Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 89

Search results for: shipping

89 Appraisal of Shipping Trade Influence on Economic Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Ikpechukwu Njoku

Abstract:

The study examined appraisal of shipping trade influence on the economic growth in Nigeria from 1981-2016 by the use of secondary data collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria. The main objectives are to examine the trend of shipping trade in Nigeria as well as determine the influence of economic growth on gross domestic product (GDP). The study employed both descriptive and influential tools. The study adopted cointegration regression method for the analysis of each of the variables (shipping trade, external reserves and external debts). The results show that there is a statistically significant relationship between GDP and external reserves with p-value 0.0190. Also the result revealed that there is a statistically significant relationship between GDP and shipping trade with p-value 0.000. However, shipping trade and external reserves contributed positively at 1% and 5% level of significance respectively while external debts impacted negatively to GDP at 5% level of significance with a long run variance of cointegration regression. Therefore, the study suggests that government should do all it can to curtail foreign dominance and repatriation of profit for a more sustainable economy as well as upgrade port facilities, prevent unnecessary delays and encourage exportable goods for maximum deployment of ships.

Keywords: external debts, external reserve, GDP, shipping trade

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
88 Virtual Container Yard: Assessing the Perceived Impact of Legal Implications to Container Carriers

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, P. Mukherjee, H. Edirisinghe

Abstract:

Virtual Container Yard (VCY) is a modern concept that helps to reduce the empty container repositioning cost of carriers. The concept of VCY is based on container interchange between shipping lines. Although this mechanism has been theoretically accepted by the shipping community as a feasible solution, it has not yet achieved the necessary momentum among container shipping lines (CSL). This paper investigates whether there is any legal influence on this industry myopia about the VCY. It is believed that this is the first publication that focuses on the legal aspects of container exchange between carriers. Not much literature on this subject is available. This study establishes with statistical evidence that there is a phobia prevailing in the shipping industry that exchanging containers with other carriers may lead to various legal implications. The complexity of exchange is two faceted. CSLs assume that offering a container to another carrier (obviously, a competitor in terms of commercial context) or using a container offered by another carrier may lead to undue legal implications. This research reveals that this fear is reflected through four types of perceived components, namely: shipping associate; warehouse associate; network associate; and trading associate. These components carry eighteen subcomponents that comprehensively cover the entire process of a container shipment. The statistical explanation has been supported through regression analysis; INCO terms were used to illustrate the shipping process.

Keywords: virtual container yard, legal, maritime law, inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
87 A Comparison Study and Analysis on Corporate Social Responsibility among Liner Shipping Companies

Authors: Yu-Sheng Lin, Sheng-Teng Huang

Abstract:

In recent years, the issue of corporate social responsibility has become an enthusiastic discussion and hottest issue around the world. To make the enterprises be sustainable management and sustainable development, more and more enterprises realize that fulfill its corporate social responsibility is the good choice. It is an essential, important issue that the leader needs know how to lead the staff in balance benefit, also emphasize on economic, social and environmental aspects to impact the company, then enhance the consensus. The leader needs to improve cohesion of personnel, and implement the corporate social responsibility in staff behavior, in order to show a performance in the effort of corporate social responsibility of enterprises. The previous literature mostly is committed to comparison of corporate social responsibility in the industry and service industry, regarding to literature of shipping companies were relatively rare. This paper aims to take the domestic and foreign shipping companies of corporate social responsibility reports as the data analysis, and refer to the international convention (GRI) such as association and organization of CSR standard values. Overall comparison with shipping companies of CSR reports, annual reports and other public information, and taking Taiwan shipping companies as the target, respectively, with the international conventions and the world's top ten leading shipping companies to do the comparison and analysis. Shipping companies in Taiwan are bound to the standard that set by the international convention for the first goal diligently and following step is contend with the world's top ten leading shipping companies. There are 3 ~ 5 experts to be involved in interview after the result is completed. They will indicate the superiority and inferiority then provide the opinion, recommendation in the needed action. Through this study, we can explore the importance of corporate social responsibility report for shipping companies, and also provide the clear orientation to external providers to improve corporate social responsibility. In addition, it can provide the academic research and business experts as a reference; finally, serving shipping companies to complete another contribution.

Keywords: Corporate social responsibility (CSR), CSR reports, statistical methods, expert interview method

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
86 Speed Optimization Model for Reducing Fuel Consumption Based on Shipping Log Data

Authors: Ayudhia P. Gusti, Semin

Abstract:

It is known that total operating cost of a vessel is dominated by the cost of fuel consumption. How to reduce the fuel cost of ship so that the operational costs of fuel can be minimized is the question that arises. As the basis of these kinds of problem, sailing speed determination is an important factor to be considered by a shipping company. Optimal speed determination will give a significant influence on the route and berth schedule of ships, which also affect vessel operating costs. The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues about ship speed optimization. Sailing speed, displacement, sailing time, and specific fuel consumption were obtained from shipping log data to be further analyzed for modeling the speed optimization. The presented speed optimization model is expected to affect the fuel consumption and to reduce the cost of fuel consumption.

