Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye

34 The Analysis of Exhaust Emission from Single Cylinder Non-Mobile Spark Ignition Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blend as Fuel

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Ogbevire Umukoro

Abstract:

In view of the prevailing pollution problems and its consequences on the environment, efforts are being made to lower the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the impact of ethanol-gasoline blend on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder non-mobile spark ignition engine was investigated. Gasoline was blended with 5 – 20% of ethanol sourced from the open market (bought off the shelf) in an interval of 5%. The results of the emission characteristics of the exhaust gas from the combustion of the ethanol-gasoline blends showed that increasing the percentage of ethanol in the blend decreased CO emission by between 2.12% and 52.29% and HC emissions by between12.14% and 53.24%, but increased CO2 and NOx emissions by between 25% to 56% and 59% to 60% respectively. E15 blend is preferred above other blends at no-load and across all the load variations. However its NOx emission was the highest when compared with other samples. This will negatively affect human health and the environment but this drawback can be remedied by adequate treatment with appropriate additives.

Keywords: blends, emission, ethanol, gasoline, spark ignition engine

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33 Comparative Effects of Convective Drying on the Qualities of Some Leafy Vegetables

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Samson A. Adeleye, Omojola Awogbemi

Abstract:

This paper reports an investigation of the comparative effects of drying on the quality of some leafy vegetables at three different temperatures namely: 50ᵒC, 60ᵒC and 70ᵒC. The vegetables investigated are spinach (Amaranthus cruentus); water leaf (Talinum triangulare); lettuce (Lactuca satuva); and fluted pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis). These vegetables are available in abundance during raining season and are commonly consumed by average Nigerians. A convective dryer was used for the drying process at the stipulated temperatures which were maintained with the aid of a thermostat. The vegetable samples after washing was cut into smaller sizes of 0.4 cm-0.5 cm and loaded into the drying cage of the convective dryer. The daily duration of the drying is six hours from 9:00 am to 3:00 pm. The dried samples were thereafter subjected to microbial and proximate analyses. The result of the tests shows that the microbial load decreases as the drying temperature increases. As temperature increases, the moisture content and carbohydrate of all the samples decreases while the crude fiber, ash and protein increases. Percentage fat content decreases as drying temperature increases with the exception of fluted pumpkin. The shelf life of the vegetable samples increase with drying temperature, Spinach has the lowest shelf life followed by Fluted Pumpkin, followed by lettuce while Water Leaf has the highest shelf life at the three drying temperatures of 50ᵒC, 60ᵒC and 70ᵒC respectively.

Keywords: convective drying, leafy vegetables, quality, shelf life

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32 Leveraging Remote Sensing Information for Drought Disaster Risk Management

Authors: Israel Ropo Orimoloye, Johanes A. Belle, Olusola Adeyemi, Olusola O. Ololade

Abstract:

With more than 100,000 orbits during the past 20 years, Terra has significantly improved our knowledge of the Earth's climate and its implications on societies and ecosystems of human activity and natural disasters, including drought events. With Terra instrument's performance and the free distribution of its products, this study utilised Terra MOD13Q1 satellite data to assess drought disaster events and its spatiotemporal patterns over the Free State Province of South Africa between 2001 and 2019 for summer, autumn, winter, and spring seasons. The study also used high-resolution downscaled climate change projections under three representative concentration pathways (RCP). Three future periods comprising the short (the 2030s), medium (2040s), and long term (2050s) compared to the current period are analysed to understand the potential magnitude of projected climate change-related drought. The study revealed that the year 2001 and 2016 witnessed extreme drought conditions where the drought index is between 0 and 20% across the entire province during summer, while the year 2003, 2004, 2007, and 2015 observed severe drought conditions across the region with variation from one part to the another. The result shows that from -24.5 to -25.5 latitude, the area witnessed a decrease in precipitation (80 to 120mm) across the time slice and an increase in the latitude -26° to -28° S for summer seasons, which is more prominent in the year 2041 to 2050. This study emphasizes the strong spatio-environmental impacts within the province and highlights the associated factors that characterise high drought stress risk, especially on the environment and ecosystems. This study contributes to a disaster risk framework to identify areas for specific research and adaptation activities on drought disaster risk and for environmental planning in the study area, which is characterised by both rural and urban contexts, to address climate change-related drought impacts.

Keywords: remote sensing, drought disaster, climate scenario, assessment

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31 Optimization of Solar Chimney Power Production

Authors: Olusola Bamisile, Oluwaseun Ayodele, Mustafa Dagbasi

Abstract:

The main objective of this research is to optimize the power produced by a solar chimney wind turbine. The cut out speed and the maximum possible production are considered while performing the optimization. Solar chimney is one of the solar technologies that can be used in rural areas at cheap cost. With over 50% of rural areas still yet to have access to electricity. The OptimTool in MATLAB is used to maximize power produced by the turbine subject to certain constraints. The results show that an optimized turbine produces about ten times the power of the normal turbine which is 111 W/h. The rest of the research discuss in detail solar chimney power plant and the optimization simulation used in this study.

