Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2049

Search results for: infrared radiation

2049 Cooling of Exhaust Gases Emitted Into the Atmosphere as the Possibility to Reduce the Helicopter Radiation Emission Level

Authors: Mateusz Paszko, Mirosław Wendeker, Adam Majczak


Every material body that temperature is higher than 0K (absolute zero) emits infrared radiation to the surroundings. Infrared radiation is highly meaningful in military aviation, especially in military applications of helicopters. Helicopters, in comparison to other aircraft, have much lower flight speeds and maneuverability, which makes them easy targets for actual combat assets like infrared-guided missiles. When designing new helicopter types, especially for combat applications, it is essential to pay enormous attention to infrared emissions of the solid parts composing the helicopter’s structure, as well as to exhaust gases egressing from the engine’s exhaust system. Due to their high temperature, exhaust gases, egressed to the surroundings are a major factor in infrared radiation emission and, in consequence, detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. Protection of the helicopter in flight from early detection, tracking and finally destruction can be realized in many ways. This paper presents the analysis of possibilities to decrease the infrared radiation level that is emitted to the environment by helicopter in flight, by cooling exhaust in special ejection-based coolers. The paper also presents the concept 3D model and results of numeric analysis of ejective-based cooler cooperation with PA-10W turbine engine. Numeric analysis presented promising results in decreasing the infrared emission level by PA W-3 helicopter in flight.

Keywords: exhaust cooler, helicopter propulsion, infrared radiation, stealth

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2048 Visualization of Latent Sweat Fingerprints Deposit on Paper by Infrared Radiation and Blue Light

Authors: Xiaochun Huang, Xuejun Zhao, Yun Zou, Feiyu Yang, Wenbin Liu, Nan Deng, Ming Zhang, Nengbin Cai


A simple device termed infrared radiation (IR) was developed for rapid visualization of sweat fingerprints deposit on paper with blue light (450 nm, 11 W). In this approach, IR serves as the pretreatment device before the sweat fingerprints was illuminated by blue light. An annular blue light source was adopted for visualizing latent sweat fingerprints. Sample fingerprints were examined under various conditions after deposition, and experimental results indicate that the recovery rate of the latent sweat fingerprints is in the range of 50%-100% without chemical treatments. A mechanism for the observed visibility is proposed based on transportation and re-impregnation of fluorescer in paper at the region of water. And further exploratory experimental results gave the full support to the visible mechanism. Therefore, such a method as IR-pretreated in detecting latent fingerprints may be better for examination in the case where biological information of samples is needed for consequent testing.

Keywords: forensic science, visualization, infrared radiation, blue light, latent sweat fingerprints, detection

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2047 The Microwave and Far Infrared Spectra of Acetaldehyde-d1 in vt=2

Authors: A. Larrousi, M. Elkeurti, K. Amara, M. Zemouli, L. H. Coudert, I. R. Medvedev, F. C. De Lucia, Atsuko Maeda, R. W. C. McKellar, D. Appadoo


Experimental and theoretical investigations of the microwave and far infrared spectra of CH3COD are reported. Two hundred twelve lines were identified in the far infrared spectrum recorded using the Canadian synchrotron radiation light source. Two thousand one hundred and sixty-eight lines in vt=0,1 and 216 in vt=2 have been measured in the microwave spectrum obtained using the fast scan submillimeter spectroscopic technique. A global analysis of the new data and of already available microwave lines has been carried out and yielded values for rotation–torsion parameters. The unitless weighted standard deviation of the fit is 1.6. 46 parameters and 216 lines were identified.

Keywords: CH3COD, torsion, the microwave spectra, far infrared spectra high resolution

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2046 Device for Mechanical Fragmentation of Organic Substrates Before Methane Fermentation

Authors: Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski


This publication presents a device designed for mechanical fragmentation of plant substrate before methane fermentation. The device is equipped with a perforated rotary cylindrical drum coated with a thermal layer, connected to a substrate feeder and driven by a motoreducer. The drum contains ball- or cylinder-shaped weights of different diameters, while its interior is mounted with lateral permanent magnets with an attractive force ranging from 100 kg to 2 tonnes per m2 of the surface. Over the perforated rotary drum, an infrared radiation generator is mounted, producing 0.2 kW to 1 kW of infrared radiation per 1 m2 of the perforated drum surface. This design reduces the energy consumption required for the biomass destruction process by 10-30% in comparison to the conventional ball mill. The magnetic field generated by the permanent magnets situated within the perforated rotary drum promotes this process through generation of free radicals that act as powerful oxidants, accelerating the decomposition rate. Plant substrate shows increased susceptibility to biodegradation when subjected to magnetic conditioning, reducing the time required for biomethanation by 25%. Additionally, the electromagnetic radiation generated by the radiator improves substrate destruction by 10% and the efficiency of the process. The magnetic field and the infrared radiation contribute synergically to the increased efficiency of destruction and conversion of the substrate.