Keywords: maritime transportation, reducing fuel, shipping log data, speed optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
85 The Key Factors in Shipping Company's Port Selection for Providing Their Supplies

Authors: Sedigheh Zarei

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to identify the key factors in shipping company’s port selection in order to providing their requirement. To identify and rank factors that are play the main role in selecting port for providing the ship supplies. At the first step, Data were collected via Semi-structured interviews, The aim was to generate knowledge on how shipping company select the port and suppliers for providing their needs. 37 port selection factors were chosen from the previous researches and field interviews and have been categorized into two groups of port's factor and the factors of services of suppliers companies. The current study adopts a questionnaire survey to the main shipping companies' operators in Iran. Their responses reveal that level of services of supplying companies and customs rules play the important role in selecting the ports. Our findings could affect decisions made by port authorities to consider that supporting the privet sections for ship chandelling business could have the best result in attracting ships.

Keywords: ship supplier, port selection, ship chandler, provision

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
84 Analysis of the Impact of Suez Canal on the Robustness of Global Shipping Networks

Authors: Zimu Li, Zheng Wan

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The Suez Canal plays an important role in global shipping networks and is one of the most frequently used waterways in the world. The 2021 canal obstruction by ship Ever Given in March 2021, however, completed blocked the Suez Canal for a week and caused significant disruption to world trade. Therefore, it is very important to quantitatively analyze the impact of the accident on the robustness of the global shipping network. However, the current research on maritime transportation networks is usually limited to local or small-scale networks in a certain region. Based on the complex network theory, this study establishes a global shipping complex network covering 2713 nodes and 137830 edges by using the real trajectory data of the global marine transport ship automatic identification system in 2018. At the same time, two attack modes, deliberate (Suez Canal Blocking) and random, are defined to calculate the changes in network node degree, eccentricity, clustering coefficient, network density, network isolated nodes, betweenness centrality, and closeness centrality under the two attack modes, and quantitatively analyze the actual impact of Suez Canal Blocking on the robustness of global shipping network. The results of the network robustness analysis show that Suez Canal blocking was more destructive to the shipping network than random attacks of the same scale. The network connectivity and accessibility decreased significantly, and the decline decreased with the distance between the port and the canal, showing the phenomenon of distance attenuation. This study further analyzes the impact of the blocking of the Suez Canal on Chinese ports and finds that the blocking of the Suez Canal significantly interferes withChina's shipping network and seriously affects China's normal trade activities. Finally, the impact of the global supply chain is analyzed, and it is found that blocking the canal will seriously damage the normal operation of the global supply chain.

Keywords: global shipping networks, ship AIS trajectory data, main channel, complex network, eigenvalue change

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
83 Investigation on the Performance of Biodiesel and Natural Gas-Fuelled Diesel Engines for Shipboard Application

Authors: Kelvin Datonye Bob-Manuel

Abstract:

The shipping industry has begun to seriously look at ways of reducing fossil fuel consumption so that current reserves can last longer and operate their ships in a more environmentally friendly way. The concept of Green Shipping or Sustainable Shipping with the use of alternative fuels is now becoming an important issue for ship owners, shipping lines and ship builders globally. This paper provides a critical review of the performance of biodiesel and natural gas-fuelled diesel engines for shipboard application. The emission reduction technique included the use of either neat or emulsified rapeseed methyl ester (RME) for pilot ignition and the emission of NOx, CO2 and SOx were measured at engine speed range of 500 - 1500 r/min. The NOx concentrations were compared with the regulated IMO MARPOL73/78, Annex VI, Tiers I, II, III and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) standard. All NOx emissions met Tier I and II levels and the EPA standard for the minimum specification of category 1 engines at higher speed but none met the MARPOL Tier III limit which is for designated Emission Control Areas (ECAs). No trace of soot and SOx emission were observed.

Keywords: dual-fuel, biodiesel, natural gas, NOx, SOx, MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI. USEPA Tier 3, EURO V &VI

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
82 Virtual Container Yard: A Paradigm Shift in Container Inventory Management

Authors: Lalith Edirisinghe, Zhihong Jin, A.W. Wijeratne, Hansa Edirisinghe, Lakshmi Ranwala Rashika Mudunkotuwa

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A paradigm shift in container inventory management (CIM) is a long-awaited industry need. Virtual container yard (VCY) is a concept developed in 2013 and its primary objective is to minimize shipping transport cost through implementing container exchange between carriers. Shipping lines always try to maintain lower container idle time and provide higher customer satisfaction. However, it is disappointing to note that carriers turn a blind eye to the escalating cost resulted from the present inefficient CIM mechanism. The cost of empty container management is simply transferred to the importers and exporters as freight adjustments. It also creates an environmental hazard. Therefore, it has now become a problem for the society. Therefore, a paradigm shift may be required as the present CIM system is not working for common interests of human beings as it should be.

