Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 110

Search results for: tobacco

110 Effect of Education and Occupation on Smokeless Tobacco Use: A Study of Male Adults in India

Authors: Ramu Rawat

Abstract:

Background: This paper is an effort to analyze the role of education and occupation as critical determinants in using smokeless tobacco among male adults in India and its selected states. Methodology: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-10 data have been used for this study. Bivariate and Multivariate (Cox proportion hazards model) analyses are carried out to measure the impact of education and occupation on use of smokeless tobacco among male adults in India. Results and Conclusion: The study evidently suggests that, majority of Indian male adults are using Khaini and Gutkha (local names for smokeless tobacco). The analysis also shows that education and occupation are two important critical predictors of use of smokeless tobacco. The males at younger age with no or little education from rural area use smokeless tobacco more than their counterpart group from urban areas. This distinction can be attributable to their lack of knowledge or ignorance about the consequences of tobacco consumption. Place of residence played significant role for declining use of smokeless tobacco along with the effect of society. Society awareness about harmful effects of smokeless tobacco with local level government may play important role for controlling the use of any type of tobacco or tobacco products in India.

Keywords: smokeless tobacco, male, Khaini, education, occupation

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109 Smokeless Tobacco Oral Manifestation and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Saliva

Authors: Sintija Miļuna, Ričards Melderis, Loreta Briuka, Dagnija Rostoka, Ingus Skadiņš, Juta Kroiča

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Objectives: Smokeless tobacco products in Latvia have become more available and favorable to young adults, especially students and athletes like hockey and floorball players. The aim of the research was to detect visual mucosal changes in the oral cavity in smokeless tobacco users and to evaluate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1, IL-8, TNF Alpha) levels in saliva from smokeless tobacco users. Methods: A smokeless tobacco group (n=10) and a control group (non-tobacco users) (n=10) were intraorally examined for oral lesions and 5 ml of saliva were collected. Saliva was analyzed for Il-6, IL-1, Il-8, TNF Alpha using ELISA Sigma-Aldrich. Results IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF Alpha levels were higher in the smokeless tobacco group (IL-1 115,61 pg/ml vs. 13.33 pg/ml; IL-6 389.09 pg/ml vs. 0 pg/ml; IL-8 1171.1 pg/ml vs. 224.3 pg/ml; TNF Alpha 941.87 pg/ml vs. 53.03 pg/ml). Conclusions White localized lesions were detected in places where smokeless tobacco users placed sachets. IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF Alpha levels were significantly higher in the smokeless tobacco group than in the control group. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of Rīga Stradiņš University No.22/28.01.2016.

Keywords: smokeless tobacco, Snus, inflammatory biomarkers, oral lesions, oral pathology

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108 Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Practice among Patients Attending Dental Institution: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Vinay Gupta, Seema Malhotra

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Background: Patients who usually consume tobacco are unaware of its ill effects completely therefore it becomes necessary to educate and counselling them after obtaining their knowledge about tobacco. Aim: To measure prevalence of tobacco use among dental outpatients and to evaluation of tobacco user attending dental outpatients (OPD) prepared to quit. Methods: A cross-sectional survey, which was carried out on patients attending Outside Patient Department (OPD) of dental college of King Georges Medical University, Lucknow, India. All the patients who consumed tobacco attending the Dental College were asked to participate in the study. The questionnaire was written in English/ Hindi (local language). Participation in this study was voluntary and the questionnaire was anonymous and self-administered. The proposal of this survey had been approved by the ethical committee of institution. Informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Results: Prevalence of tobacco user attending the Dental OPD was 46.4%. Male tobacco user represented 85.9%. Smokeless tobacco (57%) user were more than smoking (1.4%) and 18.9% were using both smokeless and smoking tobacco. 40.7% start using tobacco since less than 5 years. 55.3% uses tobacco after get up in the morning. 87.1% tobacco user knows that it cause cancer. 54.8% respond that warning sign on packet/pouch effect on mind but due to addiction, it would not work out. 54.8% attempted for quitting but not successful. 90.0% willing to quit in future if facility provide. Conclusion: Higher prevalence of tobacco usage among study population and will to quit in future shows need of cessation clinic in every dental institution in India.

Keywords: tobacco, knowledge, practice, counselling

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107 Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Limb Lengths in Neonatal Rats Exposed to Maternal Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Ramazan F. Akkoc, Elif Erdem, Nalan Kaya, Gonca Ozan, D. Özlem Dabak, Enver Ozan

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Maternal tobacco smoke exposure is known to cause growth retardation in the neonatal skeletal system. Alpha lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant found in some foods, limits the activities of osteoclasts and supports the osteoblast's bone formation mechanism. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on the height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke. The rats were divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) tobacco smoke group, 3) tobacco smoke + ALA group, and 4) ALA group. Rats in the group 2 (tobacco smoke), group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA). Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group 4. On day 21 postpartum, the height and tail lengths of the pups in all groups were measured, and the length of the extremity long bones was measured after decapitation. All morphometric measurements performed in group 2 (tobacco smoke) showed a significant decrease compared to group 1 (control), while all measurements in group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) showed a significant increase compared to group 2 (tobacco smoke). It has been shown that ALA has a protective effect against the regression of height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke.

