Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 475

Search results for: surrogate marker

475 Pefloxacin as a Surrogate Marker for Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Salmonella: Study from North India

Authors: Varsha Gupta, Priya Datta, Gursimran Mohi, Jagdish Chander


Fluoroquinolones form the mainstay of therapy for the treatment of infections due to Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. There is a complex interplay between several resistance mechanisms for quinolones and various fluoroquinolones discs, giving varying results, making detection and interpretation of fluoroquinolone resistance difficult. For detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella ssp., we compared the use of pefloxacin and nalidixic acid discs as surrogate marker. Using MIC for ciprofloxacin as the gold standard, 43.5% of strains showed MIC as ≥1 μg/ml and were thus resistant to fluoroquinoloes. Based on the performance of nalidixic acid and pefloxacin discs as surrogate marker for ciprofloxacin resistance, both the discs could correctly detect all the resistant phenotypes; however, use of nalidixic acid disc showed false resistance in the majority of the sensitive phenotypes. We have also tested newer antimicrobial agents like cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin against Salmonella spp. Moreover, there was a comeback of susceptibility to older antimicrobials like ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole. We can also use cefixime, imipenem, tigecycline and azithromycin in the treatment of multidrug resistant S. typhi due to their high susceptibility.

Keywords: salmonella, pefloxacin, surrogate marker, chloramphenicol

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474 Assessment of Association Between Microalbuminuria and Lung Function Test Among the Community of Jimma Town

Authors: Diriba Dereje


Background: Cardiac and renal disease are the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) affecting the community in a significant manner. The best and recommended method in halting CNCD is by working on prevention as early as possible. This is only possible if early surrogate markers are identified. As part of the stated solution, this study will identify an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Methodology: Community based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 adult in Jimma town. A systematic sampling technique was used in selecting participants to the study. In searching for the possible association, binary and multivariate logistic regression and t-test was conducted. Finally, the association between microalbuminuria and lung function test was well stated in the form of figures and written description. Result and Conclusion: A significant association was found between microalbuminuria and different lung function test parameters.

Keywords: microalbuminuria, lung function, association, test

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473 Variable-Fidelity Surrogate Modelling with Kriging

Authors: Selvakumar Ulaganathan, Ivo Couckuyt, Francesco Ferranti, Tom Dhaene, Eric Laermans


Variable-fidelity surrogate modelling offers an efficient way to approximate function data available in multiple degrees of accuracy each with varying computational cost. In this paper, a Kriging-based variable-fidelity surrogate modelling approach is introduced to approximate such deterministic data. Initially, individual Kriging surrogate models, which are enhanced with gradient data of different degrees of accuracy, are constructed. Then these Gradient enhanced Kriging surrogate models are strategically coupled using a recursive CoKriging formulation to provide an accurate surrogate model for the highest fidelity data. While, intuitively, gradient data is useful to enhance the accuracy of surrogate models, the primary motivation behind this work is to investigate if it is also worthwhile incorporating gradient data of varying degrees of accuracy.

Keywords: Kriging, CoKriging, Surrogate modelling, Variable- fidelity modelling, Gradients

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472 An Adaptive Hybrid Surrogate-Assisted Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Expensive Structural Optimization

Authors: Xiongxiong You, Zhanwen Niu


Choosing an appropriate surrogate model plays an important role in surrogates-assisted evolutionary algorithms (SAEAs) since there are many types and different kernel functions in the surrogate model. In this paper, an adaptive selection of the best suitable surrogate model method is proposed to solve different kinds of expensive optimization problems. Firstly, according to the prediction residual error sum of square (PRESS) and different model selection strategies, the excellent individual surrogate models are integrated into multiple ensemble models in each generation. Then, based on the minimum root of mean square error (RMSE), the best suitable surrogate model is selected dynamically. Secondly, two methods with dynamic number of models and selection strategies are designed, which are used to show the influence of the number of individual models and selection strategy. Finally, some compared studies are made to deal with several commonly used benchmark problems, as well as a rotor system optimization problem. The results demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

Keywords: adaptive selection, expensive optimization, rotor system, surrogates assisted evolutionary algorithms

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471 Human Skin Identification Using a Specific mRNA Marker at Different Storage Durations

Authors: Abla A. Ali, Heba A. Abd El Razik, Nadia A. Kotb, Amany A. Bayoumi, Laila A. Rashed


The detection of human skin through mRNA-based profiling is a very useful tool for forensic investigations. The aim of this study was definitive identification of human skin at different time intervals using an mRNA marker late cornified envelope gene 1C. Ten middle-aged healthy volunteers of both sexes were recruited for this study. Skin samples controlled with blood samples were taken from the candidates to test for the presence of our targeted mRNA marker. Samples were kept at dry dark conditions to be tested at different time intervals (24 hours, one week, three weeks and four weeks) for detection and relative quantification of the targeted marker by RT PCR. The targeted marker could not be detected in blood samples. The targeted marker showed the highest mean value after 24 hours (11.90 ± 2.42) and the lowest mean value (7.56 ± 2.56) after three weeks. No marker could be detected at four weeks. This study verified the high specificity and sensitivity of mRNA marker in the skin at different storage times up to three weeks under the study conditions.