Keywords: collaboation, inventory, shipping, virtual container yard

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
81 Mitigating the Cost of Empty Container Repositioning through the Virtual Container Yard: An Appraisal of Carriers’ Perceptions

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, Z. Jin, A. W. Wijeratne, R. Mudunkotuwa

Abstract:

Empty container repositioning is a fundamental problem faced by the shipping industry. The virtual container yard is a novel strategy underpinning the container interchange between carriers that could substantially reduce this ever-increasing shipping cost. This paper evaluates the shipping industry perception of the virtual container yard using chi-square tests. It examines if the carriers perceive that the selected independent variables, namely culture, organization, decision, marketing, attitudes, legal, independent, complexity, and stakeholders of carriers, impact the efficiency and benefits of the virtual container yard. There are two major findings of the research. Firstly, carriers view that complexity, attitudes, and stakeholders may impact the effectiveness of container interchange and may influence the perceived benefits of the virtual container yard. Secondly, the three factors of legal, organization, and decision influence only the perceived benefits of the virtual container yard. Accordingly, the implementation of the virtual container yard will be influenced by six key factors, namely complexity, attitudes, stakeholders, legal, organization and decision. Since the virtual container yard could reduce overall shipping costs, it is vital to examine the carriers’ perception of this concept.

Keywords: virtual container yard, imbalance, management, inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
80 Alternative Housing Solutions in Southern California

Authors: Scott Kelting, Lucas Nozick

Abstract:

The perpetually growing population and economy within the United States necessitates building construction of all types. Increased building generates environmental concerns, and rightfully so. This industry accounts for approximately 4% of the total GDP in the United States while creating around two-thirds of the material waste annually. The green building movement is certainly gaining popularity in both application and recognition through entities such as the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) and their LEED program; however, builders are also producing their ideas. Alternative housing solutions that include pre-fabricated building components and shipping container homes are making great strides in the residential construction industry, and will certainly play an important role in the future. This paper will compare the cost and schedule of modular, panelized and shipping container homes to traditional stick frame home construction in the Greater Los Angeles Metropolitan Area and recommend the best application for each option.

Keywords: cost, prefabricated, schedule, shipping container, stick framed

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
79 Analytic Hierarchy Process for the Container Terminal Choice from Multiple Terminals within the Port of Colombo

Authors: G. M. B. P. Abeysekara, W. A. D. C. Wijerathna

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Terminal choice from the multiple terminals region is not a simple decision and it is very complex, because shipping lines should consider on influential factors for the terminal choice at once according to their requirement. Therefore, terminal choice is a multiple criterion decision making (MCDM) situation under a specially designed decision hierarchy. Identification of perspective of shipping lines regarding terminal choice is vital important for the decision makers regarding container terminals. Thus this study is evaluated perception on main and feeder shipping lines’ regarding port of Colombo container terminals, and ranked terminals according to shipping lines preference. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model is adapted to this study, since it has features similar to the MCDM, it is weighted every influential factor by using pair wise comparisons, and consistency of the decision makers’ judgments are checked to evaluate trustworthiness of gathered data. And rating method is used to rank the terminals within Port of Colombo by assigning particular preference values with respect to the criteria and sub criteria. According to the findings of this study, main lines’ mainly concern on water depth of approach channel, depth of berth, handling charges and handling equipment facilities. And feeder lines’ main concerns were handling equipment facilities, loading and discharging efficiency, depth of berth and handling charges. Findings of the study suggested concentrating regarding the emphasized areas in order to enhance the competitiveness of terminals, and to increase number of vessel callings at the Port of Colombo. Application of above finding of the terminals within Port of Colombo lead to a far better competition among terminals and would uplift the overall level of services.

