Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 492

Search results for: ethanol

492 Extractive Fermentation of Ethanol Using Vacuum Fractionation Technique

Authors: Weeraya Samnuknit, Apichat Boontawan

Abstract:

A vacuum fractionation technique was introduced to remove ethanol from fermentation broth. The effect of initial glucose and ethanol concentrations were investigated for specific productivity. The inhibitory ethanol concentration was observed at 100 g/L. In order to increase the fermentation performance, the ethanol product was removed as soon as it is produced. The broth was boiled at 35°C by reducing the pressure to 65 mBar. The ethanol/water vapor was fractionated for up to 90 wt% before leaving the column. Ethanol concentration in the broth was kept lower than 25 g/L, thus minimized the product inhibition effect to the yeast cells. For batch extractive fermentation, a high substrate utilization rate was obtained at 26.6 g/L.h and most of glucose was consumed within 21 h. For repeated-batch extractive fermentation, addition of glucose was carried out up to 9 times and ethanol was produced more than 8-fold higher than batch fermentation.

Keywords: ethanol, extractive fermentation, product inhibition, vacuum fractionation

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491 Breath Ethanol Imaging System Using Real Time Biochemical Luminescence for Evaluation of Alcohol Metabolic Capacity

Authors: Xin Wang, Munkbayar Munkhjargal, Kumiko Miyajima, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi

Abstract:

The measurement of gaseous ethanol plays an important role of evaluation of alcohol metabolic capacity in clinical and forensic analysis. A 2-dimensional visualization system for gaseous ethanol was constructed and tested in visualization of breath and transdermal alcohol. We demonstrated breath ethanol measurement using developed high-sensitive visualization system. The concentration of breath ethanol calculated with the imaging signal was significantly different between the volunteer subjects of ALDH2 (+) and (-).

Keywords: breath ethanol, ethnaol imaging, biochemical luminescence, alcohol metabolism

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490 Sniff-Camera for Imaging of Ethanol Vapor in Human Body Gases after Drinking

Authors: Toshiyuki Sato, Kenta Iitani, Koji Toma, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi

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A 2-dimensional imaging system (Sniff-camera) for gaseous ethanol emissions from a human palm skin was constructed and demonstrated. This imaging system measures gaseous ethanol concentrations as intensities of chemiluminescence (CL) by luminol reaction induced by alcohol oxidase and luminol-hydrogen peroxide system. A conversion of ethanol distributions and concentrations to 2-dimensional CL was conducted on an enzyme-immobilized mesh substrate in a dark box, which contained a luminol solution. In order to visualize ethanol emissions from human palm skin, we developed highly sensitive and selective imaging system for transpired gaseous ethanol at sub ppm-levels. High sensitivity imaging allows us to successfully visualize the emissions dynamics of transdermal gaseous ethanol. The intensity of each pixel on the palm shows the reflection of ethanol concentrations distributions based on the metabolism of oral alcohol administration. This imaging system is significant and useful for the assessment of ethanol measurement of the palmar skin.

Keywords: sniff-camera, gas-imaging, ethanol vapor, human body gas

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489 Physico-Chemical Parameters and Economic Evaluation of Bio-Ethanol Produced from Waste of Starting Dates in South Algeria

Authors: Insaf Mehani, Bachir Bouchekima

Abstract:

The fight against climate change and the replacement of fossil energies nearing exhaustion gradually emerge as major societal and economic challenges. It is possible to develop common dates of low commercial value, and put on the local and international market a new generation of products with high added values such as bio ethanol. Besides its use in chemical synthesis, bio ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a clean fuel while improving the octane.

Keywords: bio-energy, waste dates, bio ethanol, Algeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
488 Analysis of Tannins from Padus asiatica

Authors: Telmen Dashdondov, Selenge Erdenechimeg

Abstract:

Padus asiatica contains large quantities of polyphenolic compounds, and it is one of the most consumed fruits throughout the country. These compounds have the biological activity of the fruit and have long been used in traditional Mongolian medicine for diarrhea, coughs, pneumonia, and gastritis. In this study, we studied the solvents that can be used to make extracts from dried raw fruits; in order to determine the amount of tannin in Padus asiatica, we selected three solvents: distilled water, 20% ethanol, and 40% ethanol, and determined the amount of tannin. As a result, the amount of extract (distilled water) was 11.8%, the amount of extract (20% ethanol) was 15.7%, and the amount of extract (40% ethanol) was 8.2%. Therefore, it was found that tannins are extracted better in 20% ethanol solution.

