Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Search results for: spoilage

65 Ammonia and Biogenic Amine Production of Fish Spoilage Bacteria: Affected by Olive Leaf, Olive Cake and Black Water

Authors: E. Kuley, M. Durmuş, E. Balikci, G. Ozyurt, Y. Uçar, F. Kuley, F. Ozogul, Y. Ozogul

Abstract:

Ammonia and biogenic amine production of fish spoilage bacteria in sardine infusion decarboxylase broth and antimicrobial effect of olive by products (olive leaf extract:OL, olive cake: OC and black water:BW) was monitored using HPLC method. Fish spoilage bacteria produced all biogenic amine tested, mainly histamine and serotonin. Ammonia was accumulated more than 13.60 mg/L. Histamine production was in range 37.50 mg/L by Ser. liquefaciens and 86.71 mg/L by Ent. cloacae. The highest putrescine and cadaverine production was observed by Ent. cloacae (17.80 vs. 17.69 mg/L). The presence of OL, OC and BW in the broth significantly affected biogenic amine accumulation by bacteria. The antibacterial effect of olive by products depended on bacterial strains. OL and OC resulted in significant inhibition effect on HIS accumulation by bacteria apart from Ser. liquefaciens and Prot. mirabilis. The study result revealed that usefulness of OL and OC to prevent the accumulation of this amine which may affect human health.

Keywords: Antimicrobials, biogenic amine, fish spoilage bacteria, olive-by products

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64 Electronic Nose for Monitoring Fungal Deterioration of Stored Rapeseed

Authors: Robert Rusinek, Marek Gancarz, Jolanta Wawrzyniak, Marzena Gawrysiak-Witulska, Dariusz Wiącek, Agnieszka Nawrocka

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Investigations were performed to examine the possibility of using an electronic nose to monitor the development of fungal microflora during the first eighteen days of rapeseed storage. The Cyranose 320 device with polymer-composite sensors was used. Each sample of infected material was divided into three parts, and the degree of spoilage was measured in three ways: analysis of colony forming units (CFU), determination of ergosterol content (ERG), and measurement with the eNose. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the generated patterns of signals, and six groups of different spoilage levels were isolated. The electronic nose with polymer-composite sensors under laboratory conditions distinguished between species of spoiled and unspoiled seeds with 100% accuracy. Despite some minor differences in the CFU and ergosterol content, the electronic nose provided responses correctly corresponding to the level of spoilage with 85% accuracy. Therefore, the main conclusion from the study is that the electronic nose is a promising tool for quick and non-destructive detection of the level of oil seed spoilage. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: colony forming units, electronic nose, ergosterol, rapeseed

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63 Antimicrobial Effect of Natamycin against Food Spoilage Fungi and Yeast Contaminated Fermented Foods

Authors: Pervin Basaran Akocak

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Food antimicrobials are compounds that are incorporated into food matrixes in order to cause death or delay the growth of spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms. As a result, microbiological deterioration is prevented throughout storage and food distribution. In this study, the effect of natural antimycotic natamycin (C33H47NO13, with a molecular mass of 665.725), a GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) commercial compound produced by different strains of Streptomyces sp., was tested against various fermented food contamination fungi and yeast species. At the concentration of 100 µg/ml, natamycin exhibited stronger antifungal activity against fungi than yeast species tested. The exposure time of natamycin for complete inhibition of the species tested were found to be between 100-180 min at 300-750 µg/ml concentration. SEM observations of fungal species demonstrated that natamycin distorted and damaged the conidia and hyphae by inhibiting spore germination and mycelial growth. Natamycin can be considered as a potential candidate in hurdle food treatments for preventing fungal and yeast invasion and resulting deterioration of fermented products.

Keywords: natamycin, antifungal, fermented food, food spoilage fungi

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62 Time Temperature Indicator for Monitoring Freshness of Packed Pasteurized Milk

Authors: Rajeshwar S. Matche, Subhash V. Pawde, Suraj P, Sachin R. Chaudhari

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Time Temperature Indicator’s (TTI) are trending approach in a food packaging that will be insightful to have safe and hygienic food products. Currently, available TTI in the market are mostly a product specific and sometime even difficult to handle especially in supply chain as these are pre-activated and require specific storage conditions. In the present study, research focus is on the development of a cost-effective lactic acid based TTI that can work over a wide range of temperature and can be activated at time of packaging or on demand. The correlation between activation energies of colour change of the developed indicator and packed pasteurized milk spoilage with respect to time and temperature was established. Developed lactic acid based TTI strips have range of activation energy from 10.13 to 24.20 KJ/mol. We found that the developed TTI strip’s with activation energy 12.42, and 14.41KJ/mol can be correlated with spoilage activation energy of packed pasteurized milk which was 25.71 KJ/mol with factor of 2 at storage temperature 4°C. The implementation of these TTI on packed pasteurized milk allow us see visual colour change during the storage and can be fruitful to monitoring quality of the milk and understand its freshness especially in a cold supply chain, viz distributor and road vendor etc.

Keywords: pasteurised packed milk, time temperature indicator, spoilage, freshness

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61 Control of Spoilage Fungi by Lactobacilli

Authors: Laref Nora, Guessas Bettache

Abstract:

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have a major potential to be used in biopreservation methods because they are safe to consume (GRAS: generally regarded as safe) and they naturally occurring microflora of many foods. The preservative action of LAB is due to several antimicrobial metabolites, including lactic acid, acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocins, carbon dioxide, diacetyl, and reuterin. Several studies have focused on the antifungal activity compounds from natural sources for biopreservation in alternatives to chemical use. LAB has an antifungal activity which may inhibit food spoilage fungi. Lactobacillus strains isolated from silage prepared in our laboratory by fermentation of grass in anaerobic condition were screened for antifungal activity with overlay assay against Aspergillus spp. The antifungal compounds were originated from organic acids; inhibitory activity did not change after treatment with proteolytic enzymes. Lactobacillus strains were able also to inhibit Trichoderma spp, Penicillium spp, Fusarium roseum, and Stemphylim spp by confrontation assay. The inhibitory activity could be detected against the mould Aspergillus spp in the apricot juice but not in a bakery product. These antifungal compounds have the potential to be used as food biopreservation to inhibit conidia germination, and mycelia growth of spoilage fungi depending on food type, pH of food especially in heat, and cold processed foods.