Keywords: solar chimney, optimization, wind turbine, renewable energy systems

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30 Research Repository System (RRS) for Academics

Authors: Ajayi Olusola Olajide, O. Ojeyinka Taiwo, Adeolara Oluwawemimo Janet, Isheyemi Olufemi Gabriel, Lawal Muideen Adekunle

Abstract:

In an academic world where research work is the tool for promotion and elevation to higher cadres, the quest for a system that secure researchers’ work, monitor as well as alert researchers of pending academic research work, cannot be over-emphasized. This study describes how a research repository system for academics is designed. The invention further relates to a system for archiving any paperwork and journal that comprises of a database for storing all researches. It relates to a method for users to communicate through messages which will also allow reviewing all the messages. To create this research repository system, PHP and MySQL were married together for the system implementation.

Keywords: research, repository, academic, archiving, secure, system, implementation

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29 The Impact of Electronic Commerce on Organisational Efectiveness: A Study of Zenith Bank Plc

Authors: Olusola Abiodun Arinde

Abstract:

This research work was prompted by the very important role e-commerce plays in every organization, be it private or public. The underlying objective of this study is to have a critical appraisal of the extent to which e-commerce impacts on organizational effectiveness. This research was carried out using Zenith Bank Plc as a case study. Relevant data were collected through structured questionnaire, oral interview, journals, newspapers, and textbooks. The data collected were analyzed and hypotheses were tested. Based on the result of the hypotheses, it was observed that e-commerce is significant to every organization. Through e-commerce, fast services delivery would be guaranteed to customers, this would lead to higher productivity and profit for organizations. E-commerce should be managed in such a way that it does not alienate customers; it should also prevent enormous risks that are associated with e-commerce.

Keywords: e-commerce, fast service, productivity, profit

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28 Soccer Match Result Prediction System (SMRPS) Model

Authors: Ajayi Olusola Olajide, Alonge Olaide Moses

Abstract:

Predicting the outcome of soccer matches poses an interesting challenge for which it is realistically impossible to successfully do so for every match. Despite this, there are lots of resources that are being expended on the correct prediction of soccer matches weekly, and all over the world. Soccer Match Result Prediction System Model (SMRPSM) is a system that is proposed whereby the results of matches between two soccer teams are auto-generated, with the added excitement of giving users a chance to test their predictive abilities. Soccer teams from different league football are loaded by the application, with each team’s corresponding manager and other information like team location, team logo and nickname. The user is also allowed to interact with the system by selecting the match to be predicted and viewing of the results of completed matches after registering/logging in.

Keywords: predicting, soccer match, outcome, soccer, matches, result prediction, system, model

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27 Proposed Fault Detection Scheme on Low Voltage Distribution Feeders

Authors: Adewusi Adeoluwawale, Oronti Iyabosola Busola, Akinola Iretiayo, Komolafe Olusola Aderibigbe

Abstract:

The complex and radial structure of the low voltage distribution network (415V) makes it vulnerable to faults which are due to system and the environmental related factors. Besides these, the protective scheme employed on the low voltage network which is the fuse cannot be monitored remotely such that in the event of sustained fault, the utility will have to rely solely on the complaint brought by customers for loss of supply and this tends to increase the length of outages. A microcontroller based fault detection scheme is hereby developed to detect low voltage and high voltage fault conditions which are common faults on this network. Voltages below 198V and above 242V on the distribution feeders are classified and detected as low voltage and high voltages respectively. Results shows that the developed scheme produced a good response time in the detection of these faults.

Keywords: fault detection, low voltage distribution feeders, outage times, sustained faults

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26 A Feasibility Study of Replacing High Pressure Mercury Vapor and Sodium Vapor Lamp Street Lighting Bulbs with LEDs in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Authors: Olusola Olorunfemi Bamisile, Mustafa Dagbasi, Serkan Abbasoglu

Abstract:

Feasibility of an Energy Audit program is the main aim of this paper. LEDs are used to replace Sodium Vapor lamps and High Pressured Mercury Vapor lamps that are currently used for the street lighting system in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 44% of the fossil fuels imported into Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are used for electricity generation which makes the reduction in the consumption of electricity very important. This project will save as much as 40,206,210 kWh on site annually and 121,837,000 kWh can be saved from source. The economic environmental and fossil fuels saving of this project is also evaluated.

