Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: Junaid Bin Aamir

50 Effect of Hydrogen on the Performance of a Methanol SI-Engine at City Driving Conditions

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua

Abstract:

Methanol is one of the most suitable alternative fuels for replacing gasoline in present and future spark-ignited engines. However, for pure methanol engines, cold start problems and misfires are observed under certain operating conditions. Hydrogen provides a solution for such problems. This paper experimentally investigated the effect of hydrogen on the performance of a pure methanol SI-engine at city driving conditions (1500 rpm speed and 1.18 excess air ratio). Hydrogen was used as a part of methanol reformed syngas (67% hydrogen by volume). 4% by mass of the total methanol converted to hydrogen and other constituent gases, was used in each cycle. Port fuel injection was used to inject methanol and hydrogen-rich syngas into the 4-cylinder engine. The results indicated an increase in brake thermal efficiency up to 5% with the addition of hydrogen, a decrease in brake specific fuel consumption up to 200 g/kWh, and a decrease in exhaust gas temperature by 100°C for all mean effective pressures. Hydrogen addition also decreased harmful exhaust emissions significantly. There was a reduction in THC emissions up to 95% and CO emissions up to 50%. NOx emissions were slightly increased (up to 15%), but they can be reduced to zero by lean burn strategy.

Keywords: alternative fuels, hydrogen, methanol, performance, spark ignition engines

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49 The Effect of Hydrogen on Performance and Emissions of a Methanol Si-Engine at Part Load

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua

Abstract:

Methanol and hydrogen are the most suitable alternative fuel resources for the existing and future internal combustion engines. This paper experimentally examined the effects of hydrogen addition on the performance and emission characteristics of a spark-ignition engine fueled with methanol at part load conditions. The experiments were carried out for various engine speeds and loads. Hydrogen-rich syngas was used to enhance the performance of the test engine. It was formed by catalytic dissociation of methanol itself, and volumetric hydrogen fraction in syngas was about 67%. A certain amount of syngas dissociated from methanol was injected into the intake manifold in each engine cycle, and the low heating value (LHV) of hydrogen-rich syngas used was 4% of methanol in each cycle. Both the fuels were injected separately using port fuel injectors. The results showed that brake thermal efficiency of the engine was enhanced by 3-5% with hydrogen addition, while brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature were reduced. There was a significant reduction (90-95%) in THC and (35-50%) in CO emissions at the exhaust. NOx emissions from hydrogen blended methanol increased slightly (10-15%), but they can be reduced by using lean fuel-air mixture to keep the cylinder temperature low.

Keywords: hydrogen, methanol, alternative fuel, emissions, spark ignition engines

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48 Intrusion Detection Techniques in Mobile Adhoc Networks: A Review

Authors: Rashid Mahmood, Muhammad Junaid Sarwar

Abstract:

Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) use has been well-known from the last few years in the many applications, like mission critical applications. In the (MANETS) prevention method is not adequate as the security concerned, so the detection method should be added to the security issues in (MANETs). The authentication and encryption is considered the first solution of the MANETs problem where as now these are not sufficient as MANET use is increasing. In this paper we are going to present the concept of intrusion detection and then survey some of major intrusion detection techniques in MANET and aim to comparing in some important fields.

Keywords: MANET, IDS, intrusions, signature, detection, prevention

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47 Design and Fabrication of Electricity Generating Speed Breaker

Authors: Haider Aamir, Muhammad Ali Khalid

Abstract:

Electricity harvesting speed bump (EHSB) is speed breaker of conventional shape, but the difference is that it is not fixed, rather it moves up and down, and electricity can be generated from its vibrating motion. This speed bump consists of an upper cover which will move up and down, a shaft mechanism which will be used to drive the generator and a rack and pinion mechanism which will connect the cover and shaft. There is a spring mechanism to return the cover to its initial state when a vehicle has passed over the bump. Produced energy in the past was up to 80 Watts. For this purpose, a clutch mechanism is used so that both the up-down movements of the cover can be used to drive the generator. Mechanical Motion Rectifier (MMR) mechanism ensures the conversion of both the linear motions into rotational motion which is used to drive the generator.

