Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Subhash Chander

27 Mathematical Simulation of Performance Parameters of Pulse Detonation Engine

Authors: Subhash Chander, Tejinder Kumar Jindal

Abstract:

Due to its simplicity, Pulse detonation engine technology has recently emerged as a future aerospace propulsion technology. In this paper, we studied various parameters affecting the performance of Pulse detonation engine (PDE) like tube length for proper deflagration to detonation transition (DDT), tube diameter (combustion tube), tube length, Shelkin spiral, Cell size, Equivalence ratio of fuel used etc. We have discussed various techniques for reducing the length of pulse tube by using various DDT enhancing devices. The effect of length of the tube from 40 mm to 3000 mm and diameter from 10 mm to 100 mm has been analyzed. The fuel used is C2H2 and oxidizer is O2. The results are processed in MATLAB for drawing valid conclusions.

Keywords: pulse detonation engine (PDE), deflagration to detonation (DDT), Schelkin spiral, cell size (λ)

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26 Role of Dispersion of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Compressive Strength of Cement Paste

Authors: Jyoti Bharj, Sarabjit Singh, Subhash Chander, Rabinder Singh

Abstract:

The outstanding mechanical properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have generated great interest for their potential as reinforcements in high performance cementitious composites. The main challenge in research is the proper dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the cement matrix. The present work discusses the role of dispersion of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the compressive strength characteristics of hydrated Portland IS 1489 cement paste. Cement-MWCNT composites with different mixing techniques were prepared by adding 0.2% (by weight) of MWCNTs to Portland IS 1489 cement. Rectangle specimens of size approximately 40mm × 40mm ×160mm were prepared and curing of samples was done for 7, 14, 28, and 35 days. An appreciable increase in compressive strength with both techniques; mixture of MWCNTs with cement in powder form and mixture of MWCNTs with cement in hydrated form 7 to 28 days of curing time for all the samples was observed.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, Portland cement, composite, compressive strength

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25 Thermal Performance of Dual Flame Impinging Normally on to a Flat Surface

Authors: Satpal Singh, Subhash Chander

Abstract:

An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the thermal performance of the CNG/air dual flame impinging normally on to a flat surface. The stability limits for the dual flame under both impinging and free conditions have been evaluated to select experimental operating range. Dual flame shape and structure have been explained with direct flame image and schematic diagram indicating modification in recirculation zone in presence of inner flame. Effects of various operating parameters like H/Dh, Re(o), Φ(o), and θ(o) on heat transfer characteristics have been discussed. Inner non-swirling flame Reynolds number (Re(i)) and equivalence ratio (Φ(i)) were kept constant. Heating patterns in the impingement region around the stagnation point have been altered significantly with change in the values of H/Dh, Re(o), Φ(o), and θ(o). The axial flow of inner flame has been notably effected with increase in Re(o). Heating was most favorable near stoichiometeric conditions of the outer swirling flame. However, the effect of change in swirl intensity (expressed in terms of θ(o)) on overall heat transfer efficiency was not as significant as in the case of other parameters. It has been inferred that best performance (higher uniformity and efficiency) of the dual flame impinging on a flat surface can be achieved at moderate value of separation distance (H/Dh of 2-3) and outer swirling flame Reynolds number (Re(o) of 7000-9000) under stoichiometeric conditions.

Keywords: dual flame, heat transfer, impingement, swirling insert, transmission efficiency

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24 Domestic Violence against Rural Women in Haryana State of India

Authors: Jatesh Kathpalia, Subhash Chander

Abstract:

Violence against women has spread into a global epidemic. This has debilitating effect over the performance of women. Due to deep-rooted values, traditional Indian culture women fear the consequences of reporting violence and declare an unwillingness to subject themselves to the shame of being identified as battered women. Main interest was to study types of domestic violence which women face and to encourage them to report the matter. The study involved understanding the nature, extent and types of domestic violence. Two hundred rural women respondents were selected at random, interview schedule was prepared, and victims afflicted with domestic violence were identified. Data were collected and analyzed for different forms of domestic violence faced by women. 60% of the respondents faced domestic violence in different forms. Out of 120 women who were affected, 92.5% faced emotional, 90.8% faced verbal, 49.1% faced economic and 58.3% faced physical violence. 45.0% faced violence within three months of the marriage. Out of these, only 6.6% reported the violence to the police. Frequently faced forms of violence were slapping (27.1%), beating (24.3%) and starvation (25.7%). Number of women who were not allowed to spend money of their own stood at 30.5%. About 50% victims of emotional violence were facing constant criticism by their in-laws. Significant association was found between age, education and socio-economic status of the respondents and domestic violence. Rural women in Haryana face grave problem of domestic violence which need to be curbed for improving condition of women in society.