Keywords: lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus, antifungal activity

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60 Effect of High Pressure Treatment on the Microbial Contamination and on Some Chemical and Physical Properties of Minced Chicken

Authors: Siddig H. Hamad, Salah M. Al-Eid, Fahad M. Al-Jassas

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Composite samples of minced chicken were vacuum-packaged and pressure treated at 300, 400, 450 and 500 MPa in a Stansted 'FOOD-LAB' model S-FL-850-9-W high hydrostatic pressure research apparatus (Stansted Fluid Power Ltd., Stansted, UK). Treated and untreated samples were then stored at 3°C, and microbial content as well as some chemical and physical properties monitored. The microbial load of the untreated samples reached the spoilage level of 107 cfu/g in about one week, resulting in bad smell and dark brown color. The pressure treatments reduced total bacterial counts by about 1.8 to 3.2 log10 cycles and reduced counts of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella to non-detectable levels. The color of meat was slightly affected, but pH, moisture content and the oxidation products of lipids were not substantially changed. The treatment killed mainly gram negative bacteria but also caused sub-lethal injury to part of the population resulting in prolonged lag phase. The population not killed by the 350 to 450 MPa treatments grew relatively slowly during storage, and its loads reached spoilage level in 4 to 6 weeks, while the load of the population treated at 500 MPa did not reach this level till the end of a storage period of 9 weeks.

Keywords: chicken, cold storage, microbial spoilage, high hydrostatic pressure

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59 Combined Effects of Thymol, Carvacrol and Packaging on the Shelf-Life of Marinated Chicken

Authors: Layal Karam, Rayan Roustom, Mohamad G. Abiad, Tahra El-Obeid, Ioannis N. Savvaidis

Abstract:

The demand for marinated chicken worldwide, is continuously growing. To date, limited data on addition of active components of Essential Oils (EOs) to marinades for chicken preservation are available. The antimicrobial effect of carvacrol and thymol, added at 0.4 and 0.8% v/w to marinated fresh chicken, stored in air and under vacuum packaging (VP), for 21 days at 4°C, was examined. The samples were monitored for microbiological (total viable count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., total coliforms, Escherichia coli, yeasts and molds) and sensory attributes (odor characteristics). Our data supports that among the tested microorganisms, Pseudomonas spp., LAB and B. thermosphacta were the most dominant microbiota in the marinated chicken samples. Additionally, the use of active EOs components, especially the higher concentration (0.8% v/w) in combination with VP, retarded the growth of spoilage microbiota and resulted in a significant reduction of about 2.9-3.1 log cfu/g and a microbiological shelf-life extension of marinated chicken by > 6 days, as judged by TVC data. Interestingly, the combination of active components of EOs at the lower concentration (0.4% v/w) and packaging (air or vacuum) resulted in a significant sensorial shelf-life extension of 15 and >21 days, as compared to the controls’ shelf-life of 9 days. The results of our study demonstrated the potential of the active components, carvacrol and thymol, as natural effective antimicrobial hurdles to control the growth of spoilage microorganisms in marinated chicken meat.

Keywords: chicken, essential oils compounds, marination, meat spoilage, preservation

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58 Assessment of Commercial Antimicrobials Incorporated into Gelatin Coatings and Applied to Conventional Heat-Shrinking Material for the Prevention of Blown Pack Spoilage in Vacuum Packaged Beef Cuts

Authors: Andrey A. Tyuftin, Rachael Reid, Paula Bourke, Patrick J. Cullen, Seamus Fanning, Paul Whyte, Declan Bolton , Joe P. Kerry

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One of the primary spoilage issues associated with vacuum-packed beef products is blown pack spoilage (BPS) caused by the psychrophilic spore-forming strain of Clostridium spp. Spores derived from this organism can be activated after heat-shrinking (eg. 90°C for 3 seconds). To date, research into the control of Clostridium spp in beef packaging is limited. Active packaging in the form of antimicrobially-active coatings may be one approach to its control. Antimicrobial compounds may be incorporated into packaging films or coated onto the internal surfaces of packaging films using a carrier matrix. Three naturally-sourced, commercially-available antimicrobials, namely; Auranta FV (AFV) (bitter oranges extract) from Envirotech Innovative Products Ltd, Ireland; Inbac-MDA (IMDA) from Chemital LLC, Spain, mixture of different organic acids and sodium octanoate (SO) from Sigma-Aldrich, UK, were added into gelatin solutions at 2 concentrations: 2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) against Clostridium estertheticum (DSMZ 8809). These gelatin solutions were coated onto the internal polyethylene layer of cold plasma treated, heat-shrinkable laminates conventionally used for meat packaging applications. Atmospheric plasma was used in order to enhance adhesion between packaging films and gelatin coatings. Pouches were formed from these coated packaging materials, and beef cuts which had been inoculated with C. estertheticum were vacuum packaged. Inoculated beef was vacuum packaged without employing active films and this treatment served as the control. All pouches were heat-sealed and then heat-shrunk at 90°C for 3 seconds and incubated at 2°C for 100 days. During this storage period, packs were monitored for the indicators of blown pack spoilage as follows; gas bubbles in drip, loss of vacuum (onset of BPS), blown, the presence of sufficient gas inside the packs to produce pack distension and tightly stretched, “overblown” packs/ packs leaking. Following storage and assessment of indicator date, it was concluded that AFV- and SO-containing packaging inhibited the growth of C. estertheticum, significantly delaying the blown pack spoilage of beef primals. IMDA did not inhibit the growth of C. estertheticum. This may be attributed to differences in release rates and possible reactions with gelatin. Overall, active films were successfully produced following plasma surface treatment, and experimental data demonstrated clearly that the use of antimicrobially-active films could significantly prolong the storage stability of beef primals through the effective control of BPS.

