Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 673

Search results for: Portland cement

673 Chemical Analysis of Available Portland Cement in Libyan Market Using X-Ray Fluorescence

Authors: M. A. Elbagermia, A. I. Alajtala, M. Alkerzab


This study compares the quality of different brands of Portland Cement (PC) available in Libyan market. The amounts of chemical constituents like SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, and Lime Saturation Factor (LSF) were determined in accordance with Libyan (L.S.S) and Amrican (A.S.S) Standard Specifications. All the cement studies were found to be good for concrete work especially where no special property is required. The chemical and mineralogical analyses for studied clinker samples show that the dominant phases composition are C3S and C2S while the C3A and C4AF are less abundant.

Keywords: Portland cement, chemical composition, Libyan market, X-Ray fluorescence

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672 The Impact of Alumina Cement on Properties of Portland Cement Slurries and Mortars

Authors: Krzysztof Zieliński, Dariusz Kierzek


The addition of a small amount of alumina cement to Portland cement results in immediate setting, a rapid increase in the compressive strength and a clear increase of the adhesion to concrete substrate. This phenomenon is used, among others, for the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds. Alumina cement is several times more expensive than Portland cement and is a component having a significant impact on prices of products manufactured with its use. For the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds, low-alumina cement containing approximately 40% Al2O3 is normally used. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Portland cement with the addition of alumina cement on the basic physical and mechanical properties of cement slurries and mortars. CEM I 42.5R and three types of alumina cement containing 40%, 50% and 70% of Al2O3 were used for the tests. Mixes containing 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% of different varieties of alumina cement were prepared; for which, the time of initial and final setting, compressive and flexural strength and adhesion to concrete substrate were determined. The analysis of the obtained test results showed that a similar immediate setting effect and clearly better adhesion strength can be obtained using the addition of 6% of high-alumina cement than 12% of low-alumina cement. As the prices of these cements are similar, this can give significant financial savings in the production of liquid floor self-levelling compounds.

Keywords: alumina cement, immediate setting, compression strength, adhesion to substrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
671 Properties of Cement Pastes with Different Particle Size Fractions of Metakaolin

Authors: M. Boháč, R. Novotný, F. Frajkorová, R. S. Yadav, T. Opravil, M. Palou


Properties of Portland cement mixtures with various fractions of metakaolin were studied. 10 % of Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R was replaced by different fractions of high reactivity metakaolin with defined chemical and mineralogical properties. Various fractions of metakaolin were prepared by jet mill classifying system. There is a clear trend between fineness of metakaolin and hydration heat development. Due to metakaolin presence in mixtures the compressive strength development of mortars is rather slower for coarser fractions but 28-day flexural strengths are improved for all fractions of metakaoline used in mixtures compared to reference sample of pure Portland cement. Yield point, plastic viscosity and adhesion of fresh pastes are considerably influenced by fineness of metakaolin used in cement pastes.

Keywords: calorimetry, cement, metakaolin fineness, rheology, strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
670 Resistance to Sulfuric Acid Attacks of Self-Consolidating Concrete: Effect Metakaolin and Various Cements Types

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Farhad Estakhr, Mahdi Mahdikhani, Faramaz Moodi


Due to their fluidity and simplicity of use, self-compacting concretes (SCCs) have undeniable advantages. In recent years, the role of metakaolin as a one of pozzolanic materials in concrete has been considered by researchers. It can modify various properties of concrete, due to high pozzolanic reactions and also makes a denser microstructure. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of three type of Portland cement and metakaolin on fresh state, compressive strength and sulfuric acid attacks in self- consolidating concrete at early age up to 90 days of curing in lime water. Six concrete mixtures were prepared with three types of different cement as Portland cement type II, Portland Slag Cement (PSC), Pozzolanic Portland Cement (PPC) and 15% substitution of metakaolin by every cement. The results show that the metakaolin admixture increases the viscosity and the demand amount of superplasticizer. According to the compressive strength results, the highest value of compressive strength was achieved for PSC and without any metakaolin at age of 90 days. Conversely, the lowest level of compressive strength at all ages of conservation was obtained for PPC and containing 15% metakaolin. According to this study, the total substitution of PSC and PPC by Portland cement type II is beneficial to the increasing in the chemical resistance of the SCC with respect to the sulfuric acid attack. On the other hand, this increase is more noticeable by the use of 15% of metakaolin. Therefore, it can be concluded that metakaolin has a positive effect on the chemical resistance of SCC containing of Portland cement type II, PSC, and PPC.

Keywords: SCC, metakaolin, cement type, durability, compressive strength, sulfuric acid attacks

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
669 Possibilities of Utilization Zeolite in Concrete

Authors: M. Sedlmajer, J. Zach, J. Hroudova, P. Rovnaníkova


There are several possibilities of reducing the required amount of cement in concrete production. Natural zeolite is one of the raw materials which can partly substitute Portland cement. The effort to reduce the amount of Portland cement used in concrete production is brings both economical as well as ecological benefits. The paper presents the properties of concrete containing natural zeolite as an active admixture in the concrete which partly substitutes Portland cement. The properties discussed here bring information about the basic mechanical properties and frost resistance of concrete containing zeolite. The properties of concretes with the admixture of zeolite are compared with a reference concrete with no content of zeolite. The properties of the individual concretes are observed for 360 days.

