Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

Search results for: archaeology

49 The Need for Interdisciplinary Approach in Studying Archaeology: An Evolving Cultural Science

Authors: Inalegwu Stephany Akipu

Abstract:

Archaeology being the study of mans past using the materials he left behind has been argued to be classified under sciences while some scholars are of the opinion that it does not deserve the status of being referred to as ‘science’. However divergent the opinions of scholars may be on the classification of Archaeology as a science or in the humanities, the discipline has no doubt, greatly aided in shaping the history of man’s past. Through the different stages that the discipline has transgressed, it has encountered some challenges. This paper therefore, attempts to highlight the need for the inclusion of branches of other disciplines when using Archaeology in reconstructing man’s history. The objective of course, is to add to the existing body of knowledge but specifically to expose the incomparable importance of archaeology as a discipline and to place it on such a high scale that it will not be regulated to the background as is done in some Nigerian Universities. The paper attempts a clarification of some conceptual terms and discusses the developmental stages of archaeology. It further describes the present state of the discipline and concludes with the disciplines that need to be imbibed in the use of Archaeology which is an evolving cultural science to obtain the aforementioned interdisciplinary approach.

Keywords: archaeology, cultural, evolution, interdisciplinary, science

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48 Neuroecological Approach for Anthropological Studies in Archaeology

Authors: Kalangi Rodrigo

Abstract:

The term Neuroecology elucidates the study of customizable variation in cognition and the brain. Subject marked the birth since 1980s, when researches began to apply methods of comparative evolutionary biology to cognitive processes and the underlying neural mechanisms of cognition. In Archaeology and Anthropology, we observe behaviors such as social learning skills, innovative feeding and foraging, tool use and social manipulation to determine the cognitive processes of ancient mankind. Depending on the brainstem size was used as a control variable, and phylogeny was controlled using independent contrasts. Both disciplines need to enriched with comparative literature and neurological experimental, behavioral studies among tribal peoples as well as primate groups which will lead the research to a potential end. Neuroecology examines the relations between ecological selection pressure and mankind or sex differences in cognition and the brain. The goal of neuroecology is to understand how natural law acts on perception and its neural apparatus. Furthermore, neuroecology will eventually lead both principal disciplines to Ethology, where human behaviors and social management studies from a biological perspective. It can be either ethnoarchaeological or prehistoric. Archaeology should adopt general approach of neuroecology, phylogenetic comparative methods can be used in the field, and new findings on the cognitive mechanisms and brain structures involved mating systems, social organization, communication and foraging. The contribution of neuroecology to archaeology and anthropology is the information it provides on the selective pressures that have influenced the evolution of cognition and brain structure of the mankind. It will shed a new light to the path of evolutionary studies including behavioral ecology, primate archaeology and cognitive archaeology.

Keywords: Neuroecology, Archaeology, Brain Evolution, Cognitive Archaeology

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47 The Results of the Research and Documentation of Early Middle Ages Sites in the North-West Poland

Authors: Wojciech Kulesza

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The north-western part of the Poland, specifically West Pomerania and Lubuskie provinces, from several years are the subject of research of the Department of Archaeology of Early Middle Ages of Institute of Archaeology of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. This area has a dense network of rivers and numerous lakes, where many of them are connected to the southern part of the Baltic Sea. During the many years of research in this area, archaeologists discovered the remains of the early Middle Ages settlement located on several islands and in most cases were encountered relics of early Middle Ages bridges linking those islands with the mainland. During the excavation, work was carried out both under water and on land for the accurate identification of islands and adjacent to them underwater areas. The result of this work is a graphic documentation, made in a three-dimensional technique, not only for the underwater trenches but also relics of bridges and objects discovered during exploration, which as the main theme will be presented in the full presentation.

Keywords: Poland, underwater archaeology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, early middle ages

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46 Discovery the Relics of Buddhist Stupa at Thanesar, Kurukshetra

Authors: Chander Shekhar, Manoj Kumar

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Present paper deal with the discovery of the stupa’s relics which belongs to the Kushana period. These remains were found during the scientific clearance work at a mound near Brahma-SarovarThanesar, Kurukshetra. This archaeological work was done by Department of Archaeology & Museums Haryana Government. The relics of stupa show that it would have been similar to Assandh and Damekhstupa. As per-Buddhist literature, GoutamBudhha reached Thanesar. In memory of Buddh’s Journey, King Ashoka built a big Stupa at Thanesar on the bank of Sarasvati River. Chinese pilgrim Yuan Chuang also referred a Monastery and stupa near Aujas-ghatof Brahma-sarovar. It may be part of that settlement which was mentioned by Yuan Chuang.