Keywords: human skin, late cornified envelope gene 1C, mRNA marker, time intervals

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470 Automated Marker Filling System

Authors: Pinisetti Swami Sairam, Meera C. S.


Marker pens are widely used all over the world, mainly in educational institutions due to their neat, accurate and easily erasable nature. But refilling the ink in these pens is a tedious and time consuming job. Besides, it requires careful handling of the pens and ink bottle. A fully automated marker filling system is a solution developed to overcome this problem. The system comprises of pneumatics and electronics modules as well as PLC control. The system design is done in such a way that the empty markers are dumped in a marker container which then sent through different modules of the system in order to refill it automatically. The filled markers are then collected in a marker container. Refilling of ink takes place in different stages inside the system. An ink detecting system detects the colour of the marker which is to be filled and then refilling is done. The processes like capping and uncapping of the cap as well as screwing and unscrewing of the tip are done with the help of robotic arm and gripper. We make use of pneumatics in this system in order to get the precision while performing the capping, screwing, and refilling operations. Thus with the help of this system we can achieve cleanliness, accuracy, effective and time saving in the process of filling a marker.

Keywords: automated system, market filling, information technology, control and automation

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469 The Gaze; Objectification of the Surrogate Mother in Cross-Border Surrogacy: An Empirical Study Applied to Surrogacy Facilitators

Authors: Yingyi Luo


Cross-border surrogacy is seen by many as a market in which women are bought and sold commodities at risk of trafficking. A surrogate can be framed as either a fully acknowledged subject, with whom intended parents engage in cross-border surrogacy—or as a tool utilized by intended parents and surrogacy facilitators in the furtherance of their own objectives. In order to identify which frame prevails, this paper applies subjectivity theory to an empirical study of cross-border surrogacy facilitated by facilitators in Australia analysing interviews with surrogate agents, counsellors and lawyers, and observations at trade show. The aim of the paper is to advance understanding of the dynamics of the relationship between intended parents, surrogates, and surrogacy facilitators by collecting new data and applying unique framework. As dominant players, surrogacy facilitators have a significant impact on determining the nature of cross-border surrogacy. However, little is known concerning the manner in which facilitators influence the inter-subjectivity between surrogate mothers and intended parents. Thus, this paper intends to identify how facilitators depict surrogate mothers, the degree to which their perspectives bear upon both the subjectivity of the surrogate mother and the relationship of intended parents with surrogate mothers. For the purpose of introducing and developing this framework in the context of cross-border surrogacy, this paper borrows from the work of theorists not often mentioned in bioethics, including Jacques Lacan, Marco Cavallaro, Michel Foucault, and others. It also applies the concept of 'the gaze' along with the dynamic of 'self' and 'other' to the cross-border surrogacy arrangement. Applying the concept of the gaze can provide a new way to interpret the power dynamic that plays out among surrogacy facilitators, intended parents, and surrogates within the commercial surrogacy arrangement and how the subjectivity is produced through the power. Viewing the relationships between the players in cross-border surrogacy through the lens of gaze theory, this paper finds that, in cross-border surrogacy, due to the structural power imbalance, affluent intended parents and surrogacy facilitators are possessors of the gaze, while surrogate mothers are under the thrall of the gaze. Specifically, facilitators frame surrogate mothers' reproductive abilities as commodities that intended parents can purchase to fulfil their urgent need to have children and experience full subjectivity, and they take a cut of the money that paid by intended parents. Therefore, commodification of the body results in degrading a surrogate mother (the object), reifying her as no more than a walking womb (the other), a process which is highly detrimental to the self of surrogate mothers. This relationship, formalized through contractual means, allows intended parents and facilitators to take advantage of surrogate mothers in the furtherance of their own objectives. This argument is enriched by new data from interviews and observations that provide nuance to this understanding of inter-subjectivity.

Keywords: cross-border surrogacy, facilitators, self, surrogate mothers

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468 Performance Evaluation of Using Genetic Programming Based Surrogate Models for Approximating Simulation Complex Geochemical Transport Processes

Authors: Hamed K. Esfahani, Bithin Datta


Transport of reactive chemical contaminant species in groundwater aquifers is a complex and highly non-linear physical and geochemical process especially for real life scenarios. Simulating this transport process involves solving complex nonlinear equations and generally requires huge computational time for a given aquifer study area. Development of optimal remediation strategies in aquifers may require repeated solution of such complex numerical simulation models. To overcome this computational limitation and improve the computational feasibility of large number of repeated simulations, Genetic Programming based trained surrogate models are developed to approximately simulate such complex transport processes. Transport process of acid mine drainage, a hazardous pollutant is first simulated using a numerical simulated model: HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 for a contaminated aquifer in a historic mine site. Simulation model solution results for an illustrative contaminated aquifer site is then approximated by training and testing a Genetic Programming (GP) based surrogate model. Performance evaluation of the ensemble GP models as surrogate models for the reactive species transport in groundwater demonstrates the feasibility of its use and the associated computational advantages. The results show the efficiency and feasibility of using ensemble GP surrogate models as approximate simulators of complex hydrogeologic and geochemical processes in a contaminated groundwater aquifer incorporating uncertainties in historic mine site.