Keywords: Padus asiatica, tannin, diarrhea, Mongolian medicinal plant

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487 Acoustic Characteristics of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rat Pups Prenatally Exposed to Ethanol

Authors: Mohd. Ashik Shahrier, Hiromi Wada

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Prenatal ethanol exposure has potential to induce difficulties in the social behavior of rats and can alter pup-dam communication suggesting that deficits in pups could result in altered dam behavior, which in turn could result in more aberrant behavior in the pup. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) is a sensitive tool for investigating social behavior between rat pups and their dam. Rat pups produce USVs on separation from their dam. This signals the dam to locate her pups and retrieve them back to the nest. In this study, it was predicted that prenatal ethanol exposure cause alterations on the acoustic characteristics of USVs in rat pups. Thirteen pregnant rats were purchased and randomly assigned into three groups: high-ethanol (n = 4), low-ethanol (n = 5), and control (n = 4) groups. Laboratory ethanol (purity = 99.5%) was dissolved in tap water and administered to the high- and low-ethanol groups as drinking water from gestational days (GD) 8-20. Ethanol-containing water was administered to the animals in three stages by gradually increasing the concentration between GDs 8–20. From GDs 8–10, 10% and 5%, from GDs 11–13, 20% and 10%, and from GDs 14–20, 30% and 15% ethanol-containing water (v/v) was administered to the high- and low-ethanol groups, respectively. Tap water without ethanol was given to the control group throughout the experiment. The day of birth of the pups was designated as postnatal day (PND) 0. On PND 4, each litter was culled to four male and four female pups. For the present study, two male and two female pups were randomly sampled from each litter as subjects. Thus, eight male and eight female pups from the high-ethanol and control groups and another 10 male and 10 female pups from the low-ethanol group, were sampled. An ultrasonic microphone and the Sonotrack system version 2.4.0 (Metris, Hoofddorp, The Netherlands) were used to record and analyze USVs of the pups. On postnatal days 4, 8, 12 and 16, the resultant pups were individually isolated from their dams and littermates, and USVs were recorded for 5 min in a sound-proof box. Pups in the high-ethanol group produced greater number of USVs compared with that in both low-ethanol and control groups on PND 12. Rat pups in the high-ethanol group also produced higher mean, minimum, and maximum fundamental frequencies of USVs compared with that in both low-ethanol and control groups. Male pups in the high-ethanol group had higher USV amplitudes than in those in low-ethanol and control groups on PND 12. These results suggest that pups in the high-ethanol group relatively experienced more negative emotionality due to the ethanol-induced neuronal activation in the core limbic system and tegmental structures and accordingly, produced altered USVs as distress calls.

Keywords: emotionality, ethanol, maternal separation, ultrasonic vocalization

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486 Pre-Administration of Thunbergia Laurifolia Linn. Prevent the Increase of Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens in Ethanol Addicted Rats

Authors: Watchareewan Thongsaard, Ratirat Sangpayap, Maneekarn Namsa-Aid

Abstract:

Thunbergia laurifolia Linn. (TL) is a herbal medicine which has been used as an antidote for several poisonous agents including insecticides and as a component of a mixture of crude extracts to treat drug addicted patients. The aim of this study is to examine the level of dopamine in nucleus accumbens after chronic pre-administration of TL in ethanol addicted rats. Male Wistar rats weigh 200-250 g received TL methanol extract (200mg/kg, orally) 60 minutes before 20% ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) for 30 days. The nucleus accumbens was removed and tested for dopamine by HPLC-ECD. The level of dopamine was significantly increased by chronic ethanol administration, whereas the chronic TL extract administration did not cause a difference in dopamine level when compared to control. Moreover, the pre-treatment of TL extract before ethanol significantly reduced the dopamine level in nucleus accumbens to normal level when compared with chronic ethanol administration alone. These results suggested that the increase in dopamine level in the nucleus accumbens by chronic ethanol administration is the cause of ethanol addiction, and this effect is prevented by chronic TL pre-administration. Furthermore, chronic TL extract administration alone did not cause the changes in dopamine level in the nucleus accumbens, indicating that TL itself did not cause addiction.

Keywords: Thunbergia laurifolia Linn., alcohol addiction, dopamine, nucleus accumbens

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485 New Ethanol Method for Soft Tissue Imaging in Micro-CT

Authors: Matej Patzelt, Jan Dudak, Frantisek Krejci, Jan Zemlicka, Vladimir Musil, Jitka Riedlova, Viktor Sykora, Jana Mrzilkova, Petr Zach

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Introduction: Micro-CT is well used for examination of bone structures and teeth. On the other hand visualization of the soft tissues is still limited. The goal of our study was to create a new fixation method for soft tissue imaging in micro-CT. Methodology: We used organs of 18 mice - heart, lungs, kidneys, liver and brain, which we fixated in ethanol after meticulous preparation. We fixated organs in different concentrations of ethanol and for different period of time. We used three types of ethanol concentration - 97%, 50% and ascending ethanol concentration (25%, 50%, 75%, 97% each for 12 hours). Fixated organs were scanned after 72 hours, 168 hours and 336 hours period of fixation. We scanned all specimens in micro-CT MARS (Medipix All Resolution System). Results: Ethanol method provided contrast enhancement in all studied organs in all used types of fixation. Fixation in 97% ethanol provided very fast fixation and the contrast among the tissues was visible already after 72 hours of fixation. Fixation for the period of 168 and 336 hours gave better details, especially in lung tissue, where alveoli were visualized. On the other hand, this type of fixation caused organs to petrify. Fixation in 50% ethanol provided best results in 336 hours fixation, details were visualized better than in 97% ethanol and samples were not as hard as in fixation in 97% ethanol. Best results were obtained in fixation in ascending ethanol concentration. All organs were visualized in great details, best-visualized organ was heart, where trabeculae and valves were visible. In this type of fixation, organs stayed soft for whole time. Conclusion: New ethanol method is a great option for soft tissue fixation as well as the method for enhancing contrast among tissues in organs. The best results were obtained with fixation of the organs in ascending ethanol concentration, the best visualized organ was the heart.