Keywords: archaeology, stupa, buddhism, excavtoin

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45 Introduction to Buddhist Archaeology of Haryana, India

Authors: Chander Shekhar, Manoj Kumar

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The present research paper is based on the explorations and excavations of Buddhist sites of the Indian state Haryana. It is a small state in north India. Earlier it was part of greater Punjab. Haryana has a very rich ancient history right from the Stone Age. It is known as the cradle of civilization. During the Buddha period, Haryana was very prosperous. Buddha also visited this region during the travel of the northwest province of British India. In this research work, the authors describe the Buddhist trail in Haryana and the tangible heritage of Buddhism, which were built in the respect and memory of the Buddha's journey like Stupa, Monasteries, Pillar, sculptures, etc. Several stupas like Chaneti Stupa, Thanesar Stupa, Agroha stupa, Adibadri, Katrawali, Assandh Stupa, and many monasteries were come into light during the excavation and exploration in Haryana as well as a lot of Buddhist sculptures also found.

Keywords: archaeology, Buddhism, exploration, excavations, stupa

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44 Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Exploration

Authors: M. S. Sukumar

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Our objective is to develop a full-fledged system for exploring and studying nature of fossils and to extend this to underwater archaeology and mineral mapping. This includes aerial surveying, imaging techniques, artefact extraction and spectrum analysing techniques. These techniques help in regular monitoring of fossils and also the sensing system. The ROV was designed to complete several tasks which simulate collecting data and samples. Given the time constraints, the ROV was engineered for efficiency and speed in performing tasks. Its other major design consideration was modularity, allowing the team to distribute the building process, to easily test systems as they were completed and troubleshoot and replace systems as necessary. Our design itself had several challenges of on-board waterproofed sensor mounting, waterproofing of motors, ROV stability criteria, camera mounting and hydrophone sound acquisition.

Keywords: remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dragonair, underwater archaeology, full-fledged system, aerial imaging and detection

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43 The Results of the Archaeological Excavations at the Site of Qurh in Al Ula Region

Authors: Ahmad Al Aboudi

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The Department of Archaeology at King Saud University conduct a long Term excavations since 2004 at the archaeological site of (Qurh) in Al-Ula area. The history of the site goes back to the eighth century AD. The main aim of the excavations is the training of the students on the archaeological field work associated with the scientific skills of exploring, surveying, classifying, documentations and other necessary in the field archaeology. During the 12th Season of Excavations, an area of 20 × 40 m2 of the site was excavated. The depth of the excavating the site was reached to 2-3 m. Many of the architectural features of a residential area in the northern part of the site were excavated this season. Circular walls made of mud-brick and a brick column drums and tiles made of clay were revealed this season. Additionally, lots of findings such as Gemstones, jars, ceramic plates, metal, glass, and fabric, as well as some jewelers and coins were discovered. This paper will deal with the main results of this field project including the architectural features and phenomena and their interpretations, the classification of excavated material culture remains and stratigraphy.

Keywords: Islamic architecture, Islamic art, excavations, early Islamic city

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42 Tourism Management of the Heritage and Archaeological Sites in Egypt

Authors: Sabry A. El Azazy

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The archaeological heritage sites are one of the most important touristic attractions worldwide. Egypt has various archaeological sites and historical locations that are classified within the list of the archaeological heritage destinations in the world, such as Cairo, Luxor, Aswan, Alexandria, and Sinai. This study focuses on how to manage the archaeological sites and provide them with all services according to the traveler's needs. Tourism management depends on strategic planning for supporting the national economy and sustainable development. Additionally, tourism management has to utilize highly effective standards of security, promotion, advertisement, sales, and marketing while taking into consideration the preservation of monuments. In Egypt, the archaeological heritage sites must be well-managed and protected, which would assist tourism management, especially in times of crisis. Recently, the monumental places and archeological heritage sites were affected by unstable conditions and were threatened. It is essential to focus on preserving our heritage. Moreover, more efforts and cooperation between the tourism organizations and ministry of archaeology have to be done in order to protect the archaeology and promote the tourism industry. Methodology: Qualitative methods have been used as the overall approach to this study. Interviews and observations have provided the researcher with the required in-depth insight to the research subject. The researcher was a lecturer of tourist guidance that allows visiting all historical sites in Egypt. Additionally, the researcher had the privilege to communicate with tourism specialists and attend meetings, conferences, and events that were focused on the research subject. Objectives: The main purpose of the research was gaining information in order to develop theoretical research on how to effectively benefit out of those historical sights both economically and culturally, and pursue further researches and scientific studies to be well-suited for tourism and hospitality sector. The researcher works hard to present further studies in a field related to tourism and archaeological heritage using previous experience. Pursing this course of study enables the researcher to acquire the necessary abilities and competencies to achieve the set goal successfully. Results: The professional tourism management focus on making Egypt one of the most important destinations in the world, and provide the heritage and archaeological sites with all services that will place those locations into the international map of tourism. Tourists interested in visiting Egypt and making tourism flourish supports and strengths Egypt's national economy and the local community, taking into consideration preserving our heritage and archaeology. Conclusions: Egypt has many tourism attractions represented in the heritage, archaeological sites, and touristic places. These places need more attention and efforts to be included in tourism programs and be opened for visitors from all over the world. These efforts will encourage both local and international tourism to see our great civilization and provide different touristic activities.