Keywords: energy conservation management, LEDs, sodium vapor, high pressure mercury vapor, life cycle costing

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25 Class-Size and Instructional Materials as Correlates of Pupils Learning and Academic Achievement in Primary School

Authors: Aanuoluwapo Olusola Adesanya, Adesina Joseph

Abstract:

This paper examined the class-size and instructional materials as correlates of pupils learning and academic achievement in primary school. The population of the study comprised 198 primary school pupils in three selected schools in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected through questionnaire and were analysed with the use of multiple regression and ANOVA to analysed the correlation between class-size, instructional materials (independent variables) and learning achievement (dependent variable). The findings revealed that schools having an average class-size of 30 and below with use of instructional materials obtained better results than schools having more than 30 and above. The main score were higher in the school in schools having 30 and below than schools with 30 and above. It was therefore recommended that government, stakeholders and NGOs should provide more classrooms and supply of adequate instructional materials in all primary schools in the state to cater for small class-size.

Keywords: class-size, instructional materials, learning, academic achievement

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24 Predicting the Effects of Counseling Psychology on the Sexual Risk Behavior of In-School Adolescents: Implication for National Development

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Adebayo Adeyinka Salako

Abstract:

The study adopted a descriptive research design. Two hundred (200) in-school adolescents were purposely selected in Afijio Local Government Area of Oyo State. Two hypotheses were also raised to pilot the study. The researchers developed an instrument which was validated by psychological experts, the instrument tagged counseling psychology and sexual risk behavior questionnaire (CPSRBQ)(r = 0.78). The results were analysed using t-test at 0.05 level of significance. The result showed that there is a significant relationship between counseling psychology and sexual risk behavior of in-school adolescents. It was also noticed that there is a significant difference in the sexual risk behavior of male and female adolescents. Based on the findings, it was recommended that more counselors are still needed in Nigeria schools. There is need for restructuring Nigeria Curriculum most especially on sex education and related diseases. Lastly, adolescents should be more exposed to seminars on HIV/AIDS, sex education enlightenment programmes and marital counseling.

Keywords: counseling psychology, sexual behavior, risk and adolescent, cognitive sciences

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23 Performance Analysis of Solar Assisted Air Condition Using Carbon Dioxide as Refrigerant

Authors: Olusola Bamisile, Ferdinard Dika, Mustafa Dagbasi, Serkan Abbasoglu

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to model an air conditioning system that brings about effective cooling and reduce fossil fuel consumption with solar energy as an alternative source of energy. The objective of the study is to design a system with high COP, low usage of electricity and to integrate solar energy into AC systems. A hybrid solar assisted air conditioning system is designed to produce 30kW cooling capacity and R744 (CO₂) is used as a refrigerant. The effect of discharge pressure on the performance of the system is studied. The subcool temperature, evaporating temperature (5°C) and suction gas return temperature (12°C) are kept constant for the four different discharge pressures considered. The cooling gas temperature is set at 25°C, and the discharge pressure includes 80, 85, 90 and 95 bars. Copeland Scroll software is used for the simulation. A pressure-enthalpy graph is also used to deduce each enthalpy point while numerical methods were used in making other calculations. From the result of the study, it is observed that a higher COP is achieved with the use of solar assisted systems. As much as 46% of electricity requirements will be save using solar input at compressor stage.

Keywords: air conditioning, solar energy, performance, energy saving

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22 Impact of Internal Control on Fraud Detection and Prevention: A Survey of Selected Organisations in Nigeria

Authors: Amos Olusola Akinola

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal control system on fraud prevention in Nigerian business organizations. A survey research was undertaken in five organizations from the banking and manufacturing sectors in Nigeria using the simple random sampling technique and primary data was obtained with the aid structured questionnaire drawn on five likert’s scale. Four Hypotheses were formulated and tested using the T-test Statistics, Correlation and Regression Analysis at 95% confidence interval. It was discovered that internal control has a significant positive relationship with fraud prevention and that a weak internal control system permits fraudulent activities among staff. Based on the findings, it was recommended that organizations should continually and methodically review and evaluate the components of its internal control system whether activities are working as planned or not and that every organization should have pre-determined guidelines for conducting its operations and ensures compliance with these set guidelines while proactive steps should be taken to establish the independence of the internal audit by making the audit reportable to the governing council of an organization and not the chief executive officer.

Keywords: internal control, internal system, internal audit, fraud prevention, fraud detection

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21 Perceived Effect of Livelihood Diversification on the Welfare of Rural Households in Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Oladipo Joseph Ajayi, Yakubu Muhammed, Raufu Olusola Sanusi

Abstract:

This study determined the perceived effect of livelihood diversification on welfare of rural household in Niger state, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted for sampling the respondents. Data used for the study were obtained from primary source. Structured questionnaire with interview schedule was administered to 180 randomly selected rural farmers in the study area. Descriptive statistics analysis and z-test statistics were used to analyse the data collected. The study revealed the mean age of the household to be 43 years, mean years of schooling was 8.5, mean household size was 6 people, mean farming experience of 17.5 years and mean farm size of 1.8 hectares. The effect of livelihood diversification revealed that livelihood diversification had positive and significant effect on food security (65.6%) and income generation (66.8%) in the study area. The major constraints to diversification in the study area were poor infrastructure, unavailability of credit and climatic risk and uncertainty. The study, therefore, recommended that rural household should be sensitised to diversify their income source into non-farm activities.