Keywords: active packaging, blown pack spoilage, Clostridium, antimicrobials, edible coatings, food packaging, gelatin films, meat science

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57 Air Cargo Overbooking Model under Stochastic Weight and Volume Cancellation

Authors: Naragain Phumchusri, Krisada Roekdethawesab, Manoj Lohatepanont

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Overbooking is an approach of selling more goods or services than available capacities because sellers anticipate that some buyers will not show-up or may cancel their bookings. At present, many airlines deploy overbooking strategy in order to deal with the uncertainty of their customers. Particularly, some airlines sell more cargo capacity than what they have available to freight forwarders with beliefs that some of them will cancel later. In this paper, we propose methods to find the optimal overbooking level of volume and weight for air cargo in order to minimize the total cost, containing cost of spoilage and cost of offloaded. Cancellations of volume and weight are jointly random variables with a known joint distribution. Heuristic approaches applying the idea of weight and volume independency is considered to find an appropriate answer to the full problem. Computational experiments are used to explore the performance of approaches presented in this paper, as compared to a naïve method under different scenarios.

Keywords: air cargo overbooking, offloading capacity, optimal overbooking level, revenue management, spoilage capacity

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56 Development of a Miniature Laboratory Lactic Goat Cheese Model to Study the Expression of Spoilage by Pseudomonas Spp. In Cheeses

Authors: Abirami Baleswaran, Christel Couderc, Loubnah Belahcen, Jean Dayde, Hélène Tormo, Gwénaëlle Jard

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Cheeses are often reported to be spoiled by Pseudomonas spp., responsible for defects in appearance, texture, taste, and smell, leading to their non-marketing and even their destruction. Despite preventive actions, problems linked to Pseudomonas spp. are difficult to control by the lack of knowledge and control of these contaminants during the cheese manufacturing. Lactic goat cheese producers are not spared by this problem and are looking for solutions to decrease the number of spoiled cheeses. To explore different hypotheses, experiments are needed. However, cheese-making experiments at the pilot scale are expensive and time consuming. Thus, there is a real need to develop a miniature cheeses model system under controlled conditions. In a previous study, several miniature cheese models corresponding to different type of commercial cheeses have been developed for different purposes. The models were, for example, used to study the influence of milk, starters cultures, pathogen inhibiting additives, enzymatic reactions, microflora, freezing process on cheese. Nevertheless, no miniature model was described on the lactic goat cheese. The aim of this work was to develop a miniature cheese model system under controlled laboratory conditions which resembles commercial lactic goat cheese to study Pseudomonas spp. spoilage during the manufacturing and ripening process. First, a protocol for the preparation of miniature cheeses (3.5 times smaller than a commercial one) was designed based on the cheese factorymanufacturing process. The process was adapted from “Rocamadour” technology and involves maturation of pasteurized milk, coagulation, removal of whey by centrifugation, moulding, and ripening in a little scale cellar. Microbiological (total bacterial count, yeast, molds) and physicochemical (pH, saltinmoisture, moisture in fat-free)analyses were performed on four key stages of the process (before salting, after salting, 1st day of ripening, and end of ripening). Factory and miniature cheeses volatilomewere also obtained after full scan Sift-MS cheese analysis. Then, Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from contaminated cheeses were selected on their origin, their ability to produce pigments, and their enzymatic activities (proteolytic, lecithinasic, and lipolytic). Factory and miniature curds were inoculated by spotting selected strains on the cheese surface. The expression of cheese spoilage was evaluated by counting the level of Pseudomonas spp. during the ripening and by visual observation and under UVlamp. The physicochemical and microbiological compositions of miniature cheeses permitted to assess that miniature process resembles factory process. As expected, differences involatilomes were observed, probably due to the fact that miniature cheeses are made usingpasteurized milk to better control the microbiological conditions and also because the little format of cheese induced probably a difference during the ripening even if the humidity and temperature in the cellar were quite similar. The spoilage expression of Pseudomonas spp. was observed in miniature and factory cheeses. It confirms that the proposed model is suitable for the preparation of miniature cheese specimens in the spoilage study of Pseudomonas spp. in lactic cheeses. This kind of model could be deployed for other applications and other type of cheese.

Keywords: cheese, miniature, model, pseudomonas spp, spoilage

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55 Antifungal Lactobacilli Affect Mycelium Morphology and Protect Apricot Juice against Mold Spoilage

Authors: Nora Laref, Bettache Guessas

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Preservation of foods mainly depends on delaying or inhibiting the growth of spoilage microorganisms, and antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria is one of the technological properties researched. The antifungal activity was screened with overlay method of six strains of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LB54, LB52, LB51, LB20, LB24 Lactobacillus farciminis LB53) isolated from silage, camel milk and carrot against Aspergillus sp. Lactobacillus plantarum and farciminis inhibit spore germination and mycelia growth of Aspergillus sp., the production of antifungal compounds by these strains was detectable after 4h of incubation at 30°C and show total inhibition after 24h in liquid media, but in solid media showed a good inhibition after 96h of incubation, these compounds cause malformations in the thalle, conidiophore and conidia. These strains could be used as agents of biopreservation since have the ability to retard Aspergillus sp., growth in apricot juice with and without sugar conserved in refrigerator but not in bread.

Keywords: lactobacillus, antifungal substances, aspergillus, biopreservation

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54 The Production of B-Group Vitamin by Lactic Acid Bacteria and Its Importance in Food Industry

Authors: Goksen Arik, Mihriban Korukluoglu

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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been used commonly in the food industry. They can be used as natural preservatives because acidifying carried out in the medium can protect the last product against microbial spoilage. Besides, other metabolites produced by LAB during fermentation period have also an antimicrobial effect on pathogen and spoilage microorganisms in the food industry. LAB are responsible for the desirable and distinctive aroma and flavour which are observed in fermented food products such as pickle, kefir, yogurt, and cheese. Various LAB strains are able to produce B-group vitamins such as folate (B11), riboflavin (B2) and cobalamin (B12). Especially wild-type strains of LAB can produce B-group vitamins in high concentrations. These cultures may be used in food industry as a starter culture and also the microbial strains can be used in encapsulation technology for new and functional food product development. This review is based on the current applications of B-group vitamin producing LAB. Furthermore, the new technologies and innovative researches about B vitamin production in LAB have been demonstrated and discussed for determining their usage availability in various area in the food industry.