Keywords: AHP, Main and feeder shipping lines, criteria, sub criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
78 The Virtual Container Yard: Identifying the Persuasive Factors in Container Interchange

Authors: L. Edirisinghe, Zhihong Jin, A. W. Wijeratne, R. Mudunkotuwa

Abstract:

The virtual container yard is an effective solution to the container inventory imbalance problem which is a global issue. It causes substantial cost to carriers, which inadvertently adds to the prices of consumer goods. The virtual container yard is rooted in the fundamentals of container interchange between carriers. If carriers opt to interchange their excess containers with those who are deficit, a substantial part of the empty reposition cost could be eliminated. Unlike in other types of ships, cargo cannot be directly loaded to a container ship. Slots and containers are supplementary components; thus, without containers, a carrier cannot ship cargo if the containers are not available and vice versa. Few decades ago, carriers recognized slot (the unit of space in a container ship) interchange as a viable solution for the imbalance of shipping space. Carriers interchange slots among them and it also increases the advantage of scale of economies in container shipping. Some of these service agreements between mega carriers have provisions to interchange containers too. However, the interchange mechanism is still not popular among carriers for containers. This is the paradox that prevails in the liner shipping industry. At present, carriers reposition their excess empty containers to areas where they are in demand. This research applied factor analysis statistical method. The paper reveals that five major components may influence the virtual container yard namely organisation, practice and culture, legal and environment, international nature, and marketing. There are 12 variables that may impact the virtual container yard, and these are explained in the paper.

Keywords: virtual container yard, shipping, imbalance, management, inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
77 Pallet Tracking and Cost Optimization of the Flow of Goods in Logistics Operations by Serial Shipping Container Code

Authors: Dominika Crnjac Milic, Martina Martinovic, Vladimir Simovic

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The case study method in this paper shows the implementation of Information Technology (IT) and the Serial Shipping Container Code (SSCC) in a Croatian company that deals with logistics operations and provides logistics services in the cold chain segment. This company is aware of the sensitivity of the goods entrusted to them by the user of the service, as well as of the importance of speed and accuracy in providing logistics services. To that end, it has implemented and used the latest IT to ensure the highest standard of high-quality logistics services to its customers. Looking for efficiency and optimization of supply chain management, while maintaining a high level of quality of the products that are sold, today's users of outsourced logistics services are open to the implementation of new IT products that ultimately deliver savings. By analysing the positive results and the difficulties that arise when using this technology, we aim to provide an insight into the potential of this approach of the logistics service provider.

Keywords: logistics operations, serial shipping container code, information technology, cost optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
76 Communal Shipping Container Home Design for Reducing Homelessness in Glasgow

Authors: Matthew Brady

Abstract:

Lack of affordable housing for individuals has the potential to create gaps in society, which result in thousands of people facing homelessness every year in some of the worlds most affluent cities. This paper examines strategies for providing a more economic living environment for single occupants. Focusing on comparisons of successful examples reducing homeless populations around the world, with an emphasis on social inclusion and community living. Practically exploring the architectural considerations of ensuring a suitable living environment for multiple single occupancy residents, as well as selecting the appropriate materials to ensure costs are kept to manageable level for investment from local governments. The aim of this paper is to make some practical recommendations for low cost communal living space, with particular reference to recycled shipping container homes on a potential unused site on the River Clyde in Glasgow. Ideally, the suggestions and recommendations put forward in this paper can be replicable or used for reference in other similar situations. The proposal explored in this paper is sensitive towards addressing people's standard of living and adapting homes to match may be one solution to reducing the number of people being evicted from unaffordable homes as the generally upward global trend for urbanization continues.

Keywords: affordable housing, community living, shipping container, urban regeneration

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
75 Profile of Cortisol in Bali's Crossbreed Cows for 120 Hours Shipping Using Traditional Vessel

Authors: Hindar Panguji, Nichlah Rifqiyah, Irkham Widiono, Pudji Astuti

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Many transportations of livestock in Indonesia is still managed traditionally. Transportation involves several things that may cause stress, from a certain treatment or other factors, either externally or internally, that act as stressors. This study aimed to determine the profile of cortisol and IL-6 in female Bali breeding cattle transported for 120 hours using 100 GT traditional vessels with two floors and a capacity of 300-400 heads. Before transportation, all of the animals have got the vaccination. Blood samples from thirty cows were taken before transportation, during loading, during docking, and after transportation. ELISA method was used to analyze the concentration of cortisol and IL6. The averages of cortisol concentration before transportation, during loading, docking, and after transportation were 78.21±27.96 ng/mL, 90.78±30.91 ng/mL, 69.90±53.92 ng/mL and 69.34±32.03 ng/mL respectively. The average concentration of IL-6 before, during, docking and after transportation were 259.86±70.16 pg/mL, 315.41±64.21 pg/mL, 410.13±247.43 pg/mL dan 424.81±98.86 pg/mL. It was concluded there were no differences in cortisol concentrations and level of IL6 of each cow at different stages of transportation (p > 0.05) It would be possible that vaccination could reduce the fluctuation of cortisol.

