Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2957

Search results for: CELL

2957 Global Analysis of HIV Virus Models with Cell-to-Cell

Authors: Hossein Pourbashash

Abstract:

Recent experimental studies have shown that HIV can be transmitted directly from cell to cell when structures called virological synapses form during interactions between T cells. In this article, we describe a new within-host model of HIV infection that incorporates two mechanisms: infection by free virions and the direct cell-to-cell transmission. We conduct the local and global stability analysis of the model. We show that if the basic reproduction number R0 1, the virus is cleared and the disease dies out; if R0 > 1, the virus persists in the host. We also prove that the unique positive equilibrium attracts all positive solutions under additional assumptions on the parameters.

Keywords: HIV virus model, cell-to-cell transmission, global stability, Lyapunov function, second compound matrices

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2956 Single-Cell Visualization with Minimum Volume Embedding

Authors: Zhenqiu Liu

Abstract:

Visualizing the heterogeneity within cell-populations for single-cell RNA-seq data is crucial for studying the functional diversity of a cell. However, because of the high level of noises, outlier, and dropouts, it is very challenging to measure the cell-to-cell similarity (distance), visualize and cluster the data in a low-dimension. Minimum volume embedding (MVE) projects the data into a lower-dimensional space and is a promising tool for data visualization. However, it is computationally inefficient to solve a semi-definite programming (SDP) when the sample size is large. Therefore, it is not applicable to single-cell RNA-seq data with thousands of samples. In this paper, we develop an efficient algorithm with an accelerated proximal gradient method and visualize the single-cell RNA-seq data efficiently. We demonstrate that the proposed approach separates known subpopulations more accurately in single-cell data sets than other existing dimension reduction methods.

Keywords: single-cell RNA-seq, minimum volume embedding, visualization, accelerated proximal gradient method

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2955 Up-Regulation of SCUBE2 Expression in Co-Cultures of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell and Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Hirowati Ali, Aisyah Ellyanti, Dewi Rusnita, Septelia Inawati Wanandi

Abstract:

Stem cell has been known for its potency to be differentiated in many cells. Recently stem cell has been used for many treatment of degenerative medicine. It is still controversy whether stem cell can be used for therapy or these cells can activate cancer stem cell. SCUBE2 is a novel secreted and membrane-anchored protein which has been reported to its role in better prognosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our study aims to observe whether stem cell can up-regulate SCUBE2 gene in MCF7 breast cancer cell line. We used in vitro study using MCF-7 cell treated with stem cell derived from placenta Wharton's jelly which has been known for its stemness and widely used. Our results showed that MCF-7 cell line grows up rapidly in 6-well culture dish. Stem cell was cultured in 6-well dish. After 50%-60% MCF-7 confluence, we co-cultured these cells with stem cells for 24 hours and 48 hours. We hypothesize SCUBE2 gene which is previously known for its higher expression in better prognosis of breast cancer, is up-regulated after stem cells addition in MCF7 culture dishes.

Keywords: breast cancer cells, inhibition of cancer cells, mesenchymal stem cells, SCUBE2

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2954 Efficient Pre-Processing of Single-Cell Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin with High-Throughput Sequencing Data

Authors: Fan Gao, Lior Pachter

Abstract:

The primary tool currently used to pre-process 10X Chromium single-cell ATAC-seq data is Cell Ranger, which can take very long to run on standard datasets. To facilitate rapid pre-processing that enables reproducible workflows, we present a suite of tools called scATAK for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data that is 15 to 18 times faster than Cell Ranger on mouse and human samples. Our tool can also calculate chromatin interaction potential matrices, and generate open chromatin signal and interaction traces for cell groups. We use scATAK tool to explore the chromatin regulatory landscape of a healthy adult human brain and unveil cell-type specific features, and show that it provides a convenient and computational efficient approach for pre-processing single-cell ATAC-seq data.