Keywords: B vitamin, food industry, lactic acid bacteria, starter culture, technology

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53 Enzyme Producing Psyhrophilic Pseudomonas app. Isolated from Poultry Meats

Authors: Ali Aydin, Mert Sudagidan, Aysen Coban, Alparslan Kadir Devrim

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Pseudomonas spp. (specifically, P. fluorescens and P. fragi) are considered the principal spoilage microorganisms of refrigerated poultry meats. The higher the level psychrophilic spoilage Pseudomonas spp. on carcasses at the end of processing lead to decrease the shelf life of the refrigerated product. The aim of the study was the identification of psychrophilic Pseudomonas spp. having proteolytic and lipolytic activities from poultry meats by 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, investigation of protease and lipase related genes and determination of proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. In the of isolation procedure, collected chicken meat samples from local markets and slaughterhouses were homogenized and the lysates were incubated on Standard method agar and Skim Milk agar for selection of proteolytic bacteria and tributyrin agar for selection of lipolytic bacteria at +4 °C for 7 days. After detection of proteolytic and lipolytic colonies, the isolates were firstly analyzed by biochemical tests such as Gram staining, catalase and oxidase tests. DNA gene sequencing analysis and comparison with GenBank revealed that 126 strong enzyme Pseudomonas spp. were identified as predominantly P. fluorescens (n=55), P. fragi (n=42), Pseudomonas spp. (n=24), P. cedrina (n=2), P. poae (n=1), P. koreensis (n=1), and P. gessardi (n=1). Additionally, protease related aprX gene was screened in the strains and it was detected in 69/126 strains, whereas, lipase related lipA gene was found in 9 Pseudomonas strains. Protease activity was determined using commercially available protease assay kit and 5 strains showed high protease activity. The results showed that psychrophilic Pseudomonas strains were present in chicken meat samples and they can produce important levels of proteases and lipases for food spoilage to decrease food quality and safety.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, chicken meat, protease, lipase

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52 Electronic Nose Based on Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensors as an Alternative Technique for the Spoilage Classification of Oat Milk

Authors: A. Deswal, N. S. Deora, H. N. Mishra

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The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid method for electronic nose for online quality control of oat milk. Analysis by electronic nose and bacteriological measurements were performed to analyse spoilage kinetics of oat milk samples stored at room temperature and refrigerated conditions for up to 15 days. Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factorial analysis (DFA) and soft independent modelling by class analogy (SIMCA) classification techniques were used to differentiate the samples of oat milk at different days. The total plate count (bacteriological method) was selected as the reference method to consistently train the electronic nose system. The e-nose was able to differentiate between the oat milk samples of varying microbial load. The results obtained by the bacteria total viable counts showed that the shelf-life of oat milk stored at room temperature and refrigerated conditions were 20 hours and 13 days, respectively. The models built classified oat milk samples based on the total microbial population into “unspoiled” and “spoiled”.

Keywords: electronic-nose, bacteriological, shelf-life, classification

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51 Response Evaluation of Electronic Nose with Polymer-Composite and Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensor towards Microbiological Quality of Rapeseed

Authors: Marcin Tadla, Robert Rusinek, Jolanta Wawrzyniak, Marzena Gawrysiak-Witulska, Agnieszka Nawrocka, Marek Gancarz

Abstract:

Rapeseeds were evaluated and classified by the static-headspace sampling method using electronic noses during the 25 days spoilage period. The Cyranose 320 comprising 32 polymer-composite sensors and VCA (Volatile Compound Analyzer - made in Institute of Agrophysics) built of 8 metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensors were used to obtain sensor response (∆R/R). Each sample of spoiled material was divided into three parts and the degree of spoilage was measured four ways: determination of ergosterol content (ERG), colony forming units (CFU) and measurement with both e-noses. The study showed that both devices responsive to changes in the fungal microflora. Cyranose and VCA registered the change of domination microflora of fungi. After 7 days of storage, typical fungi for soil disappeared and appeared typical for storeroom was observed. In both cases, response ∆R/R decreased to the end of experiment, while ERG and JTK increased. The research was supported by the National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR), Grant No. PBS2/A8/22/2013.

Keywords: electronic nose, fungal microflora, metal-oxide sensor, polymer-composite sensors

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50 Nanopack: A Nanotechnology-Based Antimicrobial Packaging Solution for Extension of Shelf Life and Food Safety

Authors: Andy Sand, Naama Massad – Ivanir, Nadav Nitzan, Elisa Valderrama, Alfred Wegenberger, Koranit Shlosman, Rotem Shemesh, Ester Segal

Abstract:

Microbial spoilage of food products is of great concern in the food industry due to the direct impact on the shelf life of foods and the risk of foodborne illness. Therefore, food packaging may serve as a crucial contribution to keep the food fresh and suitable for consumption. Active packaging solutions that have the ability to inhibit the development of microorganism in food products attract a lot of interest, and many efforts have been made to engineer and assimilate such solutions on various food products. NanoPack is an EU-funded international project aiming to develop state-of-the-art antimicrobial packaging systems for perishable foods. The project is based on natural essential oils which possess significant antimicrobial activity against many bacteria, yeasts and molds. The essential oils are encapsulated in natural aluminosilicate clays, halloysite nanotubes (HNT's), that serves as a carrier for the volatile essential oils and enable their incorporation into polymer films. During the course of the project, several polyethylene films with diverse essential oils combinations were designed based on the characteristics of their target food products. The antimicrobial activity of the produced films was examined in vitro on a broad spectrum of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds. The films that showed promising in vitro results were successfully assimilated on in vivo active packaging of several food products such as cheese, bread, fruits and raw meat. The results of the in vivo analyses showed significant inhibition of the microbial spoilage, indicating the strong contribution of the NanoPack packaging solutions on the extension of shelf life and reduction of food waste caused by early spoilage throughout the supply chain.

