. In this task, in particular, it was proposed to develop the ability to predict computationally the aerodynamic influence of flow in vehicles, in an effort to reduce fuel consumption in vehicles from class 3 to 8. With this aim, two deflector models were developed and their aerodynamic performance analyzed. The aerodynamic study was done using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software Ansys CFX and allowed the calculation of the drag coefficient caused by the vehicle motion for the different configurations considered. Moreover, the reduction of diesel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with the optimized deflector geometry could be assessed.
Keywords: erodynamic analysis, CFD, CO2 emissions, drag coefficient, frontal deflector, fuel consumptionProcedia PDF Downloads 340
4114 Global Emission Inventories of Air Pollutants from Combustion Sources
Authors: Shu Tao
Abstract:Based on a global fuel consumption data product (PKU-FUEL-2007) compiled recently and a series of databases for emission factors of various sources, global emission inventories of a number of greenhouse gases and air pollutants, including CO2, CO, SO2, NOx, primary particulate matter (total, PM 10, and PM 2.5), black carbon, organic carbon, mercury, volatile organic carbons, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, from combustion sources have been developed. The inventories feather high spatial and sectorial resolutions. The spatial resolution of the inventories are 0.1 by 0.1 degree, based on a sub-national disaggregation approach to reduce spatial bias due to uneven distribution of per person fuel consumption within countries. The finely resolved inventories provide critical information for chemical transport modeling and exposure modeling. Emissions from more than 60 sources in energy, industry, agriculture, residential, transportation, and wildfire sectors were quantified in this study. With the detailed sectorial information, the inventories become an important tool for policy makers. For residential sector, a set of models were developed to simulate temporal variation of fuel consumption, consequently pollutant emissions. The models can be used to characterize seasonal as well as inter-annual variations in the emissions in history and to predict future changes. The models can even be used to quantify net change of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions due to climate change. The inventories has been used for model ambient air quality, population exposure, and even health effects. A few examples of the applications are discussed.
Keywords: air pollutants, combustion, emission inventory, sectorial informationProcedia PDF Downloads 314
4113 Solar-Assisted City Bus Electrical Installation: Opportunities and Impact on the Environment in Sydney
Authors: M. J. Geca, T. Tulwin, A. Majczak
Abstract:On-board electricity consumption in the diesel city bus during operation is an important energy source. Electricity is generated by a combustion engine-driven alternator. Increased fuel consumption to generate on-board electricity in the bus has a negative impact on the emission of toxic components and carbon dioxide. At the same time, the bus roof surface allows placing a set of lightweight photovoltaic panels with power from 1 to 1.5 kW. The article presents an experimental study of electricity consumption of a city bus with diesel engine equipped with photovoltaic installation. The stream of electricity consumed by the bus and generated by a standard alternator and PV system was recorded. Base on the experimental research carried out in central Europe; the article analyses the impact of an additional source of electricity in the form of a photovoltaic installation on fuel consumption and emissions of toxic components of vehicles located in the latitude of Sydney. In Poland, the maximum global value of horizontal irradiation GHI is 1150 kWh/m², while for Sydney 1652 kWh/m². In addition, the profile of temperature and sunshine per year is different for these two different latitudes as presented in the article. Electricity generated directly from the sun powers the bus's electrical receivers. The photovoltaic system is able to replace 23% of annual electricity consumption, which at the same time will reduce 4% of fuel consumption and CO₂ reduction. Approximately 25% of the light is lost during vehicle traffic in Sydney latitude. The temperature losses of photovoltaic panels are comparable due to the cooling during vehicle motion. Acknowledgement: The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology - Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).
Keywords: electric energy, photovoltaic system, fuel consumption, CO₂Procedia PDF Downloads 59