Keywords: geochemical transport simulation, acid mine drainage, surrogate models, ensemble genetic programming, contaminated aquifers, mine sites

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467 Development of a Reduced Multicomponent Jet Fuel Surrogate for Computational Fluid Dynamics Application

Authors: Muhammad Zaman Shakir, Mingfa Yao, Zohaib Iqbal


This study proposed four Jet fuel surrogate (S1, S2 S3, and 4) with careful selection of seven large hydrocarbon fuel components, ranging from C₉-C₁₆ of higher molecular weight and higher boiling point, adapting the standard molecular distribution size of the actual jet fuel. The surrogate was composed of seven components, including n-propyl cyclohexane (C₉H₁₈), n- propylbenzene (C₉H₁₂), n-undecane (C₁₁H₂₄), n- dodecane (C₁₂H₂₆), n-tetradecane (C₁₄H₃₀), n-hexadecane (C₁₆H₃₄) and iso-cetane (iC₁₆H₃₄). The skeletal jet fuel surrogate reaction mechanism was developed by two approaches, firstly based on a decoupling methodology by describing the C₄ -C₁₆ skeletal mechanism for the oxidation of heavy hydrocarbons and a detailed H₂ /CO/C₁ mechanism for prediction of oxidation of small hydrocarbons. The combined skeletal jet fuel surrogate mechanism was compressed into 128 species, and 355 reactions and thereby can be used in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The extensive validation was performed for individual single-component including ignition delay time, species concentrations profile and laminar flame speed based on various fundamental experiments under wide operating conditions, and for their blended mixture, among all the surrogate, S1 has been extensively validated against the experimental data in a shock tube, rapid compression machine, jet-stirred reactor, counterflow flame, and premixed laminar flame over wide ranges of temperature (700-1700 K), pressure (8-50 atm), and equivalence ratio (0.5-2.0) to capture the properties target fuel Jet-A, while the rest of three surrogate S2, S3 and S4 has been validated for Shock Tube ignition delay time only to capture the ignition characteristic of target fuel S-8 & GTL, IPK and RP-3 respectively. Based on the newly proposed HyChem model, another four surrogate with similar components and composition, was developed and parallel validations data was used as followed for previously developed surrogate but at high-temperature condition only. After testing the mechanism prediction performance of surrogates developed by the decoupling methodology, the comparison was done with the results of surrogates developed by the HyChem model. It was observed that all of four proposed surrogates in this study showed good agreement with the experimental measurements and the study comes to this conclusion that like the decoupling methodology HyChem model also has a great potential for the development of oxidation mechanism for heavy alkanes because of applicability, simplicity, and compactness.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, decoupling methodology Hychem, jet fuel, surrogate, skeletal mechanism

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466 The Marker Active Compound Identification of Calotropis gigantea Roots Extract as an Anticancer

Authors: Roihatul Mutiah, Sukardiman, Aty Widyawaruyanti


Calotropis gigantiea (L.) R. Br (Apocynaceae) commonly called as “Biduri” or “giant milk weed” is a well-known weed to many cultures for treating various disorders. Several studies reported that C.gigantea roots has anticancer activity. The main aim of this research was to isolate and identify an active marker compound of C.gigantea roots for quality control purpose of its extract in the development as anticancer natural product. The isolation methods was bioactivity guided column chromatography, TLC, and HPLC. Evaluated anticancer activity of there substances using MTT assay methods. Identification structure active compound by UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, HMBC, HMQC spectral and other references. The result showed that the marker active compound was identical as Calotropin.

Keywords: calotropin, Calotropis gigantea, anticancer, marker active

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465 Commercial Surrogacy and Rights of the Children Born

Authors: Neha Tiwari


Rights are prerequisite for individuals to pursue their aims and enrich themselves. Laski has said rights are, ‘conditions of social life without which no man can seek himself at his best.’ However with superior technology, rights of many individuals are at stake as well. One such sufferer is the babies born out of the practice of commercial surrogacy. Commercial surrogacy has emerged as the most viable option for the childless couples. The practice has garnered lot of debate in both academia and media. Some argue for a complete ban and some for strict rules and regulation. Most of the time the debate is regarding the rights of the surrogate, something which we cannot ignore. Equally important are the rights of the children born out of such arrangements. However, not much attention is being paid to them. Recently, a controversy emerged when a surrogate gave birth to twins. One of the babies, Gammy born with down syndrome was left behind by the couple. Gammy could die because his poor Thai surrogate mother may not be able to pay for his treatment. Even if he survives, he will never know his twin sister as her identity would never be disclosed. This is just one of many such cases where the future of such babies is being played with. If the rights of these children are not taken care of many of them will have to bear the brunt of society's ignorance and perhaps live with a scar which won't heal in their lifetime.