Keywords: income, livelihood diversification , rural household, welfare

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20 Effect of Varying Stocking Densities and Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Supplementation on Growth Performance of Japanese Quails

Authors: T. S. Olugbemi, T. S. Friday, O. O. Olusola

Abstract:

This experiment was carried out to assess the effect of different stocking densities and vitamin C supplementation on the performance of Japanese quails. Five hundred and twenty (520) unsexed quail birds of two (2) weeks of age were allotted randomly into nine (9) groups with 3 replicates each in a 3x3 factorial arrangement (3 stocking density levels and 3 graded vitamin C levels) with densities of 150, 120, 90 cm2/bird(11, 16, 21 birds). During the five weeks growing trial (2- 6 weeks), results showed that stocking density had significant effects on final weight (131.59g compared to 111.10g for the lowest), total and daily weight gain. No significance difference was observed for feed conversion ratio, age at first lay and first egg weight. Observations on haematological parameters (packed cell volume (PCV), total protein (TP), haemoglobin, red blood cell (RBC), lymphocyte, heterophil) on stocking density showed no significant differences. Vitamin C supplementation at 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg did not have any significant effect on the growth performance parameters of growing quails. Stocking density at 150cm2/bird had a better performance with or without vitamin C supplementation hence it is recommended that stocking rates of quails between the ages of 2 – 6 weeks should not be below 150cm2/bird.

Keywords: anti-oxidants, performance, stress, stocking density

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19 Allelopathic Effect of Duranta Repens on Salinity-Stressed Solanum Lycopersicum Seedlings

Authors: Olusola Nafisat Omoniyi

Abstract:

Aqueous extract of Duranta repens leaves was investigated for its allelopathic effect on Solanum lycopersicum Seedlings germinated and grown under salinity condition. The study was carried out using both laboratory petri dish and pot assays to simulate the plant’s natural environmental conditions. The experiment consisted of 5 groups (1-5), each containing 5 replicates (of 10 seeds). Group 1 was treated with distilled water; Group 2 was treated with 5 mM NaCl; Group 3 was treated with the Extract, Group 4 was treated with a mixture of 5 mM NaCl and the Extract (2:1 v/v), and Group 5 was treated with a mixture of 5 mM NaCl and the Extract (1:2 v/v). The results showed that treatment with NaCl caused significant reductions in germination, growth parameters (plumule and radicle lengths), and chlorophyll concentration of S. lycopersicum seedlings when compared to those treated with D. rupens aqueous leaf extract. Salinity also caused an increase in malondialdehyde and proline concentrations and lowered the activity of superoxide dismutase. However, in the presence of the extract, the adverse effects of the NaCl were attenuated, implying that the extract improved tolerance of S. lycopersicum seedlings. In conclusion, the findings of this study show that the extract is very important in the optimal growth of the plant in saline soil, which has become useful for the management of soil salinity problems.

Keywords: agriculture, allelopathic, salinity, soil, tomato, production, photosynthesis

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18 Athlete’s Preparation and Quality of Opponent as Determinants of Self-Efficacy among University Athletes in South-West Nigeria

Authors: Raimi Abiodun Moronfolu, Anthonia Olusola Moronfolu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to assess athlete’s preparation and quality of opponent as determinants of self-efficacy among university athletes in south-west Nigeria. The descriptive research method was employed in conducting the study. A total of 200 athletes, selected from 4 universities in South-West geopolitical zone of Nigeria through a stratified random sampling technique, were used in the study. The instrument used for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire named ‘Athletes Self-Efficacy Assessment Questionnaire (ASAQ)’. This was developed by the researchers and face validated by three experts in sports psychology. The test-retest method was used in establishing the reliability of the instrument (r=0.79). A total of 200 copies of the validated ASAQ were administered on selected respondents using the spot method. The data collected was used to develop a frequency distribution table for analysis. The descriptive statistics of percentage was used in presenting the data collected, while inferential statistics of linear regression was used in drawing inferences at a 0.05 level of significance. The findings indicated that athlete’s preparation and quality of opponent were significant determinants of self-efficacy among university athletes in South-West Nigeria.