Keywords: concrete, zeolite, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, durability

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668 The Portland Cement Limestone: Silica Fume System as an Alternative Cementitious Material

Authors: C. S. Paglia, E. Ginercordero, A. Jornet


Environmental pollution, along with the depletion of natural resources, is among the most serious global challenges in our times. The construction industry is one of the sectors where a relevant reduction of the environmental impact can be achieved. Thus, the cement production will play a key role in sustainability, by reducing the CO₂ emissions and energy consumption and by increasing the durability of the structures. A large number of investigations have been carried out on blended cements, but it exists a lack of information on the Portland cement limestone - silica fume system. Mortar blends are optimized in the mix proportions for the different ingredients, in particular for the dosage of the silica fume. Portland cement and the new binder-based systems are compared with respect to the fresh mortar properties, the mechanical and the durability behaviour of the hardened specimens at 28 and 90 days. The use of this new binder combination exhibits an interesting hydration development with time and maintain the conventional characteristics of Portland cementitious material. On the other hand, it will be necessary to reproduce the Portland Limestone Cement-silica fume system within the concrete. A reduction of the CO₂ production, energy consumption, and a reasonable service life of the concrete structures, including a maintenance free period, will all contribute to a better environment.

Keywords: binder, cement, limestone, silica fume

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
667 Polystyrene Paste as a Substitute for a Portland Cement: A Solution to the Nigerian Dilemma

Authors: Lanre Oluwafemi Akinyemi


The reduction of limestone to cement in Nigeria is expensive and requires huge amounts of energy. This significantly affects the cost of cement. Concrete is heavy: a cubic foot of it weighs about 150 lbs. and a cubic yard is about 4000 lbs. Thus a ready-mix truck with 9 cubic yards is carrying 36,000 lbs excluding the weight of the truck itself, thereby accumulating cost for also manufacturers. Therein lies the need to find a substitute for cement by using the polystyrene paste that benefits both the manufactures and the consumers. Polystyrene Paste Constructional Cement (PPCC), a patented material obtained by dissolving Waste EPS in volatile organic solvent, has recently been identified as a suitable binder/cement for construction and building material production. This paper illustrates the procedures of a test experiment undertaken to determine the splitting tensile strength of PPCC mortar compared to that of OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement). Expanded polystyrene was dissolved in gasoline to form a paste referred to as Polystyrene Paste Constructional Cement (PPCC). Mortars of mix ratios 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7 (PPCC: fine aggregate) batched by volume were used to produce 50mm x 100mm cylindrical PPCC mortar splitting tensile strength specimens. The control experiment was done by creating another series of cylindrical OPC mortar splitting tensile strength specimens following the same mix ratio used earlier. The PPCC cylindrical splitting tensile strength specimens were left to air-set, and the ones made with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) were demoded after 24 hours and cured in water. The cylindrical PPCC splitting tensile strength specimens were tested at 28 days and compared with those of the Ordinary Portland cement splitting tensile strength specimens. The result shows that hence for this two mixes, PPCC exhibits a better binding property than the OPC. With this my new invention I recommend the use of PPCC as a substitute for a Portland cement.

Keywords: polystyrene paste, Portland cement, construction, mortar

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666 Role of Dispersion of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes on Compressive Strength of Cement Paste

Authors: Jyoti Bharj, Sarabjit Singh, Subhash Chander, Rabinder Singh


The outstanding mechanical properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) have generated great interest for their potential as reinforcements in high performance cementitious composites. The main challenge in research is the proper dispersion of carbon nanotubes in the cement matrix. The present work discusses the role of dispersion of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the compressive strength characteristics of hydrated Portland IS 1489 cement paste. Cement-MWCNT composites with different mixing techniques were prepared by adding 0.2% (by weight) of MWCNTs to Portland IS 1489 cement. Rectangle specimens of size approximately 40mm × 40mm ×160mm were prepared and curing of samples was done for 7, 14, 28, and 35 days. An appreciable increase in compressive strength with both techniques; mixture of MWCNTs with cement in powder form and mixture of MWCNTs with cement in hydrated form 7 to 28 days of curing time for all the samples was observed.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, Portland cement, composite, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
665 Influence of Metakaolin and Cements Types on Compressive Strength and Transport Properties of Self-Consolidating Concrete

Authors: Kianoosh Samimi, Farhad Estakhr, Mahdi Mahdikhani, Faramaz Moodi


The self-consolidating concrete (SCC) performance over ordinary concrete is generally related to the ingredients used. The metakaolin can modify various properties of concrete, due to high pozzolanic reactions and also makes a denser microstructure. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of three types of Portland cement and metakaolin on compressive strength and transport properties of SCC at early ages and up to 90 days. Six concrete mixtures were prepared with three types of different cements and substitution of 15% metakaolin. The results show that the highest value of compressive strength was achieved for Portland Slag Cement (PSC) and without any metakaolin at age of 90 days. Conversely, the lowest level of compressive strength at all ages of conservation was obtained for Pozzolanic Portland Cement (PPC) and containing 15% metakaolin. As can be seen in the results, compressive strength in SCC containing Portland cement type II with metakaolin is higher compared to that relative to SCC without metakaolin from 28 days of age. On the other hand, the samples containing PSC and PPC with metakaolin had a lower compressive strength than the plain samples. Therefore, it can be concluded that metakaolin has a negative effect on the compressive strength of SCC containing PSC and PPC. In addition, results show that metakaolin has enhanced chloride durability of SCCs and reduced capillary water absorption at 28, 90 days.