Keywords: single-cell, ATAC-seq, bioinformatics, open chromatin landscape, chromatin interactome

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2953 Preparation of Gramine Nanosuspension and Protective Effect of Gramine on Human Oral Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

Authors: K. Suresh, R. Arunkumar

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the preparation of gramine nano suspension and protective effect of Gramine on the apoptosis of laryngeal cancer cells cell line (HEp-2 and KB). The growth inhibition rate of Hep-2 and KB cells in vitro were measured by MTT assay and apoptosis by, levels of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, morphological changes and flowcytometry. Based on the results, we determined the effective doses of gramine as 127.23µm/ml for 24 hr and 119.81 µm/ml for 48hr in hep-2 cell line and 147.58 µm ml for 24 hr and 123.74µm µm/ml for 48hr in KB cell line. cytotoxicity effects of gramine were confirmed by treatment of HEp-2 cell and KB cell with IC50 concentration of gramine resulted in sequences of events marked by the enhance the apoptosis accompanied by loss of cell viability, modulation of reactive oxygen species and cell cycle arrest through the induction of G0/G1 phase arrest on HEp-2 cells. Our study suggests that the nanosuspension of gramine possesses the more cytotoxic effect of cancer cells and a novel candidate for cancer chemoprevention.

Keywords: apoptosis, HEp-2 cell line, KB cell line mitochondria, gramine, nanosuspension

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2952 Study of Magnetic Nanoparticles’ Endocytosis in a Single Cell Level

Authors: Jefunnie Matahum, Yu-Chi Kuo, Chao-Ming Su, Tzong-Rong Ger

Abstract:

Magnetic cell labeling is of great importance in various applications in biomedical fields such as cell separation and cell sorting. Since analytical methods for quantification of cell uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are already well established, image analysis on single cell level still needs more characterization. This study reports an alternative non-destructive quantification methods of single-cell uptake of positively charged MNPs. Magnetophoresis experiments were performed to calculate the number of MNPs in a single cell. Mobility of magnetic cells and the area of intracellular MNP stained by Prussian blue were quantified by image processing software. ICP-MS experiments were also performed to confirm the internalization of MNPs to cells. Initial results showed that the magnetic cells incubated at 100 µg and 50 µg MNPs/mL concentration move at 18.3 and 16.7 µm/sec, respectively. There is also an increasing trend in the number and area of intracellular MNP with increasing concentration. These results could be useful in assessing the nanoparticle uptake in a single cell level.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, single cell, magnetophoresis, image analysis

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2951 In-Situ Quasistatic Compression and Microstructural Characterization of Aluminium Foams of Different Cell Topology

Authors: M. A. Islam, P. J. Hazell, J. P. Escobedo, M. Saadatfar

Abstract:

Quasistatic compression and micro structural characterization of closed cell aluminium foams of different pore size and cell distributions has been carried out. Metallic foams have good potential for lightweight structures for impact and blast mitigation and therefore it is important to find out the optimized foam structure (i.e. cell size, shape, relative density, and distribution) to maximize energy absorption. In this paper, we present results for two different aluminium metal foams of density 0.5 g/cc and 0.7 g/cc respectively that have been tested in quasi-static compression. The influence of cell geometry and cell topology on quasistatic compression behavior has been investigated using computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. The compression behavior and micro structural characterization will be presented.

Keywords: metal foams, micro-CT, cell topology, quasistatic compression

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2950 Air Conditioning Variation of 1kW Open-Cathode Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cell

Authors: Mohammad Syahirin Aisha, Khairul Imran Sainan

Abstract:

The PEM fuel cell is a device that generate electric by electrochemical reaction between hydrogen fuel and oxygen in the fuel cell stack. PEM fuel cell consists of an anode (hydrogen supply), a cathode (oxygen supply) and an electrolyte that allow charges move between the two positions of the fuel cell. The only product being developed after the reaction is water (H2O) and heat as the waste which does not emit greenhouse gasses. The performance of fuel cell affected by numerous parameters. This study is restricted to cathode parameters that affect fuel cell performance. At the anode side, the reactant is not going through any changes. Experiments with variation in air velocity (3m/s, 6m/s and 9m/s), temperature (10oC, 20oC, 35oC) and relative humidity (50%, 60%, and 70%) have been carried out. The experiments results are presented in the form of fuel cell stack power output over time, which demonstrate the impacts of the various air condition on the execution of the PEM fuel cell. In this study, the experimental analysis shows that with variation of air conditions, it gives different fuel cell performance behavior. The maximum power output of the experiment was measured at an ambient temperature of 25oC with relative humidity and 9m/s velocity of air.