Keywords: alpha lipoic acid, bone, morphometry, rat, tobacco smoke

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106 The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Liver Induced Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Elif Erdem, Mehmet Ali Kisacam, Gonca Ozan, Enver Ozan

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Tobacco smokers continuously inhale thousands of carcinogens and free radicals. It is estimated that about 1017 oxidant molecules are present in each puff of tobacco smoke. It is known that smoking has adverse effects on the structure and functions of the liver. Ellagic acid (EA) has antioxidant, antiapoptotic, anticarcinogenic, antibacterial and antiinflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible protective effect of ellagic acid against tobacco smoke-mediated oxidative stress in the rat liver. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (control), group II (tobacco smoke), group III (tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. An equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated, and liver tissues were removed. Histological and biochemical analyzes were performed. Sinusoidal dilatation, inflammatory cell infiltration in portal area, increased Kuppfer cells were examined in tobacco smoke group and tobacco smoke+ corn oil groups. The results, observed in tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke+corn oil groups, were found significantly decreased in tobacco smoke+EA group. Group-II and group-III MDA levels were significantly higher, and GSH activities were not different than group-I. Compared to group-II, group-IV MDA level was decreased, and GSH activities was increased significantly. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the liver tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.

Keywords: ellagic acid, liver, rat, tobacco smoke

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105 Community Perceptions on Honey Quality in Tobacco Growing Areas in Kigoma Region, Tanzania

Authors: Pilly Kagosi, Cherestino Balama

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Beekeeping plays major role in improving biodiversity, increasing household income, and crop production through pollination. Tobacco farming is also the main source of household income for smallholder farmers. In Kigoma, production of Tobacco has increased and is perceived to threaten honey quality. The study explored the perception of the community on quality of honey in tobacco and non tobacco growing areas. The study was conducted in Kigoma Region, Tanzania. District and Villages were purposively sampled based on large numbers of people dealing with beekeeping activities and tobacco farming. Socioeconomic data were collected and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and content analysis. The perception of stakeholders on honey quality was analysed using Likert scale. Majority of the respondents agreed that tobacco farming greatly affects honey quality because honey from beehives near tobacco farms test bitter and sometimes irritating, which was associated with nicotine content and agrochemicals applied to tobacco crops. Though they cannot differentiate honey bitterness from agrochemicals and bee fodders. Furthermore, it was revealed that chemicals applied to tobacco and vegetables have negative effect on the bees and honey quality. Respondents believe that setting bee hives near tobacco farms might contaminate honey and therefore affect its quality. Beekeepers are not aware of the nicotine content from other bee fodders like miombo of which do not have any effect on human beings. Actually, tobacco farming does not affect beekeeping activities in issue of quality when farmers follow proper management of tobacco flowers and proper handling of honey. Though, big challenge in tobacco farming is chemically applied to the crops and harvest bee fodders for curing tobacco. The study recommends training to community on proper management of tobacco and proper handling of bee products.

Keywords: community, honey, perceptions, tobacco

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104 Participation of Juvenile with Driven of Tobacco Control in Education Institute: Case Study of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai

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This paper studied the participation of juvenile with driven of tobacco control in education institute: case study of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University is qualitative research has objective to study participation of juvenile with driven of tobacco control in University, as guidance of development participation of juvenile with driven of tobacco control in education institute the university is also free-cigarette university. There are qualitative researches on collection data of participation observation, in-depth interview of group conversation and agent of student in each faculty and college and exchange opinion of student. Result of study found that participation in tobacco control has 3 parts; 1) Participation in campaign of tobacco control, 2) Academic training and activity of free-cigarette of university and 3) As model of juvenile in tobacco control. For guidelines on youth involvement in driven tobacco control is universities should promote tobacco control activities. Reduce smoking campaign continues include a specific area for smokers has living room as sign clearly, staying in the faculty / college and developing network of model students who are non-smoking. This is a key role in the coordination of university students driving to the free cigarette university. Including the strengthening of community in the area and outside the area as good social and quality of country.

Keywords: participation, juvenile, tobacco control, institute

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103 Mass Media and Tobacco in Bangladesh: An Investigation on the Role of Mass Media in the Light of Tobacco Control

Authors: Tahsina Sadeque Kapil Ahmed

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Context: The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced. Tobacco use is a widespread phenomenon in Bangladesh, and that causes numerous deaths and disabilities in a year. The studies conducted elsewhere have strengthened the evidence that mass media campaigns conducted in the context of comprehensive tobacco control programs can promote quitting and reduce smoking, as well as smokeless tobacco prevalence. Awareness building campaigns in mass-media against tobacco use should be prioritized more, and this paper will be an initiative towards enhancing mass-media’s role in controlling tobacco in Bangladesh. Objective: the main objective of this study is to investigate the role of mass-media in controlling tobacco in Bangladesh. Methods: This is a qualitative study and both primary, as well as secondary data were used where information gathered through the Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and media contents. The employees of media houses (five national papers, two online news portals and six TV channels) were selected as study respondent. Media Content Analysis is used through the broad range of ‘texts’ from transcripts of interviews and discussions along with the materials like reports, footages, advertisements, talk-shows, articles etc. Results: The study result documented several opinions of discussants where Mass media was found to play a strong role in support of the amended tobacco control law and its implication that could be created public support against tobacco farming, exposing to companies’ tactics and other tobacco control activities. The study results also revealed that in controlling tobacco supply and demand effectively, media has been assisting the government and anti-tobacco activities productively. Majority of the Key Informants opined spontaneously on tobacco control program publicity, organizational interference, and influence of other activities on media. They also emphasized role of media for activities of anti-tobacco organizations, awareness building actions, popularization of tobacco control law and its amendment. Conclusion and Recommendation: The study shows evidence that mass media coverage of tobacco control issues is influencing the context of comprehensive tobacco control programs. To reduce tobacco consumption, along with strict enforcement efforts, media should be used to assist with the implementation of the tobacco control law. A sustained nationwide campaign to educate the masses against the dangers of smoking and smokeless tobacco is needed, and media can play an important role in creating further awareness about the dangers associated with tobacco consumption.