Keywords: domestic violence against women, economic, emotional, physical and verbal violence, marriage, rural women

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23 Wired Network Services in Mobile Phones

Authors: Subhash Reddy

Abstract:

Mobile communication in today’s world means a lot to the human kind, through this many deals are made and others are broken, within seconds. That is because of our sophisticated methods of transporting the data at very high speeds and to very long distances, within no time. That is also because we kept on changing the method of serving the connections as the no of connections kept on increasing, that has led to many methods like TDMA, CDMA, and FDMA, etc. in wireless communications. And also the areas, where the connections are provided are also divided into CELLS, which are the basic blocks for cellular communications. Along with the wireless network, providing a wired network in mobile phones would serve as a very good alternative and would divert the extra traffic of a cell, so that a CELL which is providing wireless network can operate more efficiently.

Keywords: CDMA, FDMA, TDMA, CELL

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22 Urban City Centres: A Study of Centres and City Structure

Authors: B. Poorna Chander

Abstract:

Urban centre is one of the most important parts of the city where all the community activities take place. They are the active zones which enhance the structure of a city. The structure of the city refers to its form, mobility patterns, and concentration of people and lifestyles of people. The purpose of the research paper is to study how does the character or structure of city changes when a new centre is established. An attempt has been made to understand this by studying how the formation of centre has been changing the form or the structure of the city since the ancient times, what are the notions of a city and a centre by various architects, by studying the various models of the future city proposed by them. And then the data has been linked to how the formation of the new centres is changing the city. As the demands of the city are increasing, it also regulates how the new centres are formed. So both, the city and the centre are interdependent on each other.

Keywords: centre, activities, lifestyles, people, form

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21 Survey on Securing the Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) Protocol in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

Authors: Kimaya Subhash Gaikwad, S. B. Waykar

Abstract:

The mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is collection of various types of nodes. In MANET various protocols are used for communication. In OLSR protocol, a node is selected as multipoint relay (MPR) node which broadcast the messages. As the MANET is open kind of network any malicious node can easily enter into the network and affect the performance of the network. The performance of network mainly depends on the components which are taking part into the communication. If the proper nodes are not selected for the communication then the probability of network being attacked is more. Therefore, it is important to select the more reliable and secure components in the network. MANET does not have any filtering so that only selected nodes can be used for communication. The openness of the MANET makes it easier to attack the communication. The most of the attack are on the Quality of service (QoS) of the network. This paper gives the overview of the various attacks that are possible on OLSR protocol and some solutions. The papers focus mainly on the OLSR protocol.

Keywords: communication, MANET, OLSR, QoS

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20 Alcohol and Tobacco Influencing Prevalence of Hypertension among 15-54 Old Indian Men: An Application of Discriminant Analysis Using National Family Health Survey, 2015-16

Authors: Chander Shekhar, Jeetendra Yadav, Shaziya Allarakha

Abstract:

Hypertension has been described as an 'iceberg disease' as those who suffered are ignored and hence usually seek healthcare services at a very late stage. It is estimated that more than 2 million Indians are suffering from hypertensive heart disease that contributed to above 0.13 million deaths in 2016. The paper study aims to know the prevalence of Hypertension in India and its variation by socioeconomic backgrounds and to find out risk factors discriminating hypertension with special emphasis on consumption of tobacco and alcohol among men aged 15-54 years in India. The paper uses NFHS (2015-16) data. The paper used binary logistic regression and discriminant analysis to find significant predictors and discriminants of interest. The prevalence of hypertension was 16.5% in the study population. The results suggest that consumption of alcohol and tobacco are significant discriminant characteristics in carrying hypertension irrespective of what socioeconomic background characteristic he possesses.

Keywords: hypertention, alcohol, tobacco, discriminant

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19 Development of Graph-Theoretic Model for Ranking Top of Rail Lubricants

Authors: Subhash Chandra Sharma, Mohammad Soleimani

Abstract:

Selection of the correct lubricant for the top of rail application is a complex process. In this paper, the selection of the proper lubricant for a Top-Of-Rail (TOR) lubrication system based on graph theory and matrix approach has been developed. Attributes influencing the selection process and their influence on each other has been represented through a digraph and an equivalent matrix. A matrix function which is called the Permanent Function is derived. By substituting the level of inherent contribution of the influencing parameters and their influence on each other qualitatively, a criterion called Suitability Index is derived. Based on these indices, lubricants can be ranked for their suitability. The proposed model can be useful for maintenance engineers in selecting the best lubricant for a TOR application. The proposed methodology is illustrated step–by-step through an example.