Keywords: archaeology, archaeological sites, heritage, ministry of archaeology, national economy, touristic attractions, tourism management, tourism organizations

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41 Evaluation of Fusion Sonar and Stereo Camera System for 3D Reconstruction of Underwater Archaeological Object

Authors: Yadpiroon Onmek, Jean Triboulet, Sebastien Druon, Bruno Jouvencel

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The objective of this paper is to develop the 3D underwater reconstruction of archaeology object, which is based on the fusion between a sonar system and stereo camera system. The underwater images are obtained from a calibrated camera system. The multiples image pairs are input, and we first solve the problem of image processing by applying the well-known filter, therefore to improve the quality of underwater images. The features of interest between image pairs are selected by well-known methods: a FAST detector and FLANN descriptor. Subsequently, the RANSAC method is applied to reject outlier points. The putative inliers are matched by triangulation to produce the local sparse point clouds in 3D space, using a pinhole camera model and Euclidean distance estimation. The SFM technique is used to carry out the global sparse point clouds. Finally, the ICP method is used to fusion the sonar information with the stereo model. The final 3D models have a précised by measurement comparing with the real object.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction, archaeology, fusion, stereo system, sonar system, underwater

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40 Archaeology Study of Soul Houses in Ancient Egypt on Five Models in the Grand Egyptian Museum

Authors: Ayman Aboelkassem, Mahmoud Ali

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Introduction: The models of soul houses have appeared in the prehistory, old kingdom and middle kingdom period. These soul houses represented the imagination of the deceased about his house in the afterlife, some of these soul houses were two floors and the study will examine five models of soul houses which were discovered near Saqqara site by an Egyptian mission. These models had been transferred to The Grand Egyptian Museum (GEM) to be ready to display at the new museum. We focus on models of soul houses (GEM Numbers, 1276, 1280, 1281, 1282, 8711) these models of soul houses were related to the old kingdom period. These models were all made of pottery, the five models have an oval shape and were decorated with relief. Methodology: The study will focus on the development of soul houses during the different periods in ancient Egypt, the function of soul houses, the kind of offerings which were put in it and the symbolism of the offerings colors in ancient Egyptian believe. Conclusion: This study is useful for the heritage and ancient civilizations especially when we talk about opening new museums like The Grand Egyptian Museum which will display a new collection of soul houses. The study of soul houses and The kinds of offerings which put in it reflect the economic situation in the Egyptian society and kinds of oils which were famous in ancient Egypt.

Keywords: archaeology study, Grand Egyptian Museum, relief, soul houses

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39 3D Printing for Maritime Cultural Heritage: A Design for All Approach to Public Interpretation

Authors: Anne Eugenia Wright

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This study examines issues in accessibility to maritime cultural heritage. Using the Pillar Dollar Wreck in Biscayne National Park, Florida, this study presents an approach to public outreach based on the concept of Design for All. Design for All advocates creating products that are accessible and functional for all users, including those with visual, hearing, learning, mobility, or economic impairments. As a part of this study, a small exhibit was created that uses 3D products as a way to bring maritime cultural heritage to the public. It was presented to the public at East Carolina University’s Joyner Library. Additionally, this study presents a methodology for 3D printing scaled photogrammetry models of archaeological sites in full color. This methodology can be used to present a realistic depiction of underwater archaeological sites to those who are incapable of accessing them in the water. Additionally, this methodology can be used to present underwater archaeological sites that are inaccessible to the public due to conditions such as visibility, depth, or protected status. This study presents a practical use for 3D photogrammetry models, as well as an accessibility strategy to expand the outreach potential for maritime archaeology.

Keywords: Underwater Archaeology, 3D Printing, Photogrammetry, Design for All

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38 Walking in a Weather rather than a Climate: Critique on the Meta-Narrative of Buddhism in Early India