Keywords: Bangladesh media, mass media, role of media, tobacco control

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102 Effect of Compost Application on Uptake and Allocation of Heavy Metals and Plant Nutrients and Quality of Oriental Tobacco Krumovgrad 90

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Venelina T. Popova, Radka V. Ivanova, Givko T. Ivanov, Krasimir I. Ivanov

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A comparative research on the impact of compost on uptake and allocation of nutrients and heavy metals and quality of Oriental tobacco Krumovgrad 90 has been carried out. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the lead zinc smelter near the town of Kardzali, Bulgaria, after closing the lead production. The compost treatments had significant effects on the uptake and allocation of plant nutrients and heavy metals. The incorporation of compost leads to decrease in the amount of heavy metals present in the tobacco leaves, with Cd, Pb and Zn having values of 36%, 12% and 6%, respectively. Application of the compost leads to increased content of potassium, calcium and magnesium in the leaves of tobacco, and therefore, may favorably affect the burning properties of tobacco. The incorporation of compost in the soil has a negative impact on the quality and typicality of the oriental tobacco variety of Krumovgrad 90. The incorporation of compost leads to an increase in the size of the tobacco plant leaves, the leaves become darker in colour, less fleshy and undergo a change in form, becoming (much) broader in the second, third and fourth stalk position. This is accompanied by a decrease in the quality of the tobacco. The incorporation of compost also results in an increase in the mineral substances (pure ash), total nicotine and nitrogen, and a reduction in the amount of reducing sugars, which causes the quality of the tobacco leaves to deteriorate (particularly in the third and fourth harvests).

Keywords: chemical composition, compost, heavy metals, oriental tobacco, quality

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101 Hematological Changes in Oral Cancer Patients with Smokable and Chewable Tobacco

Authors: Mohsin Ali Baloch, Saira Baloch

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Objective: To analyze hematological changes in patients of oral cancer with history of smokable and chewable tobacco use, and to compare them with healthy controls. Study Design: Descriptive type of study survey. Setting: This study was conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, LUMHS, Jamshoro. Study Period: One year July, 2013 to July, 2014. Subject and Methods: Histopathologically confirmed hundred cases of oral cancer with the history of smokable and non-smokable tobacco were selected to analyze the hematological variation. Inclusion Criteria: Histopathologically diagnosed patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma, with history of smokable and non-smokable tobacco. Exclusion Criteria: Patient with any systemic medically compromising problem, terminally ill patients, radio or chemotherapeutically treated patients, patients with metastasis to lungs or any distant metastasis, patients with the history of more than one well-defined etiological factor involved. Results: There were 73% patients of oral cancer reported with anemic. Significantly lower values of Hb, platelet, and higher mean values of ESR, TLC, and were observed in both groups of oral cancer patients; tobacco smokers and tobacco chewers as compared to non-smokers healthy controls. There was more decline in the level of haemoglobin and incline in the level of ESR observed in tobacco chewer oral cancer patients as compared to tobacco smokers patients, while TLC was more observed in smokers. Conclusion: Oral cancer patients with a history of chewable/smokable tobacco have likely worse hematological profile, which increases the anesthetic and surgical challenges for maxillofacial surgeons, which have a significant impact on treatment planning as well.

Keywords: oral cancer, hematological variations, tobacco, smokers

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100 Impact of Tobacco Control Policy to Cancer Mortalities in South Africa

Authors: Cyprian M. Mostert

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This paper investigates the effectiveness of tobacco control policy (TCP) in averting cancer mortalities in both educated and uneducated segments of the South African population. A two-stage least squares model (2SLS) was used covering the period 2009-2013. The results show that the TCP caused a 26 percent average decrease in cancer mortalities in both educated and uneducated segment of the population. However, limiting the sales of cheap and illegal tobacco cigarettes is necessary for advancing the effectiveness of TCP in averting cancer mortalities in the uneducated population — as the paper noted an insignificant decrease in cancer mortalities in 2012-2013 due to the presence of cheaper cigarettes. The paper also discovered evidence of persisting tobacco purchases of branded cigarettes in the educated population group which limited the effectiveness of TCP in 2009-2011. Hikes in real tobacco tax to a 0.8 USD price level in 2012 limited tobacco consumption in the educated group resulting in a 29 percent decrease in cancer mortalities. Other developing countries may learn from the South African case and strive to limit the sales of cheap illegal cigarettes while hiking real tobacco tax of branded cigarettes as a key strategy to improve cancer deaths across educated and uneducated population groups.

Keywords: cancer, health policy, health system, tobacco tax

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99 The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Heart Induced Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, D. Ozlem Dabak, Gonca Ozan, Elif Erdem, Enver Ozan

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One of the common causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is smoking. Moreover, tobacco smoke decreases the amount of oxygen that the blood can carry and increases the tendency for blood clots. Ellagic acid is a powerful antioxidant found especially in red fruits. It was shown to block atherosclerotic process suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effects of ellagic acid against oxidative damage on heart tissues of rats induced by tobacco smoke. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (Control), group II (Tobacco smoke), group III (Tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (Tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. An equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated. Heart tissues and blood samples were taken. Histological and biochemical analyzes were performed. Vascular congestion, hyperemic areas, inflammatory cell infiltration and increased connective tissue in the perivascular area were observed in tobacco smoke and tobacco smoke + corn oil groups. Increased connective tissue in the perivascular area, hemorrhage and inflammatory cell infiltration were decreased in tobacco smoke + EA group. Group-II GSH level was not changed (significantly), CAT, SOD, GPx activities were significantly higher than group-I. Compared to group-II, group-IV GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx activities were increased, and MDA level was decreased significantly. Group-II and Group-III levels were similar. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the heart tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.