Keywords: babies, commercial surrogacy, rights, technology

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464 Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Kriging Surrogates and Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

Authors: M. R. Ghasemi, R. Ghiasi, H. Varaee


Surrogate model has received increasing attention for use in detecting damage of structures based on vibration modal parameters. However, uncertainties existing in the measured vibration data may lead to false or unreliable output result from such model. In this study, an efficient approach based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to take into account the effect of uncertainties in developing a surrogate model. The probability of damage existence (PDE) is calculated based on the probability density function of the existence of undamaged and damaged states. The kriging technique allows one to genuinely quantify the surrogate error, therefore it is chosen as metamodeling technique. Enhanced version of ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) algorithm is used as main algorithm for model updating. The developed approach is applied to detect simulated damage in numerical models of 72-bar space truss and 120-bar dome truss. The simulation results show the proposed method can perform well in probability-based damage detection of structures with less computational effort compared to direct finite element model.

Keywords: probability-based damage detection (PBDD), Kriging, surrogate modeling, uncertainty quantification, artificial intelligence, enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM)

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463 Marker Assisted Selection of Rice Genotypes for Xa5 and Xa13 Bacterial Leaf Blight Resistance Genes

Authors: P. Sindhumole, K. Soumya, R. Renjimol


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major staple food crop over the world. It is prone to a number of biotic and abiotic stresses, out of which Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, is the most rampant. Management of this disease through chemicals or any other means is very difficult. The best way to control BLB is by the development of Host Plant Resistance. BLB resistance is not an activity of a single gene but it involves a cluster of more than thirty genes reported. Among these, Xa5 and Xa13 genes are two important ones, which can be diagnosed through marker assisted selection using closely linked molecular markers. During 2014, the first phase of field screening using forty traditional rice genotypes was carried out and twenty resistant symptomless genotypes were identified. Molecular characterisation of these genotypes using RM 122 SSR marker revealed the presence of Xa5 gene in thirteen genotypes. Forty-two traditional rice genotypes were used for the second phase of field screening for BLB resistance. Among these, sixteen resistant genotypes were identified. These genotypes, along with two susceptible check genotypes, were subjected to marker assisted selection for Xa13 gene, using the linked STS marker RG-136. During this process, presence of Xa13 gene could be detected in ten resistant genotypes. In future, these selected genotypes can be directly utilised as donors in Marker assisted breeding programmes for BLB resistance in rice.

Keywords: oryza sativa, SSR, STS, marker, disease, breeding

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462 Infilling Strategies for Surrogate Model Based Multi-disciplinary Analysis and Applications to Velocity Prediction Programs

Authors: Malo Pocheau-Lesteven, Olivier Le Maître


Engineering and optimisation of complex systems is often achieved through multi-disciplinary analysis of the system, where each subsystem is modeled and interacts with other subsystems to model the complete system. The coherence of the output of the different sub-systems is achieved through the use of compatibility constraints, which enforce the coupling between the different subsystems. Due to the complexity of some sub-systems and the computational cost of evaluating their respective models, it is often necessary to build surrogate models of these subsystems to allow repeated evaluation these subsystems at a relatively low computational cost. In this paper, gaussian processes are used, as their probabilistic nature is leveraged to evaluate the likelihood of satisfying the compatibility constraints. This paper presents infilling strategies to build accurate surrogate models of the subsystems in areas where they are likely to meet the compatibility constraint. It is shown that these infilling strategies can reduce the computational cost of building surrogate models for a given level of accuracy. An application of these methods to velocity prediction programs used in offshore racing naval architecture further demonstrates these method's applicability in a real engineering context. Also, some examples of the application of uncertainty quantification to field of naval architecture are presented.

Keywords: infilling strategy, gaussian process, multi disciplinary analysis, velocity prediction program

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461 Nelder-Mead Parametric Optimization of Elastic Metamaterials with Artificial Neural Network Surrogate Model

Authors: Jiaqi Dong, Qing-Hua Qin, Yi Xiao


Some of the most fundamental challenges of elastic metamaterials (EMMs) optimization can be attributed to the high consumption of computational power resulted from finite element analysis (FEA) simulations that render the optimization process inefficient. Furthermore, due to the inherent mesh dependence of FEA, minuscule geometry features, which often emerge during the later stages of optimization, induce very fine elements, resulting in enormously high time consumption, particularly when repetitive solutions are needed for computing the objective function. In this study, a surrogate modelling algorithm is developed to reduce computational time in structural optimization of EMMs. The surrogate model is constructed based on a multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) architecture, trained with prepopulated eigenfrequency data prepopulated from FEA simulation and optimized through regime selection with genetic algorithm (GA) to improve its accuracy in predicting the location and width of the primary elastic band gap. With the optimized ANN surrogate at the core, a Nelder-Mead (NM) algorithm is established and its performance inspected in comparison to the FEA solution. The ANNNM model shows remarkable accuracy in predicting the band gap width and a reduction of time consumption by 47%.

Keywords: artificial neural network, machine learning, mechanical metamaterials, Nelder-Mead optimization

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460 OILU Tag: A Projective Invariant Fiducial System

Authors: Youssef Chahir, Messaoud Mostefai, Salah Khodja


This paper presents the development of a 2D visual marker, derived from a recent patented work in the field of numbering systems. The proposed fiducial uses a group of projective invariant straight-line patterns, easily detectable and remotely recognizable. Based on an efficient data coding scheme, the developed marker enables producing a large panel of unique real time identifiers with highly distinguishable patterns. The proposed marker Incorporates simultaneously decimal and binary information, making it readable by both humans and machines. This important feature opens up new opportunities for the development of efficient visual human-machine communication and monitoring protocols. Extensive experiment tests validate the robustness of the marker against acquisition and geometric distortions.