Keywords: air-breathing PEM fuel cell, cathode side, performance, variation in air condition

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2949 Modelling and Simulation of Light and Temperature Efficient Interdigitated Back- Surface-Contact Solar Cell with 28.81% Efficiency Rate

Authors: Mahfuzur Rahman

Abstract:

Back-contact solar cells improve optical properties by moving all electrically conducting parts to the back of the cell. The cell's structure allows silicon solar cells to surpass the 25% efficiency barrier and interdigitated solar cells are now the most efficient. In this work, the fabrication of a light, efficient and temperature resistant interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cell is investigated. This form of solar cell differs from a conventional solar cell in that the electrodes are located at the back of the cell, eliminating the need for grids on the top, allowing the full surface area of the cell to receive sunlight, resulting in increased efficiency. In this project, we will use SILVACO TCAD, an optoelectronic device simulator, to construct a very thin solar cell with dimensions of 100x250um in 2D Luminous. The influence of sunlight intensity and atmospheric temperature on solar cell output power is highly essential and it has been explored in this work. The cell's optimum performance with 150um bulk thickness provides 28.81% efficiency with an 87.68% fill factor rate making it very thin, flexible and resilient, providing diverse operational capabilities.

Keywords: interdigitated, shading, recombination loss, incident-plane, drift-diffusion, luminous, SILVACO

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2948 Cell Elevator: A Novel Technique for Cell Sorting and Circulating Tumor Cell Detection and Discrimination

Authors: Kevin Zhao, Norman J. Horing

Abstract:

A methodology for cells sorting and circulating tumor cell detection and discrimination is presented in this paper. The technique is based on Dielectrophoresis and microfluidic device theory. Specifically, the sorting of the cells is realized by adjusting the relation among the sedimentation forces, the drag force provided by the fluid, and the Dielectrophortic force that is relevant to the bias voltage applied on the device. The relation leads to manipulation of the elevation of the cells of the same kind to a height by controlling the bias voltage. Once the cells have been lifted to a position next to the bottom of the cell collection channel, the buffer fluid flashes them into the cell collection channel. Repeated elevation of the cells leads to a complete sorting of the cells in the sample chamber. A proof-of-principle example is presented which verifies the feasibility of the methodology.

Keywords: cell sorter, CTC cell, detection and discrimination, dielectrophoresisords, simulation

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2947 Adaptive Discharge Time Control for Battery Operation Time Enhancement

Authors: Jong-Bae Lee, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes an adaptive discharge time control method to balance cell voltages in alternating battery cell discharging method. In the alternating battery cell discharging method, battery cells are periodically discharged in turn. Recovery effect increases battery output voltage while the given battery cell rests without discharging, thus battery operation time of target system increases. However, voltage mismatch between cells leads two problems. First, voltage difference between cells induces inter-cell current with wasted power. Second, it degrades battery operation time, since system stops when any cell reaches to the minimum system operation voltage. To solve this problem, the proposed method adaptively controls cell discharge time to equalize both cell voltages. In the proposed method, battery operation time increases about 19%, while alternating battery cell discharging method shows about 7% improvement.

Keywords: battery, recovery effect, low-power, alternating battery cell discharging, adaptive discharge time control

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2946 An Approach on the Design of a Solar Cell Characterization Device

Authors: Christoph Mayer, Dominik Holzmann

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a compact, portable and easy to handle solar cell characterization device. The presented device reduces the effort and cost of single solar cell characterization to a minimum. It enables realistic characterization of cells under sunlight within minutes. In the field of photovoltaic research the common way to characterize a single solar cell or a module is, to measure the current voltage curve. With this characteristic the performance and the degradation rate can be defined which are important for the consumer or developer. The paper consists of the system design description, a summary of the measurement results and an outline for further developments.

Keywords: solar cell, photovoltaics, PV, characterization

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2945 Experimental Investigation of Performance Anode Side of PEM Fuel Cell with Spin Method Coated with YSZ+SDC

Authors: Gürol Önal, Kevser Dinçer, Salih Yayla

Abstract:

In this study, performance of proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cell was experimentally investigated. Coating on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell was accomplished with the spin method by using YSZ+SDC. A solution having 0,1 gr YttriaStabilized Zirconia (YSZ) + 0,1 Samarium-Doped Ceria (SDC) + 10 mL methanol was prepared. This solution was taken out and filled into a micro-pipette. Then the anode side of PEM fuel cell was coated with YSZ+ SDC by using spin method. In the experimental study, current, voltage and power performances before and after coating were recorded and then compared to each other. It was found that the efficiency of PEM fuel cell increases after the coating with YSZ+SDC.