Keywords: SCC, metakaolin, cement type, compressive strength, chloride diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
664 Preparation and Physical Assessment of Portland Cement Base Composites Containing Nano Particles

Authors: Amir Mahmoudi


In this research the effects of adding silica and alumina nanoparticles on flow ability and compressive strength of cementitious composites based on Portland cement were investigated. In the first stage, the rheological behavior of different samples containing nanosilica, nanoalumina and polypropylene, polyvinyl alcohol and polyethylene fibers were evaluated. With increasing of nanoparticles in fresh samples, the slump flow diameter reduced. Fibers reduced the flow ability of the samples and viscosity increased. With increasing of the micro silica particles to cement ratio from 2/1 to 2/2, the slump flow diameter increased. By adding silica and alumina nanoparticles up to 3% and 2% respectively, the compressive strength increased and after decreased. Samples containing silica nanoparticles and fibers had the highest compressive strength.

Keywords: Portland cement, composite, nanoparticles, compressive strength

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663 Eco-Efficient Cementitious Materials for Construction Applications in Ireland

Authors: Eva Ujaczki, Rama Krishna Chinnam, Ronan Courtney, Syed A. M. Tofail, Lisa O'Donoghue


Concrete is the second most widely used material in the world and is made of cement, sand, and aggregates. Cement is a hydraulic binder which reacts with water to form a solid material. In the cement manufacturing process, the right mix of minerals from mined natural rocks, e.g., limestone is melted in a kiln at 1450 °C to form a new compound, clinker. In the final stage, the clinker is milled into a fine cement powder. The principal cement types manufactured in Ireland are: 1) CEM I – Portland cement; 2) CEM II/A – Portland-fly ash cement; 3) CEM II/A – Portland-limestone cement and 4) CEM III/A – Portland-round granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). The production of eco-efficient, blended cement (CEM II, CEM III) reduces CO₂ emission and improves energy efficiency compared to traditional cements. Blended cements are produced locally in Ireland and more than 80% of produced cement is blended. These eco-efficient, blended cements are a relatively new class of construction materials and a kind of geopolymer binders. From a terminological point of view, geopolymer cement is a binding system that is able to harden at room temperature. Geopolymers do not require calcium-silicate-hydrate gel but utilize the polycondensation of SiO₂ and Al₂O₃ precursors to achieve a superior strength level. Geopolymer materials are usually synthesized using an aluminosilicate raw material and an activating solution which is mainly composed of NaOH or KOH and Na₂SiO₃. Cement is the essential ingredient in concrete which is vital for economic growth of countries. The challenge for the global cement industry is to reach to increasing demand at the same time recognize the need for sustainable usage of resources. Therefore, in this research, we investigated the potential for Irish wastes to be used in geopolymer cement type applications through a national stakeholder workshop with the Irish construction sector and relevant stakeholders. This paper aims at summarizing Irish stakeholder’s perspective for introducing new secondary raw materials, e.g., bauxite residue or increasing the fly ash addition into cement for eco-efficient cement production.

Keywords: eco-efficient, cement, geopolymer, blending

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662 Assessment for the Backfill Using the Run of the Mine Tailings and Portland Cement

Authors: Javad Someehneshin, Weizhou Quan, Abdelsalam Abugharara, Stephen Butt


Narrow vein mining (NVM) is exploiting very thin but valuable ore bodies that are uneconomical to extract by conventional mining methods. NVM applies the technique of Sustainable Mining by Drilling (SMD). The SMD method is used to mine stranded, steeply dipping ore veins, which are too small or isolated to mine economically using conventional methods since the dilution is minimized. This novel mining technique uses drilling rigs to extract the ore through directional drilling surgically. This paper is focusing on utilizing the run of the mine tailings and Portland cement as backfill material to support the hanging wall for providing safe mine operation. Cemented paste backfill (CPB) is designed by mixing waste tailings, water, and cement of the precise percentage for optimal outcomes. It is a non-homogenous material that contains 70-85% solids. Usually, a hydraulic binder is added to the mixture to increase the strength of the CPB. The binder fraction mostly accounts for 2–10% of the total weight. In the mining industry, CPB has been improved and expanded gradually because it provides safety and support for the mines. Furthermore, CPB helps manage the waste tailings in an economical method and plays a significant role in environmental protection.

Keywords: backfilling, cement backfill, tailings, Portland cement

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661 Chromium-Leaching Study of Cements in Various Environments

Authors: Adriana Estokova, Lenka Palascakova, Martina Kovalcikova


Cement is a basic material used for building construction. Chromium as an indelible non-volatile trace element of raw materials occurs in cement clinker in the trivalent or hexavalent form. Hexavalent form of chromium is harmful and allergenic having very high water solubility and thus can easily come into contact with the human skin. The paper is aimed at analyzing the content of total chromium in Portland cements and leaching rate of hexavalent chromium in various leachants: Deionized water, Britton-Robinson buffer, used to simulate the natural environment, and hydrochloric acid (HCl). The concentration of total chromium in Portland cement samples was in a range from 173.2 to 218.5 mg/kg. The content of dissolved hexavalent chromium ranged 0.23-3.19, 2.0-5.78 and 8.88-16.25 mg/kg in deionized water, Britton-Robinson solution and hydrochloric acid, respectively. The calculated leachable fraction of Cr(VI) from cement samples was observed in the range 0.1--7.58 %.