Keywords: electricity harvesting, generator, rack and pinion, stainless steel shaft

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46 Performance Analysis of Artificial Neural Network Based Land Cover Classification

Authors: Najam Aziz, Nasru Minallah, Ahmad Junaid, Kashaf Gul

Abstract:

Landcover classification using automated classification techniques, while employing remotely sensed multi-spectral imagery, is one of the promising areas of research. Different land conditions at different time are captured through satellite and monitored by applying different classification algorithms in specific environment. In this paper, a SPOT-5 image provided by SUPARCO has been studied and classified in Environment for Visual Interpretation (ENVI), a tool widely used in remote sensing. Then, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classification technique is used to detect the land cover changes in Abbottabad district. Obtained results are compared with a pixel based Distance classifier. The results show that ANN gives the better overall accuracy of 99.20% and Kappa coefficient value of 0.98 over the Mahalanobis Distance Classifier.

Keywords: landcover classification, artificial neural network, remote sensing, SPOT 5

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45 Effects of CFRP Confinement on PCC and Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Muhammad Jahangeer Munir, Liaqat Ali Qureshi, Junaid Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper presents the investigation regarding use of glass fibers in structural concrete members and determining the behavior of normal PCC, GFRC and retrofitted GFRC under different tests performed in the laboratory. Effect of retrofitting on the GFRC & PCC was investigated by using three patterns of CFRP wrapping. Properties like compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of normal GFRC and retrofitted GFRC were investigated and compared with their PCC counterparts. It was found that GFRC has more compressive strength as compared to PCC. At lower confinement pressures PCC behaves better than GFRC. Confinement efficiency was lower in GFRC as compared to PCC in terms of Split tensile strength. In case of GFRC all the patterns of wrapped CFRP strips showed more strength than their PCC counterparts.

Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced polymers, confinement, glass fibers, retrofitting

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44 Cotton Crops Vegetative Indices Based Assessment Using Multispectral Images

Authors: Muhammad Shahzad Shifa, Amna Shifa, Muhammad Omar, Aamir Shahzad, Rahmat Ali Khan

Abstract:

Many applications of remote sensing to vegetation and crop response depend on spectral properties of individual leaves and plants. Vegetation indices are usually determined to estimate crop biophysical parameters like crop canopies and crop leaf area indices with the help of remote sensing. Cotton crops assessment is performed with the help of vegetative indices. Remotely sensed images from an optical multispectral radiometer MSR5 are used in this study. The interpretation is based on the fact that different materials reflect and absorb light differently at different wavelengths. Non-normalized and normalized forms of these datasets are analyzed using two complementary data mining algorithms; K-means and K-nearest neighbor (KNN). Our analysis shows that the use of normalized reflectance data and vegetative indices are suitable for an automated assessment and decision making.

Keywords: cotton, condition assessment, KNN algorithm, clustering, MSR5, vegetation indices

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
43 Electrochemical Performance of Al-Mn2O3 Based Electrode Materials

Authors: Noor Ul Ain Bhatti, M. Junaid Khan, Javed Ahmad, Murtaza Saleem, Shahid M. Ramay, Saadat A. Siddiqi

Abstract:

Manganese oxide is being recently used as electrode material for rechargeable batteries. In this study, Al incorporated Mn2O3 compositions were synthesized to study the effect of Al doping on electrochemical performance of host material. Structural studies were carried out using X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm the phase stability and explore the lattice parameters, crystallite size, lattice strain, density and cell volume. Morphology and composition were analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. Dynamic light scattering analysis was performed to observe the average particle size of the compositions. FTIR measurements exhibit the O-Al-O and O-Mn-O and Al-O bonding and with increasing the concentration of Al, the vibrational peaks of Mn-O become sharper. An enhanced electrochemical performance was observed in compositions with higher Al content.

Keywords: Mn2O3, electrode materials, energy storage and conversion, electrochemical performance

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42 Personality Traits of Students Effecting Entrepreneurial Intention

Authors: Muhammad Ali, Aamir Sohail, Umair Malik

Abstract:

Research in entrepreneurship has gained much attention in current academic environment. Youngsters are taking interest to start their own business in spite of risk matter. The objective of the study is to explain how various personality traits (personal attitude, locus of control, instrumental readiness and perceived behavioral control) are affecting entrepreneurial intention of students. The theory of planned behavior supports out study which explains that personal attractiveness, social norms and feasibility are the main factors that affect intentions of an individual. The sample data of 120 is collected from graduating batch of three reputed universities of Islamabad through questionnaires. Our results support the hypothesis that personality traits positively influence the entrepreneurial intention. We conclude from the study that many graduating students are willing to start a new venture, but most of them are likely to do a job in their respective fields. Risk factor also exists in their minds because in our country most people are risk-averse and they do not want to lose their money in case of loss.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, instrumental readiness, locus of control, personal attitude