Keywords: x-ray imaging, small animals, ethanol, ex-vivo

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484 Gasification of Trans-4-Hydroxycinnamic Acid with Ethanol at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, Wei-Ling Lin

Abstract:

Lignin is a major constituent of woody biomass, and exists abundantly in nature. It is the major byproducts from the paper industry and bioethanol production processes. The byproducts are mainly used for low-valued applications. Instead, lignin can be converted into higher-valued gaseous fuel, thereby helping to curtail the ever-growing price of oil and to slow down the trend of global warming. Although biochemical treatment is capable of converting cellulose into liquid ethanol fuel, it cannot be applied to the conversion of lignin. Alternatively, it is possible to convert lignin into gaseous fuel thermochemically. In the present work, trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, a model compound for lignin, which closely resembles the basic building blocks of lignin, is gasified in an autoclave with ethanol at elevated temperatures and pressures, that are above the critical point of ethanol. Ethanol, instead of water, is chosen, because ethanol dissolves trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid easily and helps to convert it into lighter gaseous species relatively well. The major operating parameters for the gasification reaction include temperature (673-873 K), reaction pressure (5-25 MPa) and feed concentration (0.05-0.3 M). Generally, more than 80% of the reactant, including trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid and ethanol, were converted into gaseous products at an operating condition of 873 K and 5 MPa.

Keywords: ethanol, gasification, lignin, supercritical

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483 Simultaneous Saccharification and Co-Fermentation of Paddy Straw and Fruit Wastes into Ethanol Production

Authors: Kamla Malik

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For ethanol production from paddy straw firstly pretreatment was done by using sodium hydroxide solution (2.0%) at 15 psi for 1 hr. The maximum lignin removal was achieved with 0.5 mm mesh size of paddy straw. It contained 72.4 % cellulose, 15.9% hemicelluloses and 2.0 % lignin after pretreatment. Paddy straw hydrolysate (PSH) with fruits wastes (5%), such as sweet lime, apple, sapota, grapes, kinnow, banana, papaya, mango, and watermelon were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) for 72 hrs by co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae HAU-1 and Candida sp. with 0.3 % urea as a cheap nitrogen source. Fermentation was carried out at 35°C and determined ethanol yield at 24 hours interval. The maximum production of ethanol was produced within 72 hrs of fermentation in PSH + sapota peels (3.9% v/v) followed by PSH + kinnow peels (3.6%) and PSH+ papaya peels extract (3.1 %). In case of PSH+ banana peels and mango peel extract the ethanol produced were 2.8 % and 2.2 % (v/v). The results of this study suggest that wastes from fruits that contain fermentable sugar should not be discarded into our environment, but should be supplemented in paddy straw which converted to useful products like bio-ethanol that can serve as an alternative energy source.

Keywords: ethanol, fermentation, fruit wastes, paddy straw

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482 Fermentation of Xylose and Glucose Mixture in Intensified Reactors by Scheffersomyces stipitis to Produce Ethanol

Authors: S. C. Santos, S. R. Dionísio, A. L. D. De Andrade, L. R. Roque, A. C. Da Costa, J. L. Ienczak

Abstract:

In this work, two fermentations at different temperatures (25 and 30 ºC), with cell recycling, were accomplished to produce ethanol, using a mix of commercial substrates, xylose (70%) and glucose (30%), as organic source for Scheffersomyces stipitis. Five consecutive fermentations of 80 g L-1 (1º, 2º and 3º recycles), 96 g L-1 (4º recycle) and 120 g L-1 (5º recycle)reduced sugars led to a final maximum ethanol concentration of 17.2 and 34.5 g L-1, at 25 and 30 ºC, respectively. Glucose was the preferred substrate; moreover xylose startup degradation was initiated after a remaining glucose presence in the medium. Results showed that yeast acid treatment, performed before each cycle, provided improvements on cell viability, accompanied by ethanol productivity of 2.16 g L-1 h-1 at 30 ºC. A maximum 36% of xylose was retained in the fermentation medium and after five-cycle fermentation an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g sugars was observed. S. stipitis fermentation capacity and tolerance showed better results at 30 ºC with 83.4% of theoretical yield referenced on initial biomass.

Keywords: 5-carbon sugar, cell recycling fermenter, mixed sugars, xylose-fermenting yeast

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481 High Titer Cellulosic Ethanol Production Achieved by Fed-Batch Prehydrolysis Simultaneous Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Sulfite Pretreated Softwood