Authors: Yongjun Kim

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Since the agreement on the historicity of historical Buddha in eastern India, the beginning, heyday and decline of Buddhism in Early India have been discussed in urbanization, commercialism and state formation context, in short, Weberian socio-politico frame. Recent Scholarship, notably in archaeology and anthropology, has proposed ‘re-materialization of Buddhism in Early India’ based on what Buddhist had actually done rather than what they should do according to canonical teachings or philosophies. But its historical narrations still remain with a domain of socio-politico meta-narrative which tends to unjustifiably dismiss the naturally existing heterogeneity and often chaotic dynamic of diverse agencies, landscape perceptions, localized traditions, etc. An author will argue the multiplicity of theoretical standpoints for the reconstruction on the Buddhism in Early India. For this, at first, the diverse agencies, localized traditions, landscape patterns of Buddhist communities and monasteries in Trans-Himalayan regions; focusing Zanskar Valley and Spiti Valley in India will be illustrated based on an author’s field work. And then an author will discuss this anthropological landscape analysis is better appropriated with textual and archaeological evidences on the tension between urban monastic and forest Buddhism, the phenomena of sacred landscape, cemetery, garden, natural cave along with socio-economic landscape, the demographic heterogeneity in Early India. Finally, it will be attempted to compare between anthropological landscape of present Trans-Himalayan and archaeological one of ancient Western India. The study of Buddhism in Early India has hardly been discussed through multivalent theoretical archaeology and anthropology of religion, thus traditional and recent scholarship have produced historical meta-narrative though heterogeneous among them. The multidisciplinary approaches of textual critics, archaeology and anthropology will surely help to deconstruct the grand and all-encompassing historical description on Buddhism in Early India and then to reconstruct the localized, behavioral and multivalent narratives. This paper expects to highlight the importance of lesser-studied Buddhist archaeological sites and the dynamic views on religious landscape in Early India with a help of critical anthropology of religion.

Keywords: analogy by living traditions, Buddhism in Early India, landscape analysis, meta-narrative

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37 The Roman Fora in North Africa Towards a Supportive Protocol to the Decision for the Morphological Restitution

Authors: Dhouha Laribi Galalou, Najla Allani Bouhoula, Atef Hammouda

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This research delves into the fundamental question of the morphological restitution of built archaeology in order to place it in its paradigmatic context and to seek answers to it. Indeed, the understanding of the object of the study, its analysis, and the methodology of solving the morphological problem posed, are manageable aspects only by means of a thoughtful strategy that draws on well-defined epistemological scaffolding. In this stream, the crisis of natural reasoning in archaeology has generated multiple changes in this field, ranging from the use of new tools to the integration of an archaeological information system where urbanization involves the interplay of several disciplines. The built archaeological topic is also an architectural and morphological object. It is also a set of articulated elementary data, the understanding of which is about to be approached from a logicist point of view. Morphological restitution is no exception to the rule, and the inter-exchange between the different disciplines uses the capacity of each to frame the reflection on the incomplete elements of a given architecture or on its different phases and multiple states of existence. The logicist sequence is furnished by the set of scattered or destroyed elements found, but also by what can be called a rule base which contains the set of rules for the architectural construction of the object. The knowledge base built from the archaeological literature also provides a reference that enters into the game of searching for forms and articulations. The choice of the Roman Forum in North Africa is justified by the great urban and architectural characteristics of this entity. The research on the forum involves both a fairly large knowledge base but also provides the researcher with material to study - from a morphological and architectural point of view - starting from the scale of the city down to the architectural detail. The experimentation of the knowledge deduced on the paradigmatic level, as well as the deduction of an analysis model, is then carried out on the basis of a well-defined context which contextualises the experimentation from the elaboration of the morphological information container attached to the rule base and the knowledge base. The use of logicist analysis and artificial intelligence has allowed us to first question the aspects already known in order to measure the credibility of our system, which remains above all a decision support tool for the morphological restitution of Roman Fora in North Africa. This paper presents a first experimentation of the model elaborated during this research, a model framed by a paradigmatic discussion and thus trying to position the research in relation to the existing paradigmatic and experimental knowledge on the issue.

Keywords: classical reasoning, logicist reasoning, archaeology, architecture, roman forum, morphology, calculation

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36 The Canaanite Trade Network between the Shores of the Mediterranean Sea

Authors: Doaa El-Shereef

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The Canaanite civilization was one of the early great civilizations of the Near East, they influenced and been influenced from the civilizations of the ancient world especially the Egyptian and Mesopotamia civilizations. The development of the Canaanite trade started from the Chalcolithic Age to the Iron Age through the oldest trade route in the Middle East. This paper will focus on defining the Canaanites and from where did they come from and the meaning of the term Canaan and how the Ancient Manuscripts define the borders of the land of Canaan and this essay will describe the Canaanite trade route and their exported goods such as cedar wood, and pottery.