Keywords: food safety, food packaging, essential oils, nanotechnology

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49 Effect of Environmental Conditions on E. Coli o157:h7 Atcc 43888 and L. Monocytogenes Atcc 7644 Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Motility and Cell Attachment on Food-Contact Surfaces

Authors: Stanley Dula, Oluwatosini A. Ijabadeniyi

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Biofilm formation is a major source of materials and foodstuffs contamination, contributing to occurrence of pathogenic and spoilage microbes in food processing resulting in food spoilage, transmission of diseases and significant food hygiene and safety issues. This study elucidates biofilm formation of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 grown under food related environmental stress conditions of varying pH (5.0;7.0; and 8.5) and temperature (15, 25 and 37 ℃). Both strains showed confluent biofilm formation at 25 ℃ and 37 ℃, at pH 8.5 after 5 days. E. coli showed curli fimbriae production at various temperatures, while L. monocytogenes did not show pronounced expression. Swarm, swimming and twitching plate assays were used to determine strain motilities. Characterization of cell hydrophobicity was done using the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons (MATH) assay using n-hexadecane. Both strains showed hydrophilic characteristics as they fell within a < 20 % interval. FT-IR revealed COOH at 1622 cm-1, and a strong absorption band at 3650 cm-1 – 3200 cm-1 indicating the presence of both -OH and -NH groups. Both strains were hydrophilic and could form biofilm at different combinations of temperature and pH. EPS produced in both species proved to be an acidic hetero-polysaccharide.

Keywords: biofilm, pathogens, hydrophobicity, motility

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48 Exploratory Tests of Crude Bacteriocins from Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria against Food-Borne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria

Authors: M. Naimi, M. B. Khaled

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The aim of the present work was to test in vitro inhibition of food pathogens and spoilage bacteria by crude bacteriocins from autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. Thirty autochthonous lactic acid bacteria isolated previously, belonging to the genera: Lactobacillus, Carnobacterium, Lactococcus, Vagococcus, Streptococcus, and Pediococcus, have been screened by an agar spot test and a well diffusion assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative harmful bacteria: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa under conditions means to reduce lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide effect to select bacteria with high bacteriocinogenic potential. Furthermore, crude bacteriocins semiquantification and heat sensitivity to different temperatures (80, 95, 110°C, and 121°C) were performed. Another exploratory test concerning the response of St. aureus ATCC 6538 to the presence of crude bacteriocins was realized. It has been observed by the agar spot test that fifteen candidates were active toward Gram-positive targets strains. The secondary screening demonstrated an antagonistic activity oriented only against St. aureus ATCC 6538, leading to the selection of five isolates: Lm14, Lm21, Lm23, Lm24, and Lm25 with a larger inhibition zone compared to the others. The ANOVA statistical analysis reveals a small variation of repeatability: Lm21: 0.56%, Lm23: 0%, Lm25: 1.67%, Lm14: 1.88%, Lm24: 2.14%. Conversely, slight variation was reported in terms of inhibition diameters: 9.58± 0.40, 9.83± 0.46, and 10.16± 0.24 8.5 ± 0.40 10 mm for, Lm21, Lm23, Lm25, Lm14and Lm24, indicating that the observed potential showed a heterogeneous distribution (BMS = 0.383, WMS = 0.117). The repeatability coefficient calculated displayed 7.35%. As for the bacteriocins semiquantification, the five samples exhibited production amounts about 4.16 for Lm21, Lm23, Lm25 and 2.08 AU/ml for Lm14, Lm24. Concerning the sensitivity the crude bacteriocins were fully insensitive to heat inactivation, until 121°C, they preserved the same inhibition diameter. As to, kinetic of growth , the µmax showed reductions in pathogens load for Lm21, Lm23, Lm25, Lm14, Lm24 of about 42.92%, 84.12%, 88.55%, 54.95%, 29.97% in the second trails. Inversely, this pathogen growth after five hours displayed differences of 79.45%, 12.64%, 11.82%, 87.88%, 85.66% in the second trails, compared to the control. This study showed potential inhibition to the growth of this food pathogen, suggesting the possibility to improve the hygienic food quality.

Keywords: exploratory test, lactic acid bacteria, crude bacteriocins, spoilage, pathogens

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47 Effects of Ultraviolet Treatment on Microbiological Load and Phenolic Content of Vegetable Juice

Authors: Kubra Dogan, Fatih Tornuk

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Due to increasing consumer demand for the high-quality food products and awareness regarding the health benefits of different nutrients in food minimal processing becomes more popular in modern food preservation. To date, heat treatment is often used for inactivation of spoilage microorganisms in foods. However, it may cause significant changes in the quality and nutritional properties of food. In order to overcome the detrimental effects of heat treatment, several alternatives of non-thermal microbial inactivation processes have been investigated. Ultraviolet (UV) inactivation is a promising and feasible method for better quality and longer shelf life as an alternative to heat treatment, which aims to inhibit spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms and to inactivate the enzymes in vegetable juice production. UV-C is a sub-class of UV treatment which shows the highest microcidal effect between 250-270 nm. The wavelength of 254 nm is used for the surface disinfection of certain liquid food products such as vegetable juice. Effects of UV-C treatment on microbiological load and quality parameter of vegetable juice which is a mix of celery, carrot, lemon and orange was investigated. Our results showed that storing of UV-C applied vegetable juice for three months, reduced the count of TMAB by 3.5 log cfu/g and yeast-mold by 2 log cfu/g compared to control sample. Total phenolic content was found to be 514.3 ± 0.6 mg gallic acid equivalent/L, and there wasn’t a significant difference compared to control. The present work suggests that UV-C treatment is an alternative method for disinfection of vegetable juice since it enables adequate microbial inactivation, longer shelf life and has minimal effect on degradation of quality parameters of vegetable juice.