Keywords: visual markers, projective invariants, distance map, level sets

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459 Human Rights in Cross-Border Surrogacy: An Exploratory Study Applied to Surrogacy Facilitators

Authors: Yingyi Luo


Cross-border commercial surrogacy, where Australians travel overseas to access reproduction through a surrogate mother, is an increasing phenomenon. This paper focuses on the role of Australian surrogacy facilitators, including lawyers, non-for-profit agents, fertility counselors, who act as intermediaries managing cross-border surrogacy arrangements in Australia. It explores the extent to which surrogacy facilitators are concerned with the human rights of children born through cross-border surrogacy, surrogate mothers in developing countries, and intended parents. Commercial surrogacy is a matter that is often cast in the language of human rights. This paper will contribute to an in-depth understanding of the dynamics between intended parents, surrogates, and surrogacy facilitators by adopting a human rights framework to inform data analysis regarding the role of facilitators. The purpose of this research is to inform debate and discussion on law reform related to surrogacy. This paper presented here centers on interviews with surrogacy facilitators in Australia and non-participant observations in Australia to generate thick, empirical data about the fertility industry. The data showed that the process of facilitating surrogacy arrangements had prompted facilitators to form a view on human rights as they applied to their works. Although facilitators claimed that the right of intended parents, surrogate mothers, and children were all taken into consideration, the researcher observed that the commercial surrogacy contracts described by these facilitators favored the interests of intended parents with the baby acting as their unique selling point. The interests and needs of surrogate mothers were not prioritized in the views or actions of facilitators. The result was a commercial transaction that entailed the purchase, through cross-border surrogacy, of a child, as a commodity, by relatively affluent intended parents from disadvantaged surrogate mothers through unfair contracts.

Keywords: cross-border surrogacy, facilitators, human rights, surrogacy

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458 Neuromarketing: Discovering the Somathyc Marker in the Consumer´s Brain

Authors: Mikel Alonso López, María Francisca Blasco López, Víctor Molero Ayala


The present study explains the somatic marker theory of Antonio Damasio, which indicates that when making a decision, the stored or possible future scenarios (future memory) images allow people to feel for a moment what would happen when they make a choice, and how this is emotionally marked. This process can be conscious or unconscious. The development of new Neuromarketing techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), carries a greater understanding of how the brain functions and consumer behavior. In the results observed in different studies using fMRI, the evidence suggests that the somatic marker and future memories influence the decision-making process, adding a positive or negative emotional component to the options. This would mean that all decisions would involve a present emotional component, with a rational cost-benefit analysis that can be performed later.

Keywords: emotions, decision making, somatic marker, consumer´s brain

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457 Data-Driven Surrogate Models for Damage Prediction of Steel Liquid Storage Tanks under Seismic Hazard

Authors: Laura Micheli, Majd Hijazi, Mahmoud Faytarouni


The damage reported by oil and gas industrial facilities revealed the utmost vulnerability of steel liquid storage tanks to seismic events. The failure of steel storage tanks may yield devastating and long-lasting consequences on built and natural environments, including the release of hazardous substances, uncontrolled fires, and soil contamination with hazardous materials. It is, therefore, fundamental to reliably predict the damage that steel liquid storage tanks will likely experience under future seismic hazard events. The seismic performance of steel liquid storage tanks is usually assessed using vulnerability curves obtained from the numerical simulation of a tank under different hazard scenarios. However, the computational demand of high-fidelity numerical simulation models, such as finite element models, makes the vulnerability assessment of liquid storage tanks time-consuming and often impractical. As a solution, this paper presents a surrogate model-based strategy for predicting seismic-induced damage in steel liquid storage tanks. In the proposed strategy, the surrogate model is leveraged to reduce the computational demand of time-consuming numerical simulations. To create the data set for training the surrogate model, field damage data from past earthquakes reconnaissance surveys and reports are collected. Features representative of steel liquid storage tank characteristics (e.g., diameter, height, liquid level, yielding stress) and seismic excitation parameters (e.g., peak ground acceleration, magnitude) are extracted from the field damage data. The collected data are then utilized to train a surrogate model that maps the relationship between tank characteristics, seismic hazard parameters, and seismic-induced damage via a data-driven surrogate model. Different types of surrogate algorithms, including naïve Bayes, k-nearest neighbors, decision tree, and random forest, are investigated, and results in terms of accuracy are reported. The model that yields the most accurate predictions is employed to predict future damage as a function of tank characteristics and seismic hazard intensity level. Results show that the proposed approach can be used to estimate the extent of damage in steel liquid storage tanks, where the use of data-driven surrogates represents a viable alternative to computationally expensive numerical simulation models.