Keywords: shipping, Bali's breed cows, vessel, cortisol, IL6

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
74 Use of Shipping Containers as Office Buildings in Brazil: Thermal and Energy Performance for Different Constructive Options and Climate Zones

Authors: Lucas Caldas, Pablo Paulse, Karla Hora

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Shipping containers are present in different Brazilian cities, firstly used for transportation purposes, but which become waste materials and an environmental burden in their end-of-life cycle. In the last decade, in Brazil, some buildings made partly or totally from shipping containers started to appear, most of them for commercial and office uses. Although the use of a reused container for buildings seems a sustainable solution, it is very important to measure the thermal and energy aspects when they are used as such. In this context, this study aims to evaluate the thermal and energy performance of an office building totally made from a 12-meter-long, High Cube 40’ shipping container in different Brazilian Bioclimatic Zones. Four different constructive solutions, mostly used in Brazil were chosen: (1) container without any covering; (2) with internally insulated drywall; (3) with external fiber cement boards; (4) with both drywall and fiber cement boards. For this, the DesignBuilder with EnergyPlus was used for the computational simulation in 8760 hours. The EnergyPlus Weather File (EPW) data of six Brazilian capital cities were considered: Curitiba, Sao Paulo, Brasilia, Campo Grande, Teresina and Rio de Janeiro. Air conditioning appliance (split) was adopted for the conditioned area and the cooling setpoint was fixed at 25°C. The coefficient of performance (CoP) of air conditioning equipment was set as 3.3. Three kinds of solar absorptances were verified: 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 of exterior layer. The building in Teresina presented the highest level of energy consumption, while the one in Curitiba presented the lowest, with a wide range of differences in results. The constructive option of external fiber cement and drywall presented the best results, although the differences were not significant compared to the solution using just drywall. The choice of absorptance showed a great impact in energy consumption, mainly compared to the case of containers without any covering and for use in the hottest cities: Teresina, Rio de Janeiro, and Campo Grande. This study brings as the main contribution the discussion of constructive aspects for design guidelines for more energy-efficient container buildings, considering local climate differences, and helps the dissemination of this cleaner constructive practice in the Brazilian building sector.

Keywords: bioclimatic zones, Brazil, shipping containers, thermal and energy performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
73 Multi-Period Supply Chain Design under Uncertainty

Authors: Amir Azaron

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In this research, a stochastic programming approach is developed for designing supply chains with uncertain parameters. Demands and selling prices of products at markets are considered as the uncertain parameters. The proposed mathematical model will be multi-period two-stage stochastic programming, which takes into account the selection of retailer sites, suppliers, production levels, inventory levels, transportation modes to be used for shipping goods, and shipping quantities among the entities of the supply chain network. The objective function is to maximize the chain’s net present value. In order to maximize the chain’s NPV, the sum of first-stage investment costs on retailers, and the expected second-stage processing, inventory-holding and transportation costs should be kept as low as possible over multiple periods. The effects of supply uncertainty where suppliers are unreliable will also be investigated on the efficiency of the supply chain.

Keywords: supply chain management, stochastic programming, multiobjective programming, inventory control

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72 Development of Database for Risk Assessment Appling to Ballast Water Managements

Authors: Eun-Chan Kim, Jeong-Hwan Oh, Seung-Guk Lee

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Billions of tones of ballast water including various aquatic organisms are being carried around the world by ships. When the ballast water is discharged into new environments, some aquatic organisms discharged with ballast water may become invasive and severely disrupt the native ecology. Thus, International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the Ballast Water Management Convention in 2004. Regulation A-4 of the convention states that a government in waters under their jurisdiction may grant exemptions to any requirements to ballast water management, but only when they are granted to a ship or ships on a voyage or voyages between specified ports or locations, or to a ship which operates exclusively between specified ports or locations. In order to grant exemptions, risk assessment should be conducted based on the guidelines for risk assessment developed by the IMO. For the risk assessment, it is essential to collect the relevant information and establish a database system. This paper studies the database system for ballast water risk assessment. This database consists of the shipping database, ballast water database, port environment database and species database. The shipping database has been established based on the data collected from the port management information system of Korea Government. For the ballast water database, ballast water discharge has only been estimated by the loading/unloading of the cargoes as the convention has not come into effect yet. The port environment database and species database are being established based on the reference documents, and existing and newly collected monitoring data. This database system has been approved to be a useful system, capable of appropriately analyzing the risk assessment in the all ports of Korea.