Keywords: biomass pretreatment, mechanical fragmentation, biomass, methane fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 498
2045 Development of a Non-Dispersive Infrared Multi Gas Analyzer for a TMS

Authors: T. V. Dinh, I. Y. Choi, J. W. Ahn, Y. H. Oh, G. Bo, J. Y. Lee, J. C. Kim


A Non-Dispersive Infrared (NDIR) multi-gas analyzer has been developed to monitor the emission of carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from various industries. The NDIR technique for gas measurement is based on the wavelength absorption in the infrared spectrum as a way to detect particular gasses. NDIR analyzers have popularly applied in the Tele-Monitoring System (TMS). The advantage of the NDIR analyzer is low energy consumption and cost compared with other spectroscopy methods. However, zero/span drift and interference are its urgent issues to be solved. Multi-pathway technique based on optical White cell was employed to improve the sensitivity of the analyzer in this work. A pyroelectric detector was used to detect the Infrared radiation. The analytical range of the analyzer was 0 ~ 200 ppm. The instrument response time was < 2 min. The detection limits of CO and SO2 were < 4 ppm and < 6 ppm, respectively. The zero and span drift of 24 h was less than 3%. The linearity of the analyzer was less than 2.5% of reference values. The precision and accuracy of both CO and SO2 channels were < 2.5% of relative standard deviation. In general, the analyzer performed well. However, the detection limit and 24h drift should be improved to be a more competitive instrument.

Keywords: analyzer, CEMS, monitoring, NDIR, TMS

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2044 Infrared Lightbox and iPhone App for Improving Detection Limit of Phosphate Detecting Dip Strips

Authors: H. Heidari-Bafroui, B. Ribeiro, A. Charbaji, C. Anagnostopoulos, M. Faghri


In this paper, we report the development of a portable and inexpensive infrared lightbox for improving the detection limits of paper-based phosphate devices. Commercial paper-based devices utilize the molybdenum blue protocol to detect phosphate in the environment. Although these devices are easy to use and have a long shelf life, their main deficiency is their low sensitivity based on the qualitative results obtained via a color chart. To improve the results, we constructed a compact infrared lightbox that communicates wirelessly with a smartphone. The system measures the absorbance of radiation for the molybdenum blue reaction in the infrared region of the spectrum. It consists of a lightbox illuminated by four infrared light-emitting diodes, an infrared digital camera, a Raspberry Pi microcontroller, a mini-router, and an iPhone to control the microcontroller. An iPhone application was also developed to analyze images captured by the infrared camera in order to quantify phosphate concentrations. Additionally, the app connects to an online data center to present a highly scalable worldwide system for tracking and analyzing field measurements. In this study, the detection limits for two popular commercial devices were improved by a factor of 4 for the Quantofix devices (from 1.3 ppm using visible light to 300 ppb using infrared illumination) and a factor of 6 for the Indigo units (from 9.2 ppm to 1.4 ppm) with repeatability of less than or equal to 1.2% relative standard deviation (RSD). The system also provides more granular concentration information compared to the discrete color chart used by commercial devices and it can be easily adapted for use in other applications.

Keywords: infrared lightbox, paper-based device, phosphate detection, smartphone colorimetric analyzer

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2043 Infrared Thermography Applications for Building Investigation

Authors: Hamid Yazdani, Raheleh Akbar


Infrared thermography is a modern non-destructive measuring method for the examination of redeveloped and non-renovated buildings. Infrared cameras provide a means for temperature measurement in building constructions from the inside, as well as from the outside. Thus, heat bridges can be detected. It has been shown that infrared thermography is applicable for insulation inspection, identifying air leakage and heat losses sources, finding the exact position of heating tubes or for discovering the reasons why mold, moisture is growing in a particular area, and it is also used in conservation field to detect hidden characteristics, degradations of building structures. The paper gives a brief description of the theoretical background of infrared thermography.