Keywords: damage prediction , data-driven model, seismic performance, steel liquid storage tanks, surrogate model

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456 An Analysis of Interactional Metadiscourse Devices in Communication Arts Research Articles

Authors: Woravit Kitjaroenpaiboon, Kanyarat Getkham


This corpus analysis is a quantitative study which intended to investigate the uses of four main interactional metadiscourse devices including fourteen sub-devices in the introduction and the discussion sections of the twenty communication arts research articles taken from Online Journal of Communication and Media technologies by applying ‘AntConc’ software and PASW 18.0. The findings reveal that the three most frequently used devices in the introduction parts are attitudinal marker (adjective), booster (verb), and hedge (modal verb) while the three most frequently found devices in the discussion sections are attitudinal marker (adjective), hedge (modal verb) and booster (verb). There are nine sub-interactional metadiscourse devices among each of which significant difference exist in both introduction and discussion sections. They are attitudinal marker (adverb), attitudinal marker (adjective), booster (verb), booster (adverb), booster (adjective), hedge (modal verb), hedge (lexical verb), hedge (adverb), and hedge (adjective), while another five sub-interactional metadiscourse devices; self-mention, attitudinal marker (verb), attitudinal marker (noun), hedge (noun), and Hedge (phraseology) are found to have has no significant difference between the uses of each device in the introduction and discussion sections. The results also revealed that low and positive relationships exist among thirteen devices. One device which has no relationship with others is attitudinal marker (verb).

Keywords: corpus analysis, interactional metadiscourse devices, communication arts research articles, media technologies

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455 Study into the Interactions of Primary Limbal Epithelial Stem Cells and HTCEPI Using Tissue Engineered Cornea

Authors: Masoud Sakhinia, Sajjad Ahmad


Introduction: Though knowledge of the compositional makeup and structure of the limbal niche has progressed exponentially during the past decade, much is yet to be understood. Identifying the precise profile and role of the stromal makeup which spans the ocular surface may inform researchers of the most optimum conditions needed to effectively expand LESCs in vitro, whilst preserving their differentiation status and phenotype. Limbal fibroblasts, as opposed to corneal fibroblasts are thought to form an important component of the microenvironment where LESCs reside. Methods: The corneal stroma was tissue engineered in vitro using both limbal and corneal fibroblasts embedded within a tissue engineered 3D collagen matrix. The effect of these two different fibroblasts on LESCs and hTCEpi corneal epithelial cell line were then subsequently determined using phase contrast microscopy, histolological analysis and PCR for specific stem cell markers. The study aimed to develop an in vitro model which could be used to determine whether limbal, as opposed to corneal fibroblasts, maintained the stem cell phenotype of LESCs and hTCEpi cell line. Results: Tissue culture analysis was inconclusive and required further quantitative analysis for remarks on cell proliferation within the varying stroma. Histological analysis of the tissue-engineered cornea showed a comparable structure to that of the human cornea, though with limited epithelial stratification. PCR results for epithelial cell markers of cells cultured on limbal fibroblasts showed reduced expression of CK3, a negative marker for LESC’s, whilst also exhibiting a relatively low expression level of P63, a marker for undifferentiated LESCs. Conclusion: We have shown the potential for the construction of a tissue engineered human cornea using a 3D collagen matrix and described some preliminary results in the analysis of the effects of varying stroma consisting of limbal and corneal fibroblasts, respectively, on the proliferation of stem cell phenotype of primary LESCs and hTCEpi corneal epithelial cells. Although no definitive marker exists to conclusively illustrate the presence of LESCs, the combination of positive and negative stem cell markers in our study were inconclusive. Though it is less traslational to the human corneal model, the use of conditioned medium from that of limbal and corneal fibroblasts may provide a more simple avenue. Moreover, combinations of extracellular matrices could be used as a surrogate in these culture models.

Keywords: cornea, Limbal Stem Cells, tissue engineering, PCR

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454 The Oxidative Damage Marker for Sodium Formate Exposure on Lymphocytes

Authors: Malinee Pongsavee


Sodium formate is the chemical substance used for food additive. Catalase is the important antioxidative enzyme in protecting the cell from oxidative damage by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The resultant level of oxidative stress in sodium formatetreated lymphocytes was investigated. The sodium formate concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL were treated in human lymphocytes for 12 hours. After 12 treated hours, catalase activity change was measured in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes. The results showed that the sodium formate concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/mL significantly decreased catalase activities in lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The change of catalase activity in sodium formate-treated lymphocytes may be the oxidative damage marker for detect sodium formate exposure in human.

Keywords: sodium formate, catalase activity, oxidative damage marker, toxicity

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453 Image Analysis for Obturator Foramen Based on Marker-controlled Watershed Segmentation and Zernike Moments

Authors: Seda Sahin, Emin Akata


Obturator foramen is a specific structure in pelvic bone images and recognition of it is a new concept in medical image processing. Moreover, segmentation of bone structures such as obturator foramen plays an essential role for clinical research in orthopedics. In this paper, we present a novel method to analyze the similarity between the substructures of the imaged region and a hand drawn template, on hip radiographs to detect obturator foramen accurately with integrated usage of Marker-controlled Watershed segmentation and Zernike moment feature descriptor. Marker-controlled Watershed segmentation is applied to seperate obturator foramen from the background effectively. Zernike moment feature descriptor is used to provide matching between binary template image and the segmented binary image for obturator foramens for final extraction. The proposed method is tested on randomly selected 100 hip radiographs. The experimental results represent that our method is able to segment obturator foramens with % 96 accuracy.

