Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Hanbey Hazar

11 The Effects of Dimethyl Adipate (DMA) on Coated Diesel Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar

Abstract:

An experimental study is conducted to evaluate the effects of using blends of diesel fuel with dimethyl adipate (DMA) in proportions of 2%, 6/%, and 12% on a coated engine. In this study, cylinder, piston, exhaust and inlet valves which are combustion chamber components have been coated with a ceramic material. Cylinder, exhaust and inlet valves of the diesel engine used in the tests were coated with ekabor-2 commercial powder, which is a ceramic material, to a thickness of 50 µm, by using the boriding method. The piston of a diesel engine was coated in 300 µm thickness with bor-based powder by using plasma coating method. Due to thermal barrier coating, the diesel engine's hazardous emission values decreased.

Keywords: diesel engine, dimethyl adipate (DMA), exhaust emissions, coating

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10 Thermal Barrier Coated Diesel Engine With Neural Networks Mathematical Modelling

Authors: Hanbey Hazar, Hakan Gul

Abstract:

In this study; piston, exhaust, and suction valves of a diesel engine were coated in 300 mm thickness with Tungsten Carbide (WC) by using the HVOF coating method. Mathematical modeling of a coated and uncoated (standardized) engine was performed by using ANN (Artificial Neural Networks). The purpose was to decrease the number of repetitions of tests and reduce the test cost through mathematical modeling of engines by using ANN. The results obtained from the tests were entered in ANN and therefore engines' values at all speeds were estimated. Results obtained from the tests were compared with those obtained from ANN and they were observed to be compatible. It was also observed that, with thermal barrier coating, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke density values of the diesel engine decreased; but nitrogen oxides (NOx) increased. Furthermore, it was determined that results obtained through mathematical modeling by means of ANN reduced the number of test repetitions. Therefore, it was understood that time, fuel and labor could be saved in this way.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Diesel Engine, Mathematical Modelling, Thermal Barrier Coating

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9 The Using of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) on a Low Heat Loss Si Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar, Hakan Gul

Abstract:

In this study, Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) application is performed in order to reduce the engine emissions. Piston, exhaust, and intake valves of a single-cylinder four-cycle gasoline engine were coated with chromium carbide (Cr3C2) at a thickness of 300 µm by using the Plasma Spray coating method which is a TBC method. Gasoline engine was converted into an LPG system. The study was conducted in 4 stages. In the first stage, the piston, exhaust, and intake valves of the gasoline engine were coated with Cr3C2. In the second stage, gasoline engine was converted into the LPG system and the emission values in this engine were recorded. In the third stage, the experiments were repeated under the same conditions with a standard (uncoated) engine and the results were recorded. In the fourth stage, data obtained from both engines were loaded on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and estimated values were produced for every revolution. Thus, mathematical modeling of coated and uncoated engines was performed by using ANN. While there was a slight increase in exhaust gas temperature (EGT) of LPG engine due to TBC, carbon monoxide (CO) values decreased.

Keywords: LPG fuel, thermal barrier coating, artificial neural network, mathematical modelling

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8 Characterization and Effect of Using Pumpkin Seeds Oil Methyl Ester (PSME) as Fuel in a LHR Diesel Engine

Authors: Hanbey Hazar, Hakan Gul, Ugur Ozturk

Abstract:

In order to decrease the hazardous emissions of the internal combustion engines and to improve the combustion and thermal efficiency, thermal barrier coatings are applied. In this experimental study, cylinder, piston, exhaust, and inlet valves which are combustion chamber components have been coated with a ceramic material, and this earned the engine LHR feature. Cylinder, exhaust and inlet valves of the diesel engine used in the tests were coated with ekabor-2 commercial powder, which is a ceramic material, to a thickness of 50 µm, by using the boriding method. The piston of a diesel engine was coated in 300 µm thickness with bor-based powder by using plasma coating method. Pumpkin seeds oil methyl ester (PSME) was produced by the transesterification method. In addition, dimethoxymethane additive materials were used to improve the properties of diesel fuel, pumpkin seeds oil methyl ester (PSME) and its mixture. Dimethoxymethane was blended with test fuels, which was used as a pilot fuel, at the volumetric ratios of 4% and 8%. Due to thermal barrier coating, the diesel engine's CO, HC, and smoke density values decreased; but, NOx and exhaust gas temperature (EGT) increased.