Keywords: lubricant selection, top of rail lubrication, graph-theory, Ranking of lubricants

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18 A Multimodal Approach to Improve the Performance of Biometric System

Authors: Chander Kant, Arun Kumar

Abstract:

Biometric systems automatically recognize an individual based on his/her physiological and behavioral characteristics. There are also some traits like weight, age, height etc. that may not provide reliable user recognition because of there common and temporary nature. These traits are called soft bio metric traits. Although soft bio metric traits are lack of permanence to uniquely and reliably identify an individual, yet they provide some beneficial evidence about the user identity and may improve the system performance. Here in this paper, we have proposed an approach for integrating the soft bio metrics with fingerprint and face to improve the performance of personal authentication system. In our approach we have proposed a combined architecture of three different sensors to elevate the system performance. The approach includes, soft bio metrics, fingerprint and face traits. We have also proven the efficiency of proposed system regarding FAR (False Acceptance Ratio) and total response time, with the help of MUBI (Multimodal Bio metrics Integration) software.

Keywords: FAR, minutiae point, multimodal bio metrics, primary bio metric, soft bio metric

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17 Recurring as a Means of Partial Strength Recovery of Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Shree Laxmi Prashant, Subhash C. Yaragal, K. S. Babu Narayan

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Concrete is found to undergo degradation when subjected to elevated temperatures and loose substantial amount of its strength. The loss of strength in concrete is mainly attributed to decomposition of C-S-H and release of physically and chemically bound water, which begins when the exposure temperature exceeds 100°C. When such a concrete comes in contact with moisture, the cement paste is found rehydrate and considerable amount of strength lost is found to recover. This paper presents results of an experimental program carried out to investigate the effect of recuring on strength gain of OPC concrete specimens subjected to elevated temperatures from 200°C to 800°C, which were subjected to retention time of two hours and four hours at the designated temperature. Strength recoveries for concrete subjected to 7 designated elevated temperatures are compared. It is found that the efficacy of recuring as a measure of strength recovery reduces with increase in exposure temperature.

Keywords: elevated temperature, recuring, strength recovery, compressive strength

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16 Living Arrangement of Elderly in India: An Exploration from BKPAI Study

Authors: Jitendra Gouda, Chander Shekhar

Abstract:

With the addition of 27 million elderly in India in past census decade from 2001 to 2011, it is imperative to work towards exploring the issues and concerns of this increasingly aged population. In Indian society, the elderly person is assumed to be looked after by the family members, especially by children but with changing economy, society, and lifestyle, this assumption demands examining. This paper is an attempt to explore the living arrangement of the elderly and their perceptions about this in India. The findings are based on the BKPAI dataset of 2011, which was conducted in seven states – Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal. The result shows that three fourth of elderly lives with their children. Having son and staying with children is positively associated among elderly. More than 40 percent as compared to 37 percent of elderly feels comfortable living with sons and daughters respectively. Half of elderly across sexes viewed that sons are the best person to live with. The result of discriminant analysis suggest that health status and living arrangement of elderly are the good discriminators to ensure their importance in the family.

Keywords: discriminant analysis, elderly, India, living arrangment

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15 Health Expenditure and Household Age Composition in India: Consequences for Health System Development

Authors: Milind Bharambe, Chander Shekhar

Abstract:

India is a vast country with its 1.21 billion population at the dawn of new decade, which accounts for one sixth of the global human capital in the world today. It is well known that health expenditure in India is dominated by private spending. This is an unfortunate consequence of India’s development because of large positive externality associated with health spending, which make health a merit good. This paper has used data from NSSO and Indian Government’s spending on health as reported by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Understanding of the dynamism of age-structure of the population would greatly optimize the expenditure on health care services. A country with good public health indicators is bound to possess good human capital which is an asset to the economic growth and indicator of development status of country. The paper tries to present the linkages between the health expenditure incurred by different states at various levels of demographic transition levels and the efficiency in utilization of health expenditure. It also looks into the way in which allocative efficiency health services can be improved. Paper tries to explore the per capita spending on health and how the demographic transition taking place in different states of India affect the required quantity and quality of health services.