Keywords: ellagic acid, heart, rat, tobacco smoke

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98 Soil Surface Insect Diversity of Tobacco Agricultural Ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia

Authors: Martina Faika Harianja, Zahtamal, Indah Nuraini, Septi Mutia Handayani, R. C. Hidayat Soesilohadi

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Tobacco is a valuable commodity that supports economic growth in Indonesia. Soil surface insects are important components that influence productivity of tobacco. Thus, diversity of soil surface insects needs to be studied in order to acquire information about specific roles of each species in ecosystem. This research aimed to study the soil surface insect diversity of tobacco agricultural ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. Samples were collected by pitfall-sugar bait trap in August 2015. Result showed 5 orders, 8 families, and 17 genera of soil surface insects were found. The diversity category of soil surface insects in tobacco agricultural ecosystem was poor. Dominant genus was Monomorium with dominance index score 0.07588. Percentages of insects’ roles were omnivores 43%, detritivores 24%, predators 19%, and herbivores 14%.

Keywords: diversity, Indonesia, soil surface insect, tobacco

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97 Phytoremediation Potential of Enhanced Tobacco BAC F3 in Soil Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina Angelova

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A comparative study has been carried out into the impact of organic meliorants on the uptake of heavy metals, micro and macroelements and the phytoremediation potential of enhanced tobacco BAC F3. The soil used as part of this experiment was sampled from the vicinity of the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The pot experiment carried out consisted of a randomized, complete block design containing nine treatments and three replications (27 pots). The treatments consisted of a control (with no organic meliorants) and compost and vermicompost meliorants (added at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 30%, and recalculated based on their dry soil weight). Upon reaching commercial ripeness, the tobacco plants were gathered. Heavy metals, micro and macroelement contents in roots, stems, and leaves of tobacco were analyzed by the method of the microwave mineralization. To determine the elements in the samples, inductively coupled emission spectrometry (Jobin Yvon Emission - JY 38 S, France) was used. The distribution of the heavy metals, micro, and macroelements in the organs of the enhanced tobacco has a selective character and depended above all on the parts of the plants and the element that was examined. Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, P and Mg distribution in tobacco decreases in the following order: roots > leaves > stems, and for Cd, K, and Ca - leaves > roots > stems. The high concentration of Cd in the leaves and the high translocation factor indicate the possibility of enhanced tobacco to be used in phytoextraction. Tested organic amendments significantly influenced the uptake of heavy metals, micro and macroelements by the roots, stems, and leaves of tobacco. A correlation was found between the quantity of the mobile forms and the uptake of Pb, Zn, and Cd by the enhanced tobacco. The compost and vermicompost treatments significantly reduced heavy metals concentration in leaves and increased uptake of K, Ca and Mg. The 30% compost and 30% vermicompost treatments led to the maximal reduction of heavy metals in enhanced tobacco BAC F3. The addition of compost and vermicompost further reduces the ability to digest the heavy metals in the leaves, and phytoremediation potential of enhanced tobacco BAC F3. Acknowledgment: The financial support by the Bulgarian National Science Fund Project DFNI Н04/9 is greatly appreciated.

Keywords: heavy metals, micro and macroelements, enhanced tobacco BAC F3, phytoremediation, organic meliorants

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96 Determinants of Risk Perceptions and Risk Attitude among Flue-Cured Virginia Tobacco Growers: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: Wencong Lu, Abdul Latif, Raza Ullah, Subhan Ullah

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Agricultural production is subject to risk and the attitudes of producers toward risk, in turn, may be affected by certain socioeconomic characteristics of producers. Although, it is important to assess the risk attitude of farmers and their perception towards different calamitous risk sources for better understanding of their risk management adoption decisions, to the best of our knowledge no studies have been carried out to analyze the risk attitude and risk perceptions in the context of tobacco production in Pakistan. Therefore the study in hand is conducted with an attempt to overcome the gap in existing literature by analyzing different catastrophic risk sources faced by tobacco growers, their attitude towards risk and the effect of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, farmers’ participation in contract farming and off-farm diversification on their risk attitude and risk perception. Around 78% of Pakistan’s entire tobacco crop and nearly all of the country’s Flue-Cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco is produced in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province alone. The yield/hectare of tobacco produced in KPK province is 14% higher than the global average and 22 % higher than national average. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province was selected as main study area as nearly all of the country’s Flue-Cured Virginia (FCV) tobacco is produced in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province alone. Six districts were purposely selected based on their contribution in overall production for the last five years which accounts for more than 94.84% of the tobacco production in KPK province. Specific objectives taken into considerations for this study are the risk attitude of the farmers for growing FCV tobacco crop, farmers’ risk perception for different risk sources related to tobacco production (as far as the incidence and severity of each risk source is concerned) and the effect of socioeconomic characteristics, contract farming participation and off-farm diversification (income) on the risk attitude and risk perception of FCV tobacco growers.