Keywords: boriding, diesel engine, exhaust emission, thermal barrier coating

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7 Examination of Internally and Externally Coated Cr3C2 Exhaust Pipe of a Diesel Engine via Plasma Spray Method

Authors: H. Hazar, S. Sap

Abstract:

In this experimental study; internal and external parts of an exhaust pipe were coated with a chromium carbide (Cr3C2) material having a thickness of 100 micron by using the plasma spray method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. Thus, the results of continuing chemical reaction in coated and uncoated exhaust pipes were investigated. Internally and externally coated exhaust pipe was compared with the standard exhaust system. External heat transfer occurring as a result of coating the internal and external parts of the exhaust pipe was reduced and its effects on harmful exhaust emissions were investigated. As a result of the experiments; a remarkable improvement was determined in emission values as a result of delay in cooling of exhaust gases due to the coating.

Keywords: chrome carbide, diesel engine, exhaust emission, thermal barrier

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6 A Mathematical Model Approach Regarding the Children’s Height Development with Fractional Calculus

Authors: Nisa Özge Önal, Kamil Karaçuha, Göksu Hazar Erdinç, Banu Bahar Karaçuha, Ertuğrul Karaçuha

Abstract:

The study aims to use a mathematical approach with the fractional calculus which is developed to have the ability to continuously analyze the factors related to the children’s height development. Until now, tracking the development of the child is getting more important and meaningful. Knowing and determining the factors related to the physical development of the child any desired time would provide better, reliable and accurate results for childcare. In this frame, 7 groups for height percentile curve (3th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th) of Turkey are used. By using discrete height data of 0-18 years old children and the least squares method, a continuous curve is developed valid for any time interval. By doing so, in any desired instant, it is possible to find the percentage and location of the child in Percentage Chart. Here, with the help of the fractional calculus theory, a mathematical model is developed. The outcomes of the proposed approach are quite promising compared to the linear and the polynomial method. The approach also yields to predict the expected values of children in the sense of height.

Keywords: children growth percentile, children physical development, fractional calculus, linear and polynomial model

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5 Protective Effects of Coenzyme Q10 and N-Acetylcysteine on Myocardial Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Impaired Energy metabolism in Carbon Tetrachloride Intoxicated Rats

Authors: Nayira A. Abd Elbaky, Amal J. Fatani, Hazar Yaqub, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed, Naglaa El-Orabi, Mai Osman

Abstract:

The present work is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of N-acetyl cystiene (NAC), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and their combination against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. CCl4 treatment significantly elevated the levels of cardiac oxidative stress bio markers including nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA). A concomitant decrease in the level of reduced glutathione and the activity of membrane bound enzyme, calcium-adenosine triphosphatase were observed in the hearts of rats exposed to CCl4 compared to respective values in normal group. Quantitative analysis of myocardial energy metabolism revealed a significant decrease in the glucose content coupled with depletion in the activities of myocardial glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after CCl4 treatment. In addition, a significant elevation in myocardial hydroxyproline level was observed in CCl4 intoxicated rats indicating interstitial collagen accumulation. Pretreatment with either NAC, CoQ10 or their combination successively alleviated the alterations in myocardial oxidative stress and antioxidant markers, as well as effectively up-regulated the decrease in cardiac energetic biomarkers in CCl4 intoxicated rats. Moreover, these antioxidants markedly reduced myocardial hydroxyproline level versus that of CCl4-treated animals. In conclusion, the present results illustrated that the prophylactic use of the current antioxidant resulted in a remarkable cardioprotective effect against CCl4 induced myocardial damage, which suggest that they may candidates as prophylactic agents against different cardio-toxins.

Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, energy metabolism, hydroxyproline

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4 Community-Based Assessment Approach to Empower Child with Disabilities: Institutional Study on Deaf Art Community in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Mukhamad Fatkhullah, Arfan Fadli, Marini Kristina Situmeang, Siti Hazar Sitorus

Abstract:

The emergence of a community of people with disabilities along with the various works produced has made great progress to open the public eye to their existence in society. This study focuses attention on a community that is suspected to be one of the pioneers in pursuing the movement. It is Deaf Art Community (DAC), a community of persons with disabilities based in Yogyakarta, with deaf and speech-impaired members who use sign language in everyday communication. Knowing the movement of disabled communities is a good thing, the description of the things behind it then important to know as the basis for initiating similar movements. This research focuses on the question of how community of people with disabilities begin to take shape in different regions and interact with collaborative events. Qualitative method with in-depth interview as data collection techniques was used to describe the process of formation and the emergence of community. The analytical unit in the study initially focuses on the subject in the community, but in the process, it develops to institutional analysis. Therefore some informants were determined purposively and expanded using the snowball technique. The theory used in this research is Phenomenology of Alfred Schutz to be able to see reality from the subject and institutional point of view. The results of this study found that the community is formed because the existing educational institutions (both SLB and inclusion) are less able to empower and make children with disabilities become equal with the society. Through the SLB, the presence of children with disabilities becomes isolated from the society, especially in children of his or her age. Therefore, discrimination and labeling will never be separated from society's view. Meanwhile, facilities for the basic needs of children with disabilities can not be fully provided. Besides that, the guarantee of discrimination, glances, and unpleasant behavior from children without disability does not exist, which then indicates that the existing inclusion schools offer only symbolic acceptance. Thus, both in SLB and Inclusive Schools can not empower children with disabilities. Community-based assistance, in this case, has become an alternative to actually empowering children with disabilities. Not only giving them a place to interact, through the same community, children with disabilities will be guided to discover their talents and develop their potential to be self-reliant in the future.

Keywords: children with disabilities, community-based assessment, community empowerment, social equity

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3 The Tradition of Drinking Tuak in Batak Society againts the Law of Alcohol Usage in Indonesia

Authors: Siti Hazar Sitorus, Marini Kristina Situmeang, Mukhammad Fatkhullah, Arfan Fadli

Abstract:

This study aims to examine how the Batak tribe in the Village Lumban Sitorus Parmaksian District, Toba Samosir (Tobasa) interpret the culture of drinking Tuak as a social interaction. This research uses qualitative method with case study approach. Through this approach, the researchers obtained primary data by looking at and observing the social interaction that occurs when the activity of drinking tuak takes place on the daily life of the Batak Toba community in the village of Lumban Sitorus. The technique of data collecting is done by observation and in-depth interview. This study focuses on Batak Toba community, especially men who daily drink tuak. The results obtained from this study is Batak Toba society has a habit of drinking Tuak (a type of alcoholic beverage derived from water sapphire juice that is fermented). In Batak Toba society, tuak is not only considered as an alcoholic drink which is usually drunk in the afternoon at lapotuak (tuak shop), but tuak is also understood as a drink of honor in a traditional party at Toba Batak society. On the other hand, the activity of drinking of tuak was also considered as a medium or a means of connecting the formation of a sense of solidarity among the people of LumbanSitorous Village. In its existence, drinking tuak is defined as a mean that can facilitate the establishment to open communication with fellow members of Batak Toba community, such as at leisure, birth party, death or as medicine. Specifically, tuak in a special sense in Batak Toba society is also a symbol of intimacy, gratitude, and respect which is manifested in the activity of daily drinking tuak. In Indonesia, if we refer to the Criminal Code in articles 300 and 536 it is clear that whoever intentionally sells and consumes intoxicating / alcoholic drinks will be subject to a maximum jail term of one year. It became interesting then when looking at Indonesia as a country that has a diversity of cultures in which the law implies the prohibition of alcoholic / intoxicating beverages. However, the existence of drinking of tuak as a drink that categorized intoxicating in Batak Toba society still continues to.