Keywords: infrared thermography, examination of buildings, emissivity, heat losses sources

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2042 A Survey and Analysis on Inflammatory Pain Detection and Standard Protocol Selection Using Medical Infrared Thermography from Image Processing View Point

Authors: Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik, Shawli Bardhan Jr., Debotosh Bhattacharjee


Human skin containing temperature value more than absolute zero, discharges infrared radiation related to the frequency of the body temperature. The difference in infrared radiation from the skin surface reflects the abnormality present in human body. Considering the difference, detection and forecasting the temperature variation of the skin surface is the main objective of using Medical Infrared Thermography(MIT) as a diagnostic tool for pain detection. Medical Infrared Thermography(MIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that records and monitors the temperature flow in the body by receiving the infrared radiated from the skin and represent it through thermogram. The intensity of the thermogram measures the inflammation from the skin surface related to pain in human body. Analysis of thermograms provides automated anomaly detection associated with suspicious pain regions by following several image processing steps. The paper represents a rigorous study based survey related to the processing and analysis of thermograms based on the previous works published in the area of infrared thermal imaging for detecting inflammatory pain diseases like arthritis, spondylosis, shoulder impingement, etc. The study also explores the performance analysis of thermogram processing accompanied by thermogram acquisition protocols, thermography camera specification and the types of pain detected by thermography in summarized tabular format. The tabular format provides a clear structural vision of the past works. The major contribution of the paper introduces a new thermogram acquisition standard associated with inflammatory pain detection in human body to enhance the performance rate. The FLIR T650sc infrared camera with high sensitivity and resolution is adopted to increase the accuracy of thermogram acquisition and analysis. The survey of previous research work highlights that intensity distribution based comparison of comparable and symmetric region of interest and their statistical analysis assigns adequate result in case of identifying and detecting physiological disorder related to inflammatory diseases.

Keywords: acquisition protocol, inflammatory pain detection, medical infrared thermography (MIT), statistical analysis

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2041 Eco-Ways to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Flame Retardant Textiles at the End of Life

Authors: Sohail Yasin, Massimo Curti, Nemeshwaree Behary, Giorgio Rovero


It is well-known that the presence of discarded textile products in municipal landfills poses environmental problems due to leaching of chemical products from the textile to the environment. Incineration of such textiles is considered to be an efficient way to produce energy and reduce environmental impacts of textile materials at their end-of life stage. However, the presence of flame retardant products on textiles would decrease the energy yield and emit toxic gases during incineration stage. While some non-durable flame retardants can be removed by wet treatments (e.g. washing), these substances pollute water and pose concerns towards environmental health. Our study shows that infrared radiation can be used efficiently to degrade flame retardant products on the textiles. This method is finalized to minimize the decrease in energy yield during the incineration or gasification processes of flame retardant cotton fabrics.

Keywords: degradation, flame retardant, infrared radiation, cotton, incineration

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2040 Status of Radiation Protection at Radiation Oncology, BPKM Cancer Hospital, Nepal

Authors: Surendra B. Chand, P. P. Chaurasia, M. P. Adhikari, R. N. Yadav


Objective: The objective of this work was to evaluate all the safety procedures toward the radiation protection for workers in the radiation oncology department. Materials and Methods: The annual thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) reports for five years of the staffs were evaluated, radiation surveys were done in the control consoles, radiotherapy machines room and waiting areas of all machines using Aloka survey meter. Results: The five years TLD reports shows that the whole body dose of the individual staffs is found within the annual dose limit except the accidental exposures. Radiation exposures in the working areas are also safe limits. Conclusion: The radiation safety practices for radiation protection are satisfactory and the radiation workers of the departments are found working within the safe limit.

Keywords: radiation protection, safety, ICRP, dose limits, TLD, radiation devices

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2039 Design of Regular Communication Area for Infrared Electronic-Toll-Collection Systems

Authors: Wern-Yarng Shieh, Chao Qian, Bingnan Pei


A design of communication area for infrared electronic-toll-collection systems to provide an extended communication interval in the vehicle traveling direction and regular boundary between contiguous traffic lanes is proposed. By utilizing two typical low-cost commercial infrared LEDs with different half-intensity angles Φ1/2 = 22° and 10°, the radiation pattern of the emitter is designed to properly adjust the spatial distribution of the signal power. The aforementioned purpose can be achieved with an LED array in a three-piece structure with appropriate mounting angles. With this emitter, the influence of the mounting parameters, including the mounting height and mounting angles of the on-board unit and road-side unit, on the system performance in terms of the received signal strength and communication area are investigated. The results reveal that, for our emitter proposed in this paper, the ideal "long-and-narrow" characteristic of the communication area is very little affected by these mounting parameters. An optimum mounting configuration is also suggested.