Keywords: age structure, demographic transition, health expenditure, morbidity

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14 Pefloxacin as a Surrogate Marker for Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella: Study from North India

Authors: Varsha Gupta, Priya Datta, Gursimran Mohi, Jagdish Chander

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Fluoroquinolones form the mainstay of therapy for the treatment of infections due to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. There is a complex interplay between several resistance mechanisms for quinolones and various fluoroquinolones discs, giving varying results, making detection and interpretation of fluoroquinolone resistance difficult. For detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella ssp., we compared the use of pefloxacin and nalidixic acid discs as surrogate marker. Using MIC for ciprofloxacin as the gold standard, 43.5% of strains showed MIC as ≥1 μg/ml and were thus resistant to fluoroquinoloes. Based on the performance of nalidixic acid and pefloxacin discs as surrogate marker for ciprofloxacin resistance, both the discs could correctly detect all the resistant phenotypes; however, use of nalidixic acid disc showed false resistance in the majority of the sensitive phenotypes. We have also tested newer antimicrobial agents like cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin against Salmonella spp. Moreover, there was a comeback of susceptibility to older antimicrobials like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. We can also use cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin in the treatment of multidrug resistant S. typhi due to their high susceptibility.

Keywords: salmonella, pefloxacin, surrogate marker, chloramphenicol

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13 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on Performance of Commercial Layer Hens

Authors: P. Arun Subhash, B. N. Suresh, M. C. Shivakumar, N. Suma

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root powder on the egg production performance and egg quality in commercial layer birds. A practical type layer diet was prepared as per Bureau of Indian Standards (1992) to serve as the control, and the test diet was prepared by supplementing control diet with ashwagandha powder at 1kg/ton of feed. Each diet was assigned to twenty replicate groups of 5 laying hens each for duration of 84 days. The result revealed that cumulative egg production (%) was comparable between control and test group. The feed consumption and its conversion efficiency were similar among both the groups. The egg weight and egg characteristics viz., yolk index, yolk color, haugh unit score, albumen index, egg shape index and eggshell thickness were also remained similar between both the groups. It was concluded that supplementation of ashwagandha powder at 1kg/ton in layer diets has no beneficial effect on egg production and egg quality parameters.

Keywords: ashwagandha, egg production, egg quality, layers

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12 Thermal Neutron Detection Efficiency as a Function of Film Thickness for Front and Back Irradiation Detector Devices Coated with ¹⁰B, ⁶LiF, and Pure Li Thin Films

Authors: Vedant Subhash

Abstract:

This paper discusses the physics of the detection of thermal neutrons using thin-film coated semiconductor detectors. The thermal neutron detection efficiency as a function of film thickness is calculated for the front and back irradiation detector devices coated with ¹⁰B, ⁶LiF, and pure Li thin films. The detection efficiency for back irradiation devices is 4.15% that is slightly higher than that for front irradiation detectors, 4.0% for ¹⁰B films of thickness 2.4μm. The theoretically calculated thermal neutron detection efficiency using ¹⁰B film thickness of 1.1 μm for the back irradiation device is 3.0367%, which has an offset of 0.0367% from the experimental value of 3.0%. The detection efficiency values are compared and proved consistent with the given calculations.

Keywords: detection efficiency, neutron detection, semiconductor detectors, thermal neutrons

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11 Dynamics of Norms and Identities Facilitate Countries to Resolve Their Conflicts: A Case Study of ASEAN

Authors: Chander Shekhar Kohli

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In the field of international relations, countries have been experiencing distinct nature of conflicts. But, in the case of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) for a long time, the members have witnessed conflicts, small and large. These conflicts, as a result, have given catastrophic outcomes, such as killings and destroying properties. For the resolution of such conflicts, nonetheless, efforts likewise have been made, simultaneously, in terms of establishing peace and security. In this background, the ASEAN presents a significant example as before it had faced several wars, like Vietnam War, Cambodia conflicts, and so on. This research paper, therefore, strives to examine the ASEAN as a case with the help of both primary and secondary sources. It likewise will be dealt with how changing norms and identity building facilitate the ASEAN countries to deal with their conflicts both internal and external. This paper also will discuss how internal developments within countries affect conflict resolution process as each member of ASEAN is guided by its national interest. It is then argued that conflict resolution in the ASEAN is moving from its existing power-based solution to norms and identity-based solution as member countries have become more dependent on other countries. The research, therefore, is concluded by saying that the conflicts could only be resolved through building norms and common identities, which of course are recognized crucial mechanisms among the ASEAN countries with some exceptions.