Keywords: environment, cement, chromium, leaching

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660 Effect of Rice Husk Ash and Metakaolin on the Compressive Strengths of Ternary Cement Mortars

Authors: Olubajo Olumide Olu


This paper studies the effect of Metakaolin (MK) and Rice husk ash (RHA) on the compressive strength of ternary cement mortar at replacement level up to 30%. The compressive strength test of the blended cement mortars were conducted using Tonic Technic compression and machine. Nineteen ternary cement mortars were prepared comprising of ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Rice husk ash (RHA) and Metakaolin (MK) at different proportion. Ternary mortar prisms in which Portland cement was replaced by up to 30% were tested at various age; 2, 7, 28 and 60 days. Result showed that the compressive strength of the cement mortars increased as the curing days were lengthened for both OPC and the blended cement samples. The ternary cement’s compressive strengths showed significant improvement compared with the control especially beyond 28 days. This can be attributed to the slow pozzolanic reaction resulting from the formation of additional CSH from the interaction of the residual CH content and the silica available in the Metakaolin and Rice husk ash, thus providing significant strength gain at later age. Results indicated that the addition of metakaolin with rice husk ash kept constant was found to lead to an increment in the compressive strength. This can either be attributed to the high silica/alumina contribution to the matrix or the C/S ratio in the cement matrix. Whereas, increment in the rice husk ash content while metakaolin was held constant led to an increment in the compressive strength, which could be attributed to the reactivity of the rice husk ash followed by decrement owing to the presence of unburnt carbon in the RHA matrix. The best compressive strength results were obtained at 10% cement replacement (5% RHA, 5% MK); 15% cement replacement (10% MK and 5% RHA); 20% cement replacement (15% MK and 5% RHA); 25% cement replacement (20% MK and 5% RHA); 30% cement replacement (10%/20% MK and 20%/10% RHA). With the optimal combination of either 15% and 20% MK with 5% RHA giving the best compressive strength of 40.5MPa.

Keywords: metakaolin, rice husk ash, compressive strength, ternary mortar, curing days

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659 Investigating the Effect of Using Amorphous Silica Ash Obtained from Rice Husk as a Partial Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement on the Mechanical and Microstructure Properties of Cement Paste and Mortar

Authors: Aliyu Usman, Muhaammed Bello Ibrahim, Yusuf D. Amartey, Jibrin M. Kaura


This research is aimed at investigating the effect of using amorphous silica ash (ASA) obtained from rice husk as a partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) on the mechanical and microstructure properties of cement paste and mortar. ASA was used in partial replacement of ordinary Portland cement in the following percentages 3 percent, 5 percent, 8 percent and 10 percent. These partial replacements were used to produce Cement-ASA paste and Cement-ASA mortar. ASA was found to contain all the major chemical compounds found in cement with the exception of alumina, which are SiO2 (91.5%), CaO (2.84%), Fe2O3 (1.96%), and loss on ignition (LOI) was found to be 9.18%. It also contains other minor oxides found in cement. Consistency of Cement-ASA paste was found to increase with increase in ASA replacement. Likewise, the setting time and soundness of the Cement-ASA paste also increases with increase in ASA replacements. The test on hardened mortar were destructive in nature which include flexural strength test on prismatic beam (40mm x 40mm x 160mm) at 2, 7, 14 and 28 days curing and compressive strength test on the cube size (40mm x 40mm, by using the auxiliary steel platens) at 2,7,14 and 28 days curing. The Cement-ASA mortar flexural and compressive strengths were found to be increasing with curing time and decreases with cement replacement by ASA. It was observed that 5 percent replacement of cement with ASA attained the highest strength for all the curing ages and all the percentage replacements attained the targeted compressive strength of 6N/mm2 for 28 days. There is an increase in the drying shrinkage of Cement-ASA mortar with curing time, it was also observed that the drying shrinkages for all the curing ages were greater than the control specimen all of which were greater than the code recommendation of less than 0.03%. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the Cement-ASA mortar microstructure and to also look for hydration product and morphology.

Keywords: amorphous silica ash, cement mortar, cement paste, scanning electron microscope

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658 Physical and Mechanical Performance of Mortars with Ashes from Straw and Bagasse Sugarcane

Authors: Débora C. G. Oliveira, Julio D. Salles, Bruna A. Moriy, João A. Rossignolo, Holmer Savastano Jr.