Keywords: medical image analysis, segmentation of bone structures on hip radiographs, marker-controlled watershed segmentation, zernike moment feature descriptor

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452 Establishing a Surrogate Approach to Assess the Exposure Concentrations during Coating Process

Authors: Shan-Hong Ying, Ying-Fang Wang


A surrogate approach was deployed for assessing exposures of multiple chemicals at the selected working area of coating processes and applied to assess the exposure concentration of similar exposed groups using the same chemicals but different formula ratios. For the selected area, 6 to 12 portable photoionization detector (PID) were placed uniformly in its workplace to measure its total VOCs concentrations (CT-VOCs) for 6 randomly selected workshifts. Simultaneously, one sampling strain was placed beside one of these portable PIDs, and the collected air sample was analyzed for individual concentration (CVOCi) of 5 VOCs (xylene, butanone, toluene, butyl acetate, and dimethylformamide). Predictive models were established by relating the CT-VOCs to CVOCi of each individual compound via simple regression analysis. The established predictive models were employed to predict each CVOCi based on the measured CT-VOC for each the similar working area using the same portable PID. Results show that predictive models obtained from simple linear regression analyses were found with an R2 = 0.83~0.99 indicating that CT-VOCs were adequate for predicting CVOCi. In order to verify the validity of the exposure prediction model, the sampling analysis of the above chemical substances was further carried out and the correlation between the measured value (Cm) and the predicted value (Cp) was analyzed. It was found that there is a good correction between the predicted value and measured value of each measured chemical substance (R2=0.83~0.98). Therefore, the surrogate approach could be assessed the exposure concentration of similar exposed groups using the same chemicals but different formula ratios. However, it is recommended to establish the prediction model between the chemical substances belonging to each coater and the direct-reading PID, which is more representative of reality exposure situation and more accurately to estimate the long-term exposure concentration of operators.

Keywords: exposure assessment, exposure prediction model, surrogate approach, TVOC

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451 Microscopic Simulation of Toll Plaza Safety and Operations

Authors: Bekir O. Bartin, Kaan Ozbay, Sandeep Mudigonda, Hong Yang


The use of microscopic traffic simulation in evaluating the operational and safety conditions at toll plazas is demonstrated. Two toll plazas in New Jersey are selected as case studies and were developed and validated in Paramics traffic simulation software. In order to simulate drivers’ lane selection behavior in Paramics, a utility-based lane selection approach is implemented in Paramics Application Programming Interface (API). For each vehicle approaching the toll plaza, a utility value is assigned to each toll lane by taking into account the factors that are likely to impact drivers’ lane selection behavior, such as approach lane, exit lane and queue lengths. The results demonstrate that similar operational conditions, such as lane-by-lane toll plaza traffic volume can be attained using this approach. In addition, assessment of safety at toll plazas is conducted via a surrogate safety measure. In particular, the crash index (CI), an improved surrogate measure of time-to-collision (TTC), which reflects the severity of a crash is used in the simulation analyses. The results indicate that the spatial and temporal frequency of observed crashes can be simulated using the proposed methodology. Further analyses can be conducted to evaluate and compare various different operational decisions and safety measures using microscopic simulation models.

Keywords: microscopic simulation, toll plaza, surrogate safety, application programming interface

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450 Automatic Battery Charging for Rotor Wings Type Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Jeyeon Kim


This paper describes the development of the automatic battery charging device for the rotor wings type unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and the positioning method that can be accurately landed on the charging device when landing. The developed automatic battery charging device is considered by simple maintenance, durability, cost and error of the positioning when landing. In order to for the UAV accurately land on the charging device, two kinds of markers (a color marker and a light marker) installed on the charging device is detected by the camera mounted on the UAV. And then, the UAV is controlled so that the detected marker becomes the center of the image and is landed on the device. We conduct the performance evaluation of the proposal positioning method by the outdoor experiments at day and night, and show the effectiveness of the system.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle, automatic battery charging, positioning

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449 Identification and Validation of Co-Dominant Markers for Selection of the CO-4 Anthracnose Disease Resistance Gene in Common Bean Cultivar G2333