Keywords: archaeology, bronze age, Canaanite, colonies, Massilia, pottery, shipwreck, vineyards

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35 Ottoman Archaeology in Kostence (Constanta, Romania): A Locality on the Periphery of the Ottoman World

Authors: Margareta Simina Stanc, Aurel Mototolea, Tiberiu Potarniche

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The city of Constanta (former Köstence) is located in the Dobrogea region, on the west shore of the Black Sea. Between 1420-1878, Dobrogea was a possession of the Ottoman Empire. Archaeological researches starting with the second half of the 20th century revealed various traces of the Ottoman period in this region. Between 2016-2018, preventive archaeological research conducted in the perimeter of the old Ottoman city of Köstence led to the discovery of structures of habitation as well as of numerous artifacts of the Ottoman period (pottery, coins, buckles, etc.). This study uses the analysis of these new discoveries to complete the picture of daily life in the Ottoman period. In 2017, in the peninsular area of Constanta, preventive archaeological research began at a point in the former Ottoman area. In the range between the current ironing level and the -1.5m depth, the Ottoman period materials appeared constantly. It is worth noting the structure of a large building that has been repaired at least once but could not be fully investigated. In parallel to this wall, there was arranged a transversally arranged brick-lined drainage channel. The drainage channel is poured into a tank (hazna), filled with various vintage materials, but mainly gilded ceramics and iron objects. This type of hazna is commonly found in Constanta for the pre-modern and modern period due to the lack of a sewage system in the peninsular area. A similar structure, probably fountain, was discovered in 2016 in another part of the old city. An interesting piece is that of a cup (probably) Persians and a bowl belonging to Kütahya style, both of the 17th century, proof of commercial routes passing through Constanta during that period and indirectly confirming the documentary testimonies of the time. Also, can be mentioned the discovery, in the year 2016, on the occasion of underwater research carried out by specialists of the department of the Constanta Museum, at a depth of 15 meters, a Turkish oil lamp (17th - the beginning of the 18th century), among other objects of a sunken ship. The archaeological pieces, in a fragmentary or integral state, found in research campaigns 2016-2018, are undergoing processing or restoration, leaving out all the available information, and establishing exact analogies. These discoveries bring new data to the knowledge of daily life during the Ottoman administration in the former Köstence, a locality on the periphery of the Islamic world.

Keywords: habitation, material culture, Ottoman administration, Ottoman archaeology, periphery

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34 The Relationship between Ruins and Vegetation: Different Approaches during the Centuries and within the Various Disciplinary Fields, Investigation of Writings and Projects

Authors: Rossana Mancini

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The charm of a ruin colonised by wild plants and flowers is part of Western culture. The relationship between ruins and vegetation involves a wide range of different fields of research. During the first phase of the research the most important writings and projects about this argument were investigated, to understand how the perception of the co-existence of ruins and vegetation has changed over time and to investigate the various different approaches that these different fields have adopted when tackling this issue. The paper presents some practical examples of projects carried out from the early 1900s on. The major result is that specifically regards conservation, the best attitude is the management of change, an inevitable process when it comes to the co-existence of ruins and nature and, particularly, ruins and vegetation. Limiting ourselves to adopting measures designed to stop, or rather slow down, the increasing level of entropy (and therefore disorder) may not be enough.

Keywords: ruins, vegetation, conservation, archaeology, architecture

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33 Hand-Held X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Pre-Diagnostic Studies in Conservation, and Limitations

Authors: Irmak Gunes Yuceil

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This paper outlines interferences and analytical errors which are encountered in the qualification and quantification of archaeological and ethnographic artifacts, by means of handheld x-ray fluorescence. These shortcomings were evaluated through case studies carried out on metallic artifacts related to various periods and cultures around Anatolia. An Innov-X Delta Standard 2000 handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used to collect data from 1361 artifacts, through 6789 measurements and 70 hours’ tube usage, in between 2013-2017. Spectrum processing was done by Delta Advanced PC Software. Qualitative and quantitative results screened by the device were compared with the spectrum graphs, and major discrepancies associated with physical and analytical interferences were clarified in this paper.

Keywords: hand-held x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, art and archaeology, interferences and analytical errors, pre-diagnosis in conservation

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32 The Study of Indigenous Communities in Sefidkuh Makran, the Showcase of Prehistoric Societies in the 21st Century, Based on Ethnoarchaeological Studies

Authors: Hossein Vahedi, Zahra Soleymani Fard

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SefidKuh area in Baluchistan, Iran, is one of the impossible areas which the focused archeological investigations have not been on it. In the Sefidkuh area, there are colonies as if they were stopped in the Neolithic and Chalcolithic ages. These colonies exhibit culturally specific behaviors, which their study can reveal much of the cultural nature of the Neolithic, Chalcolithic inhabitants of the region. In the villages of this area, still, circular architecture is used in different types. The political management of the villages in the region is also the responsibility of Khan, whose characteristics can be compared to the prehistoric era. These people's livelihoods include hunting, animal husbandry, horticulture, and limited crop storage. Residents of Sefidkuh use the exchange of goods to obtain needed supplies that they themselves cannot produce. In this area, there are central location villages that are quite similar to the cluster model, and the Great Khan leads the surrounding villages.