Keywords: fuel cell, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM), membrane, spin method

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2944 Entry Inhibitors Are Less Effective at Preventing Cell-Associated HIV-2 Infection than HIV-1

Authors: A. R. Diniz, P. Borrego, I. Bártolo, N. Taveira

Abstract:

Cell-to-cell transmission plays a critical role in the spread of HIV-1 infection in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of HIV-1 cell-associated infection by antiretroviral drugs and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is more difficult compared to cell-free infection. Limited data exists on cell-associated infection by HIV-2 and its inhibition. In this work, we determined the ability of entry inhibitors to inhibit HIV-1 and HIV-2 cell-to cell fusion as a proxy to cell-associated infection. We developed a method in which Hela-CD4-cells are first transfected with a Tat expressing plasmid (pcDNA3.1+/Tat101) and infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing either the HIV-1 (vPE16: from isolate HTLV-IIIB, clone BH8, X4 tropism) or HIV-2 (vSC50: from HIV-2SBL/ISY, R5 and X4 tropism) envelope glycoproteins (M.O.I.=1 PFU/cell).These cells are added to TZM-bl cells. When cell-to-cell fusion (syncytia) occurs the Tat protein diffuses to the TZM-bl cells activating the expression of a reporter gene (luciferase). We tested several entry inhibitors including the fusion inhibitors T1249, T20 and P3, the CCR5 antagonists MVC and TAK-779, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 and several HIV-2 neutralizing antibodies (Nabs). All compounds inhibited HIV-1 and HIV-2 cell fusion albeit to different levels. Maximum percentage of HIV-2 inhibition (MPI) was higher for fusion inhibitors (T1249- 99.8%; P3- 95%, T20-90%) followed by co-receptor antagonists (MVC- 63%; TAK-779- 55%; AMD3100- 45%). NAbs from HIV-2 infected patients did not prevent cell fusion up to the tested concentration of 4μg/ml. As for HIV-1, MPI reached 100% with TAK-779 and T1249. For the other antivirals, MPIs were: P3-79%; T20-75%; AMD3100-61%; MVC-65%.These results are consistent with published data. Maraviroc had the lowest IC50 both for HIV-2 and HIV-1 (IC50 HIV-2= 0.06 μM; HIV-1=0.0076μM). Highest IC50 were observed with T20 for HIV-2 (3.86μM) and with TAK-779 for HIV-1 (12.64μM). Overall, our results show that entry inhibitors in clinical use are less effective at preventing Env mediated cell-to-cell-fusion in HIV-2 than in HIV-1 which suggests that cell-associated HIV-2 infection will be more difficult to inhibit compared to HIV-1. The method described here will be useful to screen for new HIV entry inhibitors.

Keywords: cell-to-cell fusion, entry inhibitors, HIV, NAbs, vaccinia virus

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2943 The Current Use of Cell Phone in Education

Authors: Elham A. Alsadoon, Hamadah B. Alsadoon

Abstract:

Educators try to design learning environments that are preferred by their students. With the wide-spread adoption of cell phones surpassing any other technology, educators should not fail to invest in the power of such technology. This study aimed to explore the current use of cell phones in education among Saudi students in Saudi universities and how students perceive such use. Data was collected from 237 students at King Saud University. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data. A T-test for independent groups was used to examine whether there was a significant difference between males and females in their perception of using cell phones in education. Findings suggested that students have a positive attitude toward the use of cell phones in education. The most accepted use was for sending notification to students, which has already been experienced through the Twasel system provided by King Saud University. This electronic system allows instructors to easily send any SMS or email to their students. The use of cell phone applications came in the second rank of using cell phones in education. Students have already experienced the benefits of having these applications handy wherever they go. On the other hand, they did not perceive using cell phones for assessment as practical educational usage. No gender difference was detected in terms of students’ perceptions toward using cell phones in education.

Keywords: cell phone, mobile learning, educational sciences, education

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2942 Synthesis and Application of Oligosaccharides Representing Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

Authors: Mads H. Clausen

Abstract:

Plant cell walls are structurally complex and contain a larger number of diverse carbohydrate polymers. These plant fibers are a highly valuable bio-resource and the focus of food, energy and health research. We are interested in studying the interplay of plant cell wall carbohydrates with proteins such as enzymes, cell surface lectins and antibodies. However, detailed molecular level investigations of such interactions are hampered by the heterogeneity and diversity of the polymers of interest. To circumvent this, we target well-defined oligosaccharides with representative structures that can be used for characterizing protein-carbohydrate binding. The presentation will highlight chemical syntheses of plant cell wall oligosaccharides from our group and provide examples from studies of their interactions with proteins.