Keywords: athletes, preparation, opponent, self-efficacy

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17 The Trend and Implementation of Bargaining Agreements at University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape, South Africa 2012 to 2016

Authors: Olusola Olasupo, E. O. C. Ijeoma

Abstract:

The University of Fort Hare and the National Education Health and Allied Workers Union (NEHAWU), the registered labor union at the University recognizes the significance of collective bargaining. This prompted both parties to enter into agreement with the notion to strengthening the relationship between them. The agreement was therefore entered into between NEHAWU representing the employees and the University. The agreement was signed on August 31st, 2005. The study adopting historical research method reveals the trend and implementation of bargaining agreements at University of Fort Hare from 2012 to 2016. This study examines how the implementation of bargaining agreement is utilized to solve labor related challenges and also improve on employee’s wages and conditions of service thereby strengthening the relationship between the management and employees at University of Fort Hare. The study contributes to knowledge on the effects of the implementation of bargaining agreement on wages and other conditions of service leading to harmonious relationship between the Staff and the management towards the effective administration of the University of Fort Hare. Findings reveal that ever since 2005 when the agreement was reached, University of Fort Hare and NEHAWU have been committed to improving the employees’ wages through substantive agreement. The study concludes by recommending a more effective implementation of bargaining agreement at University of Fort Hare.

Keywords: agreement, bargaining, implementation, trend

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16 Exploring Challenges Faced by Small Business Owners on Poverty Reduction in Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Akinwale Olusola Mokayode, Emaanuel Adu, Seriki Idowu Ibrahim

Abstract:

Small business can serve as a tool for poverty reduction in South Africa, but it requires adequate support and development for its continuous sustenance in spite of rigorous challenges, especially in the rural environment. This study explored the challenges faced by the small business owners in the rural Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The objective of the study is to identify the challenges faced by small business owners in the case study area and to examine the effects of those challenges on poverty rate. Survey research design was adopted, with the distribution of structured questionnaire for data collection through a simple random sampling method. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse the data. Findings showed that small business owners face various challenges in their commercial operations. It was also made clearer that these challenges have effects on the poverty rate as well as crime rate. In conclusion, in other for small businesses to be effective instrument to tackle poverty, certain measure must be taken into considerations. This therefore necessitates recommendation from the researcher that potential and current business owners must seek valuable advice from the more experienced business tycoon and seek information about the business assistance programmes provided by government and private sectors.

Keywords: eastern cape, poverty, poverty reduction, rural, small business, sustainable livelihood

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15 Impacts of Teachers’ Cluster Model Meeting Intervention on Pupils’ Learning, Academic Achievement and Attitudinal Development in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

Abstract:

Efforts at improving the falling standard of education in the country call for the need-based assessment of the primary tier of education in Nigeria. Teachers’ cluster meeting intervention is a step towards enhancing the teachers’ professional competency, efficient and effective pupils’ academic achievement and attitudinal development. The study thus determined the impact of the intervention on pupils’ achievement in Oyo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. Pre-test, post-test control group, quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. Eight intact classes from eight different schools were randomly selected into treatment and control groups. Two response instruments, pupils academic achievement test (PAAT; r = 0.87) and pupils attitude to lesson scale (PALS; r = 0.80) were used for data collection. Mean, standard deviation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyse the collected data. The results showed that the teachers’ cluster meeting have significant impact on pupils academic achievement (F (1,327) =41.79; p<0.05) and attitudinal development (F (1,327) =26.01; p<0.05) in the core subjects of primary schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study therefore recommended among others that teachers’ cluster meeting should be sustained for teachers’ professional development and pupils’ upgradement in the State.

Keywords: teachers’ cluster meeting, pupils’ academic achievement, pupils’ attitudinal development, academic achievement

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14 Gender Difference in Social Interaction Skills of Autism Using Token Economy and Video Modelling Strategies

Authors: Olusola Akintunde Adediran

Abstract:

This study examined differential effect of Gender difference in social interaction skill of pupils with autism using token economy and video modeling as intervention strategies. A pretest, posttest, control group, quasi-experimental research design was adopted in the study. 17 participants (11 males and 6 females) were selected purposively from 5 centres in Ibadan and randomized into three groups (token economy, video modeling and control groups). Two instruments were used in the study; Autism Spectrum Rating Scale (ASRS) for 299.00 Autistic Disorder (r = 0.82) and Children’s Self-report Social Skill Scale (CS4) (r= 0.93). A descriptive statistics was used to analyse the participants social interaction data based on intervention and gender, while inferential statistics of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and scheffe post-hoc measure was used to anlayse three null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The results obtained indicated that there was a significant main effect of treatment on social interaction of participants, but there was no significant of main effect of gender on the social interaction of participants, hence, (F(2,14) = .741; p > .05, eta = .050). Lastly, there was no significant interaction effect of treatment and gender of the participants, hence (F(2,10) = 2.177; p > .05, eta 2 = 202). The study has contributed to the frontiers of knowledge by establishing that social interaction of autism is attainable when token economy and video modelling are used as treatment intervention, hence, they should be adopted by the teachers, curriculum planners and other stakeholders.