Keywords: ballast water, IMO, risk assessment, shipping, environment, species

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
71 Digitalized Cargo Coordination to Eliminate Emissions in the Shipping Ecosystem: A System Dynamical Approach

Authors: Henry Schwartz, Bogdan Iancu, Magnus Gustafsson, Johan Lilius

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The shipping sector generates significant amounts of carbon emissions on annual basis. The excess amount of carbon dioxide is harmful for both the environment and the society, and partly for that reason, there is acute interest to decrease the volume of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in shipping. The usage of the existing cargo carrying capacity can be maximized, and the share of time used in actual transportation operations could be increased if the whole transportation and logistics chain was optimized with the aid of information sharing done through a centralized marketplace and an information-sharing platform. The outcome of this change would be decreased carbon dioxide emission volumes produced per each metric ton of cargo transported by a vessel. Cargo coordination is a platform under development that matches the need for waterborne transportation services with the ships that operate at a given moment in time. In this research, the transition towards adopting cargo coordination is modelled with system dynamics. The model encompasses the complex supply-demand relationships of ship operators and cargo owners. The built scenarios predict the pace at which different stakeholders start using the digitalized platform and by doing so reduce the amount of annual CO2 emissions generated. To improve the reliability of the results, various sensitivity analyses considering the pace of transition as well as the overall impact on the environment (carbon dioxide emissions per amount of cargo transported) are conducted. The results of the study can be used to support investors and politicians in decision making towards more environmentally sustainable solutions. In addition, the model provides concepts and ideas for a wider discussion considering the paths towards carbon neutral transportation.

Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, energy efficiency, sustainable transportation, system dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
70 Benefits of Monitoring Acid Sulfate Potential of Coffee Rock (Indurated Sand) across Entire Dredge Cycle in South East Queensland

Authors: S. Albert, R. Cossu, A. Grinham, C. Heatherington, C. Wilson

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Shipping trends suggest increasing vessel size and draught visiting Australian ports highlighting potential challenges to port infrastructure and requiring optimization of shipping channels to ensure safe passage for vessels. The Port of Brisbane in Queensland, Australia has an 80 km long access shipping channel which vessels must transit 15 km of relatively shallow coffee rock (generic class of indurated sands where sand grains are bound within an organic clay matrix) outcrops towards the northern passage in Moreton Bay. This represents a risk to shipping channel deepening and maintenance programs as the dredgeability of this material is more challenging due to its high cohesive strength compared with the surrounding marine sands and potential higher acid sulfate risk. In situ assessment of acid sulfate sediment for dredge spoil control is an important tool in mitigating ecological harm. The coffee rock in an anoxic undisturbed state does not pose any acid sulfate risk, however when disturbed via dredging it’s vital to ensure that any present iron sulfides are either insignificant or neutralized. To better understand the potential risk we examined the reduction potential of coffee rock across the entire dredge cycle in order to accurately portray the true outcome of disturbed acid sulfate sediment in dredging operations in Moreton Bay. In December 2014 a dredge trial was undertaken with a trailing suction hopper dredger. In situ samples were collected prior to dredging revealed acid sulfate potential above threshold guidelines which could lead to expensive dredge spoil management. However, potential acid sulfate risk was then monitored in the hopper and subsequent discharge, both showing a significant reduction in acid sulfate potential had occurred. Additionally, the acid neutralizing capacity significantly increased due to the inclusion of shell fragments (calcium carbonate) from the dredge target areas. This clearly demonstrates the importance of assessing potential acid sulfate risk across the entire dredging cycle and highlights the need to carefully evaluate sources of acidity.

Keywords: acid sulfate, coffee rock, indurated sand, dredging, maintenance dredging

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
69 Time-Series Analysis of Port State Control Inspections for Tankers

Authors: Chien-Chung Yuan, Cunqiang Cai, Wu-Hsun Chung, Shu-Te Sung

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A tanker is a critical vessel used to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk in maritime shipping. However, it is more dangerous than other types of vessels. Port State Control (PSC) inspection is an important measure to ensure maritime safety when such vessels traveling between ports. However, the current inspection system lacks a useful tool to observe the inspections for tankers and to identify non-random instances in PSC inspections. This study collects the inspection records in Taiwan’s ports from 2015 to 2018 and utilizes run charts to map the PSC inspections for tankers in terms of deficiencies. Based on these time-series charts, several patterns of deficiencies are identified. The results demonstrate that run charts are a useful tool to observe how the PSC inspections for tankers are performed. Also, the charts can help port administrations to identify abnormal phenomena for further investigation. Furthermore, with valuable information from the analysis, port administrations can take proactive improvement measures to ensure the safety of tanker shipping.

Keywords: port state control, tanker, run chart, deficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
68 Uses and Manufacturing of Beech Corrugated Plywood

Authors: Prochazka Jiri, Beranek Tomas, Podlena Milan, Zeidler Ales

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The poster deals with the issue of ISO shipping containers’ sheathing made of corrugated plywood instead of traditional corrugated metal sheets. It was found that the corrugated plywood is a suitable material for the sheathing due to its great flexural strength perpendicular to the course of the wave, sufficient impact resistance, surface compressive strength and low weight. Three sample sets of different thicknesses 5, 8 and 10 mm were tested in the experiments. The tests have shown that the 5 cm corrugated plywood is the most suitable thickness for sheathing. Experiments showed that to increase bending strength at needed value, it was necessary to increase the weight of the timber only by 1.6%. Flat cash test showed that 5 mm corrugated plywood is sufficient material for sheathing from a mechanical point of view. Angle of corrugation was found as a very important factor which massively affects the mechanical properties. The impact strength test has shown that plywood is relatively tough material in direction of corrugation. It was calculated that the use of corrugated plywood sheathing for the containers can reduce the weight of the walls up to 75%. Corrugated plywood is also suitable material for web of I-joists and wide interior design applications.