Keywords: heat treatment, phenolic content, shelf life, ultraviolet (UV-C), vegetable juice

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46 Amylase Activities of Mould Isolated from Spoilt Ogi and Eko: Two (2) Fermented Maize Products

Authors: Gafar Bamigbade, Adebunkola Omemu

Abstract:

“Ogi” is a fermented cereal gruel prepared from maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum typhoideum) or guinea corn (Sorghum bicolour). It could be boiled to give a thicker consistency wrapped in leaf allowed to cool and set to a gel known as “eko”. The objective of this study is to determine the amylase activities of mould associated with the spoilage of Ogi and eko. Moulds were isolated from spoilt Ogi and eko samples using standard microbiological procedures. The isolate was then screened for amylase production using starch agar medium. Positive isolates were used for amylase production by solid state fermentation (SFF) using rice bran as the medium. An alpha-amylase and glucoamylase activity of the crude enzyme was determined using the DNS method. The mean mold Population ranged from 1.15 X 105cfu/g for raw Ogi to 6.25 X 105cfu/g for Eko (wrapped in Leaves). Twenty-seven (27) moulds isolated from the sample include A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, Rhizopus species and Penicillium species. Aspergillus flavus had the highest percentage (51.9%) of incidence while Penicillium species had the least (3.7%). Out of the 27 isolates screened, 19 were found to be amylase positive by showing a clear zone around their colony after flooding with iodine solution. Diameter of clear zone ranged from 3.00mm (Aspergillus niger, C4) to 22.00mm (Aspergillus flavus, A1). Aspergillus niger isolated from spoilt Eko wrapped in leaf has the highest percentage alpha-amylase activity (30.8%) and Aspergillus flavus isolated from spoilt raw ogi has the lowest activity (11.4%). Aspergillus niger isolated from spoilt Eko wrapped in nylon produces the highest glucoamylase activity (240U/ml) while penicillium specie isolated from spoilt cooked ogi has the lowest activity (100U/ml). This study shows that moulds associated with spoilage of ogi and eko can produce amylase.

Keywords: glucoamylase, alpha amylase, ogi, eko

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45 Potential Use of Thymus mastichina L. Extract as a Natural Agent against Cheese Spoilage Microorganisms

Authors: Susana P. Dias, Andrea Gomes, Fernanda M. Ferreira, Marta F. Henriques

Abstract:

Thymus mastichina L. is an endogenous medicinal and aromatic plant of the Mediterranean flora. It has been used empirically over the years as a natural preservative in food. Nowadays, the antimicrobial activity of its bioactive compounds, such as essential oils and extracts, has been well recognized. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of Thymus mastichina ethanolic and aqueous extracts on pathogens and spoilage microorganisms present in cheese during ripening. The effect that the extract type and its concentration has on the development of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Yarrowia lipolytica populations during 24 hours, was studied 'in vitro' using appropriate culture media. The results achieved evidenced the antimicrobial activity of T. mastichina extracts against the studied strains, and the concentration of 2 mg/mL (w/v) was selected and used directly on the cheese surface during ripening. In addition to the microbiological evaluation in terms of total aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts (particularly Y. lipolytica) and molds, the treated cheeses physicochemical evaluation (humidity, aw, pH, colour, and texture) was also performed. The results were compared with cheeses with natamicyn (positive control) and without any treatment (negative control). The physicochemical evaluation showed that the cheeses treated with ethanolic extract of Thymus mastichina, except the fact that they lead to a faster water loss during ripening, did not present considerable differences when compared to controls. The study revealed an evident antimicrobial power of the extracts, although less effective than the one shown by the use of natamycin. For this reason, the improvement of the extraction methods and the adjustment of the extract concentrations will contribute to the use of T. mastichina as a healthier and eco-friendly alternative to natamycin, that is also more attractive from an economic point of view.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, cheese, ethanolic extract, Thymus mastichina

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44 Antmicrobial Packaging, a Step Towards Safe Food: A Review

Authors: Hafiz A. Sakandar, M. Afzaal, U. Khan, M. N. Akhtar

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Food is the primary concern of living organisms, provision of diet for maintenance of good physical and mental health is a basic right of an individual and the outcome of factors related to diet on health has been matter of apprehension since ancient times. Healthy and fresh food always demanded by the consumers. Modern research has find out many alternatives of traditional packaging. Now the consumer knows that good packaging system is that which protects the food from the contaminants and increases shelf life of food product. While in Pakistan about 40% of fruits and vegetables lost due to spoilage caused by poor handling, transportation, and poor packaging interaction with other environmental conditions. So it is crucial for developing countries like Pakistan to pay attention to these exacerbating situations for economy losses by considering food packaging an ultimate solution to the problem.

Keywords: packaging, food safety, antimicrobial, food losses

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43 Probiotics’ Antibacterial Activity on Beef and Camel Minced Meat at Altered Ranges of Temperature

Authors: Rania Samir Zaki

Abstract:

Because of their inhibitory effects, selected probiotic Lactobacilli may be used as antimicrobial against some hazardous microorganisms responsible for spoilage of fresh minced beef (cattle) minced meat and camel minced meat. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from camel meat. These included 10 isolates; 1 Lactobacillus fermenti, 4 Lactobacillus plantarum, 4 Lactobacillus pulgaricus, 3 Lactobacillus acidophilus and 1 Lactobacillus brevis. The most efficient inhibitory organism was Lactobacillus plantarum which can be used as a propiotic with antibacterial activity. All microbiological analyses were made at the time 0, first day and the second day at altered ranges of temperature [4±2 ⁰C (chilling temperature), 25±2 ⁰C, and 38±2 ⁰C]. Results showed a significant decrease of pH 6.2 to 5.1 within variant types of meat, in addition to reduction of Total Bacterial Count, Enterococci, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli together with the stability of Coliforms and absence of Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: antibacterial, camel meat, inhibition, probiotics