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41 Alternate Dispute Resolution: Expeditious Justice

Authors: Uzma Fakhar, Osama Fakhar, Aamir Shafiq Ch

Abstract:

Methods of alternate dispute resolution (ADR) like conciliation, arbitration, mediation are the supplement to ensure inexpensive and expeditious justice in a country. Justice delayed has not only created chaos, but an element of rebellious behavior towards judiciary is being floated among people. Complexity of traditional judicial system and its diversity has created an overall coherence. Admittedly, In Pakistan the traditional judicial system has failed to achieve its goals which resulted in the backlog of cases pending in courts, resultantly even the critics of alternate dispute resolution agree to restore the spirit of expeditious justice by reforming the old Panchayat system. The Government is keen to enact certain laws and make amendments to facilitate the resolution of a dispute through a simple and faster ADR framework instead of a lengthy and exhausting complex trial in order to create proliferation and faith in alternate dispute resolution. This research highlights the value of ADR in a country like Pakistan for revival of the confidence of the people upon the judicial process and a useful judicial tool to reduce the pressure on the judiciary.

Keywords: alternate dispute resolution, development of law, expeditious justice, Pakistan

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40 Geotechnical Distress Evaluation of a Damaged Structure

Authors: Zulfiqar Ali, Umar Saleem, Muhammad Junaid, Rizwan Tahir

Abstract:

Gulzar Mahal is a heritage site located in the city of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. The site is under a process of degradation, as cracks are appearing on the walls, roofs, and floor around the building due to differential settlement. To preserve the integrity of the structure, a geotechnical distress evaluation was carried out to evaluate the causal factors and recommend remediation measures. The research involved the characterization of the problematic soil and analysis of the observed distress with respect to the geotechnical properties. Both conventional lab and field tests were used in conjunction with the unconventional techniques like; Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and FEA. The temporal, geophysical and geotechnical evaluations have concluded that the foundation soil over the past was subjected to variations in the land use, poor drainage patterns, overloading and fluctuations in groundwater table all contributing to the differential settlements manifesting in the form of the visible shear crack across the length and breadth of the building.

Keywords: differential settlement, distress evaluation, finite element analysis, Gulzar Mahal

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39 Utilization of Waste Marble Dust as a Viscosity Modifying Agent in Self Compacting Concrete

Authors: Shams Ul Khaliq, Mushtaq Zeb, Fawad Bilal, Faizan Akbar, Syed Aamir Abbas

Abstract:

Self Compacting Concrete as the name implies--is the concrete requiring a very little or no vibration to fill the form homogeneously. Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) is defined by two primary properties: Ability to flow or deform under its own weight (with or without obstructions) and the ability to remain homogeneous while doing so. Flow ability is achieved by utilizing high range water reducing admixtures and segregation resistance is ensured by introducing a chemical viscosity modifying admixture (VMA) or increasing the amount of fines in the concrete. The study explores the use waste marble dust (WMD) to increase the amount of fines and hence achieve self-compatibility in an economical way, suitable for Pakistani construction industry. The study focuses on comparison of fresh properties of SCC containing varying amounts of waste marble dust (WMD) with that containing commercially available viscosity modifying admixture. The comparison is done at different dosages of super plasticizer keeping cement, water, coarse aggregate, and fine aggregate contents constant.

Keywords: self compacting concrete, waste marble dust (WMD), flow ability, segregation resistance

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38 Contrast Enhancement of Color Images with Color Morphing Approach

Authors: Javed Khan, Aamir Saeed Malik, Nidal Kamel, Sarat Chandra Dass, Azura Mohd Affandi

Abstract:

Low contrast images can result from the wrong setting of image acquisition or poor illumination conditions. Such images may not be visually appealing and can be difficult for feature extraction. Contrast enhancement of color images can be useful in medical area for visual inspection. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to improve the contrast of color images. The RGB (red, green, blue) color image is transformed into normalized RGB color space. Adaptive histogram equalization technique is applied to each of the three channels of normalized RGB color space. The corresponding channels in the original image (low contrast) and that of contrast enhanced image with adaptive histogram equalization (AHE) are morphed together in proper proportions. The proposed technique is tested on seventy color images of acne patients. The results of the proposed technique are analyzed using cumulative variance and contrast improvement factor measures. The results are also compared with decorrelation stretch. Both subjective and quantitative analysis demonstrates that the proposed techniques outperform the other techniques.