Keywords: dedicated short-range communication (DSRC), electronic toll collection (ETC), infrared communication, intelligent transportation system (ITS), multilane free flow

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2038 Off-Line Detection of "Pannon Wheat" Milling Fractions by Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods

Authors: E. Izsó, M. Bartalné-Berceli, Sz. Gergely, A. Salgó


The aims of this investigation is to elaborate near-infrared methods for testing and recognition of chemical components and quality in “Pannon wheat” allied (i.e. true to variety or variety identified) milling fractions as well as to develop spectroscopic methods following the milling processes and evaluate the stability of the milling technology by different types of milling products and according to sampling times, respectively. This wheat categories produced under industrial conditions where samples were collected versus sampling time and maximum or minimum yields. The changes of the main chemical components (such as starch, protein, lipid) and physical properties of fractions (particle size) were analysed by dispersive spectrophotometers using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) regions of the electromagnetic radiation. Close correlation were obtained between the data of spectroscopic measurement techniques processed by various chemometric methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and operation condition of milling technology. Its obvious that NIR methods are able to detect the deviation of the yield parameters and differences of the sampling times by a wide variety of fractions, respectively. NIR technology can be used in the sensitive monitoring of milling technology.

Keywords: near infrared spectroscopy, wheat categories, milling process, monitoring

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2037 The Analysis of Solar Radiation Exergy in Hakkari

Authors: Hasan Yildizhan


According to the Solar Energy Potential Atlas (GEPA) prepared by Turkish Ministry of Energy, Hakkari is ranked first in terms of sunshine duration and it is ranked eighth in terms of solar radiation energy. Accordingly, Hakkari has a rich potential of investment with regard to solar radiation energy. The part of the solar radiation energy arriving on the surface of the earth which is transposable to useful work is determined by means of exergy analysis. In this study, the radiation exergy values for Hakkari have been calculated and evaluated by making use of the monthly average solar radiation energy and temperature values measured by General Directorate of State Meteorology.

Keywords: solar radiation exergy, Hakkari, solar energy potential, Turkey

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2036 Reduction of Physician's Radiation Dose during Cardiac Catheterization Procedures Using Lead-Free Sterile Radiation Shields

Authors: Mohammad O. Diab, Sahera A. Saleh, Mustapha M. Dichari, Nijez Aloulou, Omar Hamoui, Feras Chehade


This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of lead-free sterile radiation shield (Radionex) in the reduction of physician's exposure dose during interventional cardiology procedures. Cardiac catheterization procedures are often associated with high radiation doses and high levels of secondary radiation emitted by the patient's body. This study compares physician exposure dose rate during cardiac catheterization procedures done through the femoral artery with sterile radiation shielding to same procedures made without the shielding. The mean operator radiation dose rate without using the shield was found to be 18.4µSv/min compared to a mean dose rate of 5.1 µSv/min when using the shield, rendering a reduction of 72.5% of radiation received by the physician. Sterile radiation shielding is consequently an effective addition to a cardiac catheterization lab radiation protection system.

Keywords: cardiac catheterization, physician exposure dose, sterile radiation shielding, lead-free sterile radiation shields

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2035 Radiation Usage Impact of on Anti-Nutritional Compounds (Antitrypsin and Phytic Acid) of Livestock and Poultry Foods

Authors: Mohammad Khosravi, Ali Kiani, Behroz Dastar, Parvin Showrang


Review was carried out on important anti-nutritional compounds of livestock and poultry foods and the effect of radiation usage. Nowadays, with advancement in technology, different methods have been considered for the optimum usage of nutrients in livestock and poultry foods. Steaming, extruding, pelleting, and the use of chemicals are the most common and popular methods in food processing. Use of radiation in food processing researches in the livestock and poultry industry is currently highly regarded. Ionizing (electrons, gamma) and non-ionizing beams (microwave and infrared) are the most useable rays in animal food processing. In recent researches, these beams have been used to remove and reduce the anti-nutritional factors and microbial contamination and improve the digestibility of nutrients in poultry and livestock food. The evidence presented will help researchers to recognize techniques of relevance to them. Simplification of some of these techniques, especially in developing countries, must be addressed so that they can be used more widely.

Keywords: antitrypsin, gamma anti-nutritional components, phytic acid, radiation

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2034 Optimization of Thermopile Sensor Performance of Polycrystalline Silicon Film

Authors: Li Long, Thomas Ortlepp


A theoretical model for the optimization of thermopile sensor performance is developed for thermoelectric-based infrared radiation detection. It is shown that the performance of polycrystalline silicon film thermopile sensor can be optimized according to the thermoelectric quality factor, sensor layer structure factor, and sensor layout geometrical form factor. Based on the properties of electrons, phonons, grain boundaries, and their interactions, the thermoelectric quality factor of polycrystalline silicon is analyzed with the relaxation time approximation of the Boltzmann transport equation. The model includes the effect of grain structure, grain boundary trap properties, and doping concentration. The layer structure factor is analyzed with respect to the infrared absorption coefficient. The optimization of layout design is characterized by the form factor, which is calculated for different sensor designs. A double-layer polycrystalline silicon thermopile infrared sensor on a suspended membrane has been designed and fabricated with a CMOS-compatible process. The theoretical approach is confirmed by measurement results.