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42 Papain Immobilized Polyurethane Film as an Antimicrobial Food Package

Authors: M. Cynthya, V. Prabhawathi, D. Mukesh

Abstract:

Food contamination occurs during post process handling. This leads to spoilage and growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the food, thereby reducing its shelf life or spreading of food borne diseases. Several methods are tried and one of which is use of antimicrobial packaging. Here, papain, a protease enzyme, is covalently immobilized with the help of glutarldehyde on polyurethane and used as a food wrap to protect food from microbial contamination. Covalent immobilization of papain was achieved at a pH of 7.4; temperature of 4°C; glutaraldehyde concentration of 0.5%; incubation time of 24 h; and 50 mg of papain. The formation of -C=N- observed in the Fourier transform infrared spectrum confirmed the immobilization of the enzyme on the polymer. Immobilized enzyme retained higher activity than the native free enzyme. The efficacy of this was studied by wrapping it over S. aureus contaminated cottage cheese (paneer) and cheese and stored at a temperature of 4°C for 7 days. The modified film reduced the bacterial contamination by eight folds when compared to the bare film. FTIR also indicates reduction in lipids, sugars and proteins in the biofilm.

Keywords: cheese, papain, polyurethane, Staphylococcus aureus

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41 Discrimination Between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus Isolates in Apple Juice by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Murada Alholy, Mengshi Lin, Omar Alhaj, Mahmoud Abugoush

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Alicyclobacillus is a causative agent of spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products. Differentiating between this genus and the closely related Bacillus is crucially important. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify and discriminate between four Alicyclobacillus strains and four Bacillus isolates inoculated individually into apple juice. Loading plots over the range of 1350 and 1700 cm-1 reflected the most distinctive biochemical features of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Multivariate statistical methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA)) were used to analyze the spectral data. Distinctive separation of spectral samples was observed. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis could serve as a rapid and effective tool for fruit juice industry to differentiate between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus and to distinguish between species belonging to these two genera.

Keywords: alicyclobacillus, bacillus, FT-IR, spectroscopy, PCA

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40 Use of Predictive Food Microbiology to Determine the Shelf-Life of Foods

Authors: Fatih Tarlak

Abstract:

Predictive microbiology can be considered as an important field in food microbiology in which it uses predictive models to describe the microbial growth in different food products. Predictive models estimate the growth of microorganisms quickly, efficiently, and in a cost-effective way as compared to traditional methods of enumeration, which are long-lasting, expensive, and time-consuming. The mathematical models used in predictive microbiology are mainly categorised as primary and secondary models. The primary models are the mathematical equations that define the growth data as a function of time under a constant environmental condition. The secondary models describe the effects of environmental factors, such as temperature, pH, and water activity (aw) on the parameters of the primary models, including the maximum specific growth rate and lag phase duration, which are the most critical growth kinetic parameters. The combination of primary and secondary models provides valuable information to set limits for the quantitative detection of the microbial spoilage and assess product shelf-life.

Keywords: shelf-life, growth model, predictive microbiology, simulation

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39 Investigation of the Variables Affecting the Use of Charcoal to Delay Fermentation in Wet Beans Slurry Using Chemical and Physical Analysis

Authors: Anuoluwapo O. Adewole

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Fermentation is the conversion of monomeric sugars into ethanol and carbondioxide in the presence of microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. In line with the aim and objective of this research project, which is to investigate into the variables affecting the use of charcoal to delay fermentation in wet beans slurry, some physical and chemical analysis were carried out on the wet beans slurry using a PH meter in which a thermometer is incorporated in it, and a measuring cylinder was used for the foam level test. About 250 grams of the ground beans slurry was divided into two portions for testing. The sample with charcoal was labeled sample 'A' while the second sample without charcoal was labeled sample 'B' subsequently. The experiment lasted for a period of 41.15 hours (i.e., forty-one hours and nine minutes). During the fourth process, both samples could not be tested as the laboratory had been saturated with foul odor and both samples were packed and sealed in polythene bag for disposal in the trash can. It was generally observed that the sample with the charcoal lasted for a longer time before that without charcoal before total spoilage occurred.

Keywords: fermentation, monomeric sugars, beans slurry, charcoal, anaerobic conditions

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38 An Aptasensor Based on Magnetic Relaxation Switch and Controlled Magnetic Separation for the Sensitive Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Fei Jia, Xingjian Bai, Xiaowei Zhang, Wenjie Yan, Ruitong Dai, Xingmin Li, Jozef Kokini

Abstract:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic, opportunistic human pathogen that is present in the soil, water, and food. This microbe has been recognized as a representative food-borne spoilage bacterium that can lead to many types of infections. Considering the casualties and property loss caused by P. aeruginosa, the development of a rapid and reliable technique for the detection of P. aeruginosa is crucial. The whole-cell aptasensor, an emerging biosensor using aptamer as a capture probe to bind to the whole cell, for food-borne pathogens detection has attracted much attention due to its convenience and high sensitivity. Here, a low-field magnetic resonance imaging (LF-MRI) aptasensor for the rapid detection of P. aeruginosa was developed. The basic detection principle of the magnetic relaxation switch (MRSw) nanosensor lies on the ‘T₂-shortening’ effect of magnetic nanoparticles in NMR measurements. Briefly speaking, the transverse relaxation time (T₂) of neighboring water protons get shortened when magnetic nanoparticles are clustered due to the cross-linking upon the recognition and binding of biological targets, or simply when the concentration of the magnetic nanoparticles increased. Such shortening is related to both the state change (aggregation or dissociation) and the concentration change of magnetic nanoparticles and can be detected using NMR relaxometry or MRI scanners. In this work, two different sizes of magnetic nanoparticles, which are 10 nm (MN₁₀) and 400 nm (MN₄₀₀) in diameter, were first immobilized with anti- P. aeruginosa aptamer through 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry separately, to capture and enrich the P. aeruginosa cells. When incubating with the target, a ‘sandwich’ (MN₁₀-bacteria-MN₄₀₀) complex are formed driven by the bonding of MN400 with P. aeruginosa through aptamer recognition, as well as the conjugate aggregation of MN₁₀ on the surface of P. aeruginosa. Due to the different magnetic performance of the MN₁₀ and MN₄₀₀ in the magnetic field caused by their different saturation magnetization, the MN₁₀-bacteria-MN₄₀₀ complex, as well as the unreacted MN₄₀₀ in the solution, can be quickly removed by magnetic separation, and as a result, only unreacted MN₁₀ remain in the solution. The remaining MN₁₀, which are superparamagnetic and stable in low field magnetic field, work as a signal readout for T₂ measurement. Under the optimum condition, the LF-MRI platform provides both image analysis and quantitative detection of P. aeruginosa, with the detection limit as low as 100 cfu/mL. The feasibility and specificity of the aptasensor are demonstrated in detecting real food samples and validated by using plate counting methods. Only two steps and less than 2 hours needed for the detection procedure, this robust aptasensor can detect P. aeruginosa with a wide linear range from 3.1 ×10² cfu/mL to 3.1 ×10⁷ cfu/mL, which is superior to conventional plate counting method and other molecular biology testing assay. Moreover, the aptasensor has a potential to detect other bacteria or toxins by changing suitable aptamers. Considering the excellent accuracy, feasibility, and practicality, the whole-cell aptasensor provides a promising platform for a quick, direct and accurate determination of food-borne pathogens at cell-level.

Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging, meat spoilage, P. aeruginosa, transverse relaxation time

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37 Antimicrobial Agents Produced by Yeasts

Authors: T. Büyüksırıt, H. Kuleaşan

Abstract:

Natural antimicrobials are used to preserve foods that can be found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Antimicrobial substances are natural or artificial agents that produced by microorganisms or obtained semi/total chemical synthesis are used at low concentrations to inhibit the growth of other microorganisms. Food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms are inactivated by the use of antagonistic microorganisms and their metabolites. Yeasts can produce toxic proteins or glycoproteins (toxins) that cause inhibition of sensitive bacteria and yeast species. Antimicrobial substance producing phenotypes belonging different yeast genus were isolated from different sources. Toxins secreted by many yeast strains inhibiting the growth of other yeast strains. These strains show antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of mold and bacteria. The effect of antimicrobial agents produced by yeasts can be extremely fast, and therefore may be used in various treatment procedures. Rapid inhibition of microorganisms is possibly caused by microbial cell membrane lipopolysaccharide binding and in activation (neutralization) effect. Antimicrobial agents inhibit the target cells via different mechanisms of action.

Keywords: antimicrobial agents, yeast, toxic protein, glycoprotein

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36 Listeria and Spoilage Inhibition Using Neutralized and Sodium Free Vinegar Powder

Authors: E. Heintz, H. J. van Lent, K. Glass, J. Lim

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The trend for sodium reduction in food products is clear. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) publication on sodium usage and intake, several countries have introduced initiatives to reduce food-related sodium intake. As salt is a common food preservative, this trend motivates the formulation of a suitable additive with comparable benefits of shelf life extension and microbial safety. Organic acid derivatives like acetates are known as generic microbial growth inhibitors and are commonly applied as additives to meet food safety demands. However, modern consumers have negative perceptions towards -synthetic-derived additives and increasingly prefer natural alternatives. Vinegar, for example, is a well-known natural fermentation product used in food preservation. However, the high acidity of vinegar often makes it impractical for direct use in meat products and a neutralized form would be desirable. This research demonstrates the efficacy of powdered vinegar (Provian DV) in inhibiting Listeria and spoilage organisms (LAB) to increase safety and shelf life of meat products. For this, the efficacy of Provian DV was compared to the efficacy of Provian K, a commonly used sodium free acetate-based preservative, which is known for its inhibition against Listeria. Materials & methods— Cured pork hams: Ingredients: Pork ham muscle, water, salt, dextrose, sodium tripolyphosphate, carrageenan, sodium nitrite, sodium erythorbate, and starch. Targets: 73-74% moisture, 1.75+0.1% salt, and pH 6.4+0.1. Treatments: Control (no antimicrobials), Provian®K 0.5% and 0.75%, Provian®DV 0.5%, 0.65%, 0.8% and 1.0%. Meat formulations in casings were cooked reaching an internal temperature of 73.9oC, cooled overnight and stored for 4 days at 4oC until inoculation. Inoculation: Sliced products were inoculated with approximately 3-log per gram of a cocktail of L. monocytogenes (including serotypes 4b, 1/2a and 1/2b) or LAB-cocktail (C. divergens and L. mesenteroides). Inoculated slices were vacuum packaged and stored at 4oC and 7°C. Samples were incubated 28 days (LAB) or 12 weeks (L. monocytogenes) Microbial analysis: Microbial populations were enumerated in rinsate obtained after adding 100ml of sterile Butterfield’s phosphate buffer to each package and massaging the contents externally by hand. L. monocytogenes populations were determined on triplicate samples by surface plating on Modified Oxford agar whereas LAB plate counts were determined on triplicate samples by surface plating on All Purpose Tween agar with 0.4% bromocresol purple. Proximate analysis: Triplicate non-inoculated ground samples were analyzed for the moisture content, pH, aw, salt, and residual nitrite. Results—The results confirmed the no growth of Listeria on cured ham with 0.5% Provian K stored at 4°C and 7°C for 12 weeks, whereas the no-antimicrobial control showed a 1-log increase within two weeks. 0.5% Provian DV demonstrated similar efficacy towards Listeria inhibition at 4°C while 0.65% Provian DV was required to match the Listeria control at 7°C. 0.75% Provian K and 1% Provian DV were needed to show inhibition of the LAB for 4 weeks at both temperatures. Conclusions—This research demonstrated that it is possible to increase safety and shelf life of cured ready-to-eat ham using preservatives that meet current food trends, like sodium reduction and natural origin.

Keywords: food safety, natural preservation, listeria control, shelf life extension

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