The objective of this study was to identify the optimal level of partial replacement of Portland cement by the ashes originating from burning straw and bagasse from sugar cane (ASB). Order to this end, were made five series of flat plates and cylindrical bodies: control and others with the partial replacement in 20, 30, 40, and 50% of ASB in relation to the mass of the Ordinary Portland cement, and conducted a mechanical testing of simple axial compression (cylindrical bodies) and the four-point bending (flat plates) and determined water absorption (WA), bulk density (BD) and apparent void volume (AVV) on both types of specimens. Based on the data obtained, it may be noted that the control treatment containing only Portland cement, obtained the best results. However, the cylindrical bodies with 20% ashes showed better results compared to the other treatments. And in the formulations plates, the treatment which showed the best results was 30% cement replacement by ashes.

Keywords: modulus of rupture, simple axial compression, waste, bagasse sugarcane

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657 Geopolymer Concrete: A Review of Properties, Applications and Limitations

Authors: Abbas Ahmed Albu Shaqraa


The concept of a safe environment and low greenhouse gas emissions is a common concern especially in the construction industry. The produced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are nearly a ton in producing only one ton of Portland cement, which is the primary ingredient of concrete. Current studies had investigated the utilization of several waste materials in producing a cement free concrete. The geopolymer concrete is a green material that results from the reaction of aluminosilicate material with an alkaline liquid. A summary of several recent researches in geopolymer concrete will be presented in this manuscript. In addition, the offered presented review considers the use of several waste materials including fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag, cement kiln dust, kaolin, metakaolin, and limestone powder as binding materials in making geopolymer concrete. Moreover, the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of geopolymer concrete will be reviewed. In addition, the geopolymer concrete applications and limitations will be discussed as well. The results showed a high early compressive strength gain in geopolymer concrete when dry- heating or steam curing was performed. Also, it was stated that the outstanding acidic resistance of the geopolymer concrete made it possible to be used where the ordinary Portland cement concrete was doubtable. Thus, the commercial geopolymer concrete pipes were favored for sewer system in case of high acidic conditions. Furthermore, it was reported that the geopolymer concrete could stand up to 1200 °C in fire without losing its strength integrity whereas the Portland cement concrete was losing its function upon heating to some 100s °C only. However, the geopolymer concrete still considered as an emerging field and occupied mainly by the precast industries.

Keywords: geopolymer concrete, Portland cement concrete, alkaline liquid, compressive strength

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656 Development of Impervious Concrete Using Micro Silica and GGBS as Cement Replacement Materials

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Akram, Saim Raza, Hamza Hanif Chauhan


This paper describes the aim of research to evaluate the performance of ordinary Portland concretes containing cement replacement materials in both binary and ternary system. Blocks of concrete were prepared to have a constant water-binder ratio of 0.30. The test variables included the type and the amount of the supplementary cementious materials (SCMs) such as class of Silica Fume (SF) and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Portland cement was replaced with Silica Fume (SF) upto 7.5% and GGBS up to a level of 50%. Then physical properties are assessed from the compressive strength and permeability tests.

Keywords: silica fume, GGBS, compressive strength, permeability

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655 Effect of Nano-CaCO₃ Addition on the Nano-Mechanical Properties of Cement Paste

Authors: Muzeyyen Balcikanli, Selma Ozaslan, Osman Sahin, Burak Uzal, Erdogan Ozbay


In this study, the effect of nano-CaCO3 replacement with cement on the nano-mechanical properties of cement paste was investigated. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics Two types of nano CaCO3 were replaced with Portland cement at 0, 0.5 and 1%. Water to (cement+nano-CaCO3) ratio was kept constant at 0.5 for all mixtures. 36 indentations were applied on each cement paste, and the values of nano-hardness and elastic modulus of cement pastes were determined from the indentation depth-load graphs. Then, by getting the average of them, nano-hardness and elastic modulus were identified for each mixture. Test results illustrate that replacement of hydrophilic n-CaCO3 with cement lead to a significant increase in nano-mechanical properties, however, replacement of hydrophobic n-CaCO3 with cement worsened the nano-mechanical properties considerably.

Keywords: nanoindenter, CaCO3, nano-hardness, nano-mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
654 Efficiency of Different Types of Addition onto the Hydration Kinetics of Portland Cement

Authors: Marine Regnier, Pascal Bost, Matthieu Horgnies


Some of the problems to be solved for the concrete industry are linked to the use of low-reactivity cement, the hardening of concrete under cold-weather and the manufacture of pre-casted concrete without costly heating step. The development of these applications needs to accelerate the hydration kinetics, in order to decrease the setting time and to obtain significant compressive strengths as soon as possible. The mechanisms enhancing the hydration kinetics of alite or Portland cement (e.g. the creation of nucleation sites) were already studied in literature (e.g. by using distinct additions such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles, calcium carbonate fillers, water-soluble polymers, C-S-H, etc.). However, the goal of this study was to establish a clear ranking of the efficiency of several types of additions by using a robust and reproducible methodology based on isothermal calorimetry (performed at 20°C). The cement was a CEM I 52.5N PM-ES (Blaine fineness of 455 m²/kg). To ensure the reproducibility of the experiments and avoid any decrease of the reactivity before use, the cement was stored in waterproof and sealed bags to avoid any contact with moisture and carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed on Portland cement pastes by using a water-to-cement ratio of 0.45, and incorporating different compounds (industrially available or laboratory-synthesized) that were selected according to their main composition and their specific surface area (SSA, calculated using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) model and nitrogen adsorption isotherms performed at 77K). The intrinsic effects of (i) dry powders (e.g. fumed silica, activated charcoal, nano-precipitates of calcium carbonate, afwillite germs, nanoparticles of iron and iron oxides , etc.), and (ii) aqueous solutions (e.g. containing calcium chloride, hydrated Portland cement or Master X-SEED 100, etc.) were investigated. The influence of the amount of addition, calculated relatively to the dry extract of each addition compared to cement (and by conserving the same water-to-cement ratio) was also studied. The results demonstrated that the X-SEED®, the hydrated calcium nitrate, the calcium chloride (and, at a minor level, a solution of hydrated Portland cement) were able to accelerate the hydration kinetics of Portland cement, even at low concentration (e.g. 1%wt. of dry extract compared to cement). By using higher rates of additions, the fumed silica, the precipitated calcium carbonate and the titanium dioxide can also accelerate the hydration. In the case of the nano-precipitates of calcium carbonate, a correlation was established between the SSA and the accelerating effect. On the contrary, the nanoparticles of iron or iron oxides, the activated charcoal and the dried crystallised hydrates did not show any accelerating effect. Future experiments will be scheduled to establish the ranking of these additions, in terms of accelerating effect, by using low-reactivity cements and other water to cement ratios.