Keywords: polycrystalline silicon, relaxation time approximation, specific detectivity, thermal conductivity, thermopile infrared sensor

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2033 Solar Radiation Studies for Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Sidra A. Shaikh, M. A. Ahmed, M. W. Akhtar


Global and diffuse solar radiation studies have been carried out for Islamabad (Lat: 330 43’ N, Long: 370 71’) to access the solar potential of the area using sunshine hour data. A detailed analysis of global solar radiation values measured using several methods is presented. These values are then compared with the NASA SSE model. The variation in direct and diffuse components of solar radiation is observed in summer and winter months for Islamabad along with the clearness index KT. The diffuse solar radiation is found maximum in the month of July. Direct and beam radiation is found to be high in the month of April to June. From the results it appears that with the exception of monsoon months, July and August, solar radiation for electricity generation can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year. Finally, the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and mean percent error (MPE) for global solar radiation are also presented.

Keywords: solar potential, global and diffuse solar radiation, Islamabad, errors

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2032 Gamma Irradiation Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite Glasses

Authors: Azuraida Amat, Halimah Mohamed Kamari, Che Azurahanim Che Abdullah, Ishak Mansor


The changes of the optical and structural properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite glasses pre and post gamma irradiation were studied. Six glass samples, with different compositions [(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]1-x (Bi2O3)x prepared by melt quenching method were irradiated with 25kGy gamma radiation at room temperature. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore the structural bonding in the prepared glass samples due to exposure, while UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the changes in the optical properties before and after irradiation. Gamma irradiation causes a profound changes in the peak intensity as shown by FTIR spectra which is due to the breaking of the network bonding. Before gamma irradiation, the optical band gap, Eg value decreased from 2.44 eV to 2.15 eV with the addition of Bismuth content. The value kept decreasing (from 2.18 eV to 2.00 eV) following exposure to gamma radiation due to the increase of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and the increase of defects in the glass. In conclusion, the glass with high content of Bi2O3 (0.30Bi) give the smallest Eg and show less changes in FTIR spectra after gamma irradiation, which indicate that this glass is more resistant to gamma radiation compared to other glasses.

Keywords: boro-tellurite, bismuth, gamma radiation, optical properties

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2031 Effect of Gamma Radiation on Bromophenol Blue Dyed Films as Dosimeter

Authors: Priyanka R. Oberoi, Chandra B. Maurya, Prakash A. Mahanwar


Ionizing radiation can cause a drastic change in the physical and chemical properties of the material exposed. Numerous medical devices are sterilized by ionizing radiation. In the current research paper, an attempt was made to develop precise and inexpensive polymeric film dosimeter which can be used for controlling radiation dosage. Polymeric film containing (pH sensitive dye) indicator dye Bromophenol blue (BPB) was casted to check the effect of Gamma radiation on its optical and physical properties. The film was exposed to gamma radiation at 4 kGy/hr in the range of 0 to 300 kGy at an interval of 50 kGy. Release of vinyl acetate from an emulsion on high radiation reacts with the BPB fading the color of the film from blue to light blue and then finally colorless, indicating a change in pH from basic to acidic form. The change was characterized by using CIE l*a*b*, ultra-violet spectroscopy and FT-IR respectively.

Keywords: bromophenol blue, dosimeter, gamma radiation, polymer

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2030 Estimation of Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation Studies of Islamabad, Capital City of Pakistan

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Maliha Afshan, Adeel Tahir


Global and diffuse solar radiation studies have been carried out for the Capital city of Pakistan, Islamabad ( latitude 330 43’N and Longitude 370 71’E) to assess the solar potential of the area. The global and diffuse solar radiation were carried out using sunshine hour data for the above-mentioned area. Monthly total solar radiation is calculated through regression constants a and b through declination angle of the sun and sunshine hours and KT that is cloudiness index are used to calculate the diffuse solar radiation. Result obtained shows variation in the direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months for Islamabad. Diffuse solar radiation was found maximum in July, i.e., 32% whereas direct or beam radiation was found to be high in April to June, i.e., 73%. During July, August, and December, the sky was found cloudy. From the result, it appears that with the exception of monsoon month July and August the solar energy can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year in Islamabad.