Keywords: social interaction, token economy, video modelling, autism, gender

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13 Saponins from the Fruits of Solanum anguivi Reverse Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia and Increase Antioxidant Status in Stretozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo, Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti

Abstract:

This work investigated the antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of saponins from the fruit of Solanum anguivi, a plant generally used in folk medicine to treat diabetes and hypertension and to compare its effect with metformin in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of STZ (65 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Saponin (40 and 100 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage once daily for 21 days. Metformin (200 mg/kg b.w.) was administered as the positive control. The effect of saponin on blood glucose, serum lipids and enzymatic antioxidants defense systems, like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), as well as MDA levels in serum, liver and pancreas were studied. Saponins from S. anguivi fruits reduced the blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in STZ-diabetic rats. They also significantly abolished the increase in MDA level in serum, liver and pancreas of diabetic rats. The activities of SOD and CAT in serum, liver and pancreas were significantly increased as well as concentration of HDL in the serum. Metformin had the same effect as saponin but saponins seems to be more potent in reducing serum TC, TG, LDL, and MDA, and increasing SOD and CAT. Conclusions: These results suggest that saponins from S. anguivi fruits have anti-diabetic and antihypercholesterolemic, antihypertriglyceridemic antiperoxidative activities mediated through their antioxidant properties. Also, saponins appeared to have more hypolipidemic, antiperoxidative and antioxidant activity than metformin.

Keywords: saponin, diabetes, metformin, streptozotocin, Solanum anguivi

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12 The Post-Colonial Yoruba Poets as Agents of Political and Economic Emancipation in Nigeria

Authors: Isaac Alonge Olusola

Abstract:

One of the major peculiarities of man is the ability to communicate and interact with language. The original Yoruba society, before the advent of the Europeans, was purely oral. That is the major means of inter- personal communication was through speaking. The abolition of slave trade by Britain marked the beginning of development of Yoruba alphabet and introduction of writing around 1800. However, most of the writing was Christian religion-focused. Later, the introduction of British colonial rule led to the introduction of writing that dwelt on political and economic emancipation. On October 1, 1960, Nigeria was granted independence by the British colonial masters and self-rule started in Nigeria. Unfortunately, the military and civilian administrations brought about political and economic oppression instead of comfort. The discomfort brought about by Nigerian political and military rulers turned the Yoruba poets to activists, reactionaries and critics. This paper will give a brief preamble on the history of Nigeria and how she got her political independence from the British in 1960. It will thereafter go further to mention some political and economic hardship brought about by Nigerian leaders. Using literary theories called semiotics and structuralism, the reactions and criticisms of some Yoruba poets will be mentioned and analyzed vis-à-vis the counter reactions of the governments in power. Moreover, the paper will bring about a conclusion on how to create a conducive atmosphere for the Yoruba poets to operate in Nigeria. Finally, suggestions will be offered on how the Nigerian government and Yoruba poets can co-exist positively to bring about a better standard of living to Nigerians and also promote good governance

Keywords: Yoruba, Yoruba language, Yoruba poets, political leaders

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11 Automated Distribution System Management: Substation Remote Diagnostic and Operation Solution for Obafemi Awolowo University

Authors: Aderonke Oluseun Akinwumi, Olusola A. Komolaf

Abstract:

This paper gives information about the wide array of challenges facing both the electric utilities and consumers in the distribution system in developing countries, using Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria as a case study. It also proffers cost-effective solution through remote monitoring, diagnostic and operation of distribution networks without compromising the system reliability. As utilities move from manned and unintelligent networks to completely unmanned smart grids, switching activities at substations and feeders will be managed and controlled remotely by dedicated systems hence this design. The Substation Remote Diagnostic and Operation Solution (sRDOs) would remotely monitor the load on Medium Voltage (MV) and Low Voltage (LV) feeders as well as distribution transformers and allow the utility disconnect non-paying customers with absolutely no extra resource deployment and without interrupting supply to paying customers. The aftermath of the implementation of this design improved the lifetime of key distribution infrastructure by automatically isolating feeders during overload conditions and more importantly erring consumers. This increased the ratio of revenue generated on electricity bills to total network load.

Keywords: electric utility, consumers, remote monitoring, diagnostic, system reliability, manned and unintelligent networks, unmanned smart grids, switching activities, medium voltage, low voltage, distribution transformer

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10 Phyllantus nuriri Protect against Fe2+ and SNP Induced Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Rich Fractions of Rats Brain

Authors: Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti, Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo, Joao Batista Teixeira Rocha

Abstract:

We evaluated the potential neuroprotective effect of Phyllantus nuriri against Fe2+ and SNP induced oxidative stress in mitochondria of rats brain. Cellular viability was assessed by MTT reduction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured using the probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Glutathione content was measured using dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB). Fe2+ (10µM) and SNP (5µM) significantly decreased mitochondrial activity, assessed by MTT reduction assay, in a dose-dependent manner, this occurred in parallel with increased glutathione oxidation, ROS production and lipid peroxidation end-products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS). The co-incubation with methanolic extract of Phyllantus nuriri (10-100 µg/ml) reduced the disruption of mitochondrial activity, gluthathione oxidation, ROS production as well as the increase in TBARS levels caused by both Fe2+ and SNP in a dose dependent manner. HPLC analysis of the extract revealed the presence of gallic acid (20.54±0.01), caffeic acid (7.93±0.02), rutin (25.31±0.05), quercetin (31.28±0.03) and kaemferol (14.36±0.01). This result suggests that these phytochemicals account for the protective actions of Phyllantus nuriri against Fe2+ and SNP -induced oxidative stress. Our results show that Phyllantus nuriri consist important bioactive molecules in the search for an improved therapy against the deleterious effects of Fe2+, an intrinsic producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), that leads to neuronal oxidative stress and neurodegeneration.