Keywords: oligosaccharides, carbohydrate chemistry, plant cell walls, carbohydrate-acting enzymes

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2941 Structural Evaluation of Cell-Filled Pavement

Authors: Subrat Roy

Abstract:

This paper describes the findings of a study carried out for evaluating the performance of cell-filled pavement for low volume roads. Details of laboratory investigations and the methodology adopted for construction of cell-filled pavement are presented. The aim of this study is to evaluate the structural behaviour of cement concrete filled cell pavement laid over three different types of subbases (water bound macadam, soil-cement and moorum). A formwork of cells of a thin plastic sheet was used to construct the cell-filled pavements to form flexible, interlocked block pavements. Surface deflections were measured using falling weight deflectometer and benkelman beam methods. Resilient moduli of pavement layers were estimated from the measured deflections. A comparison of deflections obtained from both the methodology is also presented.

Keywords: cell-filled pavement, WBM, FWD, Moorum

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2940 Parental Monitoring of Learners’ Cell Phone Use in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Melikhaya Skhephe, Robert Mawuli Kwasi Boadzo, Zanoxolo Berington Gobingca

Abstract:

This research study sought to examine parental monitoring of learners’ cell phone use in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. To this end, the researchers employed a quantitative approach. Data were obtained through questionnaires, with a sample of 15 parents having been purposively selected. The findings revealed that parents are unaware that they have to monitor the learner’s cell phone. Another finding was that parents in the 21-century did not support the use of mobile phones in education. The researchers recommend that parent’s discussion forums be created to educate parents on how a cell phone can be used in education. Cellphone companies need to be encouraged to educate parents on how they monitor cell phones used by learners. Another recommendation was that network providers need to restrict access to searching on the internet according to age.

Keywords: parental monitoring, app blocking services, learner’s cell phone use, cell phone

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2939 Mathematical Modeling of Cell Volume Alterations under Different Osmotic Conditions

Authors: Juliana A. Knocikova, Yann Bouret, Médéric Argentina, Laurent Counillon

Abstract:

Cell volume, together with membrane potential and intracellular hydrogen ion concentration, is an essential biophysical parameter for normal cellular activity. Cell volumes can be altered by osmotically active compounds and extracellular tonicity. In this study, a simple mathematical model of osmotically induced cell swelling and shrinking is presented. Emphasis is given to water diffusion across the membrane. The mathematical description of the cellular behavior consists in a system of coupled ordinary differential equations. We compare experimental data of cell volume alterations driven by differences in osmotic pressure with mathematical simulations under hypotonic and hypertonic conditions. Implications for a future model are also discussed.

Keywords: eukaryotic cell, mathematical modeling, osmosis, volume alterations

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2938 Single Cell Sorter Driven by Resonance Vibration of Cell Culture Substrate

Authors: Misa Nakao, Yuta Kurashina, Chikahiro Imashiro, Kenjiro Takemura

Abstract:

The Research Goal: With the growing demand for regenerative medicine, an effective mass cell culture process is required. In a repetitive subculture process for proliferating cells, preparing single cell suspension which does not contain any cell aggregates is highly required because cell aggregates often raise various undesirable phenomena, e.g., apoptosis and decrease of cell proliferation. Since cell aggregates often occur in cell suspension during conventional subculture processes, this study proposes a single cell sorter driven by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The Method and the Result: The single cell sorter is simply composed of a cell culture substrate and a glass pipe vertically placed against the cell culture substrate with a certain gap corresponding to a cell diameter. The cell culture substrate is made of biocompatible stainless steel with a piezoelectric ceramic disk glued to the bottom side. Applying AC voltage to the piezoelectric ceramic disk, an out-of-plane resonance vibration with a single nodal circle of the cell culture substrate can be excited at 5.5 kHz. By doing so, acoustic radiation force is emitted, and then cell suspension containing only single cells is pumped into the pipe and collected. This single cell sorter is effective to collect single cells selectively in spite of its quite simple structure. We collected C2C12 myoblast cell suspension by the single cell sorter with the vibration amplitude of 12 µmp-p and evaluated the ratio of single cells in number against the entire cells in the suspension. Additionally, we cultured the collected cells for 72 hrs and measured the number of cells after the cultivation in order to evaluate their proliferation. As a control sample, we also collected cell suspension by conventional pipetting, and evaluated the ratio of single cells and the number of cells after the 72-hour cultivation. The ratio of single cells in the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter was 98.2%. This ratio was 9.6% higher than that collected by conventional pipetting (statistically significant). Moreover, the number of cells cultured for 72 hrs after the collection by the single cell sorter yielded statistically more cells than that collected by pipetting, resulting in a 13.6% increase in proliferated cells. These results suggest that the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter driven by the resonance vibration hardly contains cell aggregates whose diameter is larger than the gap between the cell culture substrate and the pipe. Consequently, the cell suspension collected by the single cell sorter maintains high cell proliferation. Conclusions: In this study, we developed a single cell sorter capable of sorting and pumping single cells by a resonance vibration of a cell culture substrate. The experimental results show the single cell sorter collects single cell suspension which hardly contains cell aggregates. Furthermore, the collected cells show higher proliferation than that of cells collected by conventional pipetting. This means the resonance vibration of the cell culture substrate can benefit us with the increase in efficiency of mass cell culture process for clinical applications.