Keywords: tradition of drinking tuak, meaning of tuak, Batak society, cultural studies

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2 Social Construction of Merantau in Minangkabau Society in Capital City of Indonesia, Jakarta

Authors: Arfan Fadli, Marini Kristina Situmeang, Mukhammad Fatkhullah, Siti Hazar Sitorus

Abstract:

Merantau is one of the traditions that has been done by the Minangkabau tribe since the 15th century where it is based on socio-economic factors. In fact, that is not only limited to economic factors alone but more how to develop themselves through the experience to get the skills or education. The lack of jobs opportunity in the hometown causes the community, especially for young men to seek livelihoods in other areas. Unemployment impacts on the economy of the community that led to change in the pattern of employment from farmers to traders or new businesses in areas outside of their homeland. This is also worsened because many young people are not interested in becoming a farmer and working on the land in their village. In this context, merantau is considered to be an alternative to fulfilling livelihoods, and therefore this study examines how the merantau tradition constructed by the Minangkabau community, West Sumatera Province. The research method is done by literature review by collecting information related to the social construction of merantau tradition from various scientific publications. The results show how merantau becomes a solution of economic problems for Minangkabau society. Merantau which has now become an institutionalized tradition for the Minangkabau community where the culture of merantau occurred like a chain that can raise the people from the condition of poverty. When there are people who have successfully in merantau, they tend to bring other relatives who have not found a job to be able to trade with them. In the place of merantau, they will be disciplined to learn how to trade. Eventually, they will have new skills to trade and even make their own business. The tradition of bringing relatives to the rantau to be empowered is a unique side of merantau because it is influenced by the Matrilinear kinship system. The matrilineal kinship system in Minangkabau is the largest in the world where helping relatives are considered to be of the highest value. This system also places men as high positions where men should be encouraged to go abroad for financial success and to help their relatives in their hometown. The success of this tradition (to uplift and resolve the poverty and manpower issues) is demonstrated by the tradition of Minangkabau communities that have been successful in the area of Rantau that send money to their relatives in their homes (remittance). Merantau tradition can also be an alternative in reducing unemployment especially for young people where it is demonstrated by the culture of helping relatives to get work outside of their homeland.

Keywords: matrilineal kinship system, merantau, minangkabau community, reducing unemployment

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1 Habituation on Children Mental Retardation through Practice of Behaviour Therapy in Great Aceh, Aceh Province

Authors: Marini Kristina Situmeang, Siti Hazar Sitorus, Mukhammad Fatkhullah, Arfan Fadli

Abstract:

This study aims to identify and explain how forms of treatment and community action include parents who have children with mental retardation while undergoing behavioral therapy that leads to habituation processes. Based on observations made there is inappropriate treatment such as labeling that child mental retardation is considered ‘crazy’ by some people in Aceh Besar region. Reflecting on the phenomenon of discriminatory treatment, the existence of children with mental retardation should be realized in concrete actions that can encourage the development of cognitive abilities, language, motor, and social, one of them through behavioral. The purpose of this research is to find out and explain how the social practices of children with mental retardation when undergoing behavioral therapy that leads to habituation process. This study focuses on families or parents who have children with mental retardation and do therapy of behavioral therapy at home or at physiotherapy clinics in Aceh Besar. The research method is qualitative with case study approach. Data collection techniques are conducted with in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). The results showed that habituation process which is conducted by parents at home and in fisotherapy clinic have a positive effect on the development of children behavior of mental retardation, especially when dealing with the environment of the community around the residence. Habituation processes conducted through behavioral therapy practices are influenced by Habitus (Gestational and childcare at therapy) and Reinforcement (in this case family and social support). Habituation process is done in the form of habituation, the creation of the situation, and strengthening the character. For example, when a child's mental retardation commits a wrong act (disgraceful or inappropriate behavior) then the child gets punishment in accordance with the form of punishment in a normal child generally, and when he performs a good deed, then he is given a prize such as praise or a thing he likes. Through some of these actions, the child with mental retardation can behave in accordance with the character formed and expected by the community. The process of habituation done by parents accompanied by continuous support of physiotherapy can be one of the alternative booster of cognitive and social development of children mental retardation to then out of the ‘crazy’ label that has been given.

Keywords: behaviour therapy, habituation, habitus, mental retardation

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