Keywords: archaeology, social structure, neolithic, chalcolithic, Sefidkuh, Baluchistan

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31 Limes Africanus: Tribes, Romans and Islamic Dynasties

Authors: Erika Mattio , Edoardo Casolo

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This project studies in a complete and innovative way the lesser known southern roman border: the limes africanus. In this work, thanks to the comparison of archaeological, historical and epigraphic sources, the evolution and changes that occurred in the cities and areas around the limes were analysed. As of now, there are many studies relative to the roman imperial period, however there are not that many analysing the evolution of the limes from the Islamic conquest to the modern day, comparing the ancient, byzantine, islamic and contemporary periods, understanding the significance of the limes, it s role and the cities and commerce that were defined by it in north Africa. Using modern methods of remote sensing and landscape archaeology, a georeferencing of the area documented in the thirties of the last century by French military aviation colonel Jean Baradez was created, showing that the limes africanus had survived the fall of the roman empire and continued to be important also for the Islamic dynasties that came later, even until the italo-turkish war and the Italian conquest of Libya. With this research we wish to demonstrate the continuation through time of the limes africanus and whether today it exists still or not.

Keywords: Limes Tripolitanus, Muslim, North Africa, Romans

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30 Whether Chaos Theory Could Reconstruct the Ancient Societies

Authors: Zahra Kouzehgari

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Since the early emergence of chaos theory in the 1970s in mathematics and physical science, it has increasingly been developed and adapted in social sciences as well. The non-linear and dynamic characteristics of the theory make it a useful conceptual framework to interpret the complex social systems behavior. Regarding chaotic approach principals, sensitivity to initial conditions, dynamic adoption, strange attractors and unpredictability this paper aims to examine whether chaos approach could interpret the ancient social changes. To do this, at first, a brief history of the chaos theory, its development and application in social science as well as the principals making the theory, then its application in archaeological since has been reviewed. The study demonstrates that although based on existing archaeological records reconstruct the whole social system of the human past, the non-linear approaches in studying social complex systems would be of a great help in finding general order of the ancient societies and would enable us to shed light on some of the social phenomena in the human history or to make sense of them.

Keywords: archaeology, non-linear approach, chaos theory, ancient social systems

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29 3D Point Cloud Model Color Adjustment by Combining Terrestrial Laser Scanner and Close Range Photogrammetry Datasets

Authors: M. Pepe, S. Ackermann, L. Fregonese, C. Achille

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3D models obtained with advanced survey techniques such as close-range photogrammetry and laser scanner are nowadays particularly appreciated in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology fields. In order to produce high quality models representing archaeological evidences and anthropological artifacts, the appearance of the model (i.e. color) beyond the geometric accuracy, is not a negligible aspect. The integration of the close-range photogrammetry survey techniques with the laser scanner is still a topic of study and research. By combining point cloud data sets of the same object generated with both technologies, or with the same technology but registered in different moment and/or natural light condition, could construct a final point cloud with accentuated color dissimilarities. In this paper, a methodology to uniform the different data sets, to improve the chromatic quality and to highlight further details by balancing the point color will be presented.

Keywords: color models, cultural heritage, laser scanner, photogrammetry

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28 The Impact of Political Events on National Archaeological Heritage and Tourism Industry: Study Case of Egypt after January 25th, 2011

Authors: Sabry A. El Azazy

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Tourism plays an essential role in supporting the National Economy. Egypt was ranked as one of the most attractive touristic destinations worldwide. Tourism as a service sector affects political events and unstable conditions. Within the revolution of January 25th, 2011, tourism became below standards, and the archeological heritage sites were subject to threat. Because of the political tension and social instability, Egypt's tourism sector has drastically dropped. Currently, Egypt is working on overcoming the crisis caused by political unrest. However, it is expected to take a long time to get back to where it was, especially in terms of regaining the confidence of travelers in the country's ability to guarantee and maintain security and stability. Recently, many great projects have been done, such as; New Administrative Cairo Capital, New Suez Canal logistic project, New City of Al Alamin, New Grand Egyptian Museum, as well as other great projects that reflect positively on the tourism industry and archaeological heritage development in Egypt.

Keywords: archaeology, archaeological heritage, attractions, national economy, political events, touristic destinations, tourism industry

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27 An Experimental Study of Iron Smelting Techniques Used in the South East Rajasthan, with Special Reference to Nathara-Ki-Pal, Udaipur

Authors: Udaya Kumar

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The aim of this paper is to discuss recent research conducted in experimental studies related to the process of the iron smelting. The paper will discuss issues related to the selection of iron ore, structure of furnace, making of tuyeres, fashioning of blowers and firing temperatures through experiments conducted recently and scientific analyses of experimental work. Experiments were conducted in order to investigate iron smelting techniques used at the Early Historic site of Nathara-Ki-Pal. (73°47’E; 24°16N is located about 70 km south-east of Udaipur city). Geographically, Nathara-Ki-Pal has located the foot hills of Aravalli’s. Iron ore and iron slag can be seen on the surface of the site. The remains of 4 broken furnaces were recovered during excavations (2007 and 2008) and the site was excavated by Prof. Pandey from the Department of Archaeology of the Institute of Rajasthan studies, Rajasthan Vidyapeeth University. This shows that the site of Nathara-Ki-Pal was a center of iron smelting. Results of experiments performed both in the field reconstruction of a bloomery furnace and in the laboratory are discussed.