Keywords: corrugated plywood, veneer, beech plywood, ISO shipping container, I-joist

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
67 Truck Scheduling Problem in a Cross-Dock Centre with Fixed Due Dates

Authors: Mohsen S. Sajadieha, Danyar Molavia

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In this paper, a truck scheduling problem is investigated at a two-touch cross-docking center with due dates for outbound trucks as a hard constraint. The objective is to minimize the total cost comprising penalty and delivery cost of delayed shipments. The sequence of unloading shipments is considered and is assumed that shipments are sent to shipping dock doors immediately after unloading and a First-In-First-Out (FIFO) policy is considered for loading the shipments. A mixed integer programming model is developed for the proposed model. Two meta-heuristic algorithms including genetic algorithm (GA) and variable neighborhood search (VNS) are developed to solve the problem in medium and large sized scales. The numerical results show that increase in due dates for outbound trucks has a crucial impact on the reduction of penalty costs of delayed shipments. In addition, by increase the due dates, the improvement in the objective function arises on average in comparison with the situation that the cross-dock is multi-touch and shipments are sent to shipping dock doors only after unloading the whole inbound truck.

Keywords: cross-docking, truck scheduling, fixed due date, door assignment

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
66 An Empirical Analysis of the Freight Forwarders’ Buying Behaviour: Implications for the Ocean Container Carriers

Authors: Peter Dzakah Fanam, Hong O. Nguyen, Stephen Cahoon

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The objective of this study is to explore the buying behavior of the freight forwarders and to evaluate how their buying decision affects the ocean container carriers’ market share. This study analysed the buying decisions of the freight forwarders and validated the process of stages that the freight forwarders’ pass through before choosing an ocean container carrier. Factor analysis was applied to data collected from 105 freight forwarding companies to unveil the influential factors the freight forwarders’ consider important when selecting an ocean container carrier. This study did not only analysed the buying behaviour of the freight forwarders but also unveiled the influential factors affecting the competitiveness of the ocean container carriers in their market share maximisation. Furthermore, the study have made a methodological contribution that helps in better understanding of the critical factors influencing the selection of the ocean container carriers from the freight forwarders’ perspective. The implications of the freight forwarders’ buying behaviour is important to the ocean container carriers because it have severe effect on the market share of the ocean container carriers and the percentage of customers they control within the liner shipping sector. The findings of this study will help the ocean container carriers to formulate relevant marketing strategies in attracting the freight forwarders in purchasing the liner shipping service.

Keywords: ocean carrier, freight forwarder, buying behaviour, influential factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
65 Determinants of Extra Charges for Container Shipments: A Case Study of Nexus Zone Logistics

Authors: Zety Shakila Binti Mohd Yusof, Muhammad Adib Bin Ishak, Hajah Fatimah Binti Hussein

Abstract:

The international shipping business is related to numerous controls or regulations of export and import shipments. It is costly and time consuming, and when something goes wrong or when the buyer or seller fails to comply with the regulations, it can result in penalties, delays, and unexpected costs etc. For the focus of this study, the researchers have selected a local forwarder that provides forwarding and clearance services, Nexus Zone Logistics. It was identified that this company currently has many extra costs to be paid including local and detention charges, which negatively impacts the flow of income and reduces overall stability. Two variables have been identified as factors of extra charges; loaded containers entering the port by exceeded closing time and late delivery of empty containers to the container yard. This study is a qualitative in nature and the secondary data collected was analyzed using self-administered observation. The findings of this study were covered by one selected case for each export and import shipment between July and December 2014. The data were analyzed using frequency analysis based on tables and graphs. The researcher recommends Nexus Zone Logistics impose a 1% deposit payment per container for each shipment (export and import) to its customers.