Keywords: ASEAN, conflict resolution, norms and identities, peace and security

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10 Performance Enhancement of Autopart Manufacturing Industry Using Lean Manufacturing Strategies: A Case Study

Authors: Raman Kumar, Jasgurpreet Singh Chohan, Chander Shekhar Verma

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Today, the manufacturing industries respond rapidly to new demands and compete in this continuously changing environment, thus seeking out new methods allowing them to remain competitive and flexible simultaneously. The aim of the manufacturing organizations is to reduce manufacturing costs and wastes through system simplification, organizational potential, and proper infrastructural planning by using modern techniques like lean manufacturing. In India, large number of medium and large scale manufacturing industries has successfully implemented lean manufacturing techniques. Keeping in view the above-mentioned facts, different tools will be involved in the successful implementation of the lean approach. The present work is focused on the auto part manufacturing industry to improve the performance of the recliner assembly line. There is a number of lean manufacturing tools available, but the experience and complete knowledge of manufacturing processes are required to select an appropriate tool for a specific process. Fishbone diagrams (scrap, inventory, and waiting) have been drawn to identify the root cause of different. Effect of cycle time reduction on scrap and inventory is analyzed thoroughly in the case company. Results have shown that there is a decrease in inventory cost by 7 percent after the successful implementation of the lean tool.

Keywords: lean tool, fish-bone diagram, cycle time reduction, case study

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9 Influence of Thermal History on the Undrained Shear Strength of the Bentonite-Sand Mixture

Authors: K. Ravi, Sabu Subhash

Abstract:

Densely compacted bentonite or bentonite–sand mixture has been identified as a suitable buffer in the deep geological repository (DGR) for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) due to its favourable physicochemical and hydro-mechanical properties. The addition of sand to the bentonite enhances the thermal conductivity and compaction properties and reduces the drying shrinkage of the buffer material. The buffer material may undergo cyclic wetting and drying upon ingress of groundwater from the surrounding rock mass and from evaporation due to high temperature (50–210 °C) derived from the waste canister. The cycles of changes in temperature may result in thermal history, and the hydro-mechanical properties of the buffer material may be affected. This paper examines the influence of thermal history on the undrained shear strength of bentonite and bentonite-sand mixture. Bentonite from Rajasthan state and sand from the Assam state of India are used in this study. The undrained shear strength values are obtained by conducting unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests on cylindrical specimens (dry densities 1.30 and 1.5 Mg/m3) of bentonite and bentonite-sand mixture consisting of 30 % bentonite+ 70 % sand. The specimens are preheated at temperatures varying from 50-150 °C for one, two and four hours in hot air oven. The results indicate that the undrained shear strength is increased by the thermal history of the buffer material. The specimens of bentonite-sand mixture exhibited more increase in strength compared to the pure bentonite specimens. This indicates that the sand content of the mixture plays a vital role in taking the thermal stresses of the bentonite buffer in DGR conditions.

Keywords: bentonite, deep geological repository, thermal history, undrained shear strength

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8 Use of Amaranthus Roxburghianus Root Extract in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

Authors: S. A. Nirmal, J. M. Ingale, G. S. Asane, S. C. Pal, Subhash C. Mandal

Abstract:

The present work was undertaken to determine the effects of Amaranthus roxburghianus Nevski. (Amaranthaceae) root alone and in combination with piperine in treating ulcerative colitis (UC) in mice. Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups (n = 6). Standard group received prednisolone (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Treatment groups received hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and a combination of hydroalcoholic extract of roots of A. roxburghianus (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and piperine (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Ulcer index, colitis severity, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde and glutathione were estimated from blood and tissue. Column chromatography of the extract was done and purified fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Treatment with the combination of hydroalcoholic extract of A. roxburghianus and piperine showed minimal ulceration, hemorrhage, necrosis and leucocyte infiltration by histopathological observation. Acetic acid increased MPO levels in blood and colon tissue to 355 U/mL and 385 U/mg, respectively. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract (100 mg/kg) and piperine (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased MPO in blood and tissue to 182 U/mL and 193 U/mg, respectively. Similarly, this combination significantly reduced MPO and increased glutathione levels in blood and tissue. Various phytoconstituents were detected by GC-MS. The combination of hydroalcoholic extract and piperine is effective in the treatment of UC and the effects are comparable with the standard drug prednisolone. 4H-pyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl, eugenol and benzene, and 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl are reported having analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties; they may play a role in the biological activity of A. roxburghianus root.