Keywords: experimental studies, furnace, smelting techniques, making of tuyeres

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26 Documentation Project on Boat Models from Saqqara, in the Grand Egyptian Museum

Authors: Ayman Aboelkassem, Mohamoud Ali, Rezq Diab

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This project aims to document and preserve boat models which were discovered in the Saqqara by Czech Institute of Egyptology archeological mission at Saqqara (GEM numbers, 46007, 46008, 46009). These boat models dates back to Egyptian Old Kingdom and have been transferred to the Conservation Center of the Grand Egyptian Museum, to be displayed at the new museum.The project objectives making such boat models more visible to visitors through the use of 3D reconstructed models and high resolution photos which describe the history of using the boats during the Ancient Egyptian history. Especially, The Grand Egyptian Museum is going to exhibit the second boat of King Khufu from Old kingdom. The project goals are to document the boat models and arrange an exhibition, where such Models going to be displayed next to the Khufu Second Boat. The project shows the importance of using boats in Ancient Egypt, and connecting their usage through Ancient Egyptian periods till now. The boat models had a unique Symbolized in ancient Egypt and connect the public with their kings. The Egyptian kings allowed high ranked employees to put boat models in their tombs which has a great meaning that they hope to fellow their kings in the journey of the afterlife.

Keywords: archaeology, boat models, 3D digital tools for heritage management, museums

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25 Investigating Ancient Technology and Ceramic Composition at Al-Khidr Site (Failaka Island, Kuwait): Geochemical Analyses of Bronze Age Pottery by pXRF and Thin-section Petrographic Analyses

Authors: Hasan Ashkanani

Abstract:

Pottery assemblages from the site of Al-Khidr on Failaka Island, Kuwait, were analysed in order to reconstruct the chemical composition of Bronze Age wares and to build a mineralogical database of Bronze Age pottery dated from Failaka Periods 1–3B (2000–1650 BCE). A total of 145 ceramic sherds from Al-Khidr, as well as reference groups, were analysed by non-destructive portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometry. Preliminarily petrographic thin-section analysis was applied to four samples to reconstruct possible clay paste recipes and to identify raw materials. The results indicate that geochemical analyses can successfully distinguish subgroups within a typological category of ceramic assemblages. The results identified two subgroups within the Al-Khidr typological category: the Dilmun Barbar tradition and the Mesopotamian tradition. Future comparative compositional studies can be conducted to explore other aspects of craft specialisation, such as ceramic technological choices and possibly the influence of sociopolitical units

Keywords: Kuwait archaeology, pottery, pXRF, Dilmun

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24 Russian, Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies on Ismailism

Authors: Dagikhudo Dagiev

Abstract:

This paper is a thorough contribution to the analysis of Russian, Soviet and post-Soviet scholarship on the study of Ismailism in Central Asia. It focuses on the lengthy development of Russian studies on Ismailism from the Russian colonial domination to the entire period of Soviet rule, down to the collapse of the Soviet Union and the last two decades of post-Soviet history. These studies, conducted along the lines of various disciplines in the span of more than one hundred years, have resulted in a large amount of scholarly contributions. This paper aims at probing the virtues and shortcoming of such scholarship. Particularly, our investigation of the specialised fields in the Russian-Soviet Studies has required laborious researches in Russian and Central Asian libraries, which have enabled us to provide a guide through this literature, assessing its ideological leanings and qualities, institutions and level of scholarship. Despite some shortcomings, due to Marxism and the authoritarian rule of the Communist Party over the socio-religious life of the people and religious communities, Soviet studies have produced many positive insights on Ismailis studies. These captured almost every aspects of the life of the Ismaili community from anthropology to archaeology, ethnography, history, philosophy, ritual practice and, most importantly, collection and preservation of Ismaiili manuscripts, which will be examined and assessed in this study.

Keywords: Central Asian Studies, Ismailism, Russian Studies, Soviet Studies

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23 A Site Unexplored: Recently Discovered In Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Rifat-Ur- Rahman

Abstract:

Dhamairnagar, Sirajganj, Bangladesh, local villagers describe the peculiar mounds spotted scattered among the nearby villages as “Buruj”. Among these, a mound was explored in one of these mounds, in Khirtala village, in early 2019. Primary archaeological surveys and map making has been conducted in this site, where suspect lays the remains of an 8 square miles city, at least 1200 years old. In the government gazettes of Bangladesh from 1990, this place has been linked with a mythical kind from the Indian epic, Mahabharata. In the primary explorations, found bricks, mortars, different kinds of potteries and terracotta pieces. Assumable observation is that this city was a flourishing establishment during the early Pala dynasty of Bengal (800 AD to 1200 AD). At present there are four indigenous groups live around this site and they are known as Mahato, Teli, Oraon and Santals. These four indigenous groups are considered as the core four of Bengali ethnicity. In the folklore of these groups we find stories of ancient kingdoms which have not been documented through archaeological findings yet. So, a question rises about the population that was used to reside in this archaeological site. Were they the ancestors of these indigenous tribes that are dwelling in this area? With such primary information, the aim is to conduct a comparative study of the physiology; osteology and cultural practices of this civilization.