Authors: Annet Namusoke, Annet Namayanja, Peter Wasswa, Shakirah Nampijja


Common bean cultivar G2333 which offers broad resistance for anthracnose has been widely used as a source of resistance in breeding for anthracnose resistance. The cultivar is pyramided with three genes namely CO-4, CO-5 and CO-7 and of these three genes, the CO-4 gene has been found to offer the broadest resistance. The main aim of this work was to identify and validate easily assayable PCR based co-dominant molecular markers for selection of the CO-4 gene in segregating populations derived from crosses of G2333 with RWR 1946 and RWR 2075, two commercial Andean cultivars highly susceptible to anthracnose. Marker sequences for the study were obtained by blasting the sequence of the COK-4 gene in the Phaseolus gene database. Primer sequence pairs that were not provided from the Phaseolus gene database were designed by the use of Primer3 software. PCR conditions were optimized and the PCR products were run on 6% HPAGE gel. Results of the polymorphism test indicated that out of 18 identified markers, only two markers namely BM588 and BM211 behaved co-dominantly. Phenotypic evaluation for reaction to anthracnose disease was done by inoculating 21days old seedlings of three parents, F1 and F2 populations with race 7 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in the humid chamber. DNA testing of the BM588 marker onto the F2 segregating population of the crosses RWR 1946 x G 2333 and RWR 2075 x G2333 further revealed that the marker BM588 co-segregated with disease resistance with co-dominance of two alleles of 200bp and 400bp, fitting the expected segregation ratio of 1:2:1. The BM588 marker was significantly associated with disease resistance and gave promising results for marker assisted selection of the CO-4 gene in the breeding lines. Activities to validate the BM211 marker are also underway.

Keywords: codominant, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, MAS, Phaseolus vulgaris

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448 Reliability Modeling on Drivers’ Decision during Yellow Phase

Authors: Sabyasachi Biswas, Indrajit Ghosh


The random and heterogeneous behavior of vehicles in India puts up a greater challenge for researchers. Stop-and-go modeling at signalized intersections under heterogeneous traffic conditions has remained one of the most sought-after fields. Vehicles are often caught up in the dilemma zone and are unable to take quick decisions whether to stop or cross the intersection. This hampers the traffic movement and may lead to accidents. The purpose of this work is to develop a stop and go prediction model that depicts the drivers’ decision during the yellow time at signalised intersections. To accomplish this, certain traffic parameters were taken into account to develop surrogate model. This research investigated the Stop and Go behavior of the drivers by collecting data from 4-signalized intersections located in two major Indian cities. Model was developed to predict the drivers’ decision making during the yellow phase of the traffic signal. The parameters used for modeling included distance to stop line, time to stop line, speed, and length of the vehicle. A Kriging base surrogate model has been developed to investigate the drivers’ decision-making behavior in amber phase. It is observed that the proposed approach yields a highly accurate result (97.4 percent) by Gaussian function. It was observed that the accuracy for the crossing probability was 95.45, 90.9 and 86.36.11 percent respectively as predicted by the Kriging models with Gaussian, Exponential and Linear functions.

Keywords: decision-making decision, dilemma zone, surrogate model, Kriging

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447 Mouthing Patterns in Indian Sign Language

Authors: Neha Kulshreshtha


This paper examines the patterns of 'Mouthing', a non-manual marker, and its distribution in Indian Sign Language (ISL). Linguistic research in Indian Sign Language is an emerging field where much is needed to be done. The little research which has happened focuses on the structure of ISL in terms of physical or manual markers, therefore a study of mouthing patterns would give an insight into the distribution of this particular non-manual marker. Data has been collected with the help of native ISL users through various techniques in which natural signs can be captured, for example, storytelling, informal conversations etc. The aim of the study is to find out the various situations where mouthing is used. Sometimes, the mouthing is not actually the articulation of the word as spoken in the local languages. The paper aims to find out whether the mouthing patterns in ISL are influenced by any local language or they are independent of any influence from the local language or both. Mouthing patterns have been studied in many sign languages and an investigation into ISL will reveal whether it falls in pattern with the other sign languages.

Keywords: Indian sign language, mouthing, non-manual marker, spoken language influence

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446 Molecular Characterization of Polyploid Bamboo (Dendrocalamus hamiltonii) Using Microsatellite Markers

Authors: Rajendra K. Meena, Maneesh S. Bhandari, Santan Barthwal, Harish S. Ginwal


Microsatellite markers are the most valuable tools for the characterization of plant genetic resources or population genetic analysis. Since it is codominant and allelic markers, utilizing them in polyploid species remained doubtful. In such cases, the microsatellite marker is usually analyzed by treating them as a dominant marker. In the current study, it has been showed that despite losing the advantage of co-dominance, microsatellite markers are still a powerful tool for genotyping of polyploid species because of availability of large number of reproducible alleles per locus. It has been studied by genotyping of 19 subpopulations of Dendrocalamus hamiltonii (hexaploid bamboo species) with 17 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. Among these, ten primers gave typical banding pattern of microsatellite marker as expected in diploid species, but rest 7 gave an unusual pattern, i.e., more than two bands per locus per genotype. In such case, genotyping data are generally analyzed by considering as dominant markers. In the current study, data were analyzed in both ways as dominant and co-dominant. All the 17 primers were first scored as nonallelic data and analyzed; later, the ten primers giving standard banding patterns were analyzed as allelic data and the results were compared. The UPGMA clustering and genetic structure showed that results obtained with both the data sets are very similar with slight variation, and therefore the SSR marker could be utilized to characterize polyploid species by considering them as a dominant marker. The study is highly useful to widen the scope for SSR markers applications and beneficial to the researchers dealing with polyploid species.

Keywords: microsatellite markers, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii, dominant and codominant, polyploids

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