Authors: Chengyu Dong, Shao-Yuan Leu

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Cellulosic ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass can reduce our reliance on fossil fuel, mitigate climate change, and stimulate rural economic development. The relative low ethanol production (60 g/L) limits the economic viable of lignocellulose-based biorefinery. The ethanol production can be increased up to 80 g/L by removing nearly all the non-cellulosic materials, while the capital of the pretreatment process increased significantly. In this study, a fed-batch prehydrolysis simultaneously saccharification and fermentation process (PSSF) was designed to converse the sulfite pretreated softwood (~30% residual lignin) to high concentrations of ethanol (80 g/L). The liquefaction time of hydrolysis process was shortened down to 24 h by employing the fed-batch strategy. Washing out the spent liquor with water could eliminate the inhibition of the pretreatment spent liquor. However, the ethanol yield of lignocellulose was reduced as the fermentable sugars were also lost during the process. Fed-batch prehydrolyzing the while slurry (i.e. liquid plus solid fraction) pretreated softwood for 24 h followed by simultaneously saccharification and fermentation process at 28 °C can generate 80 g/L ethanol production. Fed-batch strategy is very effectively to eliminate the “solid effect” of the high gravity saccharification, so concentrating the cellulose to nearly 90% by the pretreatment process is not a necessary step to get high ethanol production. Detoxification of the pretreatment spent liquor caused the loss of sugar and reduced the ethanol yield consequently. The tolerance of yeast to inhibitors was better at 28 °C, therefore, reducing the temperature of the following fermentation process is a simple and valid method to produce high ethanol production.

Keywords: cellulosic ethanol, sulfite pretreatment, Fed batch PSSF, temperature

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480 Kinetics of Acetaminophen Based Oscillatory Chemical Reaction with and without Ferroin as Catalyst: An Inorganic Prototype Model for Paracetamol-Ethanol Syndrome

Authors: Nadeem Bashir, Ghulam Mustafa Peerzada

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The present study pertains to the nonlinear behavior of acetaminophen based uncatalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillator and its dynamics in the presence of Ferroin as the catalyst. The role of free metal ions as catalysts was examined and the results compared with corresponding complexed catalysts. Free metal ions were found to be sluggish with respect to the evolution of the oscillatory regime as compared to complexed ones. Effect of change of the ligand moiety of the catalyst complex on the oscillatory parameters was monitored. Since ethanol potentiates the hepatotoxicity caused by acetaminophen in-vivo, it is thought to understand this interaction by virtue of causing perturbation of the acetaminophen based oscillator with different concentrations of the ethanol with and without ferroin as the catalyst. Another dimension to the ethanol effect was added by perturbation of the system with ethanol at different stages of the reaction so as to get an idea whether it is acetaminophen or some reactive intermediate generated in the reaction system which reacts with ethanol. Further, the ferroin-catalyzed oscillator is taken as a prototype inorganic model of the acetaminophen-ethanol syndrome, as ferroin and HOBr were inorganic replacements to Cyt P450 and NADPH in the alcohol metabolism.

Keywords: Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, ferroin, Paracetamol-Ethanol syndrome, kinetics

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479 Investigation on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of Biodiesel (Animal Oil): Ethanol Blends in a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine

Authors: A. Veeresh Babu, M. Vijay Kumar, P. Ravi Kumar, Katam Ganesh Babu

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Biodiesel can be considered as a potential alternative fuel for compression ignition engines. These can be obtained from various resources. However, the usage of biodiesel in high percentage in compression ignition may cause some technical problems because of their higher viscosity, high pour point, and low volatility. Ethanol can be used as a fuel extender to enable use of higher percentage of biodiesel in CI engine. Blends of ethanol-animal fat oil biodiesel-diesel have been prepared and experimental study has been carried out. We have found that B40E20 fuel blend (40% biodiesel and 20 % ethanol in diesel) reduces the specific fuel consumption and improves brake thermal efficiency of engine compared to B40 fuel blend. We observed that fuel characteristics improved considerably with addition of ethanol to biodiesel. Emissions of CO, HC and smoke were reduced while CO2 emissions were increased because of more complete combustion of the blend.

Keywords: diesel, biodiesel, ethanol, CI engine, engine performance, exhaust emission

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478 Experimental Investigation on Variable Compression Ratio of Single Cylinder Four Stroke SI Engine Working under Ethanol – Gasoline Blend

Authors: B. V. Lande, Suhas Kongare

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Fuel blend of alcohol and conventional hydrocarbon fuels for a spark ignition engine can increase the fuel octane rating and the power for a given engine displacement and compression ratio. The greatest advantage of ethanol as a fuel in SI Engines is its high octane number. The efficiency of an SI engine that is the ability to convert fuel energy to mechanical energy, mainly depends on the compression ratio. It is, therefore, an advantage to increase this as much as possible. The major restraint is the fuel octane number – high octane fuels can be used with high compression ratios, thus yielding higher energy efficiency. This work investigates to suggest suitable ethanol gasoline blend and compression ratio for single cylinder four strokes SI Engine on the basis of performance and exhaust emissions. A single cylinder four stroke SI Engine was tested with different blend of ethanol – gasoline like E5 (5% ethanol +95% gasoline), E10 (10% ethanol + 90% gasoline) E15 (15% ethanol + 85% petrol) and E20 ( 20% + 80% gasoline) with Variable compression ratio. The performance parameter evaluated BSFC, Brake thermal efficiency and also exhaust emission CO2, Co & HC%. The result showed that higher compression ratio improved engine Performance and reduction in exhaust emission.