Keywords: international shipping, export and import, detention charges, container shipment

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64 Economic Effects of Maritime Environmental Legislation in the North and Baltic Sea Area: An Exploratory Sequential Mixed Methods Approach

Authors: Thea Freese

Abstract:

Environmental legislation to protect North and Baltic Sea areas from harmful vessel-source emissions has received increased political attention in recent years. Legislative measures are expected to show positive effects on the health of the marine environment and society. At the same time, compliance might increase the costs to industry and have effects on freight rates and volumes shipped with potential negative repercussions on the environment. Building on an exploratory sequential mixed methods approach, this research project will study the economic effects of maritime environmental legislation in two phases. In Phase I, exploratory in-depth interviews were conducted with 12 experts from various stakeholder groups aiming at identifying variables influencing the relationship between environmental legislation, freight rates and volumes shipped. Influencing factors like compliance, enforcement and modal shift were identified and studied. Phase II will comprise of a quantitative study conducted with the aim of verifying the theory build in Phase I and quantifying economic effects of rules on shipping pollution. Research in this field might inform policy-makers about determinants of behaviour of ship operators in the face of the law and might further the development of a comprehensive legal system for marine environmental protection. At the present stage of research, first tentative results from the qualitative phase may be examined and open research questions to be addressed in the quantitative phase as well as possible research designs for phase II may be discussed. Input from other researchers will be highly valuable at this point.

Keywords: clean shipping operations, compliance, maritime environmental legislation, maritime law and economics, mixed methods research, North and Baltic Sea area

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63 Transfer of Contractual Right of Suit Evidenced in Carriage Contract of Bill of Lading in Nigeria

Authors: Eunice Chiamaka Allen-Ngbale

Abstract:

Prior to bill of lading (BOL), merchants travelled along with their goods; then recorded the goods in the ship’s mates’ register; and finally started selling the goods while in transit by way of BOL, indicative that BOL is negotiable. Common law doctrine of privity of contract did not allow the transfer of right to sue to a non-party to the contract. This created hardship to cargo owners, which made many jurisdictions enact laws in this regard. Bill of Lading Act 1855 (BLA) was enacted in the United Kingdom, which applied as statute of general application under section 375 Merchant Shipping Act 1990 (MSA) in Nigeria; and conferred contractual rights of the suit on consignees and endorsees, but on the passing of ownership upon or by reason of such consignment or endorsement on the shipment of the goods simultaneously. The repeal of section 375 MSA by section 439 MSA 2007 created a lacuna, and the doctrine of privity of contract is the extant law in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to evaluate laws governing the transfer of the contractual right of suit to a third party under the bill of lading in Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study are to ascertain: (i) whether the extant law of common law doctrine of privity of the contract covers the transfer of the right of suit to the third party under the bill of lading in Nigeria; (ii) impediment(s) of the common law to transfer such right in Nigeria in the absence of any legislation; (iii) the level of applicability of the doctrine of privity of contract as it relates to transfer of the contractual right of suit to third party under the bill of lading in Nigeria; and (iv) whether to proffer possible suggestion on how to fill the lacuna left by the repeal of Merchant Shipping Act 1990. This work adopted a doctrinal approach with reliance on primary and secondary source materials. It finds that the common law doctrine of privity of contract in Nigeria is retrogressive. This work recommends for amendment of the relevant statute to cure this defect/lacuna like other commonwealth nations for best international practices.

Keywords: contract of carriage by sea, doctrine of privity of contract, lawful holder of bill of lading, third party right of suit

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
62 Operational Measures for Greenhouse Gas Reduction from Ships

Authors: Gorana Jelic Mrcelic

Abstract:

In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from ships, technical and operational measures can be used. Operational measures are easier and cheaper compared to technical measures, so are well recommended. One of the most cost-effective operational measure is fuel consumption. Fuel consumption can be reduced by various options but it sometimes needs investments in new equipment, new procedures and crew education. In order to implement operational measures in everyday procedures and routines on board, good understanding of the mechanisms by which these measures work is essential for the seamen.

Keywords: green shipping, gas emission reduction, operational measures, seamen

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
61 Solving the Transportation Problem for Warehouses and Dealers in Bangalore City

Authors: S. Aditya, K. T. Nideesh, N. Guruprasad

Abstract:

Being a subclass of linear programing problem, the Transportation Problem is a classic Operations Research problem where the objective is to determine the schedule for transporting goods from source to destination in a way that minimizes the shipping cost while satisfying supply and demand constraints. In this paper, we are representing the transportation problem for various warehouses along with various dealers situated in Bangalore city to reduce the transportation cost incurred by them as of now. The problem is solved by obtaining the Initial Basic feasible Solution through various methods and further proceeding to obtain optimal cost.

Keywords: NW method, optimum utilization, transportation problem, Vogel’s approximation method

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60 Benefits of Polish Accession to the European Union for Air Transport

Authors: D. Tloczynski

Abstract:

The main aim of this article is to present a balance of the decade of Polish air transport market in the European Union having taking into account selected entities of the aviation market. This article analyzes the functioning of the Polish air transport market after the Polish accession to the European Union. During the study two main areas were pointed: shipping activity and activity of the airports. The most important benefits of integration and the benefits of introducing of the open sky policy were indicated. The last part of the article presents the perspectives of development of air traffic.

Keywords: air transport, airports, development air transport, European Union, Poland

Procedia PDF Downloads 355