Keywords: acoustic radiation force, cell proliferation, regenerative medicine, resonance vibration, single cell sorter

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2937 Rauvolfine B Isolated from the Bark of Rauvolfia reflexa (Apocynaceae) Induces Apoptosis through Activation of Caspase-9 Coupled with S Phase Cell Cycle Arrest

Authors: Mehran Fadaeinasab, Hamed Karimian, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Hapipah Mohd Ali

Abstract:

In this study, three indole alkaloids namely; rauvolfine B, macusine B, and isoreserpiline have been isolated from the dichloromethane crude extract of Rauvolfia reflexa bark (Apocynaceae). The structural elucidation of the isolated compounds has been performed using spectral methods such as UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Rauvolfine B showed anti proliferation activity on HCT-116 cancer cell line, its cytotoxicity induction was observed using MTT assay in eight different cell lines. Annexin-V is serving as a marker for apoptotic cells and the Annexin-V-FITC assay was carried out to observe the detection of cell-surface Phosphatidylserine (PS). Apoptosis was confirmed by using caspase-8 and -9 assays. Cell cycle arrest was also investigated using flowcytometric analysis. rauvolfine B had exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cell line. The treatment significantly arrested HCT-116 cells in the S phase. Together, the results presented in this study demonstrated that rauvolfine B inhibited the proliferation of HCT-116 cells and programmed cell death followed by cell cycle arrest.

Keywords: apocynacea, indole alkaloid, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest

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2936 On the Thermodynamics of Biological Cell Adhesion

Authors: Ben Nadler

Abstract:

Cell adhesion plays a vital role in many cell activities. The motivation to model cell adhesion is to study important biological processes, such as cell spreading, cell aggregation, tissue formation, and cell adhesion, which are very challenging to study by experimental methods alone. This study provides important insight into cell adhesion, which can lead to improve regenerative medicine and tissue formation techniques. In this presentation the biological cells adhesion is mediated by receptors–ligands binding and the diffusivity of the receptor on the cell membrane surface. The ability of receptors to diffuse on the cell membrane surface yields a very unique and complicated adhesion mechanism, which is exclusive to cells. The phospholipid bilayer, which is the main component in the cell membrane, shows fluid-like behavior associated with the molecules’ diffusivity. The biological cell is modeled as a fluid-like membrane with negligible bending stiffness enclosing the cytoplasm fluid. The in-plane mechanical behavior of the cell membrane is assumed to depend only on the area change, which is motivated by the fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer. In addition, the presence of receptors influences on the local mechanical properties of the cell membrane is accounted for by including stress-free area change, which depends on the receptor density. Based on the physical properties of the receptors and ligands the attraction between the receptors and ligands is modeled as a charged-nonpolar which is a noncovalent interaction. Such interaction is a short-range type, which decays fast with distance. The mobility of the receptor on the cell membrane is modeled using the diffusion equation and Fick’s law is used to model the receptor–receptor interactions. The resultant interaction force, which includes receptor–ligand and receptor–receptor interaction, is decomposed into tangential part, which governs the receptor diffusion, and normal part, which governs the cell deformation and adhesion. The formulation of the governing equations and numerical simulations will be presented. Analysis of the adhesion characteristic and properties are discussed. The roles of various thermomechanical properties of the cell, receptors and ligands on the cell adhesion are investigated.