Keywords: contrast enhacement, normalized RGB, adaptive histogram equalization, cumulative variance.

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37 Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for WLAN Based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Noman Shabbir, Roheel Nawaz, Muhammad N. Iqbal, Junaid Zafar

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the performance evaluation of routing protocols in WLAN based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A comparative analysis of routing protocols such as Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing System (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is been made against different network parameters like network load, end to end delay and throughput in small, medium and large-scale sensor network scenarios to identify the best performing protocol. Simulation results indicate that OLSR gives minimum network load in all three scenarios while AODV gives the best throughput in small scale network but in medium and large scale networks, DSR is better. In terms of delay, OLSR is more efficient in small and medium scale network while AODV is slightly better in large networks.

Keywords: WLAN, WSN, AODV, DSR, OLSR

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36 Bilateral Telecontrol of AutoMerlin Mobile Robot Using Time Domain Passivity Control

Authors: Aamir Shahzad, Hubert Roth

Abstract:

This paper is presenting the bilateral telecontrol of AutoMerlin Mobile Robot having communication delay. Passivity Observers has been designed to monitor the net energy at both ports of a two port network and if any or both ports become active making net energy negative, then the passivity controllers dissipate the proper energy to make the overall system passive in the presence of time delay. The environment force is modeled and sent back to human operator so that s/he can feel it and has additional information about the environment in the vicinity of mobile robot. The experimental results have been presented to show the performance and stability of bilateral controller. The results show the whenever the passivity observers observe active behavior then the passivity controller come into action to neutralize the active behavior to make overall system passive.

Keywords: bilateral control, human operator, haptic device, communication network, time domain passivity control, passivity observer, passivity controller, time delay, mobile robot, environment force

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35 Secure Text Steganography for Microsoft Word Document

Authors: Khan Farhan Rafat, M. Junaid Hussain

Abstract:

Seamless modification of an entity for the purpose of hiding a message of significance inside its substance in a manner that the embedding remains oblivious to an observer is known as steganography. Together with today's pervasive registering frameworks, steganography has developed into a science that offers an assortment of strategies for stealth correspondence over the globe that must, however, need a critical appraisal from security breach standpoint. Microsoft Word is amongst the preferably used word processing software, which comes as a part of the Microsoft Office suite. With a user-friendly graphical interface, the richness of text editing, and formatting topographies, the documents produced through this software are also most suitable for stealth communication. This research aimed not only to epitomize the fundamental concepts of steganography but also to expound on the utilization of Microsoft Word document as a carrier for furtive message exchange. The exertion is to examine contemporary message hiding schemes from security aspect so as to present the explorative discoveries and suggest enhancements which may serve a wellspring of information to encourage such futuristic research endeavors.

Keywords: hiding information in plain sight, stealth communication, oblivious information exchange, conceal, steganography

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34 Evaluation of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Eugenol with Lanolin Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashar Iqbal, Amna Jalal, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

The study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax in orchard of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Lanolin wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFₗₗ-7 trapped 42.1 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 51.71%, proved strongly attractive SRFₗₗ for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (AI > 50%). The SRFₗₗ-2, SRFₗₗ-3, SRFₗₗ-4, SRFₗₗ-5, SRFₗₗ-6, SRFₗₗ-8 and SRFₗₗ-9 trapped 17.7, 27.9, 32.3, 23.8, 28.3, 37.8 and 19.9 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 20.54%, 41.02%, 26.00%, 34.15%, 43.50%, 49.86% and 46.07% AI respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulations for B. zonata and were categorized as Class-II slow-released formulations (AI = 11-50%). However, SRFₗₗ-1 trapped 14.8 flies /day/trap, exhibited 0.71% AI proved little or nonattractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: Bactrocera zonata, slow-released formulation, lenoline wax, methyl euginol

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33 Trapping Efficiency of Highly Effective Slow Released Formulations of Biodegradable Waxes with Methyl Eugenol Against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

Experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of highly effective Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax, Candellila wax, Bee-wax, Carnauba wax and paraffin wax in the orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. The waxes were mixed with methyl eugenol in 1:9 ratio. The results revealed that SRF of Candellila, Paraffin, Bees and Carnauba wax attracted 13.77, 11, 8.15 and 7.23 flies/day/trap which was 2.6, 2, 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than standard respectively and exhibited 41.42%, 32.05%, 20.98% and 12.87% attractive index respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulation to B. zonata and was catagorized as Class-II slow-released formulation (AI = 11-50%). However, SRF of Lanolin wax trapped 1.81 flies/day/trap which was 3 times less than standard and exhibited -61.86% attractive index proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: biodegradable waxes, slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, methyl euginol

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32 The Scattering in Flexible Reactive Silencer Containing Rigid Partitioning

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Junaid Uzair Satti

Abstract:

The noise emanating from the ducting of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is often attenuated by using the dissipative silencers. Such devices work well for the high-frequency noise but are less operative in the low-frequency noise range. The present study analyzes a reactive silencer comprising expansion chamber of the elastic membranes partitioned symmetrically by a rigid plate. The Mode-Matching scheme has been developed to solve the governing boundary value problem. The orthogonal and non-orthogonal duct modes of acoustic pressures and normal velocities are matched at interfaces. It enables to recast the differential system into the infinite system of linear algebraic of equations, which is, then truncated and inverted for the solution. The truncated solution is validated through the conservation of energy and reconstruction of matching conditions. The results for scattering energy flux and transmission loss are shown against frequency and the dimensions of the chamber. It is seen that the stop-band of the silencer can be shifted to the broadband by changing the dimensions of the chamber and the properties of the elastic membranes. The modeled reactive silencer is more efficient in low frequency regime where the passive devices are least effective.

Keywords: acoustic scattering, elastic membranes mode-matching, reactive silencer

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31 Monitoring of Humoral Immune Response of Monovalent and Combined PPR and FMD Serotype 'O' Virus Vaccines in Goats

Authors: Mudassar Hameed, Khushi Muhammad, Aamir Ghafoor, Masood Rabbani, Momena Habib, Jawad Nazir

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Comparative efficacy of three formulations (non-adjuvant, gel, and oil adjuvant) of monovalent and combined PPR and FMD virus vaccines was evaluated in goats. All kinds of monovalent PPRV vaccines elicited protective antibody titers at one-month post vaccination (PV) that remained so till six months PV. Monovalent non-adjuvant (NA) FMDV vaccine provoked non-protective antibody titers that declined to undetectable levels after three months. In case of combined vaccines, all of the formulations elicited protective antibody titers against PPRV in vaccinated animals which remained above that limit for six months. However, an exceptional immune response against FMDV was observed in combined NA vaccine group where antibody titers were extremely high and remained above protective level till 4 months PV in animals who received a single vaccine shot and till six months PV in booster group. Although, adjuvant or NA combined vaccines can induce protective antibody titers against both of the viruses within one month PV, but a booster vaccine shot is needed to retain protective antibody level for 6 months duration. Immune response elicited by combined vaccines is comparable or superior to the monovalent vaccines. Hence combined vaccine can be effectively used for the control and prevention of both of the diseases.

Keywords: antibody titer, protective, combined vaccine, non adjuvant

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30 Assesment of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Euginol with Carnauba Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashir Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad Waqas Amjad, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq

Abstract:

Present study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of methyl eugenol with Carnauba wax in orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Carnauba wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFCN-9 trapped 35.3 flies/day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 50.35%, proved strongly attractive SRFCN for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (Attractive Index > 50%). The SRFCN-1, SRFCN-2, SRFCN-3, SRFCN-4, SRFCN-5, SRFCN-6, SRFCN-7 and SRFCN-8 trapped 2.0, 5.3, 3.3, 4.0, 5.7, 12.0, 9.7 and 14.3 flies/day/trap respectively exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of -70.73%, -37.25%, -55.55%, -48.93%, -34.61%, 1.40%, -9.37% and 10.25% Attractive Index respectively, proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (Attractive Index < 11%). Results revealed that the Slow-Released Formulation containing 10% Carnauba wax with 90% methyl eugenol trapped maximum number of flies of over 30 days.