Keywords: Archaeology, Heritage, Indigenous Peoples, Physiology

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22 The Ancient Port of Gaza 'Anthedon' and Relationship with Mediterranean Basin Ports

Authors: Ayman Hassouna

Abstract:

Gaza was famous in the history of trade, because it lies at the end of overland trade route, then the goods transferred by Gazzian merchants to different places around the Mediterranean, so it is described as ‘Mediterranean port of Arabs’, but Gaza is not located directly at the sea shore, so it is fortified by two ports: the first is Anthedon, and second is Maiomas. It is possible to dig in Anthedon but it is too difficult to do that in Maiomas because the site is full of modern buildings. Archaeological excavations at Anthedon's port provided us much archaeological and historical information about cooperation between Anthedon's port and different places at the Mediterranean basin. This research speaks about the roots of Anthedon's name, and it is related with other names in Greek land, by use different dictionaries language, and produce historical introduction were covering the ages beginning from the Iron Age to Greek, Roman and Byzantine periods. Then the study reviewed the most important architectural discoveries in the site, and highlighted the relationship with the civilizations' ports of the Mediterranean basin by studying number of artefacts pottery were imported from different places as Cyprus, Greece, Italy, North Africa, Carthage and Tripoli workshops. On the other hand, the archaeologists discovered some of local pottery made in Gaza at different sites on the Mediterranean basin which confirms the relationship of Gaza merchants with those areas. At the end of this study, there are some conclusions and recommendations about the site.

Keywords: ancient port of Gaza, pottery typology, Mediterranean basin ports, Palestine archaeology

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21 Glimpses into the History of Makkah in the Light of Archaeological Finds

Authors: Heba Aboul-Enein

Abstract:

The blessed Mecca (Makkah) has been attacked as a city without a pre-Islamic history. Many claims have been posited denying the historicity of this holy city, and mythicizing Arabic historical records. Hence, the current paper attempted to shed light on this controversial history of Makkah. To achieve the intended objective, the study recoursed to archaeological, historical, and linguistic evidence, to prove that the holy city existed since the dawn of human history. The data under study include the results of recent excavations; archaeological surveys in Saudi Arabia, academic works of archaeologists, newspaper reports of the latest archaeological discoveries, and the findings of Saudi explorers. In addition, the study examined ancient and contemporary references; western accounts of Makkah, the bible, Jewish, Christian, Islamic, and Arabic references, in an effort to reconcile these texts with the archeological findings. The paper also reviewed the latest results of aerial archeology of the region. The study proved based on archaeological finds, and contrary to fallacious claims, that Makkah is an ancient city that existed and was inhabited by humans in varied historical eras.

Keywords: aerial archaeology, archaeological finds in the Makkan region, archaeological surveys, Western, Jewish and Islamic accounts of Makkah

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20 An Archaeological Approach to Dating Polities and Architectural Ingenuity in Ijebu, South Western Nigeria

Authors: Olanrewaju B. Lasisi

Abstract:

The position of Ijebu-Ode, the historical capital of the Ijebu Kingdom, at the center of gravity of Ijebu land is enclosed by the 180-km-long earthwork and suggests a centrally controlled project. This paper reflects on the first stratigraphic drawing of the banks and ditches of this earthwork, and place its construction mechanism in a chronological framework. Nine radiocarbon dates obtained at the site suggest that the earthwork was built in the late 14th or early 15th century. This suggests a relationship with the Ijebu Kingdom, which pre-existed the opening of the Atlantic trade but first became visible only in the Portuguese records in the 1480s. In June 2017, more earthworks were found but within the core of Ijebu Land. This most recent finding points to an extension of territory from the center to the outlying villages. One central question about this discovery of monumental architectures that was functional around the 14th century or before is in its mode of construction. Apparently, iron tools must have been used in the construction of ‘a 20m deep ditch that runs 180km in circumference.’ Thus, the discovery of iron-working sites around the vicinity of the earthwork is a pointer to this building process that is up till now shrouded in mystery. By comparing the chronology of Ijebu earthworks with the evidence of Iron working in south western Nigeria around the first half of the first millennium AD, it can be thought that the rise in polity triggered the knowledge of metallurgy in the region.

Keywords: archaeology, earthworks, Ijebu, metallurgy

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