Keywords: cell adhesion, cell membrane, receptor-ligand interaction, receptor diffusion

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2935 Numerical Simulation of a Single Cell Passing through a Narrow Slit

Authors: Lanlan Xiao, Yang Liu, Shuo Chen, Bingmei Fu

Abstract:

Most cancer-related deaths are due to metastasis. Metastasis is a complex, multistep processes including the detachment of cancer cells from the primary tumor and the migration to distant targeted organs through blood and/or lymphatic circulations. During hematogenous metastasis, the emigration of tumor cells from the blood stream through the vascular wall into the tissue involves arrest in the microvasculature, adhesion to the endothelial cells forming the microvessel wall and transmigration to the tissue through the endothelial barrier termed as extravasation. The narrow slit between endothelial cells that line the microvessel wall is the principal pathway for tumor cell extravasation to the surrounding tissue. To understand this crucial step for tumor hematogenous metastasis, we used Dissipative Particle Dynamics method to investigate an individual cell passing through a narrow slit numerically. The cell membrane was simulated by a spring-based network model which can separate the internal cytoplasm and surrounding fluid. The effects of the cell elasticity, cell shape and cell surface area increase, and slit size on the cell transmigration through the slit were investigated. Under a fixed driven force, the cell with higher elasticity can be elongated more and pass faster through the slit. When the slit width decreases to 2/3 of the cell diameter, the spherical cell becomes jammed despite reducing its elasticity modulus by 10 times. However, transforming the cell from a spherical to ellipsoidal shape and increasing the cell surface area only by 3% can enable the cell to pass the narrow slit. Therefore the cell shape and surface area increase play a more important role than the cell elasticity in cell passing through the narrow slit. In addition, the simulation results indicate that the cell migration velocity decreases during entry but increases during exit of the slit, which is qualitatively in agreement with the experimental observation.

Keywords: dissipative particle dynamics, deformability, surface area increase, cell migration

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2934 Assessment of Barriers to the Clinical Adoption of Cell-Based Therapeutics

Authors: David Pettitt, Benjamin Davies, Georg Holländer, David Brindley

Abstract:

Cellular based therapies, whose origins can be traced from the intertwined concepts of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, have the potential to transform the current medical landscape and offer an approach to managing what were once considered untreatable diseases. However, despite a large increase in basic science activity in the cell therapy arena alongside a growing portfolio of cell therapy trials, the number of industry products available for widespread clinical use correlates poorly with such a magnitude of activity, with the number of cell-based therapeutics in mainstream use remaining comparatively low. This research serves to quantitatively assess the barriers to the clinical adoption of cell-based therapeutics through identification of unique barriers, specific challenges and opportunities facing the development and adoption of such therapies.

Keywords: cell therapy, clinical adoption, commercialization, translation

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2933 Wireless Backhauling for 5G Small Cell Networks

Authors: Abdullah A. Al Orainy

Abstract:

Small cell backhaul solutions need to be cost-effective, scalable, and easy to install. This paper presents an overview of small cell backhaul technologies. Wireless solutions including TV white space, satellite, sub-6 GHz radio wave, microwave and mmWave with their backhaul characteristics are discussed. Recent research on issues like beamforming, backhaul architecture, precoding and large antenna arrays, and energy efficiency for dense small cell backhaul with mmWave communications is reviewed. Recent trials of 5G technologies are summarized.

Keywords: backhaul, small cells, wireless, 5G

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2932 Passive Heat Exchanger for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Cooling

Authors: Ivan Tolj

Abstract:

Water produced during electrochemical reaction in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell can be used for internal humidification of reactant gases; hydrogen and air. On such a way it is possible to eliminate expensive external humidifiers and simplify fuel cell balance-of-plant (BoP). When fuel cell operates at constant temperature (usually between 60 °C and 80 °C) relatively cold and dry ambient air heats up quickly upon entering channels which cause further drop in relative humidity (below 20%). Low relative humidity of reactant gases dries up polymer membrane and decrease its proton conductivity which results in fuel cell performance drop. It is possible to maintain such temperature profile throughout fuel cell cathode channel which will result in close to 100 % RH. In order to achieve this, passive heat exchanger was designed using commercial CFD software (ANSYS Fluent). Such passive heat exchanger (with variable surface area) is suitable for small scale PEM fuel cells. In this study, passive heat exchanger for single PEM fuel cell segment (with 20 x 1 cm active area) was developed. Results show close to 100 % RH of air throughout cathode channel with increased fuel cell performance (mainly improved polarization curve) and improved durability.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, passive heat exchange, relative humidity, thermal management