Keywords: slow-released formulation, Bactrocera zonata, Carnauba wax, methyl euginol

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29 Major Depressive Disorder: Diagnosis based on Electroencephalogram Analysis

Authors: Wajid Mumtaz, Aamir Saeed Malik, Syed Saad Azhar Ali, Mohd Azhar Mohd Yasin

Abstract:

In this paper, a technique based on electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis is presented, aiming for diagnosing major depressive disorder (MDD) among a potential population of MDD patients and healthy controls. EEG is recognized as a clinical modality during applications such as seizure diagnosis, index for anesthesia, detection of brain death or stroke. However, its usability for psychiatric illnesses such as MDD is less studied. Therefore, in this study, for the sake of diagnosis, 2 groups of study participants were recruited, 1) MDD patients, 2) healthy people as controls. EEG data acquired from both groups were analyzed involving inter-hemispheric asymmetry and composite permutation entropy index (CPEI). To automate the process, derived quantities from EEG were utilized as inputs to classifier such as logistic regression (LR) and support vector machine (SVM). The learning of these classification models was tested with a test dataset. Their learning efficiency is provided as accuracy of classifying MDD patients from controls, their sensitivities and specificities were reported, accordingly (LR =81.7 % and SVM =81.5 %). Based on the results, it is concluded that the derived measures are indicators for diagnosing MDD from a potential population of normal controls. In addition, the results motivate further exploring other measures for the same purpose.

Keywords: major depressive disorder, diagnosis based on EEG, EEG derived features, CPEI, inter-hemispheric asymmetry

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28 Learn Better to Earn Better: Importance of CPD in Dentistry

Authors: Junaid Ahmed, Nandita Shenoy

Abstract:

Maintaining lifelong knowledge and skills is essential for safe clinical practice. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) is an established method that can facilitate lifelong learning. It focuses on maintaining or developing knowledge, skills and relationships to ensure competent practice.To date, relatively little has been done to comprehensively and systematically synthesize evidence to identify subjects of interest among practising dentist. Hence the aim of our study was to identify areas in clinical practice that would be favourable for continuing professional dental education amongst practicing dentists. Participants of this study consisted of the practicing dental surgeons of Mangalore, a city in Dakshina Kannada, Karnataka. 95% of our practitioners felt that regular updating as a one day program once in 3-6 months is required, to keep them abreast in clinical practice. 60% of subjects feel that CPD programs enrich their theoretical knowledge and helps in patient care. 27% of them felt that CPD programs should be related to general dentistry. Most of them felt that CPD programs should not be charged nominally between one to two thousand rupees. The acronym ‘CPD’ should be seen in a broader view in which professionals continuously enhance not only their knowledge and skills, but also their thinking,understanding and maturity; they grow not only as professionals, but also as persons; their development is not restricted to their work roles, but may also extend to new roles and responsibilities.

Keywords: continuing professional development, competent practice, dental education, practising dentist

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27 Degradation of Neonicotinoid Insecticides (Acetamiprid and Imidacloprid) Using Biochar of Rice Husk and Fruit Peels

Authors: Mateen Abbas, Abdul Muqeet Khan, Sadia Bashir, Muhammad Awais Khalid, Aamir Ghafoor, Zara Hussain, Mashal Shahid

Abstract:

The irrational use of insecticides in everyday life has drawn attention worldwide towards its harmful effects. To mitigate the toxic effects of insecticides to humans, present study was planned on the degradation/detoxification of the neonicotinoid insecticides including imidacloprid and acetamiprid. Biocarbon of fruit peels (Banana & Watermelon) and biochar (activated or non-activated) of rice husk was utilized as adsorbents for degradation of selected pesticides. Both activated and non-activated biochar were prepared for treatment and then applied in different concentrations (0.5 to 2.0 ppm) and dosage (1.0 to 2.5g) to insecticides (Acetamiprid & Imidacloprid) as well as studied at different times (30-120 minutes). Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with Photodiode array detector was used to quantify the insecticides. Results depicted that activated biochar of rice husk minimized the 73% concentrations of both insecticides however, watermelon activated biocarbon degraded 72% of imidacloprid and 56% of acetamiprid. Results proved the efficiency of the method employed and it was also inferred that high concentration of biocarbon resulted in larger percentage of degradation. The applied method is cheaper, easy and accessible that can be used to minimize the pesticide residues in animal feed. Degradation using biochar proved significant degradation, eco-friendly and economic method to reduce toxicity of insecticides.