Keywords: risk attitude, risk perception, contract farming, off-farm diversification, probit model

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95 The Investigation of Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid against Damage on Neonatal Rat Lung to Maternal Tobacco Smoke Exposure

Authors: Elif Erdem, Nalan Kaya, Gonca Ozan, Durrin Ozlem Dabak, Enver Ozan

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This study was carried out to determine the histological and biochemical changes in the lungs of the rat pups exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy period and to investigate the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid, which is administered during pregnancy, on these changes. In our study, 24 six-week old Spraque-Dawley female rats weighing 160 ± 10 g were used (n:7). Rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: group I (control), group II (tobacco smoke), group III (tobacco smoke + alpha lipoic acid) and group IV (alpha lipoic acid). Rats in the group II, group III were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group III. Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group IV. Once after the delivery, all administrations were stopped. On the 7 and 21th days, the seven pups of all groups were decapitated. A portion of the lung was taken and stained with HE, PAS and Masson. In addition to immunohistochemical staining of surfactant protein A, vascular endothelial growth factor, caspase-3, TUNEL method was also used to determine apoptosis. Biochemical analyzes were performed with some part of the lung tissue specimens. In the histological evaluations performed under light microscopy, inflammatory cell increase, hemorrhagic areas, edema, interalveolar septal thickening, alveolar numbers decrease, degeneration of some bronchi and bronchial epithelium, epithelial cells that were fallen into the lumen and hyaline membrane formation were observed in tobacco smoke group. These findings were ameliorated in tobacco smoke + ALA group. Hyaline membrane formation was not detected in this group. The TUNEL positive cell numbers a significant increase was detected in the tobacco smoke group, whereas a significant decrease was detected in the tobacco smoke + ALA group. In terms of the immunoreactivity of both SP-A and VEGF, a significant decrease was observed in the tobacco smoke group, and a significant increase was observed in the tobacco smoke + ALA group. Regarding the immunoreactivity of caspase-3, there was a significant increase in the group of tobacco smoke and a significant decrease in the group of tobacco smoke + ALA. The malondialdehyde levels were determined to be significantly increased in the tobacco smoke group, and a significant decreased in the tobacco smoke + ALA. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities showed a significant decrease in the group of tobacco smoke and a significant increase in the tobacco smoke + ALA group. In conclusion, we suggest that the exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy leads to morphological, histopathological and functional changes on lung development by causing oxidative damage in lung tissues of neonatal rats and the maternal use of alpha lipoic acid can provide a protective effect on the neonatal lung development against this oxidative stress originating from tobacco smoke.

Keywords: alpha lipoic acid, lung, neonate, tobacco smoke, pregnancy

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94 The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Lungs Induced Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Gonca Ozan, Elif Erdem, Neriman Colakoglu, Enver Ozan

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The toxic effects of tobacco smoke exposure have been detected in numerous studies. Ellagic acid (EA), (2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy [1]-benzopyranol [5,4,3-cde] benzopyran 5,10-dione), a natural phenolic lactone compound, is found in various plant species including pomegranate, grape, strawberries, blackberries and raspberries. Similar to the other effective antioxidants, EA can safely interact with the free radicals and reduces oxidative stress through the phenolic ring and hydroxyl components in its structure. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of ellagic acid against oxidative damage on lung tissues of rats induced by tobacco smoke. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (Control), group II (Tobacco smoke), group III (Tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (Tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. Equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated. Lung tissues and blood samples were taken. The lung slides were stained by H&E and Masson’s Trichrome methods. Also, galactin-3 stain was applied. Biochemical analyzes were performed. Vascular congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration in pulmonary interstitium, thickness in interalveolar septum, cytoplasmic vacuolation in some macrophages and galactin-3 positive cells were observed in histological examination of tobacco smoke group. In addition to these findings, hemorrhage in pulmonary interstitium and bronchial lumen was detected in tobacco smoke + corn oil group. Reduced vascular congestion and hemorrhage in pulmoner interstitium and rarely thickness in interalveolar septum were shown in tobacco smoke + EA group. Compared to group-I, group-II GSH level was decreased and MDA level was increased significantly. Nevertheless group-IV GSH level was higher and MDA level was lower than group-II. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the lung tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.

Keywords: ellagic acid, lung, rat, tobacco smoke

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93 Alcohol and Tobacco Influencing Prevalence of Hypertension among 15-54 Old Indian Men: An Application of Discriminant Analysis Using National Family Health Survey, 2015-16

Authors: Chander Shekhar, Jeetendra Yadav, Shaziya Allarakha

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Hypertension has been described as an 'iceberg disease' as those who suffered are ignored and hence usually seek healthcare services at a very late stage. It is estimated that more than 2 million Indians are suffering from hypertensive heart disease that contributed to above 0.13 million deaths in 2016. The paper study aims to know the prevalence of Hypertension in India and its variation by socioeconomic backgrounds and to find out risk factors discriminating hypertension with special emphasis on consumption of tobacco and alcohol among men aged 15-54 years in India. The paper uses NFHS (2015-16) data. The paper used binary logistic regression and discriminant analysis to find significant predictors and discriminants of interest. The prevalence of hypertension was 16.5% in the study population. The results suggest that consumption of alcohol and tobacco are significant discriminant characteristics in carrying hypertension irrespective of what socioeconomic background characteristic he possesses.