Keywords: Amaranthus roxburghianus, ulcerative colitis, anti-inflammatory, ulcerative colitis

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7 Innovation in Traditional Game: A Case Study of Trainee Teachers' Learning Experiences

Authors: Malathi Balakrishnan, Cheng Lee Ooi, Chander Vengadasalam

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore a case study of trainee teachers’ learning experience on innovating traditional games during the traditional game carnival. It explores issues arising from multiple case studies of trainee teachers learning experiences in innovating traditional games. A qualitative methodology was adopted through observations, semi-structured interviews and reflective journals’ content analysis of trainee teachers’ learning experiences creating and implementing innovative traditional games. Twelve groups of 36 trainee teachers who registered for Sports and Physical Education Management Course were the participants for this research during the traditional game carnival. Semi structured interviews were administrated after the trainee teachers learning experiences in creating innovative traditional games. Reflective journals were collected after carnival day and the content analyzed. Inductive data analysis was used to evaluate various data sources. All the collected data were then evaluated through the Nvivo data analysis process. Inductive reasoning was interpreted based on the Self Determination Theory (SDT). The findings showed that the trainee teachers had positive game participation experiences, game knowledge about traditional games and positive motivation to innovate the game. The data also revealed the influence of themes like cultural significance and creativity. It can be concluded from the findings that the organized game carnival, as a requirement of course work by the Institute of Teacher Training Malaysia, was able to enhance teacher trainers’ innovative thinking skills. The SDT, as a multidimensional approach to motivation, was utilized. Therefore, teacher trainers may have more learning experiences using the SDT.

Keywords: learning experiences, innovation, traditional games, trainee teachers

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6 Development of Nanoparticulate Based Chimeric Drug Delivery System Using Drug Bioconjugated Plant Virus Capsid on Biocompatible Nanoparticles

Authors: Indu Barwal, Shloka Thakur, Subhash C. Yadav

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The plant virus capsid protein based nanoparticles are extensively studied for their application in biomedical research for development of nanomedicines and drug delivery systems. We have developed a chimeric drug delivery system by controlled in vitro assembly of separately bioconjugated fluorescent dye (as reporting molecule), folic acid (as receptor binding biomolecule for targeted delivery) and doxorubicin (as anticancer drug) using modified EDC NHS chemistry on heterologously overexpressed (E. coli) capsid proteins of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). This chimeric vehicle was further encapsidated on gold nanoparticles (20nm) coated with 5≠ thiolated DNA probe to neutralize the positive charge of capsid proteins. This facilitates the in vitro assembly of modified capsid subunits on the gold nanoparticles to develop chimeric GNPs encapsidated targeted drug delivery system. The bioconjugation of functionalities, number of functionality on capsid subunits as well as virus like nanoparticles, structural stability and in vitro assembly were confirmed by SDS PAGE, relative absorbance, MALDI TOF, ESI-MS, Circular dichroism, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, zeta particle size analyzer and TEM imaging. This vehicle was stable at pH 4.0 to 8.0 suitable for many organelles targeting. This in vitro assembled chimeric plant virus like particles could be suitable for ideal drug delivery vehicles for subcutaneous cancer treatment and could be further modified for other type of cancer treatment by conjugating other functionalities (targeting, drug) on capsids.

Keywords: chimeric drug delivery vehicles, bioconjugated plant, virus, capsid

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5 Development and Characterisation of Nonwoven Fabrics for Apparel Applications

Authors: Muhammad Cheema, Tahir Shah, Subhash Anand

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The cost of making apparel fabrics for garment manufacturing is very high because of their conventional manufacturing processes and new methods/processes are being constantly developed for making fabrics by unconventional methods. With the advancements in technology and the availability of the innovative fibres, durable nonwoven fabrics by using the hydroentanglement process that can compete with the woven fabrics in terms of their aesthetic and tensile properties are being developed. In the work reported here, the hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics were developed through a hybrid nonwoven manufacturing processes by using fibrillated Tencel® and bi-component (sheath/core) polyethylene/polyester (PE/PET) fibres, in which the initial nonwoven fabrics were prepared by the needle-punching method followed by hydroentanglement process carried out at optimal pressures of 50 to 250bars. The prepared fabrics were characterized according to the British Standards (BS 3356:1990, BS 9237:1995, BS 13934-1:1999) and the attained results were compared with those for a standard plain-weave cotton, polyester woven fabric and commercially available nonwoven fabric (Evolon®). The developed hydroentangled fabrics showed better drape properties owing to their flexural rigidity of 252 mg.cm in the machine direction, while the corresponding commercial hydroentangled fabric displayed a value of 1340 mg.cm in the machine direction. The tensile strength of the developed hydroentangled fabrics showed an approximately 200% increase than the commercial hydroentangled fabrics. Similarly, the developed hydroentangled fabrics showed higher properties in term of air permeability, such as the developed hydroentangled fabric exhibited 448 mm/sec and Evolon fabric exhibited 69 mm/sec at 100 Pa pressure. Thus for apparel fabrics, the work combining the existing methods of nonwoven production, provides additional benefits in terms of cost, time and also helps in reducing the carbon footprint for the apparel fabric manufacture.