Keywords: insecticides, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, biochar, HPLC

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26 Vehicular Emission Estimation of Islamabad by Using Copert-5 Model

Authors: Muhammad Jahanzaib, Muhammad Z. A. Khan, Junaid Khayyam

Abstract:

Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan with the population of 1.365 million people and with a vehicular fleet size of 0.75 million. The vehicular fleet size is growing annually by the rate of 11%. Vehicular emissions are major source of Black carbon (BC). In developing countries like Pakistan, most of the vehicles consume conventional fuels like Petrol, Diesel, and CNG. These fuels are the major emitters of pollutants like CO, CO2, NOx, CH4, VOCs, and particulate matter (PM10). Carbon dioxide and methane are the leading contributor to the global warming with a global share of 9-26% and 4-9% respectively. NOx is the precursor of nitrates which ultimately form aerosols that are noxious to human health. In this study, COPERT (Computer program to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport) was used for vehicular emission estimation in Islamabad. COPERT is a windows based program which is developed for the calculation of emissions from the road transport sector. The emissions were calculated for the year of 2016 include pollutants like CO, NOx, VOC, and PM and energy consumption. The different variable was input to the model for emission estimation including meteorological parameters, average vehicular trip length and respective time duration, fleet configuration, activity data, degradation factor, and fuel effect. The estimated emissions for CO, CH4, CO2, NOx, and PM10 were found to be 9814.2, 44.9, 279196.7, 3744.2 and 304.5 tons respectively.

Keywords: COPERT Model, emission estimation, PM10, vehicular emission

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25 Evaluating Viability of Solar Tubewell Irrigation Technology

Authors: Junaid N. Chauhdary, Bernard A. Engel, Allah Bakhsh

Abstract:

Solar powered tubewells can be a reliable and affordable source of supplying irrigation water compared with electric or diesel operated tubewells due to frequent load shedding and soaring energy prices. A study was conducted on a solar tubewell installed at the Water Management Research Center (WMRC), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad to investigate the viability of a solar powered tubewell in terms of discharge and benefit cost ratio. The tubewell discharge was 50 m3hr-1 with a total dynamic head of 30 m. The depth of bore was 31 m (14 m blind + 17 m screen) with a casing diameter of 15.2 cm (6 inches). A 3-stage submersible pump of 10.2 cm (4 inch) diameter was lowered in the casing to a depth of 22 m. The pump was powered from 21 solar panels of 200 W capacity each. The tubewell peak discharge was observed as 6 and 7 hr day-1 in winter and summer, respectively. The breakeven analysis of the solar tubewell showed that the payback period of the solar tubewell was 1.5 years of its 10 year usable life with an IRR (internal rate of return) of 69 %. The BCR (benefit cost ratio) of the solar tubewell at 2, 4, 6, and 8 percent discount rate were 3.75, 3.45, 3.19 and 2.96, respectively. The NPV (net present value) of the solar tubewell at 2, 4, 6, and 8 % discount rates were 1.89, 1.65, 1.45 and 1.27 million rupees, respectively. These results indicated that the solar powered tubewells are a viable option as well as environmentally friendly and can be adopted by the farmers due to their affordable payback period.

Keywords: benefit cost ratio, internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), solar tubewell

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24 Micro-Meso 3D FE Damage Modelling of Woven Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite under Quasi-Static Bending

Authors: Aamir Mubashar, Ibrahim Fiaz

Abstract:

This research presents a three-dimensional finite element modelling strategy to simulate damage in a quasi-static three-point bending analysis of woven twill 2/2 type carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite on a micro-meso level using cohesive zone modelling technique. A meso scale finite element model comprised of a number of plies was developed in the commercial finite element code Abaqus/explicit. The interfaces between the plies were explicitly modelled using cohesive zone elements to allow for debonding by crack initiation and propagation. Load-deflection response of the CRFP within the quasi-static range was obtained and compared with the data existing in the literature. This provided validation of the model at the global scale. The outputs resulting from the global model were then used to develop a simulation model capturing the micro-meso scale material features. The sub-model consisted of a refined mesh representative volume element (RVE) modelled in texgen software, which was later embedded with cohesive elements in the finite element software environment. The results obtained from the developed strategy were successful in predicting the overall load-deflection response and the damage in global and sub-model at the flexure limit of the specimen. Detailed analysis of the effects of the micro-scale features was carried out.