Keywords: hypertention, alcohol, tobacco, discriminant

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92 Expression of Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Transgenic Tobacco Plants by Signal Peptides Targeting for Delivery to Apoplast, Endoplasmic Reticulum and Cytosol Spaces

Authors: Sadegh Lotfieblisofla, Arash Khodabakhshi

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Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a serine protease plays an important role in the fibrinolytic system and the dissolution of fibrin clots in human body. The production of this drug in plants such as tobacco could reduce its production costs. In this study, expression of tPA gene and protein targeting to different plant cell compartments, using various signal peptides has been investigated. For high level of expression, Kozak sequence was used after CaMV35S in the beginning of the gene. In order to design the final construction, Extensin, KDEL (amino acid sequence including Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) and SP (γ-zein signal peptide coding sequence) were used as leader signals to conduct this protein into apoplast, endoplasmic reticulum and cytosol spaces, respectively. Cloned human tPA gene under the CaMV (Cauliflower mosaic virus) 35S promoter and NOS (Nopaline Synthase) terminator into pBI121 plasmid was transferred into tobacco explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. The presence and copy number of genes in transgenic tobacco was proved by Southern blotting. Enzymatic activity of the rt-PA protein in transgenic plants compared to non-transgenic plants was confirmed by Zymography assay. The presence and amount of rt-PA recombinant protein in plants was estimated by ELISA analysis on crude protein extract of transgenic tobacco using a specific antibody. The yield of recombinant tPA in transgenic tobacco for SP, KDEL, Extensin signals were counted 0.50, 0.68, 0.69 microgram per milligram of total soluble proteins.

Keywords: tPA, recombinant, transgenic, tobacco

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91 Reducing Tobacco Consumption in a Rural Village of Sri Lanka Though a Community Based Health Promotion Intervention

Authors: B. A. N. Madubashini, S. Anojan, S. Thurka, N. M. C. J. Nawasinghe, G. A. S. Milanga, W. M. I. S. Weerakoon, I. D. N. Ihalahewage

Abstract:

Evidence-based health promotional approaches are known to be successful ways of reducing tobacco consumption in a rural village. Hence tobacco prevention is essential in improving lives of people, and community-based approaches are considered as effective. This community-based health promotion intervention implemented to reduce high consumption of tobacco in a rural area in Sri Lanka. This intervention was conducted in a rural village of Sri Lanka. In the beginning, facilitation discussions conducted with community members to identify determinants leading to tobacco consumption among villagers. Intervention was planed based on those determinants. Community actions through small active groups to demote smoking were generated. Children groups displayed cigarette buds collected around common places such as temple to community gatherings including funeral welfare society elaborating the cost and the money spent on cigarettes. A till (expenditure box) was introduced, and smokers in family were encouraged to put money on a cigarette to it when they decide to smoke instead. This way they could monitor potential savings if quit. Children groups introduced a tool 'Engalanthe puthata (for overseas son)' to shops. Shop owners agreed to add a pebble to a box whenever they sell a cigarette. The money spent on cigarettes in that shop was calculated regularly, and that was considered as money sent to tobacco company overseas, so to the son of the company owner. This was useful to encourage quitting and to stop selling cigarette in the shops. All four shops in the community volunteered to stop selling cigarettes. Eleven percent of users quitted smoking and 37% users reduced smoking. Child empowerment was high, and 60% of children had shown their disapproval on smoking publicly at least once. Similar community-based health promotion intervention can be used to generate community actions leading to reduction of tobacco consumption.

Keywords: cigarette, community, empowerment, health promotion, intervention

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90 Modeling Aerosol Formation in an Electrically Heated Tobacco Product

Authors: Markus Nordlund, Arkadiusz K. Kuczaj

Abstract:

Philip Morris International (PMI) is developing a range of novel tobacco products with the potential to reduce individual risk and population harm in comparison to smoking cigarettes. One of these products is the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS 2.2), (named as the Electrically Heated Tobacco System (EHTS) in this paper), already commercialized in a number of countries (e.g., Japan, Italy, Switzerland, Russia, Portugal and Romania). During use, the patented EHTS heats a specifically designed tobacco product (Electrically Heated Tobacco Product (EHTP)) when inserted into a Holder (heating device). The EHTP contains tobacco material in the form of a porous plug that undergoes a controlled heating process to release chemical compounds into vapors, from which an aerosol is formed during cooling. The aim of this work was to investigate the aerosol formation characteristics for realistic operating conditions of the EHTS as well as for relevant gas mixture compositions measured in the EHTP aerosol consisting mostly of water, glycerol and nicotine, but also other compounds at much lower concentrations. The nucleation process taking place in the EHTP during use when operated in the Holder has therefore been modeled numerically using an extended Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) for multicomponent gas mixtures. Results from the performed simulations demonstrate that aerosol droplets are formed only in the presence of an aerosol former being mainly glycerol. Minor compounds in the gas mixture were not able to reach a supersaturated state alone and therefore could not generate aerosol droplets from the multicomponent gas mixture at the operating conditions simulated. For the analytically characterized aerosol composition and estimated operating conditions of the EHTS and EHTP, glycerol was shown to be the main aerosol former triggering the nucleation process in the EHTP. This implies that according to the CNT, an aerosol former, such as glycerol needs to be present in the gas mixture for an aerosol to form under the tested operating conditions. To assess if these conclusions are sensitive to the initial amount of the minor compounds and to include and represent the total mass of the aerosol collected during the analytical aerosol characterization, simulations were carried out with initial masses of the minor compounds increased by as much as a factor of 500. Despite this extreme condition, no aerosol droplets were generated when glycerol, nicotine and water were treated as inert species and therefore not actively contributing to the nucleation process. This implies that according to the CNT, an aerosol cannot be generated without the help of an aerosol former, from the multicomponent gas mixtures at the compositions and operating conditions estimated for the EHTP, even if all minor compounds are released or generated in a single puff.