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2931 Resistive Switching in TaN/AlNx/TiN Cell

Authors: Hsin-Ping Huang, Shyankay Jou

Abstract:

Resistive switching of aluminum nitride (AlNx) thin film was demonstrated in a TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell that was prepared by sputter deposition techniques. The memory cell showed bipolar switching of resistance between +3.5 V and –3.5 V. The resistance ratio of high resistance state (HRS) to low resistance state (HRS), RHRS/RLRS, was about 2 over 100 cycles of endurance test. Both the LRS and HRS of the memory cell exhibited ohmic conduction at low voltages and Poole-Frenkel emission at high voltages. The electrical conduction in the TaN/AlNx/TiN memory cell was possibly attributed to the interactions between charges and defects in the AlNx film.

Keywords: aluminum nitride, nonvolatile memory, resistive switching, thin films

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2930 Theoretical Analysis of Graded Interface CdS/CIGS Solar Cell

Authors: Hassane Ben Slimane, Dennai Benmoussa, Abderrachid Helmaoui

Abstract:

We have theoretically calculated the photovoltaic conversion efficiency of a graded interface CdS/CIGS solar cell, which can be experimentally fabricated. Because the conduction band discontinuity or spike in an abrupt heterojunction CdS/CIGS solar cell can hinder the separation of hole-electron by electric field, a graded interface layer is uses to eliminate the spike and reduces recombination in space charge region. This paper describes the role of the graded band gap interface layer in decreasing the performance of the heterojunction cell. By optimizing the thickness of the graded region, an improvement of conversion efficiency has been observed in comparison to the conventional CIGS system.

Keywords: heterojunction, solar cell, graded interface, CIGS

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
2929 Effects of the Ambient Temperature and the Defect Density on the Performance the Solar Cell (HIT)

Authors: Bouzaki Mohammed Moustafa, Benyoucef Boumediene, Benouaz Tayeb, Benhamou Amina

Abstract:

The ambient temperature and the defects density in the Hetero-junction with Intrinsic Thin layers solar cells (HIT) strongly influence their performances. In first part, we presented the bands diagram on the front/back simulated solar cell based on a-Si: H / c-Si (p)/a-Si:h. In another part, we modeled the following layers structure: ZnO/a-Si:H(n)/a-Si:H(i)/c-Si(p)/a-Si:H(p)/Ag where we studied the effect of the ambient temperature and the defects density in the gap of the crystalline silicon layer on the performance of the heterojunction solar cell with intrinsic layer (HIT).

Keywords: heterojunction solar cell, solar cell performance, bands diagram, ambient temperature, defect density

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2928 Epigenomic Analysis of Lgr5+ Stem Cells in Gastrointestinal Tract

Authors: Hyo-Min Kim, Seokjin Ham, Mi-Joung Yoo, Minseon Kim, Tae-Young Roh

Abstract:

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract of most animals, including murine, is highly compartmentalized epithelia which also provide distinct different functions of its own tissue. Nevertheless, these epithelia share certain characteristics that enhance immune responses to infections and maintain the barrier function of the intestine. GI tract epithelia also undergo regeneration not only in homeostatic conditions but also in a response to the damage. A full turnover of the murine gastrointestinal epithelium occurs every 4-5 day, a process that is regulated and maintained by a minor population of Lgr5+ adult stem cell that commonly conserved in the bottom of crypts through GI tract. Maintenance of the stem cell is somehow regulated by epigenetic factors according to recent studies. Chromatin vacancy, remodelers, histone variants and histone modifiers could affect adult stem cell fate. In this study, Lgr5-EGFP reporter mouse was used to take advantage of exploring the epigenetic dynamics among Lgr5 positive mutual stem cell in GI tract. Cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), gene expression levels, chromatin accessibility changes and histone modifications were analyzed. Some notable chromatin structural related epigenetic variants were detected. To identify the overall cell-cell interaction inside the stem cell niche, an extensive genome-wide analysis should be also followed. According to the results, nevertheless, we expected a broader understanding of cellular niche maintaining stem cells and epigenetic barriers through conserved stem cell in GI tract. We expect that our study could provide more evidence of adult stem cell plasticity and more chances to understand each stem cell that takes parts in certain organs.

Keywords: adult stem cell, epigenetics, LGR5 stem cell, gastrointestinal tract

Procedia PDF Downloads 146