Keywords: woven composites, multi-scale modelling, cohesive zone, finite element model

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23 Parametric Study on Dynamic Analysis of Composite Laminated Plate

Authors: Junaid Kameran Ahmed

Abstract:

A laminated plate composite of graphite/epoxy has been analyzed dynamically in the present work by using a quadratic element (8-node diso-parametric), and by depending on 1st order shear deformation theory, every node in this element has 6-degrees of freedom (displacement in x, y, and z axis and twist about x, y, and z axis). The dynamic analysis in the present work covered parametric studies on a composite laminated plate (square plate) to determine its effect on the natural frequency of the plate. The parametric study is represented by set of changes (plate thickness, number of layers, support conditions, layer orientation), and the plates have been simulated by using ANSYS package 12. The boundary conditions considered in this study, at all four edges of the plate, are simply supported and fixed boundary condition. The results obtained from ANSYS program show that the natural frequency for both fixed and simply supported increases with increasing the number of layers, but this increase in the natural frequency for the first five modes will be neglected after 10 layers. And it is observed that the natural frequency of a composite laminated plate will change with the change of ply orientation, the natural frequency increases and it will be at maximum with angle 45 of ply for simply supported laminated plate, and maximum natural frequency will be with cross-ply (0/90) for fixed laminated composite plate. It is also observed that the natural frequency increase is approximately doubled when the thickness is doubled.

Keywords: laminated plate, orthotropic plate, square plate, natural frequency (free vibration), composite (graphite / epoxy)

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22 Laparoscopic Curative Resection for Right-Sided Colonic Tumours: Initial Experience from a Cancer Hospital of a Developing Country

Authors: Awais Naeem, Osama Shakeel, Aamir Ali Syed, Shahid Khattak

Abstract:

Introduction: Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy is an advanced cancer surgery in today's era. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical and initial oncological outcomes after curative, laparoscopic resection of right sided colonic tumors. Also to compare our results with those of previous randomized trials. Methods And Procedures: We retrospectively analyzed the medical record files of all the patients who presented to our hospital with the diagnosis of right sided colon carcinoma from January 2012 to December 2017 and underwent laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. Demographics, operative findings and histopathological reports were all recorded on a preformed data sheet. All the analysis was performed on SPSS 20. Results: Total of 48 patients were included. There were 37 male and 11 female patients with mean age of 49.7 (range from 25 – 82). Mean hospital stay was 8.25 ± 3.17 days. Blood loss was 80mls and operative mean time was 240 minutes. Eighteen patients had extended right hemicolectomy. Median length of the specimen retrieved was 31cm (range, 14-59cm). Mean size of tumor was 6.44cm + 2.53. Total number of lymph nodes removed was 20.5 + 8.3. All had R0 resection. Post-operatively 2 patients had pelvic collection and there was no 30 day mortality. In 33 patients there was T3 disease, 5 had T2 and 10 had T4 disease. There was distant recurrence in 4 patients with peritoneal metastasis in 3 and liver metastasis in 1 patient. Forty-six patients are still alive and 44 are disease free. The mean follow-up period was 25.31 (12 to 60) months. Conclusion: Our early experience with Laparascopic Right hemicolectomy as a safe and oncologically feasible surgical option. We attained comparable surgical results with curative intent.

Keywords: right hemicolectomy, right sided colonic tumors, laparoscopic, curative intent

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21 Relation of Urinary Microalbumin with Glycosylated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Duration of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in Selected Male and Female Patients

Authors: Junaid Mahmood Alam, Howarh Humaira Ali, Ishrat Sultana

Abstract:

Long term irregularity in the glycemic state, especially in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c, is noted to be correlated with the development of microalbuminuria. The aim of the current study is to investigate the association of urinary microalbumin with HbA1c and with duration of diabetes mellitus in selected male and female T2DM patients. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a total of 70 patients, thirty-five each male and females with diagnosed T2DM, within the age group of 35-60 years. Biochemical parameters of urea, creatinine, urinary microalbumin, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose and post- parendial blood glucose were determined by standard methods. Data was statistically examined by student’s t-test and Pearson’s correlation. Results showed that comparison of healthy control subjects with both male and female T2DM patients depicted significantly elevated levels of all parameters in (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Comparison of duration of T2DM with the existence of urinary microalbumin was moderately significant (P < 0.05) when duration was less than 4 years, significant (P < 0.01) with duration of 4-6 years and markedly significant (P < 0.001) with duration of more than 6 years. It is concluded that in male and female T2DM patients, duration of DM as well as poor glycemic control, depicted by higher levels of HbA1c is significantly correlated with elevated levels of urinary microalbumin.

Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, glycosylated hemoglobin, urinary microalbumin, T2DM, HbA1c

Procedia PDF Downloads 173