Keywords: acceleration, hydration kinetics, isothermal calorimetry, Portland cement

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653 Mechanical Properties of Waste Clay Brick Based Geopolymer Cured at Various Temperature

Authors: Shihab Ibrahim


Geopolymer binders as an alternative binder system to ordinary Portland cement are the focus of the past 2 decades of researches. In order to eliminate CO2 emission by cement manufacturing and utilizing construction waste as a source material, clean waste clay bricks which are the waste from Levent Brick factory was activated with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution. 12 molarity of sodium hydroxide solution was used and the ratio of sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide was 2.5. Alkaline solution to clay brick powder ratio of 0.35, 0.4, 0.45, and 0.5 was studied. Alkaline solution to powder ratio of 0.4 was found to be optimum ratio to have the same workability as ordinary Portland cement paste. Compressive strength of the clay brick based geopolymer paste samples was evaluated under different curing temperatures and curing durations. One day compressive strength of 57.3 MPa after curing at 85C for 24 hours was obtained which was higher than 7 days compressive strength of ordinary Portland cement paste. The highest compressive strength 71.4 MPa was achieved at seventh day age for the geopolymer paste samples cured at 85C for 24 hours. It was found that 8 hour curing at elevated temperature 85C, is sufficient to get 96% of total strength. 37.4 MPa strength at seventh day of clay brick based geopolymer sample cured at room temperature was achieved. Water absorption around 10% was found for clay brick based geopolymer samples cured at different temperatures with compare to 9.14% water absorption of ordinary Portland cement paste. The clay brick based geopolymer binder can have the potentiality to be used as an alternative binder to Portland cement in a case that the heat treatment provided. Further studies are needed in order to produce the binder in a way that can harden and gain strength without any elevated curing.

Keywords: construction and demolition waste, geopolymer, clay brick, compressive strength.

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652 A Study on Marble-Slag Based Geopolymer Green Concrete

Authors: Zong-Xian Qiu, Ta-Wui Cheng, Wei-Hao Lee, Yung-Chin Ding


The greenhouse effect is an important issue since it has been responsible for global warming. Carbon dioxide plays an important part of role in the greenhouse effect. Therefore, human has the responsibility for reducing CO₂ emissions in their daily operations. Except iron making and power plants, another major CO₂ production industry is cement industry. According to the statistics by EPA of Taiwan, production 1 ton of Portland cement will produce 520.29 kg of CO₂. There are over 7.8 million tons of CO₂ produced annually. Thus, trying to development low CO₂ emission green concrete is an important issue, and it can reduce CO₂ emission problems in Taiwan. The purpose of this study is trying to use marble wastes and slag as the raw materials to fabricate geopolymer green concrete. The result shows the marble based geopolymer green concrete have good workability and the compressive strength after curing for 28 days and 365 days can be reached 44MPa and 53MPa in indoor environment, 28MPa and 40.43MPa in outdoor environment. The acid resistance test shows the geopolymer green concrete have good resistance for chemical attack. The coefficient of permeability of geopolymer green concrete is better than Portland concrete. By comparing with Portland cement products, the marble based geopolymer not only reduce CO₂ emission problems but also provides great performance in practices. According to the experiment results shown that geopolymer concrete has great potential for further engineering development in the future, the new material could be expected to replace the Portland cement products in the future days.