Keywords: blend, compression ratio, ethanol, performance, blend

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477 The Analysis of Exhaust Emission from Single Cylinder Non-Mobile Spark Ignition Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blend as Fuel

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Ogbevire Umukoro

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In view of the prevailing pollution problems and its consequences on the environment, efforts are being made to lower the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the impact of ethanol-gasoline blend on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder non-mobile spark ignition engine was investigated. Gasoline was blended with 5 – 20% of ethanol sourced from the open market (bought off the shelf) in an interval of 5%. The results of the emission characteristics of the exhaust gas from the combustion of the ethanol-gasoline blends showed that increasing the percentage of ethanol in the blend decreased CO emission by between 2.12% and 52.29% and HC emissions by between12.14% and 53.24%, but increased CO2 and NOx emissions by between 25% to 56% and 59% to 60% respectively. E15 blend is preferred above other blends at no-load and across all the load variations. However its NOx emission was the highest when compared with other samples. This will negatively affect human health and the environment but this drawback can be remedied by adequate treatment with appropriate additives.

Keywords: blends, emission, ethanol, gasoline, spark ignition engine

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476 Effect of Mineral Ion Addition on Yeast Performance during Very High Gravity Wort Fermentation

Authors: H. O. Udeh, T. E. Kgatla, A. I. O. Jideani

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The effect of Zn2+, Mg2+, and Ba2+ on Saccharomyces pastorianus during very high gravity fermentation was evaluated in this study at independent and three variable combinations. Wort gravity of 21oP was prepared from barley malt, hops and water, to which the metal ions were supplemented in their combinations and subsequently pitched. After 96 h of fermentation, high wort fermentability (%F)= 29.53 was obtained in wort medium containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+. Increased ethanol titre 7.3491 %(v/v) and 7.1313 %(v/v) were obtained in media containing 900:4 ppm Mg2+ + Ba2+ and 12:900 ppm Zn2+ + Mg2+. Decrease %F= 22.54 and ethanol titre 6.1757% (v/v) was recorded in wort medium containing 12:4 ppm Zn2+ + Ba2+. In media containing the individual metal ions, increased %F= 27.94 and %F= 26.03 were obtained in media containing 700 ppm Mg2+ and 2 ppm Ba2+, with increased ethanol yield of 7.8844% (v/v) and 7.6245% (v/v) respectively. Least %F of 11.75 and 10.80, and ethanol titre of 4.99 (%v/v) and 4.80 (%v/v) were obtained for 10 ppm Zn2+ and 4 ppm Ba2+ respectively.

Keywords: ethanol yield, fermentability, mineral ions, yeast stress, very high gravity fermentation

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475 The Correlation of Total Phenol Content with Free Radicals Scavenging Activity and Effect of Ethanol Concentration in Extraction Process of Mangosteen Rind (Garcinia mangostana)

Authors: Ririn Lestari Sri Rahayu, Mustofa Ahda

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The use of synthetic antioxidants often causes a negative effect on health and increases the incidence of carcinogenesis. Development of the natural antioxidants should be investigated. However, natural antioxidants have a low toxicity and are safe for human consumption. Ethanol extract of mangosteen rind (Garcinia mangostana) contains natural antioxidant compounds that have various pharmacological activities. Antioxidants from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind have free radicals scavenging activities. The scavenging activity of ethanol extract of mangosteen rind was determined by DPPH method. The phenolic compound from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind is determined with Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results showed that the absolute ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has IC50 of 40.072 ug/mL. The correlation of total phenols content with free radical scavenging activity has an equation y: 5.207x + 205.51 and determination value (R2) of 0.9329. Total phenols content from the ethanol extract of mangosteen rind has a good correlation with free radicals scavenging activity of DPPH.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Garcinia mangostana, Inhibition concentration 50%, Phenolic.

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474 A Review of Ethanol-Diesel Blend as a Fuel in Compression-Ignition Engine

Authors: Ibrahim Yahuza, Habou Dandakouta

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The use of ethanol blended with diesel is receiving more attention by many researchers in the recent time. It was shown that ethanol–diesel blends were technically acceptable for existing diesel engines. Ethanol, as an attractive alternative fuel, is a renewable bio-based resource and it is oxygenated, thereby providing the potential to reduce particulate emissions in compression–ignition engines. In this review, the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel fuel are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. These factors include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also considered. The formulation of additives to correct certain key properties and maintain blend stability is suggested as a critical factor in ensuring fuel compatibility with engines. However, maintaining vehicle safety with these blends may require special materials and modification of the fuel tank design. Further work is required in specifying acceptable fuel characteristics, confirming the long-term effects on engine durability, and ensuring safety in handling and storing ethanol–diesel blends.

Keywords: ethanol, renewable, blend, bio-fuel, diesel engines

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473 Study on the Carboxymethylation of Glucomannan from Porang

Authors: Fadilah Fadilah, Sperisa Distantina, Santi T. Wijayanti, Rahmawati Andayani

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Chemical modification process on glucomannan from porang via carboxymethylation have been conducted. The process was done in two stages, the alkalization, and the carboxymethylation. The alkalization was done by adding NaOH solution into the medium which was contained glucomannan and then stirred it in ambient temperature for thirty minutes. The carboxymethylation process was done by adding sodium mono chloroacetate solution into the alkalization product. The carboxymethylation process was conducted for a certain time, and the product was then analyzed for determining the degree of substitution. In this research, the influence of medium to the degree of substitution was studied. Three different medium were used, namely water, 70% ethanol, and 90% ethanol. The results show that 70% ethanol was a better medium than two others because give a higher degree of substitution. Using 70% ethanol as a medium, the experiments for studying the influence of temperature on the carboxymethylation stages were conducted. The results show that the degree of substitution at 65°C is higher than at 45°C.