Keywords: aerosol, classical nucleation theory (CNT), electrically heated tobacco product (EHTP), electrically heated tobacco system (EHTS), modeling, multicomponent, nucleation

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89 Determination of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Cadmium and Lead in Different Cigarette Brands in Yemen by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Authors: Ali A. Mutair

Abstract:

The concentration levels of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in different cigarette brands commonly produced and sold in Yemen were determined. Convenient sample treatment for cigarette tobacco of freshly opened packs was achieved by a sample preparation method based on dry digestion, and the concentrations of the analysed metals were measured by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS). The mean values obtained for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in different Yemeni cigarette tobacco were 311, 52.2, 10.11, 1.71 and 4.06 µg/g dry weight, respectively. There is no more significant difference among cigarette brands tested. It was found that Fe was at the highest concentration, followed by Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd. The average relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1.77% to 19.34%. The accuracy and precision of the results were checked by blank and recovery tests. The results show that Yemeni cigarettes contain heavy metal concentration levels that are similar to those in foreign cigarette brands reported by other studies in the worldwide.

Keywords: iron, zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, tobacco, Yemeni cigarette brands, atomic absorption spectrometry

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88 Imidocloprid as a Systemic-Acquired Resistant (SAR) Inducer in Nicotiana tabacum Var. Samsun NN Infected with Tobacco Mild Green Mosaic Virus

Authors: Mohammad Reza Hossein Zadeh

Abstract:

Plants have different layers of defense responses against biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the well-defined defense mechanism in plants is systemic acquired resistance (SAR) against a broad-range of pathogens. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a crucial role in regulation of the SAR pathway. It has been proved that Chemically SA-like compounds can mimic the SA signaling role. Imidocloprid is an insecticide being used to control whiteflies on crop plants. In order to study the possible role of Imidocloprid as an elicitor of SAR in plants, experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design frame with three treatments and duplicates on the detached leaves and whole Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsun NN. plants inoculated with Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV). Compared with the effect of other SAR-inducers such as SA, Imidoclorid conferred a robust SAR induction in the infected plants. The results suggested that Imidocloprid even more powerful than SA can be considered as strong SAR inducer in the infected plants with viruses, which develop the local lesion symptoms.

Keywords: imidocloprid, Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsun NN, SAR, tobacco mild green, mosaic virus

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87 Detection of PCD-Related Transcription Factors for Improving Salt Tolerance in Plant

Authors: A. Bahieldin, A. Atef, S. Edris, N. O. Gadalla, S. M. Hassan, M. A. Al-Kordy, A. M. Ramadan, A. S. M. Al- Hajar, F. M. El-Domyati

Abstract:

The idea of this work is based on a natural exciting phenomenon suggesting that suppression of genes related to the program cell death (or PCD) mechanism might help the plant cells to efficiently tolerate abiotic stresses. The scope of this work was the detection of PCD-related transcription factors (TFs) that might also be related to salt stress tolerance in plant. Two model plants, e.g., tobacco and Arabidopsis, were utilized in order to investigate this phenomenon. Occurrence of PCD was first proven by Evans blue staining and DNA laddering after tobacco leaf discs were treated with oxalic acid (OA) treatment (20 mM) for 24 h. A number of 31 TFs up regulated after 2 h and co-expressed with genes harboring PCD-related domains were detected via RNA-Seq analysis and annotation. These TFs were knocked down via virus induced gene silencing (VIGS), an RNA interference (RNAi) approach, and tested for their influence on triggering PCD machinery. Then, Arabidopsis SALK knocked out T-DNA insertion mutants in selected TFs analogs to those in tobacco were tested under salt stress (up to 250 mM NaCl) in order to detect the influence of different TFs on conferring salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Involvement of a number of candidate abiotic-stress related TFs was investigated.

Keywords: VIGS, PCD, RNA-Seq, transcription factors

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86 Synthesis of an Organic- Inorganic Salt of (C2H5NO2)2H4SiW12O40 and Investigation of Its Anti-Viral Effect on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)

Authors: Mahboobeh Mohadeszadeh, Majid Saghi

Abstract:

Polyoxometalates (POMs) are important inorganic compounds that have been considered specifically in recent years due to abundant attributes and applications. Those POMs that have one central tetrahedral atom called keggin. The binding Amino-acid groups to keggin structure give the antivirus effect to these compounds. A new organic-inorganic hybrid structure, with formula (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 was synthesized. Investigation on Anti-viral effect of this compound showed the (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 prevents infection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) on the Nicotianatabacum plants.

Keywords: polyoxometalate, keggin, organic-inorganic salt, TMV

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85 Synthesis of an Organic-Inorganic Salt of (C2H5NO2) 2H4SiW12O40 and Investigation of Its Anti-Viral Effect on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)

Authors: Mahboobeh Mohadeszadeh, Majid Saghi

Abstract:

Polyoxometalates (POMs) are important inorganic compounds that have been considered specifically in recent years due to abundant attributes and applications. Those POMs that have one central tetrahedral atom called keggin. The binding Amino-acid groups to keggin structure give the antivirus effect to these compounds. A new organic-inorganic hybrid structure, with formula (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 was synthesized. Investigation on Anti-viral effect of this compound showed the (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 prevents infection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) on the Nicotianatabacum plants.

Keywords: Polyoxometalate, Keggin, Organic-inorganic salt, TMV

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
84 Synthesis of an Organic-Inorganic Salt of 12-Silicotungstate, (C2H5NO2)2H4SiW12O40 and Investigation of Its Anti-Viral Effect on the Tobacco Mosaic Virus

Authors: Mahboobeh Mohadeszadeh, Majid Saghi

Abstract:

Polyoxometalates (POMs) are important inorganic compounds that have been considered specifically in recent years due to abundant attributes and applications. Those POMs that have one central tetrahedral atom called keggin. The binding Amino-acid groups to keggin structure give the antivirus effect to these compounds. A new organic-inorganic hybrid structure, with formula (Gly)2H4SiW12O40, was synthesized. Investigation on the anti-viral effect of this compound showed the (Gly)2H4SiW12O40 prevents infection of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) on the Nicotianatabacum plants.