Keywords: marble, slag, geopolymer, green concrete, CO₂ emission

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651 Mechanical Study Material on Low Environmental Impact

Authors: Fetta Ait Ahsene-Aissat, Messaoud Hachemi, Yacine Moussaoui, Yacine Kerchiche


Our study focuses on two important aspects, environmental by using a sub industrial product (FAD), by economic incorporation as an addition to Portland cement, thus improving resistance to compression and bending with different proportions ADF % up to 40 additions. We studied the effect of different substitutions 0%, 10%, 20%, and 40% of additions to the mechanical effect of the mortar. We obtained a compressive strength of 61 MPa at 90 days for the cement mixture porthland FAD-40% against a resistance of 58MPa for porthland cement without addition. The flexural strength also showed a marked increase in the cement substitution. We also monitored the behavior of the mixed ash-cement by XRD analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: FAD, porthland, flexural strength, compressive strength, DRX

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650 Influence of Pulverized Granite on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete

Authors: Kwabena A. Boakye, Eugene Atiemo, Trinity A. Tagbor, Delali Adjei


The use of mineral admixtures such as metakaolin, GGBS, fly ash, etc., in concrete is a common practice in the world. However, the only admixture available for use in the Ghanaian construction industry is calcined clay pozzolan. This research, therefore, studies the alternate use of granite dust, a by-product from stone quarrying, as a mineral admixture in concrete. Granite dust, which is usually damped as waste or as an erosion control material, was collected and pulverized to about 75µm. Some physical, chemical, and mineralogical tests were conducted on the granite dust. 5%-25% ordinary Portland cement of Class 42.5N was replaced with granite dust which was used as the main binder in the preparation of 150mm×150mm×150mm concrete cubes according to methods prescribed by BS EN 12390-2:2000. Properties such as workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, water absorption, and durability were determined. Compressive and flexural strength results indicate that granite dust could be used to replace ordinary Portland cement up to an optimum of 15% to achieve C25. Water permeability increased as the granite dust admixture content increased from 5% - 25%. Durability studies after 90 days proved that even though strength decreased as granite dust content increased, the concrete containing granite dust had better resistance to sulphate attack comparable to the reference cement. Pulverized granite can be used to partially replace ordinary Portland cement in concrete.

Keywords: admixture, granite dust, permeability, pozzolans

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649 Observation and Experience of Using Mechanically Activated Fly Ash in Concrete

Authors: Rudolf Hela, Lenka Bodnarova


Paper focuses on experimental testing of possibilities of mechanical activation of fly ash and observation of influence of specific surface and granulometry on final properties of fresh and hardened concrete. Mechanical grinding prepared various fineness of fly ash, which was classed by specific surface in accordance with Blain and their granulometry was determined by means of laser granulometer. Then, sets of testing specimens were made from mix designs of identical composition with 25% or Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R replaced with fly ash with various specific surface and granulometry. Mix design with only Portland cement was used as reference. Mix designs were tested on consistency of fresh concrete and compressive strength after 7, 28, 60, and 90 days.

Keywords: concrete, fly ash, latent hydraulicity, mechanically activated fly ash

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648 Experimental Investigation of The Influence of Cement on Soil-Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly ash Mix Properties

Authors: Gehan Aouf, Diala Tabbal, Abd El Rahim Sabsabi, Rashad Aouf


The aim of this study is to assess the viability of utilizing Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash (MSWIFA) with Ordinary Portland cement as soil reinforcement materials for geotechnical engineering applications. A detailed experimental program is carried out, followed by analysis of results. Soil samples were prepared by adding Cement to MSWIFA-soil mix at different percentages. Then, a series of laboratory tests were performed, namely: Sieve analysis, Atterberg limits tests, Unconfined compression test, and Proctor tests. A parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of adding the cement at different percentages on the unconfined compression strength, maximum dry density, and optimum moisture content of clayey soil-MSWIFA The variation of contents of admixtures were 10%, 20%, and 30% for MSWIFA by dry total weight of soil and 10%, 15%, and 20% for Portland cement by dry total weight of the mix. The test results reveal that adding MSWIFA to the soil up to 20% increased the MDD of the mixture and decreased the OMC, then an opposite trend for results were found when the percentage of MSWIFA exceeds 20%. This is due to the low specific gravity of MSWIFA and to the greater water absorption of MSWIFA. The laboratory tests also indicate that the UCS values were found to be increased for all the mixtures with curing periods of 7, 14, and 28 days. It is also observed that the cement increased the strength of the finished product of the mix of soil and MSWIFA.

Keywords: clayey soil, cement, MSWIFA, unconfined compression strength

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647 Evaluation of Heat of Hydration and Strength Development in Natural Pozzolan-Incorporated Cement from the Gulf Region

Authors: S. Al-Fadala, J. Chakkamalayath, S. Al-Bahar, A. Al-Aibani, S. Ahmed


Globally, the use of pozzolan in blended cement is gaining great interest due to the desirable effect of pozzolan from the environmental and energy conservation standpoint and the technical benefits they provide to the performance of cement. The deterioration of concrete structures in the marine environment and extreme climates demand the use of pozzolana cement in concrete construction in the Gulf region. Also, natural sources of cement clinker materials are limited in the Gulf region, and cement industry imports the raw materials for the production of Portland cement, resulting in an increase in the greenhouse gas effect due to the CO₂ emissions generated from transportation. Even though the Gulf region has vast deposits of natural pozzolana, it is not explored properly for the production of high performance concrete. Hence, an optimum use of regionally available natural pozzolana for the production of blended cement can result in sustainable construction. This paper investigates the effect of incorporating natural pozzolan sourced from the Gulf region on the performance of blended cement in terms of heat evolution and strength development. For this purpose, a locally produced Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and pozzolan-incorporated blended cements containing different amounts of natural pozzolan (volcanic ash) were prepared on laboratory scale. The strength development and heat evolution were measured and quantified. Promising results of strength development were obtained for blends with the percentages of Volcanic Ash (VA) replacement varying from 10 to 30%. Results showed that the heat of hydration decreased with increase in percentage of replacement of OPC with VA, indicating increased retardation in hydration due to the addition of VA. This property could be used in mass concreting in which a reduction in heat of hydration is required to reduce cracking in concrete, especially in hot weather concreting.