Keywords: hydroentanglement, nonwoven apparel, durable nonwoven, wearable nonwoven

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4 Key Drivers Influencing the Shopping Behaviour of Customers in Retail Store

Authors: Aamir Hasan, Subhash Mishra

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to determine the key drivers which influence the shopping behavior of the customers in the retail store. In today‟s competitive world with increasing number of retail stores, the retailers need to be more customer oriented. Retail has changed and expanded in all lines of business, be it apparel,jewelry, footwear, groceries etc. The modern consumer is posing a challenging task for the Indian retailer. More aware, more confident and much more demanding, therefore the retailers are looking for ways to deliver better consumer value and to increase consumer purchase intention. Retailers tend to differentiate themselves by making their service easier to consumers. The study aims to study the key drivers that can influence shopping behavior in retail store. A survey (store intercept) method was employed to elicit primary information from 300 shoppers in different retail stores of Lucknow. The findings reveal the factors that play a greater role in influencing the shopping behavior of customers in retail store. As such, a survey of retail store customers‟ attitude towards reduced price, sales promotion, quality of the products, proximity to the home, customer service, store atmospherics were analyzed to identify the key drivers influencing shopping behavior in retail store. A questionnaire based on a five-item Likert scale, as well as random sampling, was employed for data collection. Data analysis was accomplished using SPSS software. The paper has found shopping experience, store image and value for money as three important variable out of which shopping experience emerged as a dominant factor which influences the consumer's shopping behavior in the retail store. Since the research has established empirical evidences in determining the key drivers which influences the shopping behavior of the customers in the retail store, it serves as a foundation for a deeper probe into the shopping behavior of the customers in the retail store research domain in the Indian context.

Keywords: retail, shopping, customers, questionnaire

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3 Fibrin Glue Reinforcement of Choledochotomy Closure Suture Line for Prevention of Bile Leak in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration with Primary Closure: A Pilot Study

Authors: Rahul Jain, Jagdish Chander, Anish Gupta

Abstract:

Introduction: Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) allows cholecystectomy and the removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones to be performed during the same sitting, thereby decreasing hospital stay. CBD exploration through choledochotomy can be closed primarily with an absorbable suture material, but can lead to biliary leakage postoperatively. In this study we tried to find a solution to further lower the incidence of bile leakage by using fibrin glue to reinforce the sutures put on choledochotomy suture line. It has haemostatic and sealing action, through strengthening the last step of the physiological coagulation and biostimulation, which favours the formation of new tissue matrix. Methodology: This study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India, from 2011 to 2013. 20 patients with CBD stones documented on MRCP with CBD diameter of 9 mm or more were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups namely Group A in which choledochotomy was closed with polyglactin 4-0 suture and suture line reinforced with fibrin glue, and Group ‘B’ in which choledochotomy was closed with polyglactin 4-0 suture alone. Both the groups were evaluated and compared on clinical parameters such as operative time, drain content, drain output, no. of days drain was required, blood loss & transfusion requirements, length of postoperative hospital stay and conversion to open surgery. Results: The operative time for Group A ranged from 60 to 210 min (mean 131.50 min) and Group B 65 to 300 min (mean 140 minutes). The blood loss in group A ranged from 10 to 120 ml (mean 51.50 ml), in group B it ranged from 10 to 200 ml (mean 53.50 ml). In Group A, there was no case of bile leak but there was bile leak in 2 cases in Group B, minimum 0 and maximum 900 ml with a mean of 97 ml and p value of 0.147 with no statistically significant difference in bile leak in test and control groups. The minimum and maximum serous drainage in Group A was nil & 80 ml (mean 11 ml) and in Group B was nil & 270 ml (mean 72.50 ml). The p value came as 0.028 which is statistically significant. Thus serous leakage in Group A was significantly less than in Group B. The drains in Group A were removed from 2 to 4 days (mean: 3 days) while in Group B from 2 to 9 days (mean: 3.9 days). The patients in Group A stayed in hospital post operatively from 3 to 8 days (mean: 5.30) while in Group B it ranged from 3 to 10 days with a mean of 5 days. Conclusion: Fibrin glue application on CBD decreases bile leakage but in statistically insignificant manner. Fibrin glue application on CBD can significantly decrease post operative serous drainage after LCBDE. Fibrin glue application on CBD is safe and easy technique without any significant adverse effects and can help less experienced surgeons performing LCBDE.