Keywords: Phyllantus niruri, neuroprotection, oxidative stress, mitochondria, synaptosome

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9 The Techno-Economic Comparison of Solar Power Generation Methods for Turkish Republic of North Cyprus

Authors: Mustafa Dagbasi, Olusola Bamisile, Adii Chinedum

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to examine and compare the economic and environmental feasibility of 40MW photovoltaic (PV) power plant and 40MW parabolic trough (PT) power plant to be installed in two different cities, namely Nicosia and Famagusta in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). The need for using solar power technology around the world is also emphasized. Solar radiation and sunshine data for Nicosia and Famagusta are considered and analyzed to assess the distribution of solar radiation, sunshine duration, and air temperature. Also, these two different technologies with same rated power of 40MW will be compared with the performance of the proposed Solar Power Plant at Bari, Italy. The project viability analysis is performed using System Advisor Model (SAM) through Annual Energy Production and economic parameters for both cities. It is found that for the two cities; Nicosia and Famagusta, the investment is feasible for both 40MW PV power plant and 40MW PT power plant. From the techno-economic analysis of these two different solar power technologies having same rated power and under the same environmental conditions, PT plants produce more energy than PV plant. It is also seen that if a PT plant is installed near an existing steam turbine power plant, the steam from the PT system can be used to run this turbine which makes it more feasible to invest. The high temperatures that are used to produce steam for the turbines in the PT plant system can be supplemented with a secondary plant based on natural gas or other biofuels and can be used as backup. Although the initial investment of PT plant is higher, it has higher economic return and occupies smaller area compared to PV plant of the same capacity.

Keywords: solar power, photovoltaic plant, parabolic trough plant, techno-economic analysis

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8 Efficacy of Teachers' Cluster Meetings on Teachers' Lesson Note Preparation and Teaching Performance in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Olusola Joseph Adesina, Sunmaila Oyetunji Raimi, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

Abstract:

The quality of education and the standard of a nation cannot rise above the quality of the teacher (NPE, 2004). Efforts at improving the falling standard of education in the country call for the need-based assessment of the primary tier of education in Nigeria. It was revealed that the teachers’ standard of performance and pupils’ achievement was below average. Teachers’ cluster meeting intervention was therefore recommended as a step towards enhancing the teachers’ professional competency, efficient and effective proactive and interactive lesson presentation. The study thus determined the impact of the intervention on teachers’ professional performance (lesson note preparation and teaching performance) in Oyo State, Nigeria. The main and interaction effects of the gender of the teachers as moderator variable were also determined. Three null hypotheses guided the study. Pre-test, posttest control group quazi experimental design was adopted for the study. Three hundred intact classes from three hundred different schools were randomly selected into treatment and control groups. Two response instruments-Classroom Lesson Note Preparation Checklist (CLNPC; r = 0.89) Cluster Lesson Observation Checklist (CLOC; r = 0.86) were used for data collection. Mean, Standard deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used to analyse the collected data. The results showed that the teachers’ cluster meeting have significant impact on teachers’ lesson note preparation (F(1,295) = 31.607; p < 0.05; η2 = .097) and teaching performance (F(1,295) = 20.849; p < 0.05; η2 = .066) in the core subjects of primary schools in Oyo State, Nigeria. The study therefore recommended among others that teachers’ cluster meeting should be sustained for teachers’ professional development in the State.

Keywords: teachers’ cluster meeting, teacher lesson note preparation, teaching performance, teachers’ gender, primary schools in Oyo state

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7 A Review of Teaching and Learning of Mother Tongues in Nigerian Schools; Yoruba as a Case Study

Authors: Alonge Isaac Olusola

Abstract:

Taking a cue from countries such as China and Japan, there is no doubt that the teaching and learning of Mother Tongue ( MT) or Language of Immediate Environment (LIE) is a potential source of development in every country. The engine of economic, scientific, technological and political advancement would be more functional when the language of instruction for teaching and learning in schools is in the child’s mother tongue. The purpose of this paper therefore, is to delve into the genesis of the official recognition given to the teaching and learning of Nigerian languages at national level with special focus on Yoruba language. Yoruba language and other Nigerian languages were placed on a national pedestal by a Nigerian Educational Minister, Late Professor Babatunde Fafunwa, who served under the government of General Ibrahim Babangida (1985 – 1993). Through his laudable effort, the teaching and learning of Nigerian languages in schools all over the nation was incorporated officially in the national policy of education. Among all the Nigerian languages, Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba were given foremost priorities because of the large population of their speakers. Since the Fafunwa era, Yoruba language has become a national subject taught in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in Nigeria. However, like every new policy, its implementation has suffered several forms of criticisms and impediments from governments, policy makers, curriculum developers, school administrators, teachers and learners. This paper has been able to arrive at certain findings through oral interviews, questionnaires and evaluation of pupils/students enrolment and performances in Yoruba language with special focus on the South-west and North central regions of Nigeria. From the research carried out, some factors have been found to be responsible for the successful implementation or otherwise of Yoruba language instruction policy in some schools, colleges and higher institutions in Nigeria. In conclusion, the paper made recommendations on how the National Policy of Education would be implemented to enhance the teaching and learning of Yoruba language in all Nigerian schools.

Keywords: language of immediate environment, mother tongue, national policy of education, yoruba language

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6 Intestacy and Business Continuity among Entrepreneurs in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Igbekoyi Olusola Esther, Olurankinse Felix

Abstract:

This paper examined the factors that militate against Will writing among entrepreneurs in Ondo State Nigeria and the effect of intestate death on business continuity after the exit of the entrepreneurs. The paper was written with a view to providing information on the reasons why intestate death is common among entrepreneurs in Ondo State and the effects on continuity of business after death of the initial owners. Data were obtained from primary source through the administration of questionnaires to entrepreneurs drawn from 50 registered manufacturing companies. These companies have been in existence for a minimum of 10 years with minimum staff strength of 20 workers each. These companies were selected using the purposive random sampling technique in order to capture firms that meet the requirements of this paper. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square and regression analysis. The findings of the paper revealed that administration of Will, traditional beliefs, Will execution procedures, age and non- admissibility of Wills in court are the major factors that militates against Will writing among entrepreneurs in Ondo State. It was also discovered that chaos and instability in business, reduction in sales and productivity, poor succession planning, polygamous nature of marriages, difficulty in sourcing for funds and gender preference are joint predictors of business continuity in event intestate death which is evident in the result where R2 =.954;(F 6, 26)= 89.644; (P < 0.01). The individual beta co-efficient, t- statistics and significance of each variable revealed that gender preference (.735; 7.031; .000) and poor succession plan (.402; 2.840; .009) have significant positive effect on business continuity; while reduction in sales and productivity (-.059; -.335; .740) and difficulty in sourcing for funds (-.217; -1.367; .188) have negative effect; other variables also have positive relationship but they are not significant. It is therefore concluded that business continuity after the exit of the entrepreneur is highly dependent on the rebuilding of confidence on Wills administration in ondo state Nigeria, proper succession planning and elimination of gender preferences.

Keywords: intestacy, business continuity, entrepreneurs, will, succession planning

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5 Agricultural Cooperative Model: A Panacea for Economic Development of Small Scale Business Famers in Ilesha, Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Folasade Adegbaju, Olusola Arowolo, Olufisayo Onawumi

Abstract:

Owolowo ile – ege garri processing industry which is a small scale cassava processing industry, located in Ilesha, Osun State was purposively selected as a case study because it is a cooperative business. This industry was established in 1991 by eight men (8) who were mostly retirees. A researcher made questionnaire was used to collect information from thirty (30) respondents: the manager, four official staffs and 25 randomly selected processors in the industry. The study found that within twelve years of the utilization of their self raised initial capital of N240, 000 naira (Two hundred and forty thousand naira) this cassava – based industry had impacted on and attracted the involvement of many more people because within the period of the study (i.e. 2007-2011) the processors had quadrupled in number (e.g. 8 to 30), the facilities (equipment) in use had increased from one machine and a frying pot to many, this translated into being able to produce large quantities of fried garri, fufu and also starch for marketing to the people in Ilesha and neighbouring cities like Ibadan, Lagos, etc. This is indicative of economic growth. The industry also became a source of employment for community members in the sense that, as at the time of study four staffs were employed to work and coordinate the industry. It was observed that despite all odds of small-scale industry and the problem of people migrating from rural to urban area, this agro-based industry still existed successfully in the community, and many of such industry can be replicated by such agricultural cooperative groups nationwide so as to further boost the productivity as well as the economy of the area and nation at large. However, government and individual still have major roles to play in ensuring the growth and development of the nation in this respect.The local agricultural cooperative groups should form regional cooperative consortium with more networking for the farmers, in order to create more jobs for the young ones and to increase agricultural productivity in the country thus resulting in a better and more sustainable economy.

Keywords: agricultural cooperative, cassava processing industry, model, small scale enterprise

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