Keywords: polyoxometalate, keggin, organic-inorganic salt, TMV

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83 Oral Health of Tobacco Chewers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Karachi, Pakistan

Authors: Warsi A. Ibrahim, Qureshi A. Ambrina, Younus M. Anjum

Abstract:

Introduction: Oral lesions related to commercially available Smokeless Tobacco (ST), such as, Pan, Gutka, Mahwa, Naswar is considered a serious challenge for dental health care providers in Pakistan. Majority of labored Pakistani population consume ST, where public transporters and drivers are no exception. It was necessary to identify individuals of this particular population group and screen their oral health and early signs of pre-cancerous lesions so that appropriate preventive measures could be taken to reduce the burden on health providers. Aim of Study: To estimate Prevalence of ST consumption and perception of use, and to evaluate Oral Health status among public drivers of Karachi. Material & methods: A cross-sectional study survey was conducted over duration of 2 months, through convenient sampling. Sample size (n=615) of public drivers (age > 18 years) all over Karachi was gathered. A structured proforma was used to record socio-demographics, addiction profile, perception of use and oral health status (oral lesions, oral sub-mucosal fibrosis and dental caries) of study participants. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 using descriptive statistics only. Results: Prevalence of ST consumption among the study participants was figured to 92.5%. Out of these almost 70% suffered from one or the other form of oral lesion(s). Four major types of ST consumption were observed out of which 60 % of oral lesion were related to Gutka chewers showing early signs of oral cancer. In addition, occurrence of Oral sub-mucosal fibrosis (OSF) was found to be significantly high around 54.8%. Overall dental caries status was also high, showing on an average 5 teeth of an individual were decayed, missing or filled deviating from WHO normal criteria (mean < 3). It was thus proven from the study that public drivers relied on oral tobacco consumption because it helps them ‘Improve consciousness’ (p-value: < 0.01; using chi-square test). Multivariate analysis showed that there were higher prevalence of smokeless tobacco among highway drivers versus local drivers (A.O.R: 2.82 [0.83-9.61], p-value: < 0.01) Conclusion: Smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption has a direct effect on oral health. However, the type of ST, the duration of consumption are factors which are directly related to the severity. Moreover, Gutka may be considered as having most lethal effects on oral health which may lead to oral cancer and affect individual’s quality of life. Specific preventive programs must be undertaken to reduce the consumption of Gutka among public transporters and drivers.

Keywords: smokeless tobacco, oral lesions, drivers, public transporters

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82 Application of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Evaluation of the Main Digestion Methods for Determination of Macroelements in Plant Tissue

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Penka S. Zapryanova, Stefan V. Krustev, Violina R. Angelova

Abstract:

Three commonly used digestion methods (dry ashing, acid digestion, and microwave digestion) in different variants were compared for digestion of tobacco leaves. Three main macroelements (K, Ca and Mg) were analysed using AAS Spectrometer Spectra АА 220, Varian, Australia. The accuracy and precision of the measurements were evaluated by using Polish reference material CTR-VTL-2 (Virginia tobacco leaves). To elucidate the problems with elemental recovery X-Ray and SEM–EDS analysis of all residues after digestion were performed. The X-ray investigation showed a formation of KClO4 when HClO4 was used as a part of the acids mixture. The use of HF at Ca and Mg determination led to the formation of CaF2 and MgF2. The results were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. SPSS program for Windows was used for statistical data processing.

Keywords: digestion methods, plant tissue, determination of macroelements, K, Ca, Mg

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81 Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Leptin and Leptin Receptors with Oral Cancer

Authors: Chiung-Man Tsai, Chia-Jui Weng

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Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) both play a crucial role in the mediation of physiological reactions and carcinogenesis and may serve as a candidate biomarker of oral cancer. The present case-control study aimed to examine the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of LEP -2548 G/A (rs7799039), LEPR K109R (rs1137100), and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) with or without interacting to environmental carcinogens on the risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The SNPs of three genetic allele, from 567 patients with oral cancer and 560 healthy controls in Taiwan were analyzed. All of The three genetic polymorphisms exhibited insignificant (P > .05) effects on the risk to have oral cancer. However, the patients with polymorphic allele of LEP -2548 have a significant low risk for the development of clinical stage (A/G, AOR = 0.670, 95% CI = 0.454–0.988, P < .05; A/G+G/G, AOR = 0.676, 95% CI = 0.467–0.978, P < .05) compared to patients with ancestral homozygous A/A genotype. Additionally, an interesting result was found that the impact of LEP -2548 G/A SNP on oral carcinogenesis in subjects without tobacco consumption (A/G, AOR=2.078, 95% CI: 1.161-3.720, p=0.014; A/G+G/G, AOR=2.002, 95% CI: 1.143-3.505, p=0.015) is higher than subjects with tobacco consumption. These results suggest that the genetic polymorphism of LEP -2548 G/A (rs7799039), LEPR K109R (rs1137100), and LEPR Q223R (rs1137101) were not associated with the susceptibility of oral cancer; SNP in LEP -2548 G/A showed a poor clinicopathological development of oral cancer; Population without tobacco consumption and with polymorphic LEP -2548 G/A gene may significantly increase the risk to have oral cancer.

Keywords: carcinogen, leptin, leptin receptor, oral squamous cell carcinoma, single nucleotide polymorphism

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