Keywords: carboxymethylation, degree of substitution, ethanol medium, glucomannan

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472 Optimation of Ethanol Extract of Gotu Kola and Majapahit Composition as Natural Antioxidant Source

Authors: Mustofa Ahda, Fiqri Rozi, Gina Noor Habibah, Mas Ulfah Lestari, Tomy Hardianto, Yuni Andriani

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The development of natural antioxidants in the Centella asiatica and Majapahit is a great potential. This research has been optimizing the composition of ethanol extract of Centella asiatica and leaves Majapahit as an antioxidants source using measure the free radical scavenging activity of DPPH. The results of the research showed that both the ethanol extract of Centella asiatica and leaves Majapahit has a total content of phenol. It is shown with the ability to reduce reagent Folin Ciocalteu become blue colour. The composition optimization of extract Centella asiatica leaves Majapahit = 30:70 has free radical scavenging activity of DPPH most well compared ethanol extract of Centella asiatica and leaves Majapahit. IC50 values for the composition of ethanol extract of Centella asiatica : leaves Majapahit = 30:70 is 0,103 mg/mL.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Centella asiatica, Cresentia cujete, composition extract

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471 Studying the Effect of Ethanol and Operating Temperature on Purification of Lactulose Syrup Containing Lactose

Authors: N. Zanganeh, M. Zabet

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Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide which has remarkable applications in food and pharmaceutical fields. Lactulose is not found in nature and it is produced by isomerization reaction of lactose in an alkaline environment. It should be noted that this reaction has a very low yield since significant amount of lactose stays un-reacted in the system. Basically, purification of lactulose is difficult and costly. Previous studies have revealed that solubility of lactose and lactulose are significantly different in ethanol. Considering the fact that solubility is also affected by temperature itself, we investigated the effect of ethanol and temperature on separation process of lactose from the syrup containing lactose and lactulose. For this purpose, a saturated solution containing lactulose and lactose was made at three different temperatures; 25⁰C (room temperature), 31⁰C, and 37⁰C first.  Five samples containing 2g saturated solution was taken and then 2g, 3g, 4g, 5g, and 6g ethanol separately was added to the sampling tubes. Sampling tubes were kept at respective temperatures afterward. The concentration of lactose and lactulose after separation process measured and analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that ethanol has such a greater impact than operating temperature on purification process. Also, it was observed that the maximum rate of separation occurred at initial amount of added ethanol.

Keywords: lactulose, lactose, purification, solubility

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470 The Equality Test of Ceftriaxone Anti-Bacterial Effect and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant (Myermecodia pendens Merr. and L. M Perry) to MRSA

Authors: Rifa’ah Mahmudah Bulu’

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MRSA is an important nosocomial pathogen in the world. Therefore, the prevention and effort to control MRSA is still very important to conduct. One of the preventions of MRSA, which have been reported by several studies, is Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant. This research is an experimental test to determine the potency of MRSA’s anti-bacterial with Cefriaxone (30 μg) and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant (13 mg/ml) based on inhibition zone on LAB (Lempeng Agar Biasa). The size of inhibition zone that is formed on Cefriaxone is adjusted with CSLI criteria, which ≥ 21 mm of inhibition zone is called sensitive; ≤13 mm is called resistance and between 14-20 mm is called intermediate. This research is conducted three times. Comparative test between Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant is analyzed by Maan Whitney’s statistic method. The Result of Cefriaxone anti-bacterial potency shows the variety of inhibition zone. Cefriaxone forms approximately 16,5-20 mm with average 18,22mm of inhibition zone that make Cefriaxone’s criteria to MRSA’s inhibition is intermediate. Anti-bacterial potency of Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant is about 0,5-2 mm with average 1,17 mm of inhibition zone that prove MRSA is sensitive to Ant Plant. The conclusion of this research shows that Cefriaxone is intermediate to MRSA’s inhibition, while MRSA is sensitive to Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant, which at the end; it creates different potency of anti-bacterial between Cefriaxone and Ethanol Extract of Ant Plant.

Keywords: MRSA, cefriaxone, ant plant, CSLI, mann whitney

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469 Oxidation Activity of Platinum-Ruthenium-Tin Ternary Alloy Catalyst on Bio-Alcohol

Authors: An-Ya Lo, Yi-Chen Chung, Yun-Chi Hsu, Chuan-Ming Tseng, Chiu-Yue Lin

Abstract:

In this study, the ternary alloy catalyst Pt20RuxSny (where 20, x, y represent mass fractions of Pt, Ru, and Sn, respectively) was optimized for the preliminary study of bio-ethanol fuel cells (BAFC). The morphology, microstructure, composition, phase-structures, and electrochemical properties of Pt20RuxSny catalyst were examined by SEM, TEM, EDS-mapping, XRD, and potentiostat. The effect of Sn content on electrochemical active surface (EAS) and oxidation activity were discussed. As a result, the additional Sn greatly improves the efficiency of Pt20RuxSny, either x=0 or 10. Through discussing the difference between ethanol and glycol oxidations, the mechanism of tolerance against poisoning has been proved. Overall speaking, the catalytic activity are in the order of Pt20RuxSny > Pt20Rux > Pt20Sny in both ethanol and glycol systems. Finally, Pt20Ru10Sn15 catalyst was successfully applied to demonstrate the feasibility of using bio-alcohol.