Keywords: bile leak, fibrin glue, LCBDE, serous leak

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2 Aloe vera Prevents Injuries Induced by Whole Body X-ray Irradiation in Rodents

Authors: Shashi Bala, Neha A. Chugh, Subhash C. Bansal, Mohal L. Garg, Ashwani Koul

Abstract:

Purpose: The present study was designed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera from whole body X-ray exposure in rodents. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, after on week’s acclimatization, male balb/c mice procured from Central Animal House, Panjab University, Chandigarh (India), were divided into four groups: Group I mice served as control. Group II mice were orally administrated Aloe vera pulp extract (50 mg/ kg body weight) on alternate days for 30 days. Group III mice were subjected to whole body X-ray irradiation to cumulative dose of 2Gy (0.258Gy twice a day for four days in the last week). Group IV animals were pretreated with Aloe vera pulp extract on alternate days as in Group II and in the last week of the study, they were exposed to X-ray as in Group III. Results: Spleen of X-ray irradiated mice showed histopathological alterations accompanied with enhanced activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO), enhanced activities in Glutathione based enzymes such as Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Glutathione reductase (GR), Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) associated with depletion in reduced Glutathione (GSH) concentration were observed after X-ray exposure in blood plasma and spleen.. Pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factors (TNF-α) and Inteleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were also found to be enhanced in serum of irradiated mice. Irradiation-induced significant elevation in Total leucocyte counts (TLC), neutrophil counts and decline in platelet counts, associated with unaltered levels of red blood cell counts (RBC’s) and haemoglobin (Hb) in various treatment groups. Clastogenic damage and apoptosis was also found to be increase in splenic tissue of X-ray exposed mice as assessed by micronucleus and TUNEL assay. However, X-ray irradiated animals administered with Aloe vera revealed significant improvement in levels of ROS/ LPO, LDH activity, and antioxidant mechanism. Aloe vera pretreated animals exhibited less severe damage, and early recovery in micronucleated cells, hematological parameters, apoptotic cells and inflammatory markers as compared to X-ray exposed mice. Conclusion: These results indicate that the radioprotective potential of Aloe vera against X-ray induced damage. This may be due to its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Keywords: aloe vera, antioxidant defense system, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), micronucleus assay, x-ray

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1 Abuse against Elderly Widows in India and Selected States: An Exploration

Authors: Rasmita Mishra, Chander Shekher

Abstract:

Background: Population ageing is an inevitable outcome of demographic transition. Due to increased life expectancy, the old age population in India and worldwide has increased, and it will continue to grow more alarmingly in the near future. There are redundant austerity that has been bestowed upon the widows, thus, the life of widows is never been easy in India. The loss of spouse along with other disadvantaged socioeconomic intermediaries like illiteracy and poverty often make the life of widows more difficult to live. Methodology: Ethical statement: The study used secondary data available in the public domain for its wider use in social research. Thus, there was no requirement of ethical consent in the present study. Data source: Building a Knowledge Base on Population Aging in India (BKPAI), 2011 dataset is used to fulfill the objectives of this study. It was carried out in seven states – Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal – having a higher percentage of the population in the age group 60 years and above compared to the national average. Statistical analysis: Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to understand the level of elderly widows and incidence of abuse against them in India and selected states. Bivariate and Trivariate analysis were carried out to check the pattern of abuse by selected covariates. Chi-Square test is used to verify the significance of the association. Further, Discriminant Analysis (DA) is carried out to understand which factor can separate out group of neglect and non-neglect elderly. Result: With the addition of 27 million from 2001 to 2011, the total elderly population in India is more than 100 million. Elderly females aged 60+ were more widows than their counterpart elderly males. This pattern was observed across selected states and at national level. At national level, more than one tenth (12 percent) of elderly experienced abuse in their lifetime. Incidence of abuse against elderly widows within family was considerably higher than the outside the family. This pattern was observed across the selected place and abuse in the study. In discriminant analysis, the significant difference between neglected and non-neglected elderly on each of the independent variables was examined using group mean and ANOVA. Discussion: The study is the first of its kind to assess the incidence of abuse against elderly widows using large-scale survey data. Another novelty of this study is that it has assessed for those states in India whereby the proportion of elderly is higher than the national average. Place and perpetrators involved in the abuse against elderly widows certainly envisaged the safeness in the present living arrangement of elderly widows. Conclusion: Due to the increasing life expectancy it is expected that the number of elderly will increase much faster than before. As biologically women live longer than men, there will be more women elderly than men. With respect to the living arrangement, after the demise of the spouse, elderly widows are more likely to live with their children who emerged as the main perpetrator of abuse.

Keywords: elderly abuse, emotional abuse physical abuse, material abuse, psychological abuse, quality of life

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