Keywords: global radiation, Islamabad, diffuse radiation, sky condition, sunshine hour

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2029 Radiation Hardness Materials Article Review

Authors: S. Abou El-Azm, U. Kruchonak, M. Gostkin, A. Guskov, A. Zhemchugov


Semiconductor detectors are widely used in nuclear physics and high-energy physics experiments. The application of semiconductor detectors could be limited by their ultimate radiation resistance. The increase of radiation defects concentration leads to significant degradation of the working parameters of semiconductor detectors. The investigation of radiation defects properties in order to enhance the radiation hardness of semiconductor detectors is an important task for the successful implementation of a number of nuclear physics experiments; we presented some information about radiation hardness materials like diamond, sapphire and CdTe. Also, the results of measurements I-V characteristics, charge collection efficiency and its dependence on the bias voltage for different doses of high resistivity (GaAs: Cr) and Si at LINAC-200 accelerator and reactor IBR-2 are presented.

Keywords: semiconductor detectors, radiation hardness, GaAs, Si, CCE, I-V, C-V

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2028 Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Growth of Ulva Pertusa Kjellman Seedling

Authors: HengJiang Cai, RuiJin Zhang, JinSong Gui


Enhanced UV-B (280-320nm) radiation resulting from ozone depletion was one of the global environmental problems. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on marine macro-algae were exposed to be the greatest in shallow intertidal environments because the macro-alga was often at or above the water during low tide. Ulva pertusa Kjellman was belonged to Chlorophyta (Phylum), Ulvales (Order), Ulvaceae (Family) which was widely distributed in the western Pacific coast, and the resources were extremely rich in China. Therefore, the effects of UV-B radiation on the growth of Ulva pertusa seedling were studied in this research. Ulva pertusa seedling appearances were mainly characterized by rod shapes and tadpole shapes. The percentage of rod shapes was 90.68%±2.50%. UV-B radiation could inhibit the growth of Ulva pertusa seedling, and the growth inhibition was more significant with the increased doses of UV-B radiation treatment. The relative inhibition rates of Ulva pertusa seedling length were16.11%, 24.98%and 39.04% respectively on the 30th day at different doses (30.96, 61.92 and 123.84 Jm-2d-1) of UV-B radiation. Ulva pertusa seedling had emerged death under UV-B radiation, and the death rates were increased with the increased doses of UV-B radiation treatment. Physiology and biochemistry of Ulva pertusa seedling could be affected by UV-B radiation treatment. The SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity was increased at low-dose UV-B radiation (30.96 Jm-2d-1), while was decreased at high-dose UV-B radiation (61.92 and 123.84 Jm-2d-1). UV-B radiation could inhibit CAT (catalase) activity all the while. It speculated that the reasons for growth inhibition and death of Ulva pertusa seedling were excess ROS (reactive oxygen species), which produced by UV-B radiation.

Keywords: growth, physiology and biochemistry, Ulva pertusa Kjellman, UV-B radiation

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2027 Models to Estimate Monthly Mean Daily Global Solar Radiation on a Horizontal Surface in Alexandria

Authors: Ahmed R. Abdelaziz, Zaki M. I. Osha


Solar radiation data are of great significance for solar energy system design. This study aims at developing and calibrating new empirical models for estimating monthly mean daily global solar radiation on a horizontal surface in Alexandria, Egypt. Day length hours, sun height, day number, and declination angle calculated data are used for this purpose. A comparison between measured and calculated values of solar radiation is carried out. It is shown that all the proposed correlations are able to predict the global solar radiation with excellent accuracy in Alexandria.

Keywords: solar energy, global solar radiation, model, regression coefficient

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2026 Determining the Effectiveness of Radiation Shielding and Safe Time for Radiation Worker by Employing Monitoring of Accumulation Dose in the Operator Room of CT Scan

Authors: Risalatul Latifah, Bunawas Bunawas, Lailatul Muqmiroh, Anggraini D. Sensusiati


Along with the increasing frequency of the use of CT-Scan for radiodiagnostics purposes, it is necessary to study radiation protection. This study examined aspects of radiation protection of workers. This study tried using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) for evaluating radiation shielding and estimating safe time for workers during CT Scan examination. Six TLDs were placed on door, wall, and window inside and outside of the CT Scan room for 1 month. By using TLD monitoring, it could be seen how much radiation was exposed in the operator room. The results showed the effective dose at door, window, and wall was respectively 0.04 mSv, 0.05 mSv, and 0.04 mSv. With these values, it could be evaluated the effectiveness of radiation shielding on doors, glass and walls were respectively 90.6%, 95.5%, and 92.2%. By applying the dose constraint and the estimation of the accumulated dose for one month, radiation workers were still safe to perform the irradiation for 180 patients.

Keywords: CT scan room, TLD, radiation worker, dose constraint

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2025 Solar Radiation Studies and Performance of Solar Panels for Three Cities of Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: M. A. Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, M. W. Akhtar


Solar radiation on horizontal surface over three southern cities of Sindh, namely Karachi, Hyderabad and Nawabshah has been investigated to asses the feasibility of solar energy application for power generation. In the present work, measured data of bright sunshine hour of the region have been used to estimate the global and diffuse solar radiation. The regression coefficient 'a' and 'b' have been calculated using first order Angstrom type co-relation. The result obtained shows that the contribution of direct solar radiation is low and diffuse radiation is high during the monsoon months July and August for Karachi and Hyderabad. The sky remains clear from September to June, whereas for Nawabshah the global radiation remains high throughout the year. The potential of grid quality solar photovoltaic power in Karachi is estimated for 10 square meter area of solar panel.

Keywords: solar potential over Sindh, global and diffuse solar radiation, radiation over three cities of Sindh, solar panels

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2024 Influence of Infrared Radiation on the Growth Rate of Microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana

Authors: Natalia Politaeva, Iuliia Smiatskaia, Iuliia Bazarnova, Iryna Atamaniuk, Kerstin Kuchta


Nowadays, the progressive decrease of primary natural resources and ongoing upward trend in terms of energy demand, have resulted in development of new generation technological processes which are focused on step-wise production and residues utilization. Thus, microalgae-based 3rd generation bioeconomy is considered one of the most promising approaches that allow production of value-added products and sophisticated utilization of residues biomass. In comparison to conventional biomass, microalgae can be cultivated in wide range of conditions without compromising food and feed production, and thus, addressing issues associated with negative social and environmental impacts. However, one of the most challenging tasks is to undergo seasonal variations and to achieve optimal growing conditions for indoor closed systems that can cover further demand for material and energetic utilization of microalgae. For instance, outdoor cultivation in St. Petersburg (Russia) is only suitable within rather narrow time frame (from mid-May to mid-September). At earlier and later periods, insufficient sunlight and heat for the growth of microalgae were detected. On the other hand, without additional physical effects, the biomass increment in summer is 3-5 times per week, depending on the solar radiation and the ambient temperature. In order to increase biomass production, scientists from all over the world have proposed various technical solutions for cultivators and have been studying the influence of various physical factors affecting biomass growth namely: magnetic field, radiation impact, and electric field, etc. In this paper, the influence of infrared radiation (IR) and fluorescent light on the growth rate of microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana has been studied. The cultivation of Chlorella sorokiniana was carried out in 500 ml cylindrical glass vessels, which were constantly aerated. To accelerate the cultivation process, the mixture was stirred for 15 minutes at 500 rpm following 120 minutes of rest time. At the same time, the metabolic needs in nutrients were provided by the addition of micro- and macro-nutrients in the microalgae growing medium. Lighting was provided by fluorescent lamps with the intensity of 2500 ± 300 lx. The influence of IR was determined using IR lamps with a voltage of 220 V, power of 250 W, in order to achieve the intensity of 13 600 ± 500 lx. The obtained results show that under the influence of fluorescent lamps along with the combined effect of active aeration and variable mixing, the biomass increment on the 2nd day was three times, and on the 7th day, it was eight-fold. The growth rate of microalgae under the influence of IR radiation was lower and has reached 22.6·106 cells·mL-1. However, application of IR lamps for the biomass growth allows maintaining the optimal temperature of microalgae suspension at approximately 25-28°C, which might especially be beneficial during the cold season in extreme climate zones.

Keywords: biomass, fluorescent lamp, infrared radiation, microalgae

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2023 The Use of Remote Sensing in the Study of Vegetation Jebel Boutaleb, Setif, Algeria

Authors: Khaled Missaoui, Amina Beldjazia, Rachid Gharzouli, Yamna Djellouli


Optical remote sensing makes use of visible, near infrared and short-wave infrared sensors to form images of the earth's surface by detecting the solar radiation reflected from targets on the ground. Different materials reflect and absorb differently at different wavelengths. Thus, the targets can be differentiated by their spectral reflectance signatures in the remotely sensed images. In this work, we are interested to study the distribution of vegetation in the massif forest of Boutaleb (North East of Algeria) which suffered between 1998 and 1999 very large fires. In this case, we use remote sensing with Landsat images from two dates (1984 and 2000) to see the results of these fires. Vegetation has a unique spectral signature which enables it to be distinguished readily from other types of land cover in an optical/near-infrared image. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is calculated with ENVI 4.7 from Band 3 and 4. The results showed a very important floristic diversity in this forest. The comparison of NDVI from the two dates confirms that there is a decrease of the density of vegetation in this area due to repeated fires.

Keywords: remote sensing, boutaleb, diversity, forest

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
2022 Variability Studies of Seyfert Galaxies Using Sloan Digital Sky Survey and Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer Observations

Authors: Ayesha Anjum, Arbaz Basha


Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are the actively accreting centers of the galaxies that host supermassive black holes. AGN emits radiation in all wavelengths and also shows variability across all the wavelength bands. The analysis of flux variability tells us about the morphology of the site of emission radiation. Some of the major classifications of AGN are (a) Blazars, with featureless spectra. They are subclassified as BLLacertae objects, Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs), and others; (b) Seyferts with prominent emission line features are classified into Broad Line, Narrow Line Seyferts of Type 1 and Type 2 (c) quasars, and other types. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is an optical telescope based in Mexico that has observed and classified billions of objects based on automated photometric and spectroscopic methods. A sample of blazars is obtained from the third Fermi catalog. For variability analysis, we searched for light curves for these objects in Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and Near Earth Orbit WISE (NEOWISE) in two bands: W1 (3.4 microns) and W2 (4.6 microns), reducing the final sample to 256 objects. These objects are also classified into 155 BLLacs, 99 FSRQs, and 2 Narrow Line Seyferts, namely, PMNJ0948+0022 and PKS1502+036. Mid-infrared variability studies of these objects would be a contribution to the literature. With this as motivation, the present work is focused on studying a final sample of 256 objects in general and the Seyferts in particular. Owing to the fact that the classification is automated, SDSS has miclassified these objects into quasars, galaxies, and stars. Reasons for the misclassification are explained in this work. The variability analysis of these objects is done using the method of flux amplitude variability and excess variance. The sample consists of observations in both W1 and W2 bands. PMN J0948+0022 is observed between MJD from 57154.79 to 58810.57. PKS 1502+036 is observed between MJD from 57232.42 to 58517.11, which amounts to a period of over six years. The data is divided into different epochs spanning not more than 1.2 days. In all the epochs, the sources are found to be variable in both W1 and W2 bands. This confirms that the object is variable in mid-infrared wavebands in both long and short timescales. Also, the sources are observed for color variability. Objects either show a bluer when brighter trend (BWB) or a redder when brighter trend (RWB). The possible claim for the object to be BWB (present objects) is that the longer wavelength radiation emitted by the source can be suppressed by the high-energy radiation from the central source. Another result is that the smallest radius of the emission source is one day since the epoch span used in this work is one day. The mass of the black holes at the centers of these sources is found to be less than or equal to 108 solar masses, respectively.

Keywords: active galaxies, variability, Seyfert galaxies, SDSS, WISE

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2021 Infrared Detection Device for Accurate Scanning 3D Objects

Authors: Evgeny A. Rybakov, Dmitry P. Starikov


This article contains information about creating special unit for scanning 3D objects different nature, different materials, for example plastic, plaster, cardboard, wood, metal and etc. The main part of the unit is infrared transducer, which is sends the wave to the object and receive back wave for calculating distance. After that, microcontroller send to PC data, and computer program create model for printing from the plastic, gypsum, brass, etc.

Keywords: clutch, infrared, microcontroller, plastic, shaft, stage

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
2020 Optimization of Radiation Therapy with a Nanotechnology Based Enzymatic Therapy

Authors: R. D. Esposito, V. M. Barberá, P. García Morales, P. Dorado Rodríguez, J. Sanz, M. Fuentes, D. Planes Meseguer, M. Saceda, L. Fernández Fornos, M. P. Ventero


Results obtained by our group on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) primary cultures , show a dramatic potentiation of radiation effects when 2 units/ml of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) enzyme are added, free or immobilized in magnetic nanoparticles, to irradiated samples just after the irradiation. Cell cultures were exposed to radiation doses of 7Gy and 15Gy of 6 MV photons from a clinical linear accelerator. At both doses, we observed a clear enhancing effect of radiation-induced damages due to the addition of DAO.

Keywords: D-amino Acid Oxidase (DAO) enzyme, magnetic particles, nanotechnology, radiation therapy enhancement

Procedia PDF Downloads 426