Keywords: blended cement, hot weather, hydration, volcanic ash

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646 Mineral Slag Used as an Alternative of Cement in Concrete

Authors: Eskinder Desta Shumuye, Jun Zhao, Zike Wang


This paper summarizes the results of experimental studies carried out at Zhengzhou University, School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, research laboratory, on the performance of concrete produced by combining Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with Ground-Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS). Concrete specimens cast with OPC and various percentage of GGBS (0%, 30%, 50%, and 70%) were subjected to high temperature exposure and extensive experimental test reproducing basic freeze-thaw cycle and a chloride-ion attack to determine their combined effects within the concrete samples. From the experimental studies, comparisons were made on the physical, mechanical, and microstructural properties in compassion with ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPC). Further, durability of GGBS cement concrete, such as exposure to accelerated carbonation, chloride ion attack, and freeze-thaw action in compassion with various percentage of GGBS and ordinary Portland cement concrete of similar mixture composition was analyzed. The microstructure, mineralogical composition, and pore size distribution of concrete specimens were determined via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The result demonstrated that when the exposure temperature increases from 200 ºC to 400 ºC, the residual compressive strength was fluctuating for all concrete group, and compressive strength and chloride ion exposure of the concrete decreased with the increasing of slag content. The SEM and EDS results showed an increase in carbonation rate with increasing in slag content.

Keywords: accelerated carbonation, chloride-ion, concrete, ground-granulated blast furnace slag, GGBS, high-temperature

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645 Effects of Potential Chloride-Free Admixtures on Selected Mechanical Properties of Kenya Clay-Based Cement Mortars

Authors: Joseph Mwiti Marangu, Joseph Karanja Thiong'o, Jackson Muthengia Wachira


The mechanical performance of hydrated cements mortars mainly depends on its compressive strength and setting time. These properties are crucial in the construction industry. Pozzolana based cements are mostly characterized by low 28 day compressive strength and long setting times. These are some of the major impediments to their production and diverse uses despite numerous technological and environmental benefits associated with them. The study investigated the effects of potential chemical activators on calcined clay- Portland cement blends with an aim to achieve high early compressive strength and shorter setting times in cement mortar. In addition, standard consistency, soundness and insoluble residue of all cement categories was determined. The test cement was made by blending calcined clays with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) at replacement levels from 35 to 50 percent by mass of the OPC to make test cement labeled PCC for the purposes of this study. Mortar prisms measuring 40mmx40mmx160mm were prepared and cured in accordance with KS EAS 148-3:2000 standard. Solutions of Na2SO4, NaOH, Na2SiO3 and Na2CO3 containing 0.5- 2.5M were separately added during casting. Compressive strength was determined at 2rd, 7th, 28th and 90th day of curing. For comparison purposes, commercial Portland Pozzolana cement (PPC) and Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) were also investigated without activators under similar conditions. X-Ray Florescence (XRF) was used for chemical analysis while X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for mineralogical analysis of the test samples. The results indicated that addition of activators significantly increased the 2nd and 7th day compressive strength but minimal increase on the 28th and 90th day compressive strength. A relatively linear relationship was observed between compressive strength and concentration of activator solutions up to 28th of curing. Addition of the said activators significantly reduced both initial and final setting time. Standard consistency and soundness varied with increased amount of clay in the test cement and concentration of activators. Amount of insoluble residues increased with increased replacement of OPC with calcined clays. Mineralogical studies showed that N-A-S-H is formed in addition to C-S-H. In conclusion, the concentration of 2 molar for all activator solutions produced the optimum compressive strength and greatly reduced the setting times for all cement mortars.

Keywords: activators, admixture, cement, clay, pozzolana

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644 Influence of Silica Fume on the Hydration of Cement Pastes Studied by Simultaneous TG-DSC Analysis

Authors: Anton Trník, Lenka Scheinherrová, Robert Černý


Silica fume is a by-product of the ferro-silicon and silicon metal industries. It is mainly in the form of amorphous silica. Silica fume belongs to pozzolanic active materials which can be used in concrete to improve its final properties. In this paper, the influence of silica fume on hydration of cement pastes is studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG) at various curing times (2, 7, 28, and 90 days) in the temperature range from 25 to 1000 °C in an argon atmosphere. Samples are prepared from Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R which is partially replaced with the silica fume of 4, 8, and 12 wt.%. The water/binder ratio is chosen as 0.5. It is identified and described the liberation of physically bound water, calcium–silicate–hydrates dehydration, portlandite and calcite decomposition in studied samples. Also, it is found out that an exothermic peak at 950 °C is observed without a significant mass change for samples with 12 wt.% of silica fume after two days of hydration. This peak is probably caused by the pozzolanic reaction between silica fume and Portland cement. Its size corresponds to the degree of crystallization between Ca and Si. The portlandite content is lower for the samples with a higher amount of silica fume.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, hydration, silica fume, thermogravimetry

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