Keywords: Pt-Sn alloy catalyst, Pt-Ru-Sn alloy catalyst, fuel cell, ethanol, ethylene glycol

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468 Comparative Techno-Economic Assessment and LCA of Selected Integrated Sugarcane-Based Biorefineries

Authors: Edgard Gnansounoua, Pavel Vaskan, Elia Ruiz Pachón

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This work addresses the economic and environmental performance of integrated biorefineries based on sugarcane juice and residues in the context of Brazil. We have considered four multiproduct scenarios; two from existing Brazilian sugar mills and the others from ethanol autonomous distilleries. They are integrated biorefineries producing first (1G) and second (2G) generation ethanol, sugar, molasses (for animal feed) and electricity. We show the results for the analysis and comparison of the different scenarios using a techno-economic value-based approach and LCA methodology. We have found that all the analysed scenarios show positive values of Climate change and Fossil depletion reduction as compared to the reference systems. However the scenario producing only ethanol shows less efficiency in Human toxicity, Freshwater ecotoxicity and Freshwater eutrophication impacts. The best economic configuration is provided by the scenario with the largest ethanol production. On the other hand, the best environmental performance is presented by the scenario with full integration sugar – 1G2G ethanol production. The integration of 2G based residues in a 1G ethanol production plant leads to positive environmental impacts compared to the conventional 1G industrial plant but proves to be more expensive.

Keywords: sugarcane, biorefinery, 1G/2G bioethanol integration, LCA, Brazil

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467 Distribution of Phospholipids, Cholesterol and Carotenoids in Two-Solvent System during Egg Yolk Oil Solvent Extraction

Authors: Aleksandrs Kovalcuks, Mara Duma

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Egg yolk oil is a concentrated source of egg bioactive compounds, such as fat-soluble vitamins, phospholipids, cholesterol, carotenoids and others. To extract lipids and other fat-soluble nutrients from liquid egg yolk, a two-step extraction process involving polar (ethanol) and non-polar (hexane) solvents were used. This extraction technique was based on egg yolk bioactive compounds polarities, where non-polar compound was extracted into non-polar hexane, but polar in to polar alcohol/water phase. But many egg yolk bioactive compounds are not strongly polar or non-polar. Egg yolk phospholipids, cholesterol and pigments are amphipatic (have both polar and non-polar regions) and their behavior in ethanol/hexane solvent system is not clear. The aim of this study was to clarify the behavior of phospholipids, cholesterol and carotenoids during extraction of egg yolk oil with ethanol and hexane and determine the loss of these compounds in egg yolk oil. Egg yolks and egg yolk oil were analyzed for phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)), cholesterol and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and β-carotene) content using GC-FID and HPLC methods. PC and PE are polar lipids and were extracted into polar ethanol phase. Concentration of PC in ethanol was 97.89% and PE 99.81% from total egg yolk phospholipids. Due to cholesterol’s partial extraction into ethanol, cholesterol content in egg yolk oil was reduced in comparison to its total content presented in egg yolk lipids. The highest amount of lutein and zeaxanthin was concentrated in ethanol extract. The opposite situation was observed with canthaxanthin and β-carotene, which became the main pigments of egg yolk oil.

Keywords: cholesterol, egg yolk oil, lutein, phospholipids, solvent extraction

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466 Isolation and Characterization of an Ethanol Resistant Bacterium from Sap of Saccharum officinarum for Efficient Fermentation

Authors: Rukshika S Hewawasam, Sisira K. Weliwegamage, Sanath Rajapakse, Subramanium Sotheeswaran

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Bio fuel is one of the emerging industries around the world due to arise of crisis in petroleum fuel. Fermentation is a cost effective and eco-friendly process in production of bio-fuel. So inventions in microbes, substrates, technologies in fermentation cause new modifications in fermentation. One major problem in microbial ethanol fermentation is the low resistance of conventional microorganisms to the high ethanol concentrations, which ultimately lead to decrease in the efficiency of the process. In the present investigation, an ethanol resistant bacterium was isolated from sap of Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane). The optimal cultural conditions such as pH, temperature, incubation period, and microbiological characteristics, morphological characteristics, biochemical characteristics, ethanol tolerance, sugar tolerance, growth curve assay were investigated. Isolated microorganism was tolerated to 18% (V/V) of ethanol concentration in the medium and 40% (V/V) glucose concentration in the medium. Biochemical characteristics have revealed as Gram negative, non-motile, negative for Indole test ,Methyl Red test, Voges- Proskauer`s test, Citrate Utilization test, and Urease test. Positive results for Oxidase test was shown by isolated bacterium. Sucrose, Glucose, Fructose, Maltose, Dextrose, Arabinose, Raffinose, Lactose, and Sachcharose can be utilized by this particular bacterium. It is a significant feature in effective fermentation. The fermentation process was carried out in glucose medium under optimum conditions; pH 4, temperature 30˚C, and incubated for 72 hours. Maximum ethanol production was recorded as 12.0±0.6% (V/V). Methanol was not detected in the final product of the fermentation process. This bacterium is especially useful in bio-fuel production due to high ethanol tolerance of this microorganism; it can be used to enhance the fermentation process over conventional microorganisms. Investigations are currently conducted on establishing the identity of the bacterium

Keywords: bacterium, bio-fuel, ethanol tolerance, fermentation

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465 Intensification of Ethyl Esters Synthesis Using a Packed-Bed Tubular Reactor at Supercritical Conditions

Authors: Camila da Silva, Simone Belorte de Andrade, Vitor Augusto dos Santos Garcia, Vladimir Ferreira Cabral, J. Vladimir Oliveira Lúcio Cardozo-Filho

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In the present study, the non-catalytic transesterification of soybean oil in continuous mode using supercritical ethanol were investigated. Experiments were performed in a packed-bed tubular reactor (PBTR) and variable studied were reaction temperature (523 K to 598 K), pressure (10 MPa to 20 MPa), oil to ethanol molar ratio (1:10 to 1:40) and water concentration (0 wt% to 10 wt% in ethanol). Results showed that ethyl esters yields obtained in the PBTR were higher (> 20 wt%) than those verified in a tubular reactor (TR), due to improved mass transfer conditions attained in the PBTR. Results demonstrated that temperature, pressure, oil to ethanol molar ratio and water concentration had a positive effect on fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) production in the experimental range investigated, with appreciable reaction yields (90 wt%) achieved at 598 K, 20 MPa, oil to ethanol molar ratio of 1:40 and 10 wt% of water concentration.

Keywords: packed bed reactor, ethyl esters, continuous process, catalyst-free process

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464 Effect of Ethanol Concentration and Enzyme Pre-Treatment on Bioactive Compounds from Ginger Extract

Authors: S. Lekhavat, T. Kajsongkram, S. Sang-han

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Dried ginger was extracted and investigated the effect of ethanol concentration and enzyme pre-treatment on its bioactive compounds in solvent extraction process. Sliced fresh gingers were dried by oven dryer at 70 °C for 24 hours and ground to powder using grinder which their size were controlled by passing through a 20-mesh sieve. In enzyme pre-treatment process, ginger powder was sprayed with 1 % (w/w) cellulase and then was incubated at 45 °C for 2 hours following by extraction process using ethanol at concentration of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 % (v/v), respectively. The ratio of ginger powder and ethanol are 1:9 and extracting conditions were controlled at 80 °C for 2 hours. Bioactive compounds extracted from ginger, either enzyme-treated or non enzyme-treated samples, such as total phenolic content (TPC), 6-Gingerol (6 G), 6-Shogaols (6 S) and antioxidant activity (IC50 using DPPH assay), were examined. Regardless of enzyme treatment, the results showed that 60 % ethanol provided the highest TPC (20.36 GAE mg /g. dried ginger), 6G (0.77%), 6S (0.036 %) and the lowest IC50 (625 μg/ml) compared to other ratios of ethanol. Considering the effect of enzyme on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity, it was found that enzyme-treated sample has more 6G (0.17-0.77 %) and 6S (0.020-0.036 %) than non enzyme-treated samples (0.13-0.77 % 6G, 0.015-0.036 % 6S). However, the results showed that non enzyme-treated extracts provided higher TPC (6.76-20.36 GAE mg /g. dried ginger) and Lowest IC50 (625-1494 μg/ml ) than enzyme-treated extracts (TPC 5.36-17.50 GAE mg /g. dried ginger, IC50 793-2146 μg/ml).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, enzyme, extraction, ginger

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463 Effect of Nanoparticles Concentration, pH and Agitation on Bioethanol Production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4743: An Optimization Study

Authors: Adeyemi Isaac Sanusi, Gueguim E. B. Kana

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Nanoparticles have received attention of the scientific community due to their biotechnological potentials. They exhibit advantageous size, shape and concentration-dependent catalytic, stabilizing, immunoassays and immobilization properties. This study investigates the impact of metallic oxide nanoparticles (NPs) on ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4743. Nine different nanoparticles were synthesized using precipitation method and microwave treatment. The nanoparticles synthesized were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fermentation processes were carried out at varied NPs concentrations (0 – 0.08 wt%). Highest ethanol concentrations were achieved after 24 h using Cobalt NPs (5.07 g/l), Copper NPs (4.86 g/l) and Manganese NPs (4.74 g/l) at 0.01 wt% NPs concentrations, which represent 13%, 8.7% and 5.4% increase respectively over the control (4.47 g/l). The lowest ethanol concentration (0.17 g/l) was obtained when 0.08 wt% of Silver NPs was used. And lower ethanol concentrations were observed at higher NPs concentration. Ethanol concentration decrease after 24 h for all the processes. In all set up with NPs, the pH was observed to be stable and the stability was directly proportional to nanoparticles concentrations. These findings suggest that the presence of some of the NPs in the bioprocesses has catalytic and pH stabilizing potential. Ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4743 was enhanced in the presence of Cobalt NPs, Copper NPs and Manganese NPs. Optimization study using response surface methodology (RSM) will further elucidate the impact of these nanoparticles on bioethanol production.

Keywords: agitation, bioethanol, nanoparticles concentration, optimization, pH value

